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Hydrogen fueled vehicle Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION

A hydrogen vehicle is an alternative fuel vehicle that uses hydrogen as its onboard fuel for motive power. The term may refer to a personal transportation vehicle, such as an automobile, or any other vehicle that uses hydrogen in a similar fashion, such as an aircraft. The power plants of such vehicles convert the chemical energy of hydrogen to mechanical energy either by burning hydrogen in an internal combustion engine, or by reacting hydrogen with oxygen in a fuel cell to run electric motors. Widespread use of key hydrogen for fueling transportation is element of a proposed hydrogen economy. Hydrogen fuel does not occur naturally on Earth and thus is not an energy source, but is an energy carrier. Currently it is most frequently made from methane or other fossil fuels. However, it can be produced from a wide range of sources (such as wind, solar, or nuclear) that are intermittent, too diffuse or too cumbersome to directly propel vehicles. Integrated wind-to-hydrogen plants, using electrolysis of water, are exploring technologies to deliver costs low enough, and quantities great enough, to compete with traditional energy sources. Many companies are working to develop technologies that might efficiently exploit the potential of hydrogen energy for mobile uses. The attraction of using hydrogen as an energy currency is that, if hydrogen is prepared without using fossil fuel inputs, vehicle propulsion would not contribute to carbon dioxide emissions. The drawbacks of hydrogen use are low energy content per unit volume, high tank age weights, the storage, transportation and filling of gaseous or liquid hydrogen in vehicles, the large investment in infrastructure that would be required to fuel vehicles, and the inefficiency of production processes.

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Hydrogen fueled vehicle Chapter 2 BACKGROUND

Hydrogen is widely regarded as a promising transportation fuel because it is clean, abundant, and renewable. In a gaseous state, it is colorless, odorless, and non-toxic. When hydrogen is combusted with oxygen, it forms water as the by-product. Due to hydrogens high flammability range, it can be completely combusted over a wide range of air/fuel ratios. Unlike gasoline, which if combusted outside its optimal air/fuel ratio will produce excess carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrocarbons (HC), hydrogen does not have a carbon element and therefore will not produce those toxic gases? Like gasoline however, when hydrogen is combusted in air (mixture of oxygen and nitrogen) the temperature of combustion can cause the formation of the nitric oxidizes (NOx). Hydrogen however has an advantage over gasoline in this area because it can be combusted using very high air/fuel ratios. Using a high air/fuel ratio (i.e. combusting hydrogen with more air than is theoretically required) causes the combustion temperature to drop dramatically and thus causes a reduction in the formation of NOx. Unfortunately, the use of excess air also lowers the power output of the engine.

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Hydrogen fueled vehicle Chapter 3 PROPERTIES OF HYDROGEN AS A FUEL

Hydrogen is eco-friendly and a clean fuel with products of combustion causing no severe environmental degradation. Hydrogen, which is nature's best example of an ideal gas, is very difficult to compress. It has high specific energy per unit weight. Its heat of combustion per unit weight is about 2.5 times higher than ethanol. Hydrogen also posses higher thermodynamic conversion efficiency (30-35 percent) as compared to petrol (20-25 percent). The lower limit of the hydrogen air flammability range is higher than that of petrol and LPG. The lower limit of detonability of hydrogen is higher than that of methane or petrol. Hydrogen combustion is free from harmful emissions that invariably accompany fossil fuels combustion. Hydrogen rapidly disperses in air which prevents its concentration from reaching lower limits of flammability and detonability in air.

During combustion process in the heat of hydrogen reaction, part of the atmospheric nitrogen combines with oxygen to form oxides of nitrogen. The problem of oxide formation can be minimized to some extent by injecting water which vaporizes in the cylinder as the hydrogen burns, and lowers temperature to a level which stops oxide formation. Apart from preventing oxide formation, water vapor provides weight to the expanding gases in the cylinder and up to a limit even improves power output. In earlier prototype designs, water tank was provided where as in subsequent designs water is recovered from the water vapours present in the exhaust through a suitable arrangement.

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Hydrogen fueled vehicle Chapter 4


Hydrogen is available in surpluses a byproduct in several industrial processes in petroleum refineries or alkali industries. Hydrogen can also be produced using offpeak electricity mainly by improving the plant load factor of the power stations in the country. Hydrogen can also be produced by biophotolysis which utilizes leaving systems to split water into hydrogen and oxygen Hydrogen in small quantities can be produced by partial oxidation of hydrocarbons and electrolysis of water. Electrolysis is a very clean and reliable process to produce high purity hydrogen.

The efficiency of electrolysis (E) is defined by the following equation E= Hydrogen produced ( meter cube ) F x100 Power input by cells (kWhr.) Based on experimental studies, value of F can be chosen as 3.3 kWhr. / meter cube.

Hydrogen can be efficiently produced with photo electrolysis. Hydrogen can also be produced by photosynthesis and biochemical reactions activated by sunlight. Hydrogen can be produced with the help of photochemical cells which require a liquid electrolyte sandwiched between cathode and anode.


Hydrogen can be stored in a tank. The tank uses a plastic bladder wrapped with high strength composite graphite. The tank has a water volume of 87 liters and is rated up to 3,600 psi. At 3,600 psi, the tank holds 590 SCF of hydrogen, which is equivalent to 1.4 gallons of gasoline. At 200 HP, this tank is emptied in about 5 minutes.

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Hydrogen fueled vehicle

Liquid hydrogen containers are available in all sizes ranging from small 100 liters containers to large volume containers of 5000 meter cube. Metal hydride storage systems are specially appropriate where storage space is limited and pressurized gas storage is very expensive. Metal hydride systems are ideal for mobile storage applications. On account of high operating costs for long distances, metal hydride tanks are more appropriate for short-range vehicles. Both metal hydride and liquid storage tanks have been demonstrated to be practical for mobile applications. For longer distances, say beyond 200 km liquid storage tanks are more appropriate than metal hydride systems. Metal hydride tanks are much lighter in weight (8.5 to 11 kg) as compared to liquid storage tanks (50 to 150 kg). Quantity of hydrogen stored through metal hydrides is roughly 3 times more than that stored in liquid or gaseous form for the same weight of the tank.

The iron and titanium hydride system offers several significant advantages over compressed hydrogen gas storage systems, but can not compete with gasoline on an equal energy content basis.

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Hydrogen fueled vehicle Chapter 5 HYDROGEN FUEL INJECTION SYSTEM

One of the primary problems encountered in the development of operational hydrogen engines is pr mature ignition (pre-ignition). Pre -ignition occurs when the cylinder charge becomes ignited before the ignition by the spark plug. If this condition occurs when the intake valve is open, the flame can travel back into the induction system. Various fuel injection methods have been experimented with over the years. These methods have included carbureted systems, which mix the air and fuel at a central point upstream of the intake valves; port injection systems that inject the fuel into the air stream near the intake valve; and direct injection systems that inject the fuel directly into the combustion chamber.

For carburetor-type systems, which can have a substantial amount of air and fuel in the manifold, pre-ignition can have a devastating effect. Port injection systems, which tend to have less fuel in the manifold at any one time, can minimize this effect. Running lean (excess air) and precisely timing the injector opening and closing times (tuning the system), can virtually eliminate preignition from occurring. Direct injection system can eliminate pre-ignition in the intake manifold; however it does not necessarily eliminate it in the combustion chamber. Direct injection systems also require higher fuel pressure and tend to be a little more complicated than the other two methods. The method that was chosen for this project was the port injection system. The fuel injectors used to meter the fuel are solenoid operated pulse-width modulated, sonic flow injectors especially designed for gaseous fuels.

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Hydrogen fueled vehicle

Figure-1 Cross section of injector

Each injector body was designed to incorporate a inch tube that transported the hydrogen from the injector outlet to within an inch of the intake valve. This was to minimize the amount of hydrogen that would be in contact with the air in the runner. That way if pre-ignition was to occur damage to the intake system would negligible.

This new manifold provided short, single runners for each cylinder. For each runner, a 1 inch tall injector body was designed and fabricated to house the injectors.

A distinct advantage of using hydrogen as a fuel, with its wide range of flammability, is the fuel-toair ratio or the quality of the charge mixture can easily be varied to meet different driving conditions or loads. This is similar to the strategy used by diesel engines. In contrast, for a gasoline engine, the fuel-to-air ratio must be kept more or less constant throughout the driving range. In other words, the quantity of the charge is controlled. Using a quality controlled strategy enables the engine to operate at a constant wide-open-throttle (WOT) position throughout the power band (just add more fuel for more torque).To facilitate the starting of the engine, a choke (butterfly valve) was designed and fabricated for each injector body.

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Hydrogen fueled vehicle

All eight chokes are linked together and centrally controlled by a hand-operated cable located in the cockpit of the vehicle. Once the engine started, the chokes are pulled to the wide-open position and the quality controlled fuel metering strategy is implemented.

Since the design of this system allows the flow of hydrogen and air to each cylinder to be independent of each other, any occurrence of pre-ignition in one cylinder would not influence (ignite) the air/fuel mixture of another. Whereas with systems that manifold all the intake runners together, a pre-ignition in one cylinder can light the whole intake manifold on fire. To maximize the airflow to engine, each manifold runner, intake port, and injector body and throttle body were match-ported.

To supply fuel to each injector, a single fuel rail was designed and fabricated. This fuel rail contains a port for each of the fuel injectors.

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Hydrogen fueled vehicle Chapter 6 HYDROGEN ANCILLIARY SYSTEM

The hydrogen ancillary system consists of a high flow capacity pressure regulator, a manual shutoff valve, a solenoid operated on/off valve, three pressure gauges and a fuel line. The pressure regulator, provided by Control Seal Controls, is used to reduce the pressure of the fuel in the storage tank (3600 psi) to a useable fuel rail pressure of 100 psi. Upstream of this valve is a manually operated ball valve and pressure gauge. A quarter-turn of this valve will shut off the hydrogen in the event of a leak or fire. The pressure gauge reads the pressure of the fuel in the storage tank. Downstream of the pressure regulator is a solenoid-operated valve and a second pressure gauge. The solenoid valve is controlled via a switch mounted in the cockpit of the vehicle. This valve is a normally closed valve, meaning in the event of a power failure this valve will automatically close. This pressure gauge reads the pressure at the outlet of the pressure regulator. The third pressure gauge is located at the engine fuel rail and reads fuel pressure at the engine

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Hydrogen fueled vehicle Chapter 7 VALVE TIMING

The camshaft that comes with the gasoline engine was designed to produce its maximum power at high engine speeds. It was ground to have 48 degrees of valve overlap and 268 degrees of duration with a 0.74-inch valve lift at .050-inch tappet lift. This type of grind will typically produce excellent airflow (high volumetric efficiency) at high engine speeds, at the expense poor air dynamics at the lower engine speeds. For gasoline fueled engines, this typically means low efficiencies, poor idle and high emissions. For racing purposes, this compromise for high engine speeds is worth it.

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Hydrogen fueled vehicle Chapter 8

If 5-speed manual transmission was installed, this transmission has the following gear ratios:

1st gear: 2nd gear: 3rd gear: 4th gear: 5th gear:

3.27:1 1.98:1 1.34:1 1:1 6.8:1

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Hydrogen fueled vehicle Chapter 9 IGNITION SYSTEM

The engine comes with a Magnetic Breaker less distributor that uses mechanical weights for timing advance (maximum of 32 degrees). This system is mechanically linked to the engine through a gear on the camshaft. Each time the camshaft completes one revolution the rotor of the distributor also makes one revolution. On the same shaft as the rotor are 8 vanes, one for each cylinder.

Figure-2 View distributor vanes

Each time one of these vanes pass by the magnetic pick up sensor on the distributor, the coil (single) discharges, sending a high voltage signal through the coil wire to the distributor. This signal would then be distributed to the proper cylinder via the rotor, rotor cap and spark plug wire. This type of ignition system works well for engines that do not have an Engine Control Computer (ECC).

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Hydrogen fueled vehicle Chapter 10 ENGINE PERFORMANCE

The theoretical maximum power output from a hydrogen engine depends on the fuel injection method used. This is because hydrogen will displace a large portion of the incoming air, and thus limiting the amount of air that will enter the combustion chamber. For example, the stoichiometric air/fuel ratio for hydrogen 34:1. For this mixture, hydrogen will displace 29% of the combustion chamber, leaving only 71% for the air. As a result, the energy content of this mixture will be 15% less than it would be if the fuel were gasoline (since gasoline is a liquid, it only occupies a very small volume of the combustion chamber, and thus allows more air to enter). Since both the carbureted and port injection methods mix the fuel and air prior to it entering the combustion chamber, these systems limits the maximum power obtainable to 85% of that of gasoline engines (rough order of magnitude). For direct injection systems, which mix the fuel with the air after the intake valve has closed (and thus the combustion chamber has 100% air), the maximum output of the engine can be 15% higher than that for gasoline engines (again, rough order of magnitude).

Therefore, depending on how the fuel is metered, the maximum output for a hydrogen engine can be either 15% higher or 15% less than that of gasoline if a stoichiometric air/fuel ratio is used. However, at a stoichiometric air/fuel ratio, the combustion temperature is very high and as a result it will form a large amount of nitric oxides (NOx), which is a criteria pollutant. Since one of the reasons for using hydrogen is low exhaust emissions, hydrogen engines are not normally designed to run at a stoichiometric air/fuel ratio.

Shown in Figure 12 is a plot of NOx formation versus equivalence ratio phi (equivalence ratio is the actual air/fuel ratio divided by the stoichiometric air/fuel ratio. If the value for phi is less than one, the mixture has excess air and therefore is lean. If the value for phi is greater than one, the mixture has excess fuel and therefore rich). From this plot is can be seen that in order to keep the NOx formation low, a phi of 0.45 (A/F of 80:1) or less is required (above a phi of .45, NOx emissions increase very quickly as the phi Dept. of Mechanical Engg. Page 13

Hydrogen fueled vehicle

increases). Also shown on this graph is a relationship of power (based on an engine speed of 6,100 rpm) and torque as phi changes. At a phi equal to 1 (stoichiometric), this engine would theoretically produce a maximum power and torque of 510 HP and 440 ft- respectively. However at this lb, Power output, the engine would be producing a large amount of NOx emissions. From Figure 8 it can be seen that the maximum clean power (at 6,100 rpm) and torque (i.e. near zero pollution without any exhaust gas after-treatment or pollution control devices) would be about 270 HP and 230 ft -lb, respectively. This would occur at a .45 phi.

Figure-3 Compression Vs Air/Fuel mixtures Running at a phi of 0.45 also has other benefits besides reducing NOx emissions. The first is its effective octane rating is increased (i.e. its ability to operate at higher compression ratio increases). As it can be seen in Figure 9, hydrogen can tolerate compressions of 15:1 at a 60% lean mixture (.4 phis). Whereas, at a stoichometric or a chemically correct mixture (CCM), it can only tolerate compression ratios slightly above 8:1. Limiting the maximum fueling rate to a phi of .45 (based on low emissions), the engine will have a power vs. engine speed curve similar to the one shown in Figure 13. Hydrogens simple atomic structure along with its ability to burn under ultra-lean conditions also contributes to a ratio of specific heat closer to 1.4.

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Hydrogen fueled vehicle

(Ideal gas) . Both the compression ratio and the ratio of specific heat are the two variables in the calculation of thermodynamic efficiency (see equation 1).

Where rv = the compression ratio and , k = the ratio of specific heats The higher these values, the higher the thermodynamic efficiency of the engine. The lean air/fuel mixtures also lower the chances of pre-ignition occurring. Another factor having a significant impact on hydrogen fuel storage is the increase in thermal efficiency observed when an engine is converted for operation on hydrogen. This is especially true under part-load or stop-start driving conditions. The impact of the increase in engine operating efficiency becomes significant when evaluating hydrogen's potential as a vehicular fuel. The efficiency boost

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Hydrogen fueled vehicle


Increases the vehicle's range, relieving the needed BTU (J) capacity of fuel storage. The end result is a reduction in the storage container's weight and size, and a significant improvement in the cost per mile (kilometer) of the fuel.

Chapter 11
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Hydrogen fueled vehicle

Advancements in engine technology have resulted in the virtual elimination of pollution from hydrogen-powered automobiles. Since no carbon is present in a hydrogen fuel system, hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide pollution do not exist. However, when the air, consisting of nitrogen and oxygen, is heated inside the engine, nitric oxide pollution is formed. Using water induction technique, peak combustion temperatures inside the hydrogen engine can be maintained at levels below the threshold for nitric oxide formation. This results in a substantial decrease in nitric oxide formation, as shown in Figure 16.


Chapter 12
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Hydrogen fueled vehicle

The recent observation of improved engine operating efficiencies, the development of successful methods for virtually eliminating nitric oxide formation, and development and refinement of metal hydride storage systems, have all enhanced hydrogen's potential as an alternate fuel for vehicular transportation. ALL THE TABLES GIVEN ARE ONLY FOR COMPARISON PURPOSES. Table 1 (In dollars) Fuel *Coal gasoline *Shale gasoline *Methanol *Water hydrogen (liquid) Coal hydrogen (liquid) *Ammonia *Hydrazine Metal hydride with efficiency correction Coal hydrogen (liquid) Coal hydrogen (metal hydride) Cost at pump $/106 BTU 3.35 2.65 3.45 10.2 9.9 7.65 10+ 5.88 2.79 100,000 mile cost 2,150 1,750 2,450 7,200 6,988 5,100 14,000 4,150 21,452 Penalties 350 300 250 1000 1000 1050 850 5001 5001 Total 2,500 2,050 2,700 8,200 7,988 6,150 14,850 4,650 26,453

1. Penalty is reduced to 1/2 since 1/2 the hydrogen is stored. 2. A double efficiency penalty is included to compensate for extra weight of hydride storage. 3. When the advantages of less engine wear and maintenance are factored in hydrogen competes better with the other candidates.

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Hydrogen fueled vehicle

Table 2 Variations in hydrogen production costs $/106BTU $/106BTU Coal gasification8 Coal gasification10 Coal gasification13 Coal gasification14 Coal gasification15 Coal gasification16 (liquid) Wind electrolysis8 Natural gas8 CTR11 3.75 1 2.45 5.44 2.5 Electrolysis10 Nuclear electrolysis12 Nuclear decomposition1

Nuclear 1.35 1.5 2.6 1.3 electrolysis8 Nuclear decomposition8 Solar decomposition8 Electrolysis9 5 2.95 3.5 2 5


1.9 4.6 11

Nuclear electrolysis13 Electrolysis14

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Hydrogen fueled vehicle

Table-3 Comparison of ideal thermodynamic cycle analysis for Hydrogen- and gasoline-fueled engines. Hydrogen Engine1 14

Cycle Intake pressure, psi.

Gasoline Engine2 14 Page 20

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Compression pressure, (psi)



Combustion pressure, (psi)



Blow down pressure, (psi) Intake temperature, (K)

60 540

79 600

Compression temperature, (K)



Combustion temperature, (K)



Blow down temperature, (K) Thermal efficiency

2360 0.456

3388 0.421

Work/inlet mixture volume (BTU/ft3) Work per lb. of air, (BTU)

240.9 488

340.3 481

The following can be noted from Table 3: 1. Peak cycle pressures and temperatures are lower in the hydrogen engine. 2. The ideal thermal efficiency of the hydrogen engine is slightly higher than that of the gasoline engine. 3. The work output per unit of air intake is about the same in either case. 4. The work output per unit volume of inlet mixture is 27 percent lower for the hydrogen engine. Dept. of Mechanical Engg. Page 21

Hydrogen fueled vehicle

Table 4 Vehicular Storage Requirements of Fuels Based on 20 gallons of gasoline (2.27 x 106 BTU) FUEL & CONTAINER POUNDS CUBIC FEET *Gasoline 134 2.76 *Methanol 285 5.7 *Ethanol 214 4.78 *Methane (g)1 500 27.6 *Methane (l)2 240 16.1 *Hydrogen (g)3 2250 66 *Hydrogen (l)4 353 10.2 *Hydrogen (MgH2)5 692 10.8 Corrected for 80% efficiency increase. Hydrogen(g)3 -1250 -37 Hydrogen (l)4 -198 -5.7 Hydrogen (MgH2)5 -388 -6.1

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Hydrogen fueled vehicle

Table 5 Exhaust emissions Total oxides of nitrogen (Otto spark ignition engine) 345 gms/106 *Fed. Req. 3.0 gms/mi. BTU 46 gms/106 *Fed. Req.(a) 0.4 gms/mi. BTU 265 gms/106 2.3 gms/mi. BTU 43 gms/106 *Methanol 0.37 gms/mi. BTU 235 gms/106 *Hydrogen 2.04 gms/mi. BTU

23 gms/106 Hydrogen(d) Hydrogen(e) 0.2 gms/mi. 0.02 gms/mi. BTU 2 gms/106 BTU

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Hydrogen fueled vehicle


1. Preignition Preignition is caused by catalytic reactions at the cylinder surface which can be minimised by keeping cylinder and piston surface clean. Dept. of Mechanical Engg. Page 24

Hydrogen fueled vehicle

2. Backfiring Backfiring can be minimized by avoiding hydrogen and air mixing priors to their entry to mixing chamber.


3. Engine Knock Knock in hydrogen engines is caused by the same phenomenon as in case of petroleum fuels It is generally seen that knock occurs when hydrogen engine is operated close to the rated capacity. Problems of preignition, backfiring and knock can also be overcome by suitable engine modifications. Dept. of Mechanical Engg. Page 25

Hydrogen fueled vehicle

4. Water Formation And Engine Corrosion Hydrogen engines also cause problems of water formation which apart from engine corrosion also form oil-water emulsion which lowers oils ability to lubricate. For overcoming this problem special lubricating oils and additives are being developed to check emulsification. A B Welch and J S Wallace demonstrated that a hydrogen fueled compression ignition engines can deliver higher power outputs than a diesel engine. Further improvements in efficiency can result from some modifications in injector geometry and combustion chamber design.


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Hydrogen fueled vehicle

Eco-friendly and a clean fuel with products of combustion causing no severe environmental degradation. High specific energy of hydrogen per unit weight. In several respects superior to other fuels. Easy ignability of hydrogen. Wider flammability range. It is less hazardous than other fuels. Engine can be run on leaner mixtures. In certain respects hydrogen is safer than other fuels. Many heavy and bulky items.


Easy diffusability and lack of visibility make detectivity of leaking gas difficult.

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Hydrogen fueled vehicle

The equipment for storage is costly. Production may be polluting and costly. Preignition, backfiring and knock may occur.


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There have been noted efforts in India in developing hydrogen as an alternative fuel The US National Hydrogen Association is planning transition role of hydrogen as an interim measure before it could be finally accepted. The transition strategy is concerned with economics of hydrogen production, storage and transport, development of alternative captive fuel market, and selection of eco-friendly production systems and safety guidelines for the use of hydrogen as a fuel. California state authorities are reportedly trying to make hydrogen cars environmentally acceptable under a very stringent new exhaust emissions legislation which the state proposes to enforce strictly from 1997 onwards. It may still take several years of R&D efforts to make hydrogen vehicles competitive in performance and cost.


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Hydrogen fueled vehicle

Hydrogen is a very clean fuel which hardly leaves any deposits on engine parts. Emissions from hydrogen engine are practically non-existent although some problems of nitrous oxide formation are encountered. Hydrogen is an ideal fuel for certain types of mobile applications. Hydrogen as a vehicular fuel may help to reduce independence on fossil fuels in future.

[1] "Information from". cta.ornl.gov. Retrieved 2011-01-31. See also the cost comparison tables here: Buchmann, Isidor. "Batteries against fossil fuel", accessed March 15, 2011. Excerpted from Dept. of Mechanical Engg. Page 30

Hydrogen fueled vehicle

Buchman, Isidor. Batteries in a Portable World A Handbook on Rechargeable Batteries for NonEngineers (3rd edition), 2011, Cadex Electronics Inc. ISBN 0-9682118-2-8

[2] "Efficiency of Hydrogen PEFC, Diesel-SOFC-Hybrid and Battery Electric Vehicles" (PDF). 15 July 2003. Retrieved January 7, 2009.

[3] "Honda Civic GX Natural Gas Car Earns Top Spot on ACEEE's "Greenest Vehicles of 2008" List for the Fifth Straight Year". World.honda.com. 2008-02-19. Retrieved 2011-01-31.

[4]Stewart, Ben (4 April 2008). "Chevy Volt Plug-in Car Batteries Ready for 2010 - GM Technical Center". Popular Mechanics. Retrieved 19 September 2009.

[5] F. Kreith (2004). "Fallacies of a Hydrogen Economy: A Critical Analysis of Hydrogen Production and Utilization". Journal of Energy Resources Technology 126: 249257.

[6] "Light Weight Hydrogen 'Tank' Could Fuel Hydrogen Economy". Sciencedaily.com. 2008-1105. Retrieved 2010-12-12.

[7] Honda Motor Company (16 June 2008). "Honda Announces First FCX Clarity Customers and Worlds First Fuel Cell Vehicle Dealership Network as Clarity Production Begins". Retrieved 1 June 2009.

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