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CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION

The sea plays the role of buffer to buffer the heat, greenhouse gases and pollutants to compensate for the earth's climate. World Oceans Day was declared in Rio de Jinero on 8 JUN 1992 to raise awareness of the importance of the sea to human life. Marine pollution cannot be bounded as compared with land contamination that can be seen clearly and easily managed and it will disrupt the habitat and marine life

Water is said to be polluted when the conditions are changed from the natural state to a state that is not suitable for human consumption or animal. The changes include changes in physical, chemical and biological. Substances found in water not only causes water harmful to human health and safety and even have an impact on aquatic life.

However, the sea can also be contaminated due to natural conditions. A red sea phenomenon or 'Red Tied' has hit waters SABAH and even places abroad such as Bondi Beach in Sydney, AUSTRALIA and FLORIDA that cause polluted sea. Red tide is a natural phenomenon not caused by human beings. When temperature, salinity, and nutrients reach certain levels, a massive increase in Karenia brevis algae occurs. No one knows the exact combination of factors that causes red tide, but some experts believe high temperatures combined with a lack of wind and rainfall are usually at the root of red tide blooms.

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This natural phenomenon is caused by a type of marine algae in the ocean and it's a lot of produce certain organisms that convert sea water to turn red. Seaweed is known as 'algae bloom' and it gives character to seafood toxins especially shellfish. The term "red tide" is often used in the United States to describe a particular type of algal bloom common to the eastern Gulf of Mexico, and is also known as the "Florida red tide". This type of bloom is caused by species of dinoflagellate known as Karenia brevis, and these flowers occur almost every year along the coast of Florida.

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CHAPTER 2

LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1

Definition Of Red Tied

Red Tied is common name for a phenomenon known as algal bloom (large concentrations of aquatic microorganims) when it is caused by a few species of dinoflagellates and the bloom takes on a red or brown colour. Red tides are events in which estuarine, marine, or fresh water algae accumulate rapidly in the water column, resulting in colaration of the surface water. Its is usually found in coastal areas (Wikipedia, 2012).

Otherwise, as stated by Monica (2011) red tide is a phenomenon caused by algal blooms. The algae become so numerous that they discolor coastal waters. Hence, the algal bloom may also deplete oxygen in the waters and release toxins that may cause illness in human and other animals. The blood red waters are the results of a natural phenomenon called red tied, which happens when red algae blooms pops up close to shore (The New York News, 2012). The term red tied is often used in United State to describe a

particular type of algal bloom (Dr. Abdelkader, 2010).

According to Fish Department Of Sabah, Red Tied is an occasional natural phenomenon in Sabah where microorganisms also known as dinoflagellates which are naturally living in the sea undergo a population explosion. When the numbers become so large and dense, sometimes they impart a brownish-red colour to the sea.
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The micro-organisms usually are not very numerous in the seas and thus do not represent a health threat. However, when they become many and are eaten in large numbers by filter-feeding sea organisms such as oysters, mussels and other bivalves that render these shellfish toxic because of accumulation in their guts.

2.2

History Of Red Tied

Red Tied is a global phenomenon and commonly happened in a few country all over the world. However, since the 1980s harmful red tied events have become more frequent and widespread. As stated by Montana State University, detection of a spread is thought to be influenced by higher awareness of red tied, better equipment for detecting and analyzing red tied, and nutrient loading from farming and industrial runoff.

The result of high concentrations of Karenia brevis, are a result of high concentrations of a microscopic marine algae that occurs naturally but normally in lower concentrations in the Gulf of Mexico. In high concentrations, its toxin paralyzes the central nervous system of fish and interfere with their breathing. The dead fish wash up on Mexican gulf beaches and dense concentrations appear as discolored water, often reddish or brownish in color. It is a natural phenomenon, but the exact cause or combination of factors that result in a red tide outbreak are unknown (NOAA, 2010).

Red Tide occurs most often in the Florida region, which particularly on the gulf side. Although there are thousands of microscopic species of plankton, one in particular resides was only in Florida. The karenia brevis is a dinoflagellate that was first identified in year 1947 (Red Tide 2001). The karenia brevis has caused most of the red tide occurrences within Floridas gulf waters. The organism is extremely fragile and can break easily when going through rough waves along beaches. They can be broken apart from the tides allowing the toxins to be released into the water (Florida red tide, 2003).

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Red tides is a tidal phenomenon that often happen at around this time of year off the coasts of Oman. As reported, in some years tens of tonnes of dead fish that had been affected have washed up on Omani shores. The scores of dead fish that have collected on the beach at Muscat and the Batinah region of Oman, have all accumulated toxins, that making them unsafe. The Middle East's shores are not alone in experiencing red tides (The National).

According to wikepedia 2012, contries affected by red tied events include New England (1972), Long Island New York (2005), Gulf Of Mexico (2011), North Avoca NSW Australia (2012), Eaglewood Florida (2012) and the latest is on January 2013, a red tied occurred again on the West Coast Sea of Sabah and etc.

2.3

The causes Of Red Tied

Red tides phenomenon are usually occur along the Cape west or south coasts in late summer and autumn. The prevailing southerly winds at this time of year cause cold, nutrient-rich water to rise up from the deeper regions of the ocean to the surface, a process known as upwelling (Dr. Grant Pitcher). He also stated that, swept along with this upwelled water are dinoflagellate cysts, which is the resting stages of the organism that lie dormant in the sediments on the sea floor. The high nutrient concentrations in the upwelled water, and together with an ideal conditions of temperature, salinity and light, trigger the germination of the cysts, so that the dinoflagellates begin to grow and divide. The rapid increase in dinoflagellate numbers, sometimes to millions of cells per litre of water, is what is known as a "bloom" of phytoplankton.

In other hand, the occurance of red tieds in some locations appears to be natural but in others location, they appear to be a result of increased nutrient loading from human activities (Wikipedia, 2012). The growth of marine phytoplankton is generally limited by the avaibility presence of nitrates and phosphates. This situation can be abundant in agricultural runoff as well as coastal upwelling zones. The water

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pollution caused by human and systematic increase in sea water temperature are contibuting factors in red tieds phenomenon.

According to The Daily Mail (2012), the red tieds or also known as the blood red waters can caused by warm and humid weather. The New South Wales Office (2012) express their theories that the the red tied also was caused by upwelling of colder nutrient-rich water when the blooms are much more common in autumn and spring when the water temperature is higher and the ocean have a greater movements.

2.4

Red Tied Effects

Red tide algae make potent natural toxins. It is unknown why these toxins are created, but some can be hazardous to larger organisms through the processes of biomagnification and bioaccumulation. Grazers such as fish and krill are unaffected by the toxins, so as they eat the algae the toxins are concentrated and accumulate to a level that is poisonous eat to organismsthat feed on them. Large fish kills and several mammalian diseases and deaths have been attributed to consumption of shellfish during red tied algal blooms (Monica, Montana State University).

Harmful Algal Bloom (HABs) or usually known as red tied, are the national concern because they affect not only the health of people and marine ecosystems, but also the health of local and regional economies (NOAA).

As stated by Monica (2011), a harmful algae blooms cause a variety of problematic human and envirinmental health issues. Red Tied effects involving environmental, economic, health ramifications and quality of life. The environmental effects are responsible for large fish kills, leading cause of death of manatees (an endangered species) and blame for many dolphin death.

Besides that, economically it can cause millions of dollars in lost revenue to communities, hotels, restaurants and water based tourism attractions like fishing and
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boating. Red tied also can effect the health ramifications that can cause respitory symptoms (especially in sensitive populations like asthmatics) and has been implicated in the cause of skin irritations. In quality of life, red tied can impacts the quality of beach experiences, water recreation and fishing activities.

2.5

The Way to Avoid Red Tied Symptoms

Nowadays, red tied symptoms can be avoid to prevent human or animal affected by red tied symptoms that could cause health problem and others activities. Based on research that had been done by Montana State University, technological advancements such as satellite imagery have allowed scientists to better track and monitor harmful algal blooms. Tracking and monitoring red tied algae helps reduce harmful effects of the algae by providing warnings against eating infected shellfish and against swimming in infected waters.

National Oceanic Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) also stated that scientists at NOAA have been monitoring and studying this phenomenon for a number of years to determine how to detect and forecast the location of the blooms. The goal is to give communities advance warnings so they can adequately plan for and deal with the adverse environmental and health affects associated with these red tied events

People are advised to avoid eating oysters, mussels, cockles and any type of clam though other marine products like fish, prawns and crabs were safe for consumption (Galid, 2013). He also said that clams, even when cooked, are still poisonous and should be avoided during the red tied season.

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CHAPTER 3

CASE STUDY IN SABAH

3.1

Red Tied Phenomenon

Sabah waters especially in Labuan were already well known to the occurrence of red water or more commonly known as 'Red Tide' caused by 'Cochlodinium polykrikoides'. But in late 2005 and early 2006 a further cause red water known as 'Pyrodinium bahamense var compressum' began to emerge. 'Pyrodinium bahamense var compressum' producers are toxic poisons or groups 'Paralytic shellfish poisoning' [PSP] who has more than 20 derivatives.

Red water phenomenon toxic (Red tide) in Sabah especially in Labuan water occur seasonally at the end of the year and the beginning of the year. Predicted that this phenomenon usually occur during the dry season after the heavy rains and effects of prolonged low temperatures during the rainy season. During the phenomenon, seawater looks brown due to the explosive growth of the 'dinoflagellate' toxic due to increasing the availability of nutrients in the sea water.

3.2

Red Tied History

First reported location is on the west coast of Sabah, Malaysia and Brunei Bay in 1976. The sequence of events has resulted in 7 people were killed and 202
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other people have been poisoned in Sabah and Brunei are excluded (Roy,1977). In 1979, the same incident was reported back in Kawang waters, located at the west coast of Sabah. The incident has resulted in 3 people poisoning and 1 person died. Continuing in 1980, a total of 30 people have died and 2 people poisoning on the island board, Sabah after eating contaminated shellfish. Furthermore, the phenomenon continues to occur throughout the year was recorded off the west coast of Sabah to the year 1988. In fact, a similar incident happened recently again in the water of Kota Kinabalu, Sabah in March 2012, as reported by the department of Fisheries Sabah.

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While on the east coast of Sabah, 'Red tied' incident was first reported in Lahad Datu sea shore in 1981 (Adam, 2010). Whereas, in the waters of the 'Red tied' occurrences on record in 1988 (Adnan, 2003). However, there were no reports of poisoning or even death due to events such citizens.
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3.3

Red Tied Effect to Human

'Red Tied' will affect humans when exposed to these pollutants directly or through eating contaminated marine life. Between contaminated marine life caused by this phenomenon are shellfish and some fish species such as Tamban, Selar, Selayang and Kembong. This is because due to the uniqueness of the marine life that has nutritional screening system. Plankton toxic and accumulates in the tissues and internal organs during food refining.

Picture of Plankton

There are two levels of people poisoning that is early sign and danger. At the initial stage, i.e. after the first 30 minutes, the victim will feel numbness in the lips, then to the face directly to the neck. Victims will also feel like a needle inserted at the end of the feet and hands, headache, dizziness, vomiting, diarrheal and nausea. However for severe cases, the victim will experience muscle paralysis, difficulty breathing and choking sensation. In very serious cases, death can occur within 2 to 23 hours due to respiratory system paralysis and heart function.

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According to lab officials 'Ride Tied', Department of Fisheries Sabah, when the analysis of toxins in shellfish or other marine life shows the results of 400 unit Mouse (MU), which is considered the lower limit 400 MU to dangerous levels for humans, the a local announcement will be made involving the area affected areas only. The announcement was made to inform and remind residents to be vigilant and not to eat seafood in the area.

3.4

Monitoring Methods

Department of Fisheries Sabah conduct two surveillance methods to identify these toxins are through samples of shellfish and pelagic fish and sea water samples. Monitoring will be conducted throughout the year once every two weeks.

Shellfish and water samples taken from the waters of the sea will be taken to a lab to be extracted to determine the toxin content. There can be known from the area with high toxin before further action is taken by the department.

Until now no specific antidote ingredients to the treatment of poisoning due to eating shellfish. The best step is to avoid eating shellfish and all types of pelagic fish.

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CHAPTER 4

CASE STUDY IN AUSTRALIA

A red tide has rolled into Australia and the blood red waters are shutting down beaches around Sydney, the country's largest city, during the first heat wave of the year. The phenomenon is caused by an unusually large amount of the algae noctiluca scintillans and is often referred to as "red tide" or "fire in the sea." Locals have another word for it: gross.

In end 2012 is expected to be one of the warmest of the year in Sydney, with temperatures in the mid-90s and potentially even in the triple digits. The warm weather is believed to be partly responsible for the blood red tide, as it heats the
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ocean waters and creates ideal temperatures for the algae to grow. The warm water also causes stronger underwater currents, and those currents stir up heavier, nutrient rich water near the sea floor. Those nutrients, combined with the heat, are the perfect storm for creating the rare red tide phenomenon.

The red tide phenomenon is not limited to Sydney. Florida suffers from red tides almost every year with varying degrees of intensity. In October, a 100-mile long red tide bloom stretched along the coast of Southwest Florida, the largest one seen since 2006. Another bloom, in 2005, took 13 months to clear up. These red tides have been known to devastate marine life in the water and can cause respiratory problems, particularly for people with sensitive allergies. The red tides have become such a concern that the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has a section on their website dedicated to monitoring levels of the algae in the water.

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The red tide is believed to have killed hundreds of fish as well, meaning Sydney residents could be treated to beaches full of rotting fish if the tides are right. The red-tide dinoflagellate Noctiluca scintillans has expanded its range into southern Tasmanian waters and beyond since 1994, associated with warming water and enhanced transport by the East Australian Current. Changes in timing of seasonal phytoplankton blooms may impact marine food webs. Establishment of IMOS National Reference Stations and AusCPR (Australian Continuous Plankton Recorder) tows are enhancing Australia-wide phytoplankton and biogeochemical data collections for monitoring purposes.

The New South Wales Environment Protection Authority (EPA) 98/12/16 advised of the algae outbreak in the Putney-Tennyson area. EPA Director-General, Neil Shepherd, said several residents had called the authority's pollution hotline this morning with reports of dead fish on the foreshores of Morrisons Bay and Glades Bay.

Dr. Shepherd said preliminary tests on fish and water samples had indicated the presence of a species of red algae related to Chatonella. Samples of the algae had been sent to a specialist laboratory in Tasmania to identify the exact species. Dr Shepherd said these species of red algae were toxic to fish and could cause skin irritations in some people.
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"Red tides are likely to be most evident in bays and inlets sheltered from the mixing effects of winds and tides," he said in a statement, adding that people should avoid contact with any discoloured water in these areas. Last year, Chatonella appeared sporadically in the Parramatta River and Sydney Harbour.

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CHAPTER 5

FINDING AND DISCUSSIONS

The red sea phenomenon, also known as the red tide, occurs in Sabahs west coast and is caused by the single-cell organism, phytoplankton dinoflagellate in the sea water. Although it has been said by experts that the algal bloom occurrence carries no harmful toxic effects on humans, they can cause skin irritation, skin rashes and also eye irritation. It is believed throughout the incident in Bondi Beach, Australia there was no cases of death or people caught a skin irritation recorded. However in recent events in Sabah Malaysia, Red Tide has taken its toll when a total of 43 cases were reported to have happened, 37 cases in Kota Kinabalu and also 6 cases in Tuaran. Among these cases, 2 of the victim was reported to be dead. All of these incidents happen because the victims consumes seafood known as shellfish and other occurrence was to believed happen because they have consumed a number of raw cockles.

Sabah Fisheries Department director Rayner Stuel Galid said that people are advised to avoid eating oysters, mussels, cockles and any type of clams because clams even when cooked, are still poisonous and should be avoided during the red tide season. If eaten, victim should experience symptoms such as numbness, dizziness, vomiting and breathing difficulty If this occurs the victims are advised to go for immediate treatment at the nearest clinic.

This shows that the Red Tide Algal bloom occurrence can only be hazardous to human when there is direct contact to the skin and also when people eat seafoods that consumes a heavy dosage of toxic caused by the algal bloom.
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According to the statistics shown above, there has been a significance difference between Bondi Beach, Australia and also Malaysian waters in Kota Kinabalu and Tuaran where there is a clear difference between the number of victims. It is most probably that the reason why this thing happens is because there is a significant difference level of awareness and understanding of the what is actually Red Tide characteristic and its effects. There has been an occurrence of the Red Tide phenomenon in Malaysia in 2011 but the number of victims was not high. It can also happen because the Red Tide was not earlier detected by our Fishery Department Officials thus avoiding its effects is impossible.

However in Australia the Red Tide phenomenon is a normal occurrence where people are used to see the phenomena and they already have the basic knowledge of the matter and they have a more complete research and study on the matter conducted by the local universities. They also have engineered inventions that can detect the Red Tide concentration such as using satellite imaging to detect the red tide.

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CHAPTER 6

CONCLUSION

The phenomenon of red tied is a natural phenomenon that has affected a large impact of sea conditions and also to human life. If affects marine life, human health and also affect the countrys economic include fisheries, tourism, hotels and so on. Through it is natural pollution but these disturbing jolt life cycle processes.

This phenomenon has resulted in a polluted and poisoned aquatic life and death in which a life is a source of food for the people. Contaminated food source and this poisonous affect human health that can be detected by changes in the skin and the human body can lead to death. However, until now no specific antibodies or drugs that can prevent poisoning occurs. Temperature also plays a role in contributing to the phenomenon of red tied.

Although natural phenomenon cannot be controlled, but early exposure to this phenomenon and the community supervision of authorities such as early warning to the community to reduce the risk of harm from occurring. Programs have been established to try and reduce the harmful effects of the Red Tied and keep people educated about this phenomenon. The next step in coming closer to solving the mystery is more research. Whatever is causing red tied, and the answer behind stopping it is out there. We just to keep diving deeper for the truth.

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