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Chemistry Revision C4, C5, C6

C4 Chemical Patterns
Atoms: The nucleus is made of protons (positive) and neutron (negative). o It makes up the whole mass displayed on the periodic table. o But size wise its a small part of the atom. The electrons move around the nucleus. o They are negative. o Arranged in shells. o Virtually no mass. o The shells explain the whole of chemistry. Number of protons always equals the number of electrons. o So atoms normally have no overall charge. o Neutrons arent fixed, but normally similar to the number of protons. Each element has a different number of protons. o Elements have different properties because of difference atomic structures.

Balancing Equations: Atoms arent lost or made in chemical reactions. You have to make sure you have the same number of atoms on both sides of the arrow. State symbols o (s) Solid o (l) Liquid o (g) Gas o (aq) Dissolved in water

Line Spectrums: Some elements emit distinctive colours when heated. o Lithium (Li) produces a red flame. o Sodium (Na) produces a yellow/orange flame o Potassium (K) produces a lilac flame. Each element gives a characteristic line spectrum. o So spectrums can be used to identify elements. o New elements like caesium and rubidium have been discovered because of their line spectrums.

The Periodic Table: The periodic table puts elements with similar properties together. o Its in increasing proton order. o Metals found to the left, non metals to the right. o Elements with similar properties are in columns. o Groups go across the top, ignore the transition metals.

o o o Electron Shells:

So group 1 (Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs, Fr) react in a similar way. The reactivity increases as you go down the group. But in group 7 it decreases as you go down the group. Each new period (row) represents another full shell of electrons.

Electron shell rules: o Electrons occupy shells (sometimes called energy levels). o Lowest energy levels fill first. o 1st shell: 2 2nd shell: 8 3rd shell: 8 o Atoms like having a full outer shell. It makes them unreactive. o Electron arrangement determines chemical properties. Electrons fill up as you go across the periodic table.

Group 1 Alkali Metals: Lithium Sodium Potassium <Learn these o As you go down, they get more reactive, higher density, lower melting point, and lower boiling point. Reaction with cold water produces hydrogen gas. o The move on surface and fizz. o Produce hydrogen, and potassium gets hot enough to ignite it. o It makes an alkali solution, which is why theyre called the alkali metals. o When they react with water, a hydroxide of the metal forms. o 2Na + 2H0 2NaOH + H When reacted with chlorine salt is produced. o They react vigorously with chloring. o 2Na + Cl 2NaCl o Sodium + Chlorine Sodium chloride

Group 7 Halogens: Group 7 elements include chlorine, bromine, and iodine (all the ines). o They have 7 outer electrons, very reactive. o Chlorine merks bacteria, like other halogens, so its used in swimming pools. o As you go down the halogens, they get less reactive, higher melting point and higher boiling point. Non-metals with coloured vapours. o Fluorine is a very reactive, poisonous yellow gas at room temperature. o Chlorine is a fairly reactive, poisonous dense green gas at room temperature. o Bromine is a dense red-brown volatile liquid at room temp and forms a red brown gas. o Iodine is a dark grey crystalline solid at room temperature, and a purple vapour. They all form diatonic molecules, which are pairs of atoms. o Cl, Br ect More reactive halogens will displace less reactive ones. o E.g Cl + 2KI I + 2KCl o See, the chlorine (most reactive) swaps places with the iodine.

Laboratory Safety:

Need to know: o Oxidising o Highly flammable o Toxic o Harmful o Irritant o Corrosive Alkali metals are really reactive and combust spontaneously. o If they meet water vapour the can react ;/ o Never touch with bare hands. o If you use them, keep everything dry. Halogen are harmful, chlorine and iodine are very toxic. o Fluorine is the most reactive halogen; its too dangerous for use in the lab. o Liquid bromine is corrosive, so dont touch with skin. o Halogens are poisonous, use in a fume cupboard.

Ionic Bonding: Transferring electrons. A shell with just one electron wants to get rid of it. o Atoms in groups 1,2 and 3 all have just 1,2 or 3 electrons which they want to get rid of. o When they do, ions really want to bond. A shell with 1, 2 or 3 too little electrons really want to gain some. o So they meet the others, and they join when ones from groups 1, 2 and 3 give up theres for the atoms in groups 5, 6 and 7. Groups 1 and 7 are most likely to form ions. o Molten ionic compounds conduct electricity, evidence theyre made of ions.

Ions and Formulas: If you give up 1 electron you have +1 charge (a little plus) o If you give up 3 electrons you have a 3+ (little 3 then plus). o Same for gaining but negative not pluses. Remember the charges in ionic compounds add up to zero.

C5 Chemicals of the Natural Environment Chemicals in the atmosphere: Dry air is a mixture of gases as the earths atmosphere contains many gases. o Some are elements; oxygen, nitrogen and argon. o Others are compounds; CO. o Most gases in the atmosphere molecular substances. Molecular Substances have low melting and boiling points. o Molecular substances are normally small molecules like carbon dioxide or water. o The forces holding the molecules together are strong, but the forces of attraction between these are quite weak and so take little energy to separate them. o So molecular substances are usually gases or liquids at room temperature. o Molecular substances have covalent bonds, not ionic bonds.

Pure molecular substances dont conduct electricity because they arent charged, there are no free electrons or ions.

Covalent Bonding: Covalent bonds share electrons. o This way both atoms feel they have a full outer shell. o The atoms bond due to electrostatic attraction between the positive nuclei and the negative electrons shared between them. Hydrogen, H o Hydrogen need 1 more electron, so 2 Hs share their outer electron and they have a full outer shell. Carbon Dioxide, CO o Carbon needs 4 more, oxygen needs 2. o So two double covalent bonds are formed. o A double covalent bond has 2 shared electrons.

Chemicals in the hydrosphere: The earths hydrosphere is the oceans. o Lakes, rivers, puddles ect. o Many of the compounds are ionic, like salt. Solid ionic compounds form crystals. o Ionic compounds are made of charged ions. o Opposite charges attract strongly, so you get a giant lattice of ions. Ionic Compounds have high melting and boiling points. o Strong forces of attraction. o Lots of energy to break those bonds. They conduct electricity when dissolved or molten. o The ions are free to move, so they can carry an electric current. o When its solid, they arent free to move, so no electric current.

Chemicals in the Lithosphere: The earths lithosphere is made of a mixture of minerals. o Made of a mixture of minerals often containing silicon, oxygen and aluminium. o Different rocks contain different elements. Silicon dioxide forms a giant covalent structure. o Giant covalent structures contain no charged ions. o They are very hard, high melting points; they never conduct electricity and are usually insoluble. Some minerals are expensive, and the rarer the more valuable.

Chemicals in the Biosphere: (anything thats alive) Living things all share the same building blocks. o Main elements are carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen, with small amounts of phosphorus and sulphur. o These make up things vital for life like carbohydrates, proteins, fats and DNA. You can write formulas by counting the elements. o So in a stick picture count them up and bobs your uncle.

Flow charts can represent changes between the spheres.

Metals from Minerals: Ores contain enough metal to make extraction worthwhile. o Rocks are made or minerals, which are solid elements and compounds. o Metal ores are rocks that contain various amounts of minerals from which metals can be extracted. More reactive elements are hard to get. o Most elements are in compound form, so they need to be extracted from their ores in a chemical reaction. o More reactive metals, like sodium are harder to extract, so they took longer to discover. Some metals can be extracted by reduction with carbon. o When an ore is reduced, oxygen is removed from it. o FeO + 3CO 2Fe + 3CO o So anything below carbon in the reactivity series can be reduced, otherwise you have to use something else... ELECTROLYSIS.

ELECTROLYSIS (pro name) It means splitting up with electricity. Decomposition of a subject using electricity. o It needs liquid to conduct the electricity. o Electrolytes are usually free ions dissolved in water, like dissolved salts or molten ionic compounds. o Electrons are taken away from ions at the positive electrode and given to other ions at the negative electrode. o As ions gain or lose electrons they become atoms or molecules. Electrolysis removes aluminium from its ore. o Molten aluminium contains free ions, so itll conduct electricity. o Positive aluminium ions are attracted to the negative electrode so they pick up 3 electrons and suddenly they become aluminium. o And the negative oxygen pops over to the negative electrode and becomes normal oxygen.

Metals: Metal properties are all due to the sea of free electrons. o Metals consist of a giant structure. o Metallic bonds involve the all-important free electrons which produce all the properties of metals. o These free electrons come from the outer shell of every metal atom in the structure. o The positively charged metal ions are held together by these electrons. 1) Theyre good conductors of heat and electricity. o The free electrons carry heat and electrical current through the material. 2) Most metals are strong and malleable. o They are hard to break. o The layers of atoms can slide over each other making metal malleable they can be hammered or rolled into flat sheets. 3) They generally have high melting and boiling points. o Metallic bonds are strong so it takes a lot of energy to break them.

Environmental Impacts: Ores are finite resources. o Theyll run out. o Good because useful production, money, jobs so transport and health services can be improved. o But it uses loads on energy, scars in landscape, destroys habitats also noise, dust and pollution are caused by the traffic increase. o Deep mines can be dangerous for a long time after its been abandoned. Recycling is important. o Mining and extracting takes energy. o Recycling uses a small proportion of the energy used to extract a new material. o Recycling conserves resources. o Landfill pollutes surrounding.

Module C6 - Chemical Synthesis Industrial Chemical Synthesis: The chemical industry makes useful products. o Food additives Preservatives, flavourings, colours and more. o Cleaning and decorating products Paints, pigments, dyes, bleach, washing up liquid ect. o Drugs Headaches, tummy problems ect o Fertilisers Help plants to grow. The chemical industry is huge. o Some things are produced on a massive scale, like 150million tonnes of sulphuric acid are made each year. o Sulphuric acid has loads of uses, like car batteries and fertilisers. o Some chemicals, like pharmaceuticals are produced on a small scale, as we need less of them. o It has a significant effect on the economy, employing 200000 people, some are sold directly to users, and others sold to other industries.

Acids and Alkalis: Substances can be acidic, alkaline or neutral. Indicators and pH meters can be used to determine pH. o Indicators change colour. o pH meters use a probe to measure the pH, these are more accurate.

Neutralisation reactions between acids and alkalis make salts. o An acid is a substance with pH below 7, acidic compounds from aqueous hydrogen ions H. o An alkali has a pH more than 7 and it makes aqueous hydroxide ions OH in water. o When they react they make salt and water. The products are neutral, so its neutralisation. o Acid + Alkali Salt + Water

Acids Reacting with Metals: Acid + Metal Salt + Hydrogen. o More reactive metals react faster. o Copper doesnt react at all because its less reactive that hydrogen. Hydrochloric acids make the metal name, with a chloride. o Magnesium chloride, zinc chloride ect. Sulphuric acids always make sulphate salts o Magnesium sulphate ect. Nitric acid produces nitrate salts when neutralised, but... o Nitric acid reacts with alkalis to produce nitrates, but it can make nitrogen oxides with metals instead ;/

Oxides, Hydroxides and Carbonates: Metal oxides and metal hydroxides react with acids. o Acid + Metal oxide Salt + Water o Acid + Metal Hydroxide Salt + Water o Neutralisation reactions ^ The combination of metal and acid decides the salt. o Hydrochloric acid + copper oxide copper chloride + water o Sulphuric acid + Zinc oxide Zinc sulphate. Metal carbonates give salt + water + carbon dioxide o Acid + Metal carbonate Salt + Water + Carbon dioxide. o Using the same rule as above to find the name of the salt, just add water and carbon dioxide to the start.

Synthesising Compounds: Seven Stages involved in chemical synthesis. When making these chemicals in chemical synthesis you have to choose the right process. o Choosing the reaction: Neutralisation for a salt? Thermal decomposition make a compound into simpler substances. Precipitation An insoluble liquid is formed when two solutions are mixed. o Risk assessment: Identifying hazards Who might be harmed Reducing the risk o Calculating quantities of reactants: Balancing symbol equations, you dont want waste materials, because that means waste products.

Choosing apparatus and conditions: Correct size and strength of apparatus and temperature of reaction and whether you need to use a catalyst. Isolating the product: After the reaction you might need to separate a mixture, evaporation, filtration, drying ect. Purification: As you isolate the product youre helping to purify it, crystallisation can help with the process. Measuring yield and purity: Overall success of process. It compares what you should get, with what you get in practise. Purity needs to be measured.

Relative Formula Mass: To find formula mass, use the bigger number from the periodic table. o When you have a formula, like MgCl, you need to add together one magnesium atom, with two chlorine atoms.

Calculating Masses in reactions: Three important steps: o Write out balanced equation o Work out the mass for the bits you want o Apply the rule: divide to get one, then multiply to get all So, you the one you have the information about, e.g what mass of magnesium is needed to produce 100g of magnesium oxide. o Work out masses from periodic table. o In the example, magnesium oxide = 80, so divide by 80 and then multiply by 100 to get 100g. o Do exactly the same to just the magnesium on the other side. o You will end with 60g of Mg is needed to make 100g of MgO.

Isolating the product and measuring the yield: Filtration- If the product is an insoluble solid, thats in a liquid, simply pour it over filter paper. o This can be used in purification too. Evaporation and Crystallisation Used to separate soluble solid from liquid. o Evaporate the solute, and youll be left with the solid o It leaves behind solid crystals. o This helps purify too, because crystals have a regular structure that impurities cant fit into. The process is repeated, each time improving the purity. Drying Use to dry product by removing excess liquid. o Heat sample and blow hot, dry air on it. o Also, desiccators remove water from surroundings and help keep product dry. Percentage yield compares actual and theoretical yield. o Actual yield is mass of pure, dry product. o Theoretical yield is maximum possible mass of pure product that couldve been made using the amount of reactants you started with.

o Titrations:

Percentage yield = Actual yield (g)/theoretical yield (g) x 100

Titrations are carried out using a burette. o A know volume of alkali in a flask with a few drops of indicator. o Then add acid drop by drop until it changes colour. o Its then neutralised. Solids are weighed out into a titration flask. o The add a solvent to make a liquid, but the amount depends on the solvent and the amount of it.

Purity: Some products need to be very pure. o Pharmaceuticals need to be pure, because impurities could be dangerous to humans. o Petrochemicals need to be pure, impurities can damage a car engine. Titrations can be used to measure the purity of a substance. o Determining the purity of aspirin: Say you start off with 0.2g of aspirin dissolved in 25cm of ethanol. You find from your titration that it takes 9.5cm of 4g/dm NaOH to neutralise the apirin. o Step 1 Concentration of aspirin solution: 4.5 x (Conc of NaOH x Vol of NaOH/vol. Of aspirin solution o Work out mass of apirin: mass = concentration x volume o Calculate purity using formula: % purity = calculated mass of substance/mass of impure substance x 100. o It gives you a percent that is how pure it is.

Rates of reaction: Reactions can go at all sorts of different rates. o Like rusting is slow, metal with acid is medium and burning or explosions are fast. Controlling RoR in is important in industry. o Safety Too fast and you could get an explosion. o Economy Companies often have to find a high enough temperature for a fast RoR, but not too high so the heating bills make a lower heat more cost effective. Typical graphs of rate of reaction start at their steepest and then level off.

Collision Theory: Rate of reaction depends on: o Temperature, concentration, catalyst, surface area. More collisions increase rate of reaction. o More successful collisions. Higher temperature means particles go faster, so more collisions. Higher concentration means particles a more likely to meet and collide. A higher surface area means more collisions. Particles stick to a catalyst, so they collide better. It provides a surface to react on.

Measuring RoR: Three ways to measure the speed of a reaction. o RoR = Amount of reactant used or product formed/time Precipitations: o When a reaction makes a clear substance go cloudy. o Look through it, and time until a dot on the other side disappears. o Bad as people argue on the moment it goes. Change in mass: o If you measure the change in the mass, if a gas is given off, you can see the change. This is the most accurate method. Volume of gas given off: o Measure the volume at timed intervals, more gas given of in an interval, the faster the RoR. o Gas syringes are normally accurate to the nearest cm so theyre quite accurate.t