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Questions

What is Quality? What is Quality control? Describe the types of quality control What type of approach would be taken for quality control? What is the objective of quality control? Describe the process cycle of Quality control. What type of requirements need for establishing the quality? What is the difference between quality control and quality assurance? What is the relation between quality control and testing? Describe the importance of quality control in garments industry What is AQL? How to measure AQL? What types of ecological parameters are maintained for quality control?

What is Quality? Definition of quality: The common element of the business definitions is that the quality of a product or service refers to the perception of the degree to which the product or service meets the customer's expectations. Quality has no specific meaning unless related to a specific function and/or object. Quality is a perceptual, conditional and somewhat subjective attribute. The business meanings of quality have developed over time. Various interpretations are given below: American Society for Quality: "A combination of quantitative and qualitative perspectives for which each person has his or her own definition; examples of which include, "Meeting the requirements and expectations in service or product that were committed to" and "Pursuit of optimal solutions contributing to confirmed successes, fulfilling accountabilities". In technical usage, quality can have two meanings: a. The characteristics of a product or service that bear on its ability to satisfy stated or implied needs; b. A product or service free of deficiencies. Peter Drucker: (Innovation and entrepreneurship) "Quality in a product or service is not what the supplier puts in. It is what the customer gets out and is willing to pay for." ISO 9000: "Degree to which a set of inherent characteristics fulfills requirements." The standard defines requirement as need or expectation. There are five aspects of quality in a business context: Producing - providing something. Checking - confirming that something has been done correctly. Quality Control - controlling a process to ensure that the outcomes are predictable. Quality Management directing an organization so that it optimizes its performance through analysis and improvement.

Quality Assurance obtaining confidence that a product or service will be satisfactory. (Normally performed by a purchaser) The word "Quality" represents the properties of products and/or services that are valued by the consumer. "Quality itself has been defined as fundamentally relational: 'Quality is the ongoing process of building and sustaining relationships by assessing, anticipating, and fulfilling stated and implied needs.' Concept of Quality: Simply, quality refers to one or more desirable characteristics that a product should possess. Quality is inversely proportional to (unwanted) variability.

Quality Characteristics: Every product possesses a number of properties that jointly describe what the user or consumer thinks of as quality. These properties are known as quality characteristics. For example, fiber length is known to be one of the important quality characteristics of a fiber. Definition for "Today's" Quality: (Applies to all goods and services) Quality = Maximization of Perceived Value = Fulfillment of Tangible and Intangible Expectations = (Good or Service Performance + Customer Service)Attributes; Divided by Cost)

In a word Quality means customer needs is to be satisfied. Failure to maintain an adequate quality standard can therefore be unsuccessful. But maintaining an adequate standard of quality also costs effort. From the first investigation to find out what the potential customer for a new product really wants, through the processes of design, specification, controlled manufacture and sale.

There are a number of factors on which quality fitness of garment industry is based such as performance, reliability, durability, visual and perceived quality of the garment. Quality needs to be defined in terms of a particular framework of cost. Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Quality_(business) http://www.qualitydigest.com/magazine/2001/nov/article/definition-quality.html http://www.fibre2fashion.com/industry-article/8/800/quality-systems-for-garment-manufacture1.asp http://www.nptel.iitm.ac.in/courses/116102019/

What is Quality control? Definition of quality control: Control: To check or verify and hence to regulate. Quality Control: Quality is of prime importance in any aspect of business. Customers demand and expect value for money. As producers of apparel there must be a constant endeavor to produce work of good quality. "The systems required for programming and coordinating the efforts of the various groups in an organization to maintain the requisite quality". As such Quality Control is seen as the agent of Quality Assurance or Total Quality Control. In the garment industry quality control is practiced right from the initial stage of sourcing raw materials to the stage of final finished garment. For textile and apparel industry product quality is calculated in terms of quality and standard of fibers, yarns, fabric construction, color fastness, surface designs and the final finished garment products. However quality expectations for export are related to the type of customer segments and the retail outlets. Quality control and standards are one of the most important aspects of the content of any job and therefore a major factor in training.

Concept of quality control:

Quality control describes the directed use of testing to measure the achievement of a specified standard. Quality control is a superset of testing, although it often used synonymously with testing. The concept of quality, namely that the object, the service, the performance whatever it is should be fit for purpose. Quality does not mean being at the top of the range, but it does mean being efficient (so things happen on time and on cost), reliable (whatever the weather, every day of the week) and giving good value for money. The goal of quality control should be to identify process steps that best predict outcomes - A. Blanton Godfrey

Total Quality Control: "To ensure that the requisite quality of product is achieved". This ensures customer satisfaction, but it leaves quality control as a necessary but expensive evil. To ensure, at minimum practicable cost, that the requisite quality of product is being achieved at every stage of manufacture from raw materials to boxed stock What types of quality control? There are 3 types of quality control: Internal Quality Control When a company institutes protocol to check their system, this is called internal quality control. This can range from routine checking of equipment, having a co-worker go over another employee's data analysis, or running standards and controls on a regular basis. It is generally up to management to decide if internal quality control measures are reliable and performed as needed.

External Quality Control When products or data is sent to an outside business not affiliated with the company, this is external control. One example of external control is in food production. A food company may routinely analyze the nutritional value or shelf-life of a food item it produces in its own lab, but to verify its results, the food item will also be sent to an outside lab. This verification by an outside lab is important to obtain

Food and Drug Administration (FDA) labeling and to prove to the FDA that the food company's production methods are sound.

Proficiency Testing Quality Control A special type of quality control often done on a volunteer basis or to gain accreditation is proficiency testing. In this type of quality control, the company is sent a series of tests to perform. The results are sent back and the company receives a grade on its proficiency. This type of testing is often done in laboratories, where sensitive equipment and complex protocols need to be verified as accurate before the lab is allowed to continue its work. Source: http://www.ehow.com/list_7867675_types-quality-control.html What type of approach would be taken for quality control? Approach Itemize the variables that occur in fabric and garment production in order to provide a complete specification. Develop a specification in a number of parts or sections to ensure that all design and production staff has a clear idea as to what is needed. Establish acceptable working tolerances in relation to all values on the specification. Establish fault rate recording systems. Improve technical understanding of the product including, Fabric geometry and the interrelationship of yarn count, loop length, pick count, relaxation and fabric properties. Sewing problems. Causes and prevention of seam breakdown. The effects of various factors on the apparent shade of goods affecting shade matching.

What is the objective of quality control? Objects of Quality Control: To produce required quality product. To fulfill the customer's demand. To reduce the production cost. To reduce wastage. To earn maximum profit at minimum cost. To maximize the production of goods within the specified tolerances correctly the first time.

To achieve a satisfactory design of the fabric or garment in relation to the level of choice in design, styles, colors, suitability of components and fitness of product for the market.

Describe the process cycle of Quality control. Requirements: The Quality System Requirements are based on the principle of PDCA Cycle.

Process Cycle 1 Understanding the customers' quality requirements. 2 Organizing & training quality control department. 3 Ensuring proper flow of quality requirements to the QC department. 4 Ensuring proper flow of quality requirements to the Production Department. 5 Establishing quality plans, parameters, inspection systems, frequency, sampling techniques, etc.. 6 Inspection, testing, measurements as per plan. 7 Record deviations 8 Feed back to Production Department. 9 Plan for further improvement. Establishing the Quality Requirements The first step for quality control is to understand, establish & accept the customers' quality requirements. This involves the following steps. 1 Getting customers specifications regarding the quality

2 Referring our past performance 3 Discussing with the Quality Control Department 4 Discussing with the Production Department 5 Giving the Feed Back to the customers 6 Receiving the revised quality requirements from the customers 7 Accepting the quality parameter What is the difference between quality control and quality assurance? Definitions of QA and QC Quality Assurance (QA): refers to the process used to create the deliverables, and can be performed by a manager, client, or even a third-party reviewer. Examples of quality assurance include process checklists, project audits and methodology and standards development. Quality Control (QC) :refers to quality related activities associated with the creation of project deliverables. Quality control is used to verify that deliverables are of acceptable quality and that they are complete and correct. Examples of quality control activities include inspection, deliverable peer reviews and the testing process. Difference Between Quality Assurance And Quality Control Quality control ISO 9000 Denitions : Quality Control :A part of quality management focused on fullling quality requirements. is the physical verication that the product conforms to these planned arrangements by inspection, measurement etc is the process involved within the system to ensure job management, competence and performance during the manufacturing of the the product or service to ensure it meets the quality plan as designed. What: The activities or techniques used to achieve and maintain the product quality, process and service How: Finding & eliminating causes of quality Quality assurance ISO 9000 Denitions : Quality Assurance:A part of quality management focused on providing condence that quality requirements will be fullled. Quality Assurance is fundamentally focused on planning and documenting those processes to assure quality including things such as quality plans and inspection and test plans is a system for evaluating performance, service, of the quality of a product against a system,standard or specied requirement for customers.

What: Prevention of quality problems through planned and systematic activities including documentation How: Establish a good quality management

problems through tools & equipment so that customers requirements are continually met. Quality Control just measures and determines the quality level of products or services. It is a process itself.

system and the assessment of its adequacy & conformance audit of the operation system & the review of the system itself. Quality Assurance is a complete system to assure the quality of products or services. It is not only a process, but a complete system including also control. It is a way of management.

What is the relation between quality control and testing? ANS: Ref:- Testing of Textiles by Foridul Azad Page no:- 18

Importance of quality control in garments industry


Garment industry has a complex supply chain where garment makers source materials, stitch garments and sell goods to retailers. Through buyers and retailers quality garments reach to end user located all over the world. No wearers will buy a garment with poor quality and visible defects. So buyers and retailer knowingly do not purchase a product that does not meet the quality requirement. Quality conscious buyers have a strong quality inspection system in place to avoid purchasing of defective goods. There is no way garment manufacturers can ignore producing quality products. Quality comes first to most of the manufacturer supplying garments across the countries. The question is "what is the importance of quality control?" Quality must be controlled during processing whether it is done by the operators, supervisors, pressman, garment packers or one employs a checker or inspector. In case quality of the product and processes is not being controlled from beginning to end it will cause followings: High alteration and rejection of garments Requirement of extra manpower for checking of goods and repair work Factory may loose customers (buyers) as well as Brand Value Low motivated employees Need to work for extra hours Delay in production completion Ultimately production cost will increase if one ignores quality control area in manufacturing stage Shipment may cancel. Reputation of the company will be hampered

Company will loose profit . Company will loose customer satisfaction and faith. Workers will be disappointed. It may results negative impact on the business growth for long term.

Sometimes buyers reject packed shipments when they found shade variation in garments, wrong size ratio in packed shipment and faulty garment patterns. Can you imagine how small size garment exporters can manage their businesses when shipments get rejected by buyers due to quality issue? Most of the reasons can be cured at initial stages if the problem was noticed and action had been taken. Managers used to say that garments are soft goods. Hence it is not possible to produce 100% goods fault free to justify their failure to make quality goods. Ignorance of quality production results negative impact on the business growth for long term. If you have quality control team, role of the quality are likely To check raw materials and confirm for use in cutting, sewing processes. Check cutting quality, patterns, cut parts. Check sewing process, do 100% inspection of stitched pieces and move quality garment for finishing. Checks garments after washing and finishing stage up to packing of goods. All the above checks are necessary to avoid failure of final inspection, rejection of shipments and control over manufacturing cost. It is to be noted that importance of controlling garment quality may vary for the other part of the supply chain.

Source:
www.onlineclothingstudy.com

What is AQL? How to measure AQL? AQL (Acceptable Quality Level): A certain proportion of defective will always occur in any manufacturing process. If the percentage does not exceed a certain limit, it will be economical to allow the defective to go through instead of screening the entire lot. This limit is called the "Acceptable Quality Level" ( AQL ) Considering the practical & economic aspects, Sampling Techniques are adopted to Accept or Reject a Lot on the basis of the Samples drawn at Random from the lot. It has been found and accepted that a scientifically designed sampling & inspection plan protects a Manufacturer as well as the Buyer economically. American Military Standards known as MIL-STD-105A to 105E is accepted world-wide for sampling sizes. It has the following sample size levels. Normally for Garment Industry 105D or 105E are followed.

1 Special Inspection Levels ( S1, S2, S3 & S4 ) 2 General Inspection Levels ( I, II & III ) 3 It has various AQL levels from 0.040 to 25 for Accepting or Rejecting the lots. Normally for Garment industry, the AQL levels of 2.5, 4.0 and 6.5 are followed. AQL means acceptable quality level or limit. The AQL is the maximum percent defect for the purpose of sampling inspection. It can be considered satisfactory as a product average.

Number of defective product x 100 Formula of AQL= Total numbers of Inspected product If 50 defective product found out of 1000 inspected product then AQL 50 x 100 = 1000 Here, AQL is 5%. =5%

What type ecological parameters are following for quality control in garments industry? Ecological Parameters: Now all the Customers are asking for Ecological Parameters. Now European Buyers are stressing this. Following are main Ecological Parameters to be considered. 1 pH range 2 Formaldehyde levels 3 Extractable heavy metals 4 Chlorinated phenols ( PCP, TeCP) 5 Forbidden Amines of MAK III A1& A2 categories 6 Pesticides 7 Chlorinated Organic carriers

8 Biocide finishes 9 Flame retardant finishes 10 Color fastnesses to Water 11 Color fastnesses to acid & alkali perspiration 12 Color fastnesses to wet & dry rubbing 13 Color fastnesses to saliva 14 Emission of volatile chemicals 15 Other specific parameters as required by the customers