Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 196

E-book is created by www.Shanyoma.

org

*sme,fausmfrrav;
jrefrmhaq;ynm

E-book is created by www.Shanyoma.org

*sme,fausmfrrav; pmay
144-taemf&xmvrf;? &efukef
zkH;-16181

E-book is created by www.Shanyoma.org

'kwd,ESdyfjcif;
tkyfa& 3500
1967

E-book is created by www.Shanyoma.org

jrefrmhaq;ynm

*sme,fausmfrrav;

E-book is created by www.Shanyoma.org

xkwfa0ol

*sme,fausmfrrav;pmay
(,m,D-0950)

ykHESdyfol

OD;odef;[ef(NrJ-0019)
oD[&wemykHESdyfwkduf
142-taemf&xmvrf;
&efukefta&SUykdif;/

tzkH;yef;csD

cifarmif&if

jzefYcsDa&;

*sme,fausmfrrav; pmay
144-taemf&xmvrf;
&efukefta&SUykdif;/

tkdifuavmif"mwfq&mBuD;-q&mvIdif

E-book is created by www.Shanyoma.org

E-book is created by www.Shanyoma.org

trSm
Armhaq;ynmudk udk,fwkdif 15-ESpfcefY qnf;yl; oif,l,if; trsm;\cefYtyf
awmif;qkdcsuft&? vlemrsm;tm; udk,fwkdifukoay;&onfhb0odkY a&muf&ygonf/ aq;
0g;"mwfpm wdwdususay;um Armh"mwfenf;jzifh ukoaysmufuif; csrf;om&olrsm; w
aeYxufwaeY rsm;jym;vmjcif;aMumifh? usrudk pma&;q&mtjyif aq;q&mtjzpfukdyg
wkdif;jynfu todtrSwfjyKvmMuonf/
]wDbDvm;}qkdonfhaq;aqmif;yg;udk &k&Sm;jynf armfpudk ,Ofaus;rItzGJYc&D;pOfrS
tjyefwGif aoG;aomufr*Zif;wGif a&;om;cJh&mrStp Armhaq;ynm tawGYtMuKHrsm;udk
aoG;aomuf? &Ir0r*Zif;rsm;wGif qufvufa&;om;cJhonf/
Armhaq;ynmESifhuko aysmufuif;olrsm;u ,if;aqmif;yg;rsm;udk udk;um;
vsuf Armhaq;ynmudk vufcH,kHMunfum vmukMu&aMumif; ajymMuonf/ usr a&;om;
aom aq;aqmif;yg;rsm;udk pmtkyf&kduf&ef wkdufwGef;ajymqkdMuonf/ pmtkyftjzpf &kduf
&ef wkdufwGef;ajymqkdolrsm;jym;vmjcif;aMumifh 1962 ckESpfu *sme,fausmfrrav;aq;
aqmif;yg;rsm;trnfjzifh pmtkyftjzpf xkwfa0cJhonf/
Armhaq;ynmudk ydkrkd,kHMunfukd;pm;vmolrsm; wkd;wufrsm;jym;vmjcif;rSm
aqmif;yg;rsm;aMumifhvnf; wpdwfwa'otm;jzifh jzpfvmonf/ vufawGYtjzpftysuf
ukxkH;ukenf;rsm;tay:wGif trSDjyK a&;om;cJhaom aq;aqmif;yg;rsm;udk a&;om;
wifjy&m ,ckpmtkyfwGif yg0ifaom aqmif;yg;rsm;teuf wDbDvm;? Armhaq;ynm?
t a&SUESifhtaemuf? Oa'gif;Zifa,mf Muifazmfvif;ouf paom aqmif;yg;rsm;rSm aoG;
aomufr*Zif;wGif a&;om;cJh usefaqmif;yg;rsm;rSm &Ir0r*Zif;wGif a&;om;xm;aom
aqmif;yg;rsm; jzpfonf/
,ck'kwd,tBudrf xyf &kdufESdyf&mwGif "mwfudk "mwfapmifhonf aqmif;yg;ESifh
usrf;avQmufvQifrqkH; aqmif;yg;udk jznfhpGuf&kdufESdyfum pmtkyftrnfudkvnf;]jrefrmh
aq;ynm}[kjyifvkdufygonf/
Armhaq;ynm&yfjzifh usr rukobl;aoma&m*g[l r&Sdoavmufjzpfav
onf/ rnfokdYrQ ukr&[kqdkMuaom qifajcaxmufBuD;rsm;yif usr ukoay; aysmuf
uif;um yuwdtwkdif; jzpfMu&onf/
wDbD? uifqm? aoG;wkd;? toJa&mif? qD;csKd? zsOf;a&m*g? avief;? pdwZa&m*g?
jrif;zk? vnfyif;BuD;? taMumao? c&koif;? uk|Elempaoma&m*gtaygif;wkdYudk rD;ruif?

tyfrxkd;? usifpufr&kduf? rcGJrpdyf&bJ Armh"mwfenf;jzifh aysmufuif;Muojzifh a&m*g


rsm; Armhaq;ynmjzihf rkcsaysmufuif;EkdifaMumif; usr vufawGYyif jzpfygonf/
pmtkyfudk zwf&Iolwkdif; Armhaq;ynmudk txifrao;bJ? avhvmqnf;yl;vkd
olrsm; aygrsm;Muygap&ef arQmfvifhrdygonf/

E-book is created by www.Shanyoma.org

27-11-67

*sme,fausmfrrav;

E-book is created by www.Shanyoma.org

rmwdum
wDbDvm;

...

...

...

...

...

...

trsKd;om;aq;ynm

...

...

...

...

...

...

16

Oa'gif;Muifazmf Zifa,mfvif;ouf . . .

...

...

...

...

30

oli,fem

...

...

...

...

...

...

42

ta&SUESifhtaemuf

...

...

...

...

...

...

59

0efBuD;csKyfOD;EkESifhaumufnif;aygif;. . .

...

...

...

...

70

a,musfm;azmifpD; rdef;rrD;ae

...

...

...

...

...

78

vrf;ESpfcG

...

...

...

...

...

...

97

"mwfBuD;av;yg;

...

...

...

...

...

...

117

b0[lonf

...

...

...

...

...

...

133

"mwfukd "mwfapmifhonf . . .

...

...

...

...

...

172

usrf;aygufvQif wvkH;?
usrf;avQmufvQif rqkH;

...

...

...

...

...

181

...

E-book is created by www.Shanyoma.org

Armhaq;ynmwGif a0'emukd aq;rwkdufbJ


rsufpdrSif;? em;rSif;? ESmacgif;rSif;?
txdtawGYrSif;? ukoEkdifaom
enf;vrf;rsm; &Sdavonf/

*sme,f a usmf r rav;

wDbDvm;
]]a':rrav; acgif;avQmf&eftwGuf atmufxyfudk tckqif;cJhyg tm;vHk;tqif
oifh&SdaeygNyD}}
armfpudkNrdKU EdkifiHjcm;,Ofaus;rIXme qufoG,fa&;toif;csKyfBuD;\{nfhcHtzGJYrS
rpwm '&efaemhu [dkw,fatmufxyfrS w,fvDzkef;jzifhtaMumif;Mum;aeonf/
xdkaeYtzdkY eHeufpm pm;NyD;onfESifh tjyifxGufp&m tpDtpOfrsm;&Sdae\/ acgif;
avQmfaevQif MuefYMumaebG,fjzpfrnfpdk;vSojzifh? usru usracgif;avQmfaevQiftcsdef
Mumaernfpdk;&drfygonf/ tcsdefr&Sdawmhyg ,aeYtbdkY acgif;ravQmfvdkao;aMumif; jyef
ajymvdu
k o
f nf/
]]em&D0uftcsdef&Sdygw,f? aemufrusygbl;? acgif;avQmf&efajymxm;NyD;ygNyD
tckqif;cJhyg}}
eHeufpm pm;NyD;vQifNyD;csif; tjyifxGufMu&ef &SdonftwGuf usrwdkYtqifoifh
0wfvJxm;NyD;ukefrS acgif;avQmf&ef 0efav;aeonf/ odkYaomf pDpOfxm;NyD;ygNyD[k {nfh0wf
auspGm zdwaf c:aejcif;udk tm;em wuov
kd af usmh&iS ;f ESiEhf pS af ,muf atmufoq
Ykd if;oGm;
Muonf/
armfpudNk rdKUrS usrwdw
Yk nf;cdak eaom[dw
k ,frmS ]trsdK;om;[dw
k ,fBuD;} jzpfonf/
[dw
k ,fatmufq;kH xyf qHyifny t
f cef;? qHyiftvSjyifonft
h cef;? vufov
J ;DS jzwf aq;
qdk;ay;onfhtcef;rsm; &Sdonf/
eHeufapmao; tcef;xJwGif vl&Sif;aeonf/ 0if0ifcsif; a,musfm;rsm; qHyif
nyftcef;rsm; qHyifnyfonfhae&m aemufzuftcef; rdef;rrsm;twGuf acgif;avQmf&ef
qHyiftvSjyif aumufwGefY&ef "gwfcGufu&d,mwefqmrsm; xm;&Sdonf/
usrwdkYtcef;xJodkY 0ifoGm;Muaomtcg t0wftjzL abmif;bDteuf 0wfxm;
onf&h &k mS ;tzd;k BuD;wpfa,mufu c&D;BudKjyKum rSecf akH &SU&Sd ukvm;xdik rf sm;wGif xdik af ponf/
8syefNynf&dS acgif;tvSjyKjyif&m qdik cf ef;twdik ;f yif aumufonfw
h eG o
Yf nfu
h &d,m
wefqmyvmrsm; pHkpHkvifvif awGY&onf/ a&pdkpdkqHyifudk tvdk&Sdovdk yHkaeyHkxm; jyKjyifzef
wD;um tom;usatmif "gwfcGufatmuf acgif;pGyfxm;&ef "gwfcGufBuD;rsm;rSm wpfzuf
cef;wGif&Sdonf/
1

E-book is created by www.shanyoma.org

E-book is created by www.shanyoma.org

jref r mh a q;ynm

qdkAD,uftrsdK;orD;rsm;rSm tjcm;EdkifiHrS trsdk;orD;rsm;uJhodkYyif tvSjyKjyifum


qHyifrsm; aumufwGefYMuvsuf vufoJeD EIwfcrf;eD qdk;Muonf/ rdef;rwdkYobm0twdkif;
wifhw,fvSyatmif jyifqif&m ta&miftqif; tqef;tjym; a&G;cs,fpHkrufolrsm;jzpf
Muonf/
&S&mS ;tzd;k BuD;u usrukvm;xdik af emufrS &yfvsuf acgif;aemufwiG f xH;k xm;aom
qHxkH;udk ajzcsaeaomtcg tdkifpDtufpf OD;ausmfrif;\oHuefYvefYum aemufaz;aygufrS
[laom aqmif;yg;xJwGif armfpudk[dkw,f a,musfm;acgif;udk qHyifnyfay;aom rdef;r
qHyifnyform;taMumif; a&;xm;yHkudk oGm;owd&rdonf/
rdef;rtvSoabmudk a,musfm;u jyKjyifay;onfrSmvnf; pdwf0ifpm;zG,f&mjzpf
onf/ qHyifajzcsNyD;aemuf &k&Sm;bmomjzifh NyHK;csdKpGm ajymav\/ bmawGajymaerSef;
em;rvnf usracgif;udk yGwfjyum acgif;avQmfay;&ef trlt,mjzifh em;vnfatmif
vkyfjyonf/
t0wfjzLudk udk,fay:wGif &kHxm;onf/ acgif;udk ukvm;xdkifaemufodkYvSefcdkif;NyD;
qHyifrsm;udk ZvHkESifhcHum a&ydkufvHk;uav;udk qGJ,l a&jzef;csvdkufonf/
qyfjymESihf wacgif;vH;k tESt
YH pyfyw
G v
f suf qyfjyma&rsm;udk ukepf ifatmif tcsdef
MumMum a&jzef; avQmfnpfaeavonf/ ausmh&Sif;u acgif;ravQmf ab;rSxdkifum Munfh
aeonf/
a&rsm;udk npfvdkufNyD;aemuf oHbD;BuJBuD;jzifh qHyifa&SUrS cGJ NzD;vdkufNyD; qHyif
aumuf&ef aumfa&yvif;udk cHkay:rS vSrf;,lvdkufonf/
usru qHyif raumufvakd Mumif; ykvif;xJrt
S a&rsm; rqGw&f ef awmif;yefvu
kd f
onf/
tcsdefMumaevQif tm;vHk;u apmifhaernfudk pdk;ojzifh jrefjrefudpNyD;atmif olY
vufxJrSbD;udk awmif;,lum usrbmom qHyifrsm;udk &Sif;onf/
olvyk af y;rnfqo
kd nft
h rlt,mjzifh bD;udk jyef,o
l mG ;um ajz;ajz;aq;aq; &Si;f
NzD;aeavonf/ usrrSm wxifx
h ifEh iS hf em&Duo
kd m cPcPMunfrh o
d nf/ qHyif&iS ;f NyD; qHyif
nyfESifh a&SUu qHyifrsm;udk ukyfay;um acgif;udk ydkufBuD;tkyfywfpD;vdkufonf/
"gwfcGufatmufodkY xdkifcdkif;awmhrnfudk od tcsdefuvnf; r&Sdojzifh rxdkifEdkif
awmhaMumif;? tjyifomG ;&ef&adS Mumif; em&Dujkd y ajc[efvuf[efvnf; jyum acgif;ay:u
ydkufBuD;udk jyefajzvdkufonf/
usrvkyfyHkudk tHhMoum rsufvHk;rsufqefjyL; ydkufrajz&ef wm;jrpfavonf/
olYpum;udk em;rvnfaomfvnf; trlt,mrSm qHyifrajcmufbJ roGm;&ef wm;jrpf,if;
2

acgif;uydkufudk jyefcsnfay;jyefonf/ xdkYaemuf "mwfcGufatmufwGif txdkifcdkif;onf/


"mwfcGufatmufwGif oGm;xdkif&wm MuawmhrSmbJ wwGwfwGwfnnf;,if; rNidrf
roufjzpfaeawmhonf/
ud,
k t
hf wGuf taESmuft,Surf jzpfatmif 'gudyk if txl;8&kpu
kd af e&ojzifh qHyif
ajcmufatmif "mwfcu
G af tmuf em&D0ufcefx
Y ikd &f rnfukd pdwx
f J roufromxifah eonf/
em&Dukd wMunfx
h MJ unf,
h if; tcsdeu
f yfae b,fE,
S &f &dS [
dS k "mwfcu
G Ef iS ahf cgif;cGmum xGuf
vmrdonf/
qHyifrajcmufao;bJ "gwfcGufatmufrS x&rvm;[k tzdk;BuD;EIwfrS rausreyf
wwGww
f w
G f ajymusef&pfc
hJ ]tzd;k BuD;uawmh pdwq
f ;kd rSmbJ}[k ausmh&iS ;f u ajymavonf/
avSum;udk tajy;wuf tcef;xJwGif a&pdkqHyifrsm;udk okwfoD;okwfjym xHk;um xrif;
pm;cef;xJodkY jyefajy;qif;vmMuonfhtcg tm;vHk;yif pm;NyD;cgeD;aeMuayNyD/
tcsderf &DS u
Hk av;yif &So
d nf? uAsmu&m pm;NyD;NyD;csif;tjyifox
Ykd u
G &f ef a[mfw,f
atmufxyf pk&kH;Mu&onf/
jyifbuf&Sdjraeaom tat;"mwfBuD;udk arhaeatmif [dkw,fwpfckvHk; tylaiGY
ay;xm; [dkw,fwpfckvHk; tat;'Pfudk jyif;jyif;xefxef rcHpm;&ay/
tjyifxGuf&ef [dkw,frSefwHcg;udk vufESifhwGef;zGifhvdkufonfESifhwNydKifeuf wcJ
eufv;kH 0if &ku
d cf wfonft
h at;"mwfrmS &uf&ufpufpuf at;jr rsufEmS pyfum em;awG
usifoGm;onf/ wudk,fvHk;um; a&pdkaeaomacgif;rSm pl;pdrfhoGm;um wacgif;vHk; usif
wufoGm;onf/ OD;aESmufcdkufatmif rcsnfhrqefY usdef;emoGm;avonf/
qHyifpdkpdkay: tkyfcsnfxm;aom ydk;yk0guav;um; a&xd pdk&GJaeojzifh tat;
"mwfBuD;udk rumuG,Ef ikd af y/ [dw
k ,ftjyifbuf yvufazgif;udk ausmfjzwfajy;vmpOf wpf
acgif;vHk;udk ql;tyfwdkYjzifh xdk;azgufqGcH&onfhtwdkif; emusifjyif;jypGm tcH&qdk;vSonf/
csufjcif;yif um;xJ okwfrEdkif odrf;rEdkifavmufatmif ESmacgif;rS ESma&rsm;
'va[m ,dkpD;usvmawmhonf/
txyfxyf 0wfxm;onfh udk,fwGif;u aEG;aevsuf acgif;BuD;u at;pufaeNyD;
vQif a&cJwHk;BuD;udk acgif;ay: &Gufwifxm;&onfhtvm; wpdrfhpdrfh at;jrxkHusifukduf
cJvmonf/ xdak eYu vdu
k v
f jH yoaom ae&mrsm;udk atmift
h nf; [efrysuf NyD;qH;k atmif
Munfh&Iem;axmifae&onf/ tat;"mwf vGefuJ vTrf;rkd; tyl"mwfikwfum armfpudkwGif
xdktjzpfESifh toH0ifoGm;awmhonf/
usrpum;ajymvQif toHrxGuf? wzufom;Mum;atmif tm;,lajymzefrsm;
vQif armyef;vmonf/ toHxu
G af tmif tjyifrxGub
f J [dw
k ,fxJ 1-&uf? 2-&uf quf
3

E-book is created by www.shanyoma.org

*sme,f a usmf r rav;

E-book is created by www.shanyoma.org

jref r mh a q;ynm

cdkatmif;aevdkufvQif ESmap;aysmufum toHxGufvmrSm rkcsaomfvnf; aeYpOfyif


tat;"mwfESifh xdawGYae&onf/
]]a':rrav; toHrxGuyf gvm;}}[kajymMuvQif tat;vGeo
f mG ;vdyYk g[kom ajym
vdkuf&onf/
usr toH0ifae ,Ofaus;rI{nfhcHtzGJYrS pum;jyeftrsdK;orD; rprD&mu q&m
0efac:&rvm;[k wzGzGar;aeonf/
q&m0efac:&ef rvdak Mumif;? usrwGif Armaq;rsm;ygvmaMumif;? acgif;avQmf
jzpf&aMumif; rajymcsif tat;rd toH0ifoGm;jcif;rQomjzpfaMumif; ajymjyvdkuf&
onf/
q&m0efac:rSm vufrcHaom usrtjzpfum; usrom odonf/ q&m0efac:&ef
rvdyk g[kajymaeMuonfMh um;xJuyif tzGw
YJ iG f vdu
k yf gvmaomtcsdKUolrsm;u q&m0efac:
rnftwif;vkyfMuojzifh rac:&ef Armaq;&SdaMumif;udk ZGwfawmif;yef&onf/ wGif
q&m0ef rac:vdrk aI Mumifh bma&m8grsm;&S
d q&m0efrjy0Ho
h enf;[kxifa,mifxifrmS ;jzpf
Muukefonf/

2
usrum; t*Fvdyfaq;0g;udk vHk;0pGefYvTwfvdkufNyD;aom olwa,mufjzpfay\/
t*Fvdyfaq;0g;? EdkfifiHjcm;aq;0g;rsm;ESifhuif;&Sif;cJhonfrSm 7 ESpfcefY &Sdayawmhrnf/
usrcifyeG ;f qH;k oGm;onft
h cg usrwGif jyemjzpfay:vmonf/ OD;cspfarmifae
raumif; jzpfjzpfcsif; xifay:ausmfMum;ayhqakd om q&m0efBuD;rsm;udk wOD;NyD;wOD; yifu
h k
ocJ&h \/ q&m0efwOD;u vlemudk 0ufouf[k tempGu
J m 0ufoufaq; ay;onf/ xdq
k &m
0efESifhroufom aemufwOD; yifhjyef&m ]]0ufouf}}r[kwf ]]ausmuf}}[k tempGJum
ausmufaq;awG ay;jyefonf/ xdkq&m0efvuftwGif; a&m8goJvm aemufwOD; yifh&
jyef&m ausmuf? 0ufouf r[kwfbl;/ OD;aESmufa&m8g? aMum&kd;azgufMunfh&r,f aq;&kHydkY
[k qH;k jzwfonf/ aq;&ko
H yYkd
Ykd aMum&k;d azgufMunfNh yD;aemufwiG f toufaysmufomG ;onf/
pud,
k yf o
l nf&h ufrS toufaysmufomG ;onf&h uftxd q,fEh pS &f ufomvQif &S\
d /
rsufaphatmufwiG f jrefjrefqefqef toufaysmufomG ;yHu
k kd ESajrm rqH;k ojzifh rausreyf
jzpf&mup jyemw&yf ay:vmjcif; jzpfonf/
4

xdjk yemum; q&m0efo;kH OD;\oH;k rsKd;aom a0'empGrJ u


I v
JG yJG u
kH kd bmaMumifu
h v
JG JG
Muoenf;[k qifjcifpOf;pm;rd&mrS aemufqHk;wGif wuJhta&;qdkvQif t8Fvdyfaq;ynm
[m pdwfrcs&bl;vdkY oHo,&Sdvmonf/ xdkoHo,um; omrnoHo, r[kwfbJ pOf;pm;
wdkif; jyif;xefvmaom oHo,jzpfvmcJhonf/
tu,fom vlem&Siw
f \
Ykd xH;k pHtwdik ;f ]q&m0efBuD;rsm;ESihf ukwmbJ. . . olaY &m8g
BuD; ukr&om toufaysmuf&wm}[kauseyfaompdwf&Sdygu t8Fvdyfaq;ynmudk oH
o,jzpfrnfrxif/ ,cktcsdew
f ikd t
f xd wckcjk zpfvQift8Fvyd af q;0g;rS0D jJ cif;rSwyg; tjcm;
b,faq;rsdK;rSaomufrnfpm;rnf ,HkMunfEdkifrnf r[kwfonfhtjzpfESifh t*Fvdyfaq;0g;
omvQif rsufpdatmufwGif aysmufaomf&Sd raysmufaomf&Sd? aoaomf&Sd raoaomf&Sd? vl
wumwdv
Yk u
kd ef musifo
h ;kH aeMuaomvrf;twdik ;f t8Fvyd af q;ynmudk touftyf avm
uBuD;wGif vlvkyfaernfonfjzpfavonf/
ESajrmjcif;aMumifh jzpfay:&aom rauseyfpw
d u
f pwifum oHo,&Sv
d maponf/
]]jrefvdkufwm bma&m8gESifh qHk;wmvJ}}[k romowif;ar;olrsm;u ar;MuvQif
rom&Sifu tajz wdwfdusus ray;wwf/
]]bma&m8gESiq
hf ;kH rSe;f usr rodygbl;? q&m0efwOD;u ausmuf? wOD;u 0ufouf?
wOD;u OD;aESmufa&m8gvdkYajymMuwmbJ}}[kajym&aom usr\tajzudku usrtm; aus
eyfp&mr&Sad tmif jzpfcahJ y\/ ausmuf? 0ufoufjzpf,if t8Fvyd af q;u Edik w
f mr[kwb
f ;l /
Armaq;om Edik w
f m Armom ukEikd w
f m[k romwGiaf jymoGm;Muaompum;rsm;rSm em;xJwiG f
pGJusefaeonf/
xdt
k cg Armhaq;ynmonf wu,frsm; xufjrufovm;[k Armaq;ynmudk tm
&kHa&mufoGm;um tcsdef&vQif aq;usrf;rsm;udk pkaqmif;&SmazGzwf&Ivsuf Armaq;q&m
rsm;odkY wjznf;jznf; csOf;uyfMunfhrdonf/
awGYqHk&aom Armq&mrsm;um; aq;usrf;uav;wtkyfESpftkyf zwfum vuf
wnfhprf; qdkif;bkwfcsdwfNyD; q&mvkyfaeMuaom aq;q&mrsm;ESifhom awGY&ojzifh xdk
q&mwdkYtm; t8Fvdyfq&m0efwdkYxufyif ykd pdwfysufoGm;onf/
usr\jyemtcuftcJum; t8Fvdyfaq;0g;vnf; oHo,&Sd\/ Armhaq;0g;
vnf; r,HMk unf? aomifrwif a&rus [drk [kwf 'Dr[kwjf zpfum rqH;k jzwfwwfaom tcuf
tcJESifh &ifqdkifae&onf/
xdt
k wGi;f ESppf OfEpS w
f ikd ;f rk;d wGi;f wGif jzpfaeus 0rf;udu
k af &m8g a0'emjzpfvm\/
0rf;udu
k v
f Qif q&m0efac:um ]t,frw
d if}aq;rsm;xd;k vdu
k v
f Qif aysmufomG ;onf/ aysmuf
oGm;onfqdkonfrSm wcgwnf; pdwfcsvufcs aysmufoGm;aom taysmufrsdK; r[kwf? a&SU
5

E-book is created by www.shanyoma.org

*sme,f a usmf r rav;

E-book is created by www.shanyoma.org

jref r mh a q;ynm

rd;k wGi;f us jzpfustH;k rSmbJ[k taotcsm odae\/ 5 ESpw


f ikd jf zpfaeaom a0'em tawGt
Y
MuHKaMumifh &ifhaeaomtodrsdK; &Sdaeonf/
a0'emjyif;vm q&m0efac:um xdk;aeusaq; xdk;vdkufvQif oufomaysmuf
uif;rnfudk odyg\/ t8Fvdyfaq;udk oHo,jzpfaecdkuf xdktaysmufrsdK;jzifh raysmufcsif
awmh/ b,fawmhrjS yefrjzpfonft
h aysmufrsdK;udo
k m aysmufcsifaomaMumifh q&m0efrac:
bJ b,fE,
YS v
f yk &f rvJ[k pOf;pm;aerd,if; bmaq;rSraomufbJ ayawcHaeojzifh vlvnf;
ajrmhvm\/aemufq;kH wGif aocsifaoayap Armhaq;ynmudk touftyfjyKNyD; pl;prf;rnf
[k pdwfydkif;jzwfvdkufrdonf/
jyif;jyvGef;aom vdktifqEESifh tm;xkwfpl;prf; &SmazGvGef;rIaMumifhjzifhyif a&S;
Armorm;awmfBuD;wOD;ESifh awGYMuHK&um uko&mrS a0'em csufjcif;oufomoGm;um
tjrpfyg aysmufuif;oGm;awmhonf/
q&mBuD;\ukyu
kH ek nf;? csufjcif; aysmufyakH ysmufenf;udk rsufajcrjywfp;l prf;\/
qef;Mu,fvSaom ukoenf;udk bmaMumifh onfenf;ESifhaysmuf&ovJ[k q&mBuD;xH r
&ru Zpfjrpfvdkufum rtm;rae rayghravsmh tm;xkwf avhvm,if; uG,fjrKyfaeaom
a&S;ArmtrsdK;om;aq;ynm\xufjrufjcif;&SdyHkudk &dyfrdvmawmhonf/
oHk;ESpfcefY qnf;yl;avhvmonfESifhArmhaq;ynmudk tenf;i,f acgufrdvmum
oabmaygufvmonf/ 8sme,fausmf? [pfwdkifowif;pm t,f'DwmOD;apmOD; yvdyfa&m
8gjzpf q&m0efrac:ap&bJ twif;0ifum udk,fwdkifvufawGYprf;oyfukMunhf&m aysmuf
uif;oGm;onf/ Armaq;ukenf;jzifh a&m*gtrsKd;rsKd;udk q&mBuD;\cGifhjyKcsuft& vuf
awGpY rf;oyfuMk unfah vonf/ a,musfm;-rde;f r-cav;-vlBuD; vufwavma&m8g? emwm
&Snaf &m8gBuD; pojzifh a&m8gtrsdK;rsdK; taxGaxGyifru tElt0J? temBuD; temuav;
jrif;bkponfhtemrsm;udkvn;f prf;oyfuko&m aysmufuif;csrf;omyHkrsm;rSm pdwf0ifpm;
zG,fjzpfcJhonf/
8sme,fwzuf owif;pmwzuf tvkyrf sm;vsufEiS hf wzufwiG f eD;pyf&m cifrif&m
vlrrmrsm;udk ukodkvfjzpf vufawGYprf;oyf vdkufukoay;avonf/ aq;ynmudk vdkuf
pm;pOfu tcsdefrtm;vyfvGef;ojzifh owif;pmvkyfief;NyD;csdfef n-1 csuf 2-csufrS ynm
&SmrSD;cGifh & n-2 csufrS aemufwaeYrkd;vif;txd rtdyfraebJ avhvmcJh&\/ usrtzdkY
wGif wnvH;k rvS&J rtdy&f vnf; aeEdik \
f / 1-&uf 2-&uf 3-&uf qufwu
kd rf ;kd vif;vnf;
aeEdkif\/ wnvHk; rtdyf aevnfaeYcif; cPrQ vSJtdyfonfr&Sd? owif;pmwdkuf zsuf
ypfMupOfu owif;pmxGu&f ef q,fih g;&ufcefY yHEk ykd w
f u
kd o
f ;kH wdu
k w
f iG f nvH;k ayguf oGm;&du
k f
ESdyfae\/ rdk;vif; owif;pmrsm; e,fydkYNyD;vQif waeYvHk; xdkiftvkyfvkyfaeonf/
6

xdu
k o
hJ Ykd ayayawaw xrif;rSe;f [if;rSe;f rod tdyyf sufcv
H eG ;f aomaMumifh waeY
xufwaeY ydefcsHK;vmonf/ &d,mykxfudk qefYusifvGef; usef;rma&;udk odvsufESifh 8&k
pdu
k cf iG rhf &? aemufq;kH wGif t&k;d ay: ta&uyfum vJawmhrnf odawmhrS owif;pmwdu
k u
f kd
ydwu
f m vGw&f mvGwaf Mumif; ta0;odo
Yk mG ;ae\/ xdt
k cgwGif aq;ynmudk ususee vdu
k f
pm;Edkif&ef tcgtcGifh MuKH&onf/ opfyifrsm;udk a&S;OD;pGm prf;oyfpdkufMunfh\? &Sifaom
opfyifudk aoatmif? aoawmhrnf&Sdaom opfyifudk &Sifatmif? toD;eJaomopfyifudk
toD; zGNHY zdK;atmif ponfjzifh opfyifrsm;udk yxr prf;oyf&\/ xdak emufrS wd&pmefrsm;udk
prf;oyfMunfh&jyefonf/ trsdK;om;aq;ynm "mwkaA'oabm? &lyaA'oabmrsm;
tMuHK;0if pdwf0ifpm;vmonf/ t&kd;ay:ta&uyfaeaom udk,fcEmudk &kyfudkvnf;
enf;rSefvrf;us ydkifydkifEdkifEdkif prf;oyfjyKjyifMunfhavawmhonf/

3
ta0;wGif av;ig;vjzifh 0NzdK;pdkajyoGm;atmif aq;ynmjzifh prf;oyfjyKjyifcJh
onft
h jzpfukd usrESiehf ;D pyfonfo
h rl sm;omvQif odMuonf/ awmf&kH &if;eD;&kaH vmufjzifh Arm
aq;ynmudk usrvdu
k pf m;aerSe;f rodEikd ?f t8Fvyd af q;rsm;udk pGev
Yf w
T x
f m;rSe;f rodEikd ?f ol
vdkigvdk acwftrsdK;orD; t*Fvdyfaq; ,HkMunfvufcHoHk;pGJol[kxifrSwfMuayrnf/
tar arG;uwnf;uvnf; t8Fvdyfaq;omvQif aq;rSwfcJhyg\/ Armhaq;udk
r,HMk unf? vsufqm;rsm; b,fawmhrS rvsuf? Armh0rf;EIwaf q; vQmay:rwif? acgif;udu
k f
vQif tufpfy&dk aomufum 0rf;csKyfvQif z&I;aqmhom oHk;cJh\/ tm;aq;? aoG;wdk;aq;
tpmaMuaq;ponfh t8Fvdyfaq;ykvif;trsdK;rsdK;tzHkzHkudk 0,f,loHk;pGJvGef; ydkufqHkt
ukeftus rsm;cJh\/ vlvnf; cPcP csLjcm\/ aemufaemufu usrtdrfwGif t8Fvdyf
aq;trsdK;pHk xm;cJo
h nf/ xdMk um;xJrS wckcjk zpfvQif q&m0efac:um aq;omxd;k \/ Arm
aq;qdkvQif txifao;vGef; b,faq;rS taqmifrxm; toHk;rjyKaecJhayonf/
Armhaq;ynmum; eufeJus,f0ef;aom ynmpcef;jzpfay\/ a&S;a&S; Armhvlxk
tqufquf rif;tqufquf xGe;f um;cJah vNyD;umrS t8Fvyd pf ;kd rd;k aomacwf trsdK;om;
rI trsdK;om;ynm&yfrsm; wdrfaumoGm;onfhtxJwGif tzdk;wefaomaq;ynm&yfBuD;
vnf; yg0ifoGm;&jcif; jzpfayonf/
7

E-book is created by www.shanyoma.org

*sme,f a usmf r rav;

E-book is created by www.shanyoma.org

jref r mh a q;ynm

usravhvmqnf;yl;aom Armhaq;ynmrSm ,ckacwf vltrsm; vufcHEdkif&ef


cJ,Of;ao;onf/ vltrsm; vufcHEdkiftmif acwfrSDatmif vkyfcsifaompdwfrsm; jyif;jyvS
onf/ t8Fvdyfaq;ynmuJhodkY ajymifajymifvufvuf ypnf;ud&d,mwHqmyvmawGjzifh
om;om;em;em;em; acwfrDSrDS pHepfwus rGrf;rHEdkifygu vltaygif; txifBuD; vufcHum
jrefjref tqifhtwef; wdk;jrifhoGm;rnf[kxifjrifoabm&&Sdonf/
Armhaq;ynmwGif t8Fvyd af q;ynmvdk tltwufayguf? toJwjcrf;f BuD;? t
qkyfa&0ifponfh ac:ta0:qef;qef;jym;jym;r&Sdacs/ vlwdkYwGif jzpforQa0'emudk wnfh
rwnfh ? &k;d &d;k ynwfoabmjzifh ukoaomaMumifh acwfumvtvkt
d m;jzifh qefu
Y sifae\/
odkYaomf q&m0efBuD;rsm; vufavQmh aovkaocif a0'emrsm;udk enf;jzifh
ukoay;cJh ,ckwdkif touf&Sifvsuf&Sdom om"ursm; ajrmufrsm;pGm&Sdonf/

4
usraeaom abmufaxmftrd Ef iS hf rsufEmS csif;qdik w
f u
kd w
f iG f pwD;bk&m;om;ukrP
D
qefbufXmerS udk,fpm;vS,fBuD;OD;vSarmifaeonf/ xdkyk8dKvfrSm usef;rmonf r&Sd? tNrJ
wrf; arm[dkufum toHysufvsuf tom;t&nf jymajcmuf ydefcsKH;aeav\/ wcsdKUu
wDbD[kajymMu\/ ol\a&m8gudk pwD;ukrPDrS aq;q&m0efBuD;rsm;ESifhuko aeav
onf/ t8Fvdyfaq;udk rjywfrSD0Jae&onf/ aq;rjywf xdk;ae&\/ a&m8g roufom
aemufq;kH tvkyw
f u
kd f roGm;Edik af wmhbJ tdy&f mxJwiG f vJvsuf q&m0efBuD;ESihf Muyfrwfuk
oaeonf/
OD;vSarmifxHodkY owif;ar;a&mufoGm;aomtcg a&m8gtajctaerSm touf
&SifzdkY rjrif arwmxm;um Armhaq;ynmudk t&dyftaiGY ajymjycJhonf/
OD;vSarmiftzdkYum; t8Fvdyfaq;0g; rjywfrSD0Jvmoljzpf&kHru txufwef;pm;
t8Fvyd af cwfynmwwfwOD; jzpfonft
h wdik ;f Armhaq;0g;udk em;rSavoHrMum;csifa,mif
aqmift,HkMunfuif;rJholwpfOD;jzpfonf/ usrvdk trsdK;orD;wOD;u Armhaq;ynmwef
bd;k ajyma[mjyjcif;yif txiftjrifao;p&m jzpfaumif;jzpfaevdrrhf ,f/ olt
Y m; owday;
onft
h aerSv
JG uko&ef rwdu
k w
f eG ;f acs/ t8Fvyd af q;uk,if; roufombJEiS hf ZGww
f ;dk uk
um taocH&aomolrsm;uJhodkY olvnf; oufomonf roufomonf rpOf;pm;bJ aemuf
8

rqkwfrnfholrSef; tpif;od wdkufwGef;vdkpdwf r&Sdjcif;jzpfonf/


waeYwufwaeY a&m8goJvmonf/ olYtdrfxJodkY0ifoGm;aomq&m0efBuD;\um;
oGm;um;jyef tacgufa&csifh a&m8gawmh oJaeNyD b,fawmhao&SmrvJ[k em;pGifhaerd
onf/
xdktwGif; wnwGif usrtm; [pfac: EId;aeaom toHwoHudk tdyf&mxJrSMum;
rdonf/ tdyf&mxum wHcg;ajy;zGifhvdkufonfhtcg zdeyfyif rpD;vmEdkifbJ armBuD; yef;BuD;
ajy;vmaom OD;vSarmif\ZeD; cifcifpkjzpfae\/ OD;vSarmif toufxGufawmhrnfjzpf
u,fygtHk;[k idkBuD;csufr vmac:jcif;jzpfonf/
tcsdefrSm 10 em&DcefY&Sdrnf/ vrf;ay:wGif arSmifrJ\/ arSmifrdkufxJwGif usrwdkYESpf
a,mufajy;oGm;Muonf/ vlrrm\t8Fg&kyfum; em&Dydkif;rQomcHawmhrnfhfvuPm jyae
acsNyD? tarmazgufum usdKUxdk;vsuf rsufjzLvefum MuyfaeavNyD/
tem;rScifcifp\
k rsufEmS udk vSMYJ unfv
h u
kd u
f m touft&G,if ,fi,fEiS hf usrvdyk if
rkqdk;r jzpfawmhrSmyguvm;[k udk,fcsif;pmum &ifav;oGm;rdonf/
]]q&m0efryifb
h ;l vm;}}[kusru ar;vdu
k \
f / ]]ryifah wmhygbl;rr&,f ukaewm
MumvSNyDr[kwfvm; reufubJ aq;xdk;oGm;ao;wmbJ? tckaeoGm;yifhvJ taMumif;xl;
awmhrSm r[kwfbl;? r&bl;qdkNyD; <uoGm;rSmbJ? 'gaMumifh rrudk owd&NyD; rr wwfEdkifvdk
wwfEdkifjim; udkudkYuHbJ qdkNyD; ajy;vmwmbJ wwfEdkif&if u,fq,fyg rr&,f. . .}}
oem;pbG,f&SdKufoHjzifh rsuf&nftoG,foG,fus,if; ajymaeonf/ usrvnf;
oufjyif;csvsuf Muyfarmaeaom vlrrmudk awG Munfhaerdonf/
aq;&ku
H r&bl; q&m0efu r&bl;qdrk S a&m8guRrf;rSaocgeD;rS ArmhbuforYkd sufpd
v,fum &vdk&jim; aemufqHk;uHprf; oabmxm;wwfyHkudk cH&bl;aygif; rsm;vSayNyD/
q&m0efoGm;yifhu olwGufonfh twdkif;r&awmhbl;om ajymrnfhtajctaersdK;
a&mufae usrwdkYyif ]vufcH}ukoay;&ef raumif;awmhacs/
]]a&m8guRrf;aeNyD? aowm &Sifwmuawmh cifcifpkajymovdk OD;vSarmifuHbJ?
oufomatmifawmh BudK;pm;ygr,f}}
vlrrmudk ]vufc}H vdu
k af omfvnf; usrwGif aq;0g;r&S?d aq;aqmifxm;olr[kwf
OD;vSarmifESifhwnfhonfh "mwfypnf;wpfckudk rD;zdkxJwGif 0if&Sm&avonf/
usrtvdk&Sdaom ypnf;um; tqifoifhyif tkd;cGufwdkufcRwfonfhonfhae&m a&
pifwGif oGm;awGYavonf/
tu,fom OD;vSarmiftm; olYtoufrSm tdk;cGufwdkuf&ef rD;zdkxJu a&pifwGif
ypfxm;cJhaom tkef;cGHajcmufzwfay:wGif wnf&SdcJhaMumif;ajymjycJhvQif [uf[ufyufyuf
9

E-book is created by www.shanyoma.org

*sme,f a usmf r rav;

E-book is created by www.shanyoma.org

jref r mh a q;ynm

&,farmayvdrfhrnf/ ,ckaomfum; owdr&Sd? armMuyfum toufxGufcgeD;ae usrvkyf


orQ rjiif;qefEdkif&SmbJ cH&ayawmhrnf/
pavmif;zH;k wGif rD;cJrsm;xnfu
h m tke;f cGrH S tke;f zwfukd ETmcs xGuv
f maomtcd;k
awGudk ol\ESmacgif;a&mufatmif teHYay;vdkufonf/
]]jzpfyghrvm;[J?h aocgeD;vlemudk 'DtanmfeBYH uD; wdu
k af e,if jrefjreftoufxu
G f
rSmayghawmf}}
cifcifpktm; wD;wdk;ajymaeaom cifcifpk\rdciftoHudk rIdif;wdkufae,if; Mum;
vdkuf&onf/ vlrrm ta&;BuD; toufvkaecdkuf olwdkYauseyfatmif &Sif;raeEdkifay/
teHaY Mumifh a0'em&onf/ teYaH Mumifh a0'emcsrf;omEdik o
f nf/ teHu
Y kd &I&u
kdI jf cif;
um; aq;xdk;ovdkyif taMumxJodkYtjrefqHk;a&mufoGm;Edkifonf/ rwnfhonfhteHYwckudk
&IL&SKd uf&rnfqv
kd Qif csufjcif; Zufav;acgif;udu
k v
f mEdik o
f nf/ teYrH mS tjrefq;kH xda&muf
Edkifaom owdwefcdk;&Sd\/
aq;&kHwGif arhaq;teHYudk &SL&SdKuf&Hkjzifh csufjcif;arh taovdkjzpfoGm;Edkifonfh
owdpGrf;&SdouJhodkY vlrrmESifhwnfhonfhteHYwck pGrf;pGrf;xufxufa&G;ay;vdkufEdkifu
vufeufavmuf tjrefqkH;xda&mufEkdaomvufeuf r&Sdacs/
omreftm;jzifh pavmif;zHk;ESifhteHYqdk;qdk;om jrifMuodMu\/ tm&kHig;yg;teuf
teHY\tmedoifoabmudk odcsifrSodayrnf/
a0'em&jcif;taMumif;rsm;rSm tm&kHig;yg;aMumifhjzpfonfvnf; &Sd\/ rsufpdrS?
em;rS? ESmacgif;rS? vQmrS? txdtawGYrS ponfjzifh a0'em&Edkifonf/ Oyrm-rsufpdrS aoG;
xGufoH,dkjrifvQif rsufpdtm&kHaMumifh ESvHk;om;xdcdkufatmif a0'em&Edkif\/ xdkYtwl
em;u Mum;onft
h oHEiS Ehf mS acgif;rS &SLonft
h eHEY iS hf vQmrSpm;onft
h &omESihf txdtawGY
ESifh tm&kHig;yg;wGif rwnfhonfh"mwfoabmaMumifh a0'em &Ekdifonf/ tm&kHig;yg;wGif
rwnfhonfh"mwfoabmaMumifh a0'em&Edkifovdk wnfhonfh"mwfjzifh tm&kHig;yg;rSae
a0'em oufomcsrf;omatmif ukpGrf;Edkif\/
a0'emudk aq;rwdkufbJ rsufpdrSaeif; ukoEdkifaomenf;rsm;&Sdavonf/ uk
o&mwGif vlrrmESifhwnfhonfh"mwfudk od&efom tc&mjzpfay\/ xdkYaMumifh "mwfrod,if
cufw,f-"mwfod,if tvG,fuav;qdkaom a&S;pum;&SdcJh\/ a0'emtwGuf wnfhonfh
"mwfodbdkY&efom t"dujzpfayonf/
cifcifprk mS q&m0efyif
h xl;rSmvm;[laom todPfjzifh usr bmvkyv
f yk rf uefY
uGufay/ ab;em;wGif w&IHU&IHUxdkifidkvsuf ajcrudkifrd vufrudkifrd jzpfaeonf/
usrrSm vlrrmtem;rSrcGm tvpfray;? t&dyftuJcwfum ]]rIdif;}}ematmifom
10

xdkifwdkufay;aeonf/
em&D0ufcefMY umaomtcg usrqGaJ eonf"h mwfbufov
Ykd u
kd yf gvmaomvuPm t
&m awGY& usr0rf;omjcif;um; pmzGJYyif rjywwfatmif jzpfrdonf/
t&ifvrkd jI zifh pavmif;zk;H xJwiG f rD;cJEiS t
hf eH&Y atmif rIid ;f aiG,
Y jl cif;udk omreftm;
jzifMh unfu
h jypfpvufcwfEiS hf rav;pm;p&m[k taemufwikd ;f qefonfrh sufpd xifaumif;
xifavrnf/tu,fom teHY&onfhacwfrDSu&d,mwHqmyvmvufeufjzifh aysmufuif;
atmif ukoay;rnfqykd gu q&m0efajc<ujrufjrufuav;&Edik pf &m&So
d nf[k awG;rdao;
onf/ odaYk omf Armaq;ynmum; vlxo
k ;kH pGJ Ekid af omynmjzpf a&S;ESpaf ygif;axmifausmf
avmufu xGef;um;vmaom ynmw&yfudk txifrao;tyfay/
wcgu yJc;l a&Tarmfa"mtkXjf rpfcsyGw
J iG f bk&m;ay: ukov
kd jf zpfaq;ukXmeBuD;zGihf
vSp
f vlemwaxmifausmfcefY ukov
kd jf zpfaq;ay;cJph Ofu ]t8Fvyd af q;&kH tvum;&w,f}
[kvlemawG tHkvmMuonf/ aq;wdkuf? aq;xnfhay;rS Armhaq;0g;rSef; odoGm;Muw,f/
onfukodkvfudk usr cJ&mcJqpf vkyf&yHkrSm aq;ynm jyefYyGm;ap&atmif (eyfpf)
olemjyKq&mrrsm;udk brf;jy&ef olwt
Ykd 0wftpm; tjynft
h pHjk zifh iSm;&rf;ac:oGm;um tem
cGJ t8Fvdyfud&d,mwHqm yvmpHkpHkESifh Armhaq;udk onfyHkonfenf; vSLcJh&bl;\/

5
vlrrmrSm wajz;ajz; usdKUxd;k &yfvsuf rsufpt
d xufvnfum tarmMuyfaejcif;rS
touf&LS pjyKvmvQifyif ukwifu0kd ikd ;f aeMuaomcifcifpEk iS hf tdr&f v
dS t
l rsm;tm; ]raoyg
bl; pdwfcs}[k tm;ay;pum;ajymvdkufum pavmif;zHk;csNyD; vlemESifh"mwfawGudk wrsdK;NyD;
wrsdK; wGifwGifBuD; zdvkyfavonf/ vlrrmrSm oef;acgifausmfavmufrS owdjyefvnfvm
onf/
xdn
k tbdYk tdrrf jyefbJ vlemteD;wGif pdw&f n
S v
f uf&n
S jf yKpkuo
k ay;ae&m tcsdef
ukefoGm;rSef;yif rodawmh/
nOD;u rsufjzLpdkufum Muyfarmaevsuf ypfvdkuf&awmhrnfjzpfaeaomvlrrm
rSm eHeufig;em&DavmufwGif a&cJESifhyef;oD;udk pm;Ekdifawmh\/
yef;oD;pm;,if; wkHwkHcsdcsdtm;enf;aom toHuav;ESifhajymaeonf/ vIduf
vIdufvSJvSJ aus;Zl;wifaeaomvlrrm\rsufESmudk Munfhum jyKH;vkdufrdonf/
11

E-book is created by www.shanyoma.org

*sme,f a usmf r rav;

E-book is created by www.shanyoma.org

jref r mh a q;ynm

]]usrudk aus;Zl;rwifeJY OD;vSarmiftoufudk u,fq,fwm usrxuf tkef;ZHu


ykdrSefvdrfhr,f? 'Dtkef;ZH[m q&m0efBuD;xkd;wJhaq;wvkH;bkd;rajymeJY? ajym&,if wjym;rS r
wefbl;? aps;xJu tkef;oD;a&mif;wJhqkdifrSm tkd;cGufwkdufbkdY tvum;oGm;awmif;,if
awmif &Ekdifygw,f? aus;Zl;wif,if tkef;ZHudkom wifyg-tkef;ZHukdom OD;csyg. . . }}
usrvnf; olpOf;pm;ygap[k &,f&,farmarmjzifh wnfhwnfhajymum xjyefvm
cJhonf/
usef;rma&;ESifhywfouf tvGeftaemufwdkif;qefaom OD;vSarmifum; xdkt
csderf pS ,ckwikd f tom;udk tyfEiS w
hf xd;k wnf; xd;k ae&aom 0#f'u
k B uD;rS uRwfvw
G o
f mG ;
\/ reufpm pm;NyD;wrsdK;? aeYvnfwrsdK;? npmpm;NyD; wrsdK;? xm0pOfaomufae&aom
aq;bdk; tukeftusr&SdawmhbJ Armenf;jzifhom usef;rm 0NzdK;aeay\/ usruJhodkYyif
wdik ;f wyg;aq;udk vH;k vH;k pGev
Yf w
T v
f suf Armhaq;ynmudk ud;k uG,v
f u
kd pf m;qnf;uyfum
Armhaq;om tm;udk;tm;xm; jyKawmh\/

6
armfpudw
k iG f usrtoH0ifomG ;onft
h wGuf q&m0efac:&ef rvdak Mumif;? usrwGif
Armaq;ygaMumif;? tat;vGeu
f
J toH0ifjcif;rQomjzpfaMumif; &Si;f jyum q&m0ef ac:
&efrvdk[k jiif;cJhrdonf/ udk,fhwdkif;jynf? udk,fhynm? udk,fhaq;&SdaomEdkifiH[k vlrsdK;jcm;u
odrSodygavp/
usrtoH0ifomG ;onft
h wGuf rnfo
h u
Yl rkd Qvnf; 'kur ay;cJ?h taESmuft,Surf jyK
oGm;,if;vm,if; udk,fhaq;udk,fpm; toHudk jyefxGufatmif vkyfvdkufavonf/
armfpudk Armaq;pm;aMumif; q&m0efac:&ef rvdkaMumif; jiif;qefrdonfht
wGuf usrESiv
hf u
kd yf gvmaom ,SOaf us;rItzG0YJ iftcsdKUaomyk8Kd vfrsm;u usr wDbaD &m8g
&Sdonf[k pGyfpGJMujcif;udk Armjynfa&mufrS 0rf;enf;pGmyif Mum;&awmhonf/
]]q&m0ef rac:&Jwm wDbD&Sdwm vlrodpcsifvdkYvm;}}[k wOD;u xifjrifcsufay;
jcif;udk wOD;u [kwrf mS bJ[ak xmufcu
H m usrwGif wDbaD &m8g&Sad Mumif;? tcsif;csif;0g'jzefY
vsuf a&m8grul;pufap&ef usrtem; ruyfrad tmif tcsif;csif; vufuyk o
f wday;aeMu
12

rSef;vnf; Arjynfa&mufrS od&onf/


usrudk rajymxm;ESifh usrESifhpum;ajymrdaomoludk olwdkYtem;uyfvQif armif;
xkwfjypfMuaMumif;udkvnf; jyefajymjyrSyifodawmhonf/ usrESifhrsufESmcsif;qdkif pum;
ajymrd Armjynfa&mufvQif "mwfrSef ajy;&kdufMunfhrnfqdkaomolrsm;vnf; &Sdonf/
wDbq
D v
kd Qif vlwikd ;f aMumufMu\/ vlwikd ;f a&SmifcmG Mu\/ wDbpD v
JG Qif ao&rnf
[kvlwdkif; xifrSwfMu\/ wDbDrSm ArmvlrsdK;wdkY\EIwfzsm;rS acwfqefqefpum; jzpfae
onf/
armfpudkrS tjyifwm&SuifhNrdKUwGif wno rtdyfEdkif tcef;xJ&Sd ukvm;xdkifrSm
wnvHk; rdk;vif;onfhtxd xdkifaeavonf/
eHeufvif;aomf wNrdKUvH;k ESi;f 0wfjzLrsm; zHt
k yk x
f m;jcif;udk rSejf yLwif;rSjrifae&
onf/ 0g8Gr;f rsm;uJo
h t
Ykd qkyv
f u
kd t
f qkyv
f u
kd f tcJvu
kd t
f ad eaom ESi;f yGirhf sm;rSm wdu
k af cgif
rdk;rsm;? opfudkif; tcuftvufrsm;wGif wGJvGJqdkif;aeonf/ nwnaMumifh xdkaeYtzdkY t
xnfpuf&kHBuD;rsm;udk vdkufrMunfhawmhusbJ [dkw,fwGif ae&pfcJhonf/ naebuf xrif;
pm;yGJwGif usrwdkYudk qdkAD,ufe,fpyftxd vdkufydkYaom rp'&efaemhu ]]a':rrav; ae
aumif;oGm;yvm;}}[k pm;yGJxdyfu vSrf;ar;\/
]]usraeaumif;ygw,f}}[kjyefajzvdkufonf/
]]aus;Zl;trsm;BuD;wifygw,f}}
usraeaumif;ygw,fqdkjcif;udk olu bmaMumifh aus;Zl;trsm;BuD;wif&ygvdrfh
[k olYtajzudk em;rvnfcJh/ usrudk bmaMumifh aus;Zl;wifrSef; rar;jref;rdcJhay/
Armjynf jyefa&muf usrtm; wDbt
D jzpf 0g'jzefMY urSe;f od&aomtcgrS rpwm
'&efa&mhudk tm;emoGm;rdonf/
usr pdw0f ifpm;qH;k t&mum; a8smf8sD&me,f 8g&mNrdKUwGif tvkyo
f rmrsm;twGuf
usef;rma&;XmerS txl;wvnf wnfaqmufay;xm;aom tvkyform;rsm; tem;,lt
yef;ajz aq;ukpcef;jzpfonf/
taqmufttHkBuD;rSm BuD;us,fcrf;em;vSonf/ aq;ukoXmerSL;q&m0efBuD;
u tcef;taqmiftaqmifukd vdu
k
f jyonf/ tdycf ef;? {nfch ef;? pm;cef;rsm;tjyif acwf
rSDenf;rsm;jzifh a&m8gtrsdK;rsdK;udk ukoay;aomaq;cef;rsm;udk awGY&onf/ tvkyform;
rsm; rdef;ra,musfm;rsm;\a0'emudk "mwfESihfukoykH? a&avmif;ukoyHk? uefYa&csdK;um
ukoyHk? ukenf;rsdK;pHk awGU&onf/
pdwfndKUum wnDwnmwnf; rdk;ay:odkY uawmhxdk;aeMuonfh qdkufy&yfyifBuD;
rsm;rSm taqmuftOD;udk jcH&u
H m pDwef;aygufaeMuonf/ taqmuftOD;twGi;f ajr,m
13

E-book is created by www.shanyoma.org

*sme,f a usmf r rav;

E-book is created by www.shanyoma.org

jref r mh a q;ynm

uGufvyfrsm;wGif vSyaomO,smOfrsm; vkyfxm;onf/ tqkyfyGifhaeMuonfhESif;qDyGifhBuD;


rsm;udk ae&mrvyfjzpfatmif ae&mwdkif; jyKjyifrGrf;rHxm;avonf/
taqmuftOD;aemufbufwGif jyefYaom0&HumBuD; xkwfxm;onf/ yufvufuk
vm;xdkifrsm; cif;vsuf avnif;cHaeaom e,fe,ft&yf&yfrS tvkyform;rsm;udk awGY&
onf/
avrSm wnif;nif; woHkoHkwdkufcdkufvsuf &Sd\/ 0&Hwmwzuf&Sd yifv,feufBuD;
um; eufjyma&mifxvsuf tvSr;f a0;a0;Munfv
h u
kd v
f Qif rd;k aumif;uif\wdro
f m; wdrjf ym
wdkYESifhxdaeaoma&jymESifhwdrfjymrSm wom;wnf; usaeonf/
0&HwmrS yifv,fBuD;udk ai;arQmfMunfh,if; Armjynftvkyform;rsm; usef;rm
a&;twGuf onfvdk taqmuftOD;BuD;rsdK;awG b,fawmhrSrsm;jzpfay:vmrnfenf;[k
awG;awmrdavonf/
vGwfvyfaomudk,fhEdkifiHtwGif; udk,fhtrsdK;om;aq;ynm tm;xm;&avatmif
EdkifiHtpdk;&u Armhaq;ynmudk xdxda&mufa&muf tm;ay;rnfjzpfygu xdkvkyfief;BuD;xJ
wGif usr yg0if&ygaomf aumif;avp[k pdwfapwem apmrdavonf/
Armhaq;ynmudk prf;oyfonfo
h abmjzifh tpd;k &u ae&mXmeay;cJv
h Qif Armhynm
jzifh vltaygif;wd\
Yk a0'emudk csrf;omatmif vkyjf ycsifaom pdwaf Zmrsm;yif xufoefomG ;
awmhonf/
yifv,fxJwGif vIdif;r&Sd Nidrfoufaeonf/ yifv,fxJrS a0SYokwfwdkufcwfvm
aom at;jraomavudk &SLvsuf euf&idI ;f aom yifvufeufBuD;xJwiG f aq;ynmpdwu
f ;l jzifh
jrKyfepfaepOf tjym&ifh aoG;uwyD g aumfaZmxufwiG f uif;uav;waumif w&G&w
G mG ;oGm;
aeovdk xifrSwf&aom urf;bufodkYavSmfcwfvmonfhavSuav;udk renf;yif pdkufMunfh
&avonf/

14

"mwfynmrSm
tppfaq;cHaom ynmw&yfvnf;
jzpfonf/

15

E-book is created by www.shanyoma.org

*sme,f a usmf r rav;

jref r mh a q;ynm

E-book is created by www.shanyoma.org

trsdK;om;aq;ynm
a':rrav;&Sifh
pmwapmif a&mufvm ydkYvdkufygonf/ usr temrsm;vJ a':rrav; aq;ESifh
rSbJ vufpowfaysmufukefygawmhonf/ e8dk&fu Armaq; vufvTwfol r[kwf
aomfvnf; a':rrav;aqmif;yg;zwfNyD;rS ydrk akd v;pm;rdygonf/ pmzwfy&dowf
rsm; Armhaq;udk *&kpdkufav;pm;vmapaom aqmif;yg;rsm; xyfrH a&;om;ay;
yg&efawmif;yefygonf/
aus;Zl;wifav;pm;pGmjzifh
cifvwf
aoG;aomufr8Zif;wdu
k &f iS f a':cifvwf\pmESihf wuov
kd ef ,fraS y;ydv
Yk u
kd af om
pmwapmifudk azguf zwfMunfh&m rEav;NrdKUpdefoef;ydk;xnfwdkufrS a&m8gonfwOD;\
aq;ukoay;&ef awmif;yefpm wapmifjzpfaeavonf/
Zefe0g&Dvxkwf aoG;aomufwGif wDbDvm; [laomaqmif;yg;udka&;,if; t
aMumif;oifo
h jzifh trsdK;om;aq;ynm usrvdu
k pf m;cJyh t
kH aMumif;rsm; xnfo
h iG ;f a&;om;
cJhonf/
aoG;aomufr8Zif;xGufNyD;aemuf t&yf&yfte,fe,frSa0'emonfwdkY\pmrsm;
aeYpOfvv
kd kd tvQdKvQdKa&mufvmMuum pGu
J yfaeonfah 0'emawGukd Armenf;jzifh ukoay;
&ef 0dkif;awmif;yefMuavonf/
usrrSm pma&;q&mtjzpfrS t&yfu owfrSwf aq;q&mjzpf&awmhrvdfkjzpfae
ayonf/
trsdK;om;aq;ynmudk oifMum;pOfu rdrdtzdkYwGif r[kwfbJ tjcm;olrsm;\
usef;rma&;? csrf;oma&;udk tultnDay;Edkifonfhtjzpfa&mufygap[laom apwemjzifh
oifMum;jcif;jzpfonf/
xdkapwemtwdkif; &if;ESD;aom a&m8go,f vlrrmrsm;\usef;rma&;udk t
axmuftul ay;cJhEdkifonf/
16

ynmjzifh toufarG;0rf;aMumif;jyK&ef pdwu


f ;l xJyif rxnfch ahJ y/ a0'em cHpm;
aeolwOD; uko aysmufuif;csrf;om&m&vQif auseyf rqH;k Edik o
f nfyh w
D o
d nf ynmoif
&usdK;eyfjcif;yifwnf;/
aq;ynmwwfpu qdkvQif a0'emonf awGYvQif aysmufapcsifpdwfjzifh raeEdkif
rxdkifEdkif oGm;a&mufukoay;wwfonf/
aq;q&mtrnfcHawmh wcgrQ aq;rukcJhbl;acs/ aq;ukcHMuaomolwdkif;
vnf; usrtm; aq;q&mvdk rqufqHacs/ em;vnfwwfodonfholwOD;tjzpfESifhom ,Hk
Munftm;udk;Muonf/
udk,fhudk,fudk aq;&mrorkwfbJESifh aq;ukay;csif r&aMumif; om"uwckudk
rl a&;om;az:jyvdkayonf/
pma&;q&m q&maZmf8sD\rsufEmS wGif rsufc;Hk ESpb
f ufMum; ESma&mif uGr;f oD;vH;k
cefYjrif;zkBuD;udk awGY&onf/
]]q&m 'Djrif;zkudk rukbl;vm;}}[k usru ar;rdonf/
]]ukwmbJuUJG ? aq;&kw
H uf arhaq;ay;NyD; cGu
J w
k ,f? cGNJ yD;aemufvJ jyefazgif;zkBuD;
vmwmbJ? olwt
Ykd qdu
k odyrf BuD;cif cGv
J Ykd jyefazgif;wmvdaYk jymw,f? 'Dwpfcg odyBf uD;vmrS
oGm;cGJrvdkYbJ}}
&efuek o
f wif;pmwdu
k af y:wGif pma&;q&mudpE iS ahf wGq
Y MHk upOf usr ar;jref;vdu
k f
aomar;cGef;udk q&mu &kd;&kd;temowif;ar;ovdkom atmufarhxifrSwfyHk &Sdonf/
]]Armenf;eJrY sm; wcgxJ tjrpfygjywfNyD; aysmufomG ;atmif rukcsifb;l vm;q&m
&,f}}[k usru qufjyefonf/
]]tm;. . . ukawmh ukcsifom;bJ? 'gayrJh Armaq;uuG,f pm;aq;awG wifNyD;
temBuD;jzpfvmrSm q&m aMumufw,f? 'gaMumifh rukwm}}
]]rcGJpdyf&bJ tem rjzpf&bJ nifnifomomuav;eJY aysmufroGm;csifbl;vm;
q&m}}
usru xyf&Snfvdkuf ]]aeprf;ygtHk;[? rrav;u aq;q&mrsm; jzpfaevm;}}
vdkY ajymum &,farmaeavonf/
usru tajymr&yf? q&mha0'em aysmufapcsif q&modatmif zGifhajym&av
onf/
q&muvJ &,fae&mrS cyfwnfwnf jyefMunfu
h m ]]rrav;enf;u bmenf;vJu}YJG }
uefawmhyaJG wG ay;NyD; OHKwdYk zGwYkd aysmufapwdeYk 8YJ gxmref;rIwu
f rk mS vm;[k ajymvsufNyHK;ae
avonf/
17

E-book is created by www.shanyoma.org

*sme,f a usmf r rav;

E-book is created by www.shanyoma.org

jref r mh a q;ynm

ewfvdkvdk? arSmfvdkvdk? txuf8dkPf;vdkvdk? [dk*dkPf;0if? onf8dkPf;0ifponfjzifh vdkuf


pm;MuonfhtxJwGif trsm;tm;jzifh rdef;rawGu ,HkvG,fum oJoJrJrJ pGJvef;,HkMunf vdkuf
pm;wwfMuaomaMumifh usrtm; xdu
k o
hJ rYkd w
S
f ar;vdu
k af vovm;[k em;xJwiG f axmuf
oGm;rdonf/
usrtm; trsdK;om;aq;ynmudk ,HMk unftm;xm;aeol[k q&m b,fenf;ESirfh Q
xifayvdrfhrnf r[kwfacs/ trsm;enf;wl wckckjzpfvQif t8Fvdyfaq;om ,HkMunfoHk;pGJ&
rnfjzpf 'Denf;r[kwf,if [dkenf;rsm;vm;[k atmufarhp&m jzpfaeonf/
]]'Denf;rsdK;awGEiS u
hf ak y;rSm r[kwyf gbl;q&m? 'D[mawGvJ usr rvdu
k pf m;wwfyg
bl;? q&mhudk usr ukay;rJhenf;u [dkESpfaygif; waxmifavmufu xGef;um;cJhwJh Armenf;
q&mZD0uenf;yg}}
usrtajzudk tem;wGif 0dkif;aeMuaom NrdKUrq&m[defwdkYyg aomaomnHHatmif
&,farmvdkufMuavonf/
q&maZmf8sDudk usr i,fi,fwnf;u odcJhonf/ usrwdkY ae&yfZmwdwNrdKUwnf;
vnf;jzpfMuonf? pmayvku
d pf m;pOf i,fi,f&,
G &f ,
G u
f q&ma&;aomuAsm? 0wK? aqmif;
yg;? jyZmwfrsm;udk ESpNf cdKufoabmusum w&kw
d ao odr;f qnf;pkaqmif;&avonf/ usr
udk pmaye,fedrdwfxJodkY a&mufatmif qGJaqmifEdkifolrsm;wGif q&mvnf; ygavonf/
pmaya&;om;enf; twwfynmajrmufaeonfhvuf&m[efwdkYudk avhvmqnf;
yl;onfhtcg q&maZmf8sD\0wKwdk? jyZmwfESifhuAsmrsm;vnf; &ifhoefaomtodPfwdk;
cJhaponf/
q&m\usLyifuAsm? om;acsmhuAsmrsm;wGif aw;*Dw[efESifhqdk&onfhtoHrSm
Xmef ay:aeum? t"dym,fteufazmfjyyHk o&kyfygvSayonf/ uAsmwGif r[kwf? 0wKwdkjyZmwfwdkY\tzGJYtEGJYwGif xl;jcm;pGm ay:aeonfhta&miftaoG;? q&mh[ef q&mhrludk pGJpGJ
vef;vef; rSwfom;rdaeonf/
pmaya&SUaqmifyk8dKvfwOD;taejzifh q&mhudk MunfndKcJhonf/ av;pm;cJhonf/
xdkuJhodkY usrMunfndK av;pm;aomq&mwOD; tema&m8g&aejcif;udk aysmuf
uif; csrf;omapcsifaom apwemrSm jyif;ysrdacsonf/
q&m aq;&kHrwufap&? arhaq;ay;NyD; rcGJap&? Armenf;ESifh nifnifomom
tjrpfygjywf csrf;om aysmufuif;&ef ruk- ukatmifudk wdkufwGef;rnf? r&-&atmif
ukrnf/
xdkaeY xdkae&m onftwdkif; pdwfxJwGif jzpfrdonf/
rsm;rMumrD q&mESifhawGYMujyefonf/
18

]]ukygq&m&,f? pm;aq;vJ rwifygbl;? q&mhjrif;zk[m oufoufomomav;eJY


aysmuf&ygapr,f? usr tmrcHygw,f}}
usru q&mhudk &kdaopGm wpmpm wdkufwGef;ajymqdkaeavonf/ wylyl wpmpm
ajymvm; rod? ]]at;uG,f ukwmaygh}}[k aemufqHk; tm;emyg;em jyefajymavonf/
q&m\ tm;emyg;em ajymaeyHu
k kd tm;r& usrudk ,HMk unfEikd yf gapawmh[k &nf
pl;um trsdK;om;aq;ynmoabmudk t&dyftaiGY ajymjyonf/
avmuBuD;udk tkyfpdk;aewm tyleJYtat; w&m;ESpfyg;bJ q&m? wrdk;atmufrS
ouf&o
dS ufrahJ wGukd q&mMunhyf g/ ESprf sdK; - ESppf m; awG&Y ygvdrrhf ,f? Oyrm-uRJv&J dS ygw,f?
EGm;vJ&Sdw,f? tkef;oD;&Sdovdk? ocGm;oD;vJ&Sdvmygw,f? tylpm tat;pm&Sdovdk vlawGvJ
xdkenf;ESifESifygyJ? ESpfrsdK;uGJjym;ygw,f? tylpm tat;pm ESpfrsdK;ESpfpm; &Sdygw,f/
]]tpmtm[m&wdkif; vlwdkif;eJYrwnfhygbl;? onftpmbJ wnfhwJhvleJYwnhfw,f?
onftpmbJ rwnhfwJhvleJY rwnfhbl;}}
bmaMumifh oleu
YJ sawmh wnfw
h ,f? bmaMumifh oleaYJ wmh rwnhb
f ;l qdw
k m pOf;pm;
p&m tifrwefaumif;ygw,f? "mwfBuD;av;yg;oabmudk odNyD; "mwfz"kd mwfr tyltat;
cGJjcm;odjrifEkdif&if usef;rma&;bufrSm zlvHkEdkifwmygbJ/
usrvnf; [dkajymonfajymESifh ynm\tpte tpdwftydkif;udk avQmufajymrd
aeonf/
q&monf NidrfoufpGm em;axmifvsufaeavonf/ usr ajymjyaeonfhtcsuf
rsm;udk pkw
d 0f ifpm; wnfNidrpf mG em;axmifaejcif;[k rxifrad y? q&m e8du
k ,
kd f udu
k wnf
NidrfaomtoGif &Sdavonf/
q&mtzdkYwGif temudk ukcHbdkY&ef usrrSm aq;q&mvnf; r[kwf ,HkMunfzdkYpOf;
pm;aeovm;vnf; roday/ ravmufav; ravmufpm;jzpfaeavovm;vnf;roday/
]]ukr,fqdk&if b,fawmhukrSmvnf; q&m&,f jrefjref ukvdkfufyg}}
q&mhudk tylwjyif; avmaerdonf/ q&mvnf; Nidrfae&mrS jyHK;oGm;um ]]ukwm
ayghuG,f}}[kajymoGm; usrwGif rwifrus jzpfaecJhonf/
waeYwGif q&mESifh qHkMujyefonf/
]]b,fES,fhvJ q&m&,f b,fawmhukrSmbJ jrefjrefaysmufoGm;atmif ukvdkufyg
awmh q&m&,f}}
q&mYrsufESmjrifwmeJY qD;ajym q&mvnf; jyHK;jyefum ajymaeustwdkif; pdkpdpd
ajymavonf/
]]at;uG,f ukwmaygh}}
19

E-book is created by www.shanyoma.org

*sme,f a usmf r rav;

E-book is created by www.shanyoma.org

jref r mh a q;ynm

xdak eYutdro
f jYkd yef&mvrf;wGif q&mhtaMumif;ESihf q&mhtemomawG;rdvsuf b,f
vdkrsm; tukcHatmif vkyf&ygrvJom pdwful;vmavonf/ q&mrSm at;pufpufESifh tm;
r&vdk tm;r&jzpfrdvmonf/ aq;&kHwufum arhaq;ay;NyD; cGJpdyfuk aysmufonfqdkvQif
vnf; [kwfao;onf/ cGJpdyfukNyD; wzef jyefazmif;zkBuD;vmonfudk q&mvnf; todjzpf
onf/
temvH;k rBuD;cif cGv
J u
kd
f jyefazmif;zkBuD;vmonf qdak omq&m0ef\taMumif;
jycsufrSm rcdkifvHkvSay/ cGJpOfu tvHk;ao;ao;? cGJvQif jyefBuD;vmvdrfhrnfudk ydkifydkifEdkif
Edik f ynmjzifh twwfoyd gu arhaq;ay;NyD; cGu
J kd rcGaJ p&? BuD;atmifom apmifch ikd ;f ap&rnf/
,ckawmh temcGJNyD;jyefazmif;zkBuD;vmrS apmapmu odyfrBuD;cif cGJvdkufvdkYyg[kqdkjcif;rSm
ESpcf gematmif vufwnfph rf; ukoaeaomoabmrsm;vm;[kyif wGupf &mjzpfaeayonf/
b,fawmhrS jyefrzkEikd o
f nft
h ukrsdK;udk q&mud,
k w
f ikd f vdv
k ckd sifcsifEiS u
hf ck sifatmif
b,fvdkrsm; vkyf&yghrbJ[ktMuH& Muyfvmonf/
usrqdv
k Qif aq;q&mtrnfrcHojzifh ravmufav; ravmufpm; jzpfae q&m
pOf;pm;ae[ef&Sdonf/aus;Zl;&Sifq&mBuD;u ukay;rnfqdkvQif usrxufawmh ,Hk,HkMunf
Munfukcsifvdrfhrnf[k tMuH&rdonf/ odkY awG;um tdrfodkYwef;rjyefEdkifbJ q&mBuD;tdrf
odkYauGYoGm;&avonf/
om,maom naeapmif;jzpfavonf/ q&mBuD;xHodkYra&mufonfrSm Mumjrifh
aeavNyD/ q&mBuD;ESiahf wG&Y vQif ynmpum;udk Mum;&wwf oif,rl w
S o
f m;Ekid af vonf/
q&mBuD; pum;ajymaomtcg ,ckacwf em;ESifhaxmifvQif &kwfw&uf em;vnf
EkdifzdkYcufonf/ a&S;oHk; Armpum;udk wdwdusus wnfhwnfhrwfrwf ajymwwfonf/ ynm
pum;udk odrfodrfarGYarGY odyfodyfonf;onf; ajymqdkonf/ q&mBuD;pum;udk emaxmif
wwfrSvnf; ynmwdk;Edkifp&m &Sdonf/
q&mBuD;xH oif,lqnf;yl;cJhaom trsdK;om;aq;ynmrSm ynm\vrf;pOft
wdkif; rauGYraumuf razgufrjyef rrSm;r,Gif;atmif wajzmifhwnf; vdkufem usifhoHk;
EkdifrnfqdkvQif a0'emqdk acgif;udkufa0'emavmufyif cHpm;&rnf r[kwfacs/
]]q&m&JUaus;Zl;&Sif q&mhq&mBuD;[m b,favmufrsm; usef;rma&;udk 8&kpu
kd Mf u
ovJqdk,ifuG,f? olwdkYrSm tuFsDr0wf&,if aeayap rylbl;? rusef;rmrSmawmh tvGefyl
w,f? acgif;udkufESmap; a0'emav;awmif tjzpfrcHMubl;}}
]]rwnfw
h m pm;&rSm? rwnfw
h m jzpf&rSm? rSm;&rSm tvGeaf Mumufw,f? olrsm;tdrf
{nfo
h nfvyk ,
f if rwnfw
h meJaY wG&Y if rwnfw
h mawG vkyrf mS pd;k vdYk olweYkd w
YJ nfw
h t
hJ pmudk oGm;
av&m ykcHk;eJY vG,f,loGm;Muw,f}}
20

onfpum;udk q&mBuD;EIwfzsm;wGif rMumcPajymqdkavonf/ q&mBuD;udk,f


um; usef;rma&;ESihf tzufzufu jynfph v
kH v
S suf wjcm;b,fta&;rS rpOf;pm;bJ usef;rm
a&;om pOf;pm;avonf/
wcgw&H rvGJra&Smifom rwnfhonfh"mwfESifhawGYxd&ojzifh aexdkifraumif;
jzpfvQif q&mBuD;udk todrcH&Jay/ onfynmudkyif wckckrSm;rdvQif rSm; jzpfaMumif;udk
zHk;uG,fxm; r&aomynmBuD;jzpfonf/
ynmrSm tppfaq;cHaom ynmw&yfvnf; jzpfonf/ r[kww
f majym rrSew
f mudk
zH;k zdvnf;r&? rSm;wmvkyrf v
d QiftrSm;ay:&onf/ rSew
f mvkyaf evQif trSef jzpfaeonf/
udk,fESifhwnfhwm pm;aevQif {uef 'd|aexdkifaumif;aeonf/ rwnfhwm pm;rdvkyfrdvQif
rvGJ{uef aexdkifraumif; jzpfvm&onf/
wnfhwm rwnfhwm odrIrSmvnf; olrsm;ajym q&majym udk,fESifhwnfhwm r
wnfhwm od&yHkrsdK; r[kwfbJ udk,fwdkifod (0g) rdrd\tawGYtBuHKjzihf odEdkif&rnfjzpfaom
ynmw&yfvnf; jzpfacsonf/
]]vlawG[m rsufaphvnfvu
kd Mf uwmuG,.f . . rrmrS wnfw
h mpm;&wm r[kwb
f ;l uG?YJ
rmwkef;uwnf;u wnfhwm pm;&w,f. . . }}
wnfhwm rwnfhwm odkYr[kwf udk,fESifhtyfwm rtyfwmudk qifjcifPf&Sdap&ef
&nfoefvsuf ]tyfaysmuf,if qife&YJ mS ? qifaysmuf&if paumeJ&Y mS }[k ynmpu;jzifh rde>Yf ruf
wwfav&m ynmpum; ajymvQifum; omreftm;jzifh em;vnfbdkY cufcJonf/
q&mYaq;cef;BuD;xJwiG f vl&iS ;f aeonf/ at;at;aq;aq; q&mBuD;ESihf pum;
ajymcGifh&rnfudk 0rf;omrdoGm;onf/
usru c&D;ra&mufrqdkuf q&maZmf*sD temtaMumif;udk rajym&ao;ay/ [dkp
um;onfpum; ajym,if;rS owd& ]wHk;wdka&epfawmh? aomifpyfvlvl;wm? emrfeJY&kyfbJ
r[kwfvm;q&m} [kaumufar;vdkufonf/
ol\pl;&Sxufjrufvo
S nfrh sufpu
d kd txufoyYkd if
h wcsufMunhNf yD;rS tomacgif;
ndwfvdkufonf/
]]pmajcmufwef;udk tusOf;csKyf csHK;Munfhvdkufprf;uG,f? usOf;vdkuf,if oDwOPS xGufrvmbl;vm;? wnfhwm rwnfhwm xGufvm,if &kyfemrfay:vm,if we*FaEG
rodEdkifbl;vm;}}
tcef;xJodkY vlemwa,muf0ifvm q&mBuD; pum;jywfoGm;pOf usrvnf; pm
ajcmufwef;udk awG;qum "mwfoabmudk pdwf0ifpm;aeavonf/
Armh"mwfynmoabmum; euferJ eS u
f efvaS y\/ avmu"mwfynm "gwkaA'ESihf
21

E-book is created by www.shanyoma.org

*sme,f a usmf r rav;

E-book is created by www.shanyoma.org

jref r mh a q;ynm

cufcufcJcJ prf;oyf&rnfhtcsufrsm;udk Armh"mwfynmESifh tvG,fwul odjrifEdkifonf/


tdrf&Sd ig;ydtdk;wGif 'Da&wufvmcsdef ig;ydtkd;wGif tvdkvdk iHjym&nfvQHum 'Da&
usoGm;vQif ig;ydtkd;wGif a&rsm;usoGm;onfudk Armwdkif;vkdkvdkyif odMuonf/
bl;pifwGif EGm;&kd;rsm;ukd qGJay;vQif bl;oD;rsm;rsm; oD;onfudk Armwdk;vdkvdkyif
odMuonf/ aemufaemufu ig;yda&vQHwm EGm;&k;d qG
J bl;oD;oD;wmom odco
hJ nf? bmjzpf
vdkYrSef; rodcJh/
a&wufvQif bmaMumifh ig;ydtdk; a&wufvmonf/ a&usvQif bmaMumifh ig;yd
tdk; a&jyefusoGm;onfudk rnfonfh"mwkaA'ESifh prf;oyfMunhfrnfenf;/
EGm;&kd;qGJvQif bl;oD;rsm;rsm; oD;aponfudk rnfonfh"mwkaA'ESifhprf;oyfrnf
enf;/
a&wufonfEiS hf b,fvt
kd aMumif;aMumifh ig;ydt;kd a&vQHvmonf/ EGm;&d;k qGo
J nf
ESifh b,fvdktaMumif;aMumifh bl;oD;rsm;rsm; oD;onfudk Armh"mwfynm "mwkaA'jzifh t
aMumif;&if; Zpfjrpftajzudk odjrifEdkifonf/
trsdK;om;aq;ynmwGif "mwfoabmrSm t"dutcsuftcsmjzpf ynmudk
qnf;yl;pOftcgu "mwfawGudk udk,fwdkifprf;oyfcJh&avonf/
rdrdavhvmonfhynmudk prf;oyfvdk a&Smufyifwyifudk aooGm;&ef 0g;axmuf
ay;vdu
k o
f nf/ 0g;axmufxm;onfEiS afh &SmufyifrmS ndK ;us rMumcifaooGm;awmhonf/
a&SmufyifEiS 0hf g;oabm? bl;yifEiS Efh mG ;&k;d oabm? bmaMumifah oonf? bmaMumifh
oD;onfudk ynmjzifh vufawGYtajzudk &Sm,l,if; wpwp ynmPfrsufpd yGifhvif;vm&
onf/
]]iSuaf ysmyifukd aoatmif owfvu
kd pf rf;uG,}f }[kq&mBuD;u cdik ;f vdu
k v
f Qif iSuf
aysmyifESifh rwnfhonfh"mwfudk aq;ynmjzihf awG;qum vufawGYowfMunfhvdkufonf/
tyif0g ndK;pjyKvQif q&mBuD;u iSufaysmyifudk udk,fwdkifvmMunhfum auseyfonfh
rsufESmxm;jzifh ]]udkif;. . . &Sifatmifjyefvkyfprf;}}[kcdkif;jyefonf/
usrvnf; iSufaysmyif jyef&Sifatmif ynmjzifh vufawGY iSufaysmyifESifh wnfh
onfh"mwfwckudk a&G;um &Sifvef;vmatmif vkyfjy&onf/
odkYvQif wrsKd;NyD;wrsdK; tcGifhoifhwdkif; tvsif;oifhwdkif; "mwfawGudk udk,fwdkif
vufawGYprf;oyfum rdrdprf;oyfatmifjriforQ aeYpOfrSwfwrf;xJwGif a&;rSwfxm;cJh&m
pmbwfolwdkYtm; tenf;i,f aumufEIwfazmfjyvdkufayonf/
bJwtkyfBuD; qlnHpGm atmfae toHwdwfoGm;atmif jymyufvdkufonf/
a<uta&aysmfatmif oHy&k mESiphf rd Mf unho
f nf/ tke;f yifaoatmif xH;k okwo
f nf/
22

a0a0qmqm yGifhzl;aeaom py,fcif;udk aoukefatmif 0g;nyf? 0g;axmuf? 0g;


uyfay;vdkufonf/
toefaES;aom ESif;qDyef;rsm;udk oefpGrf;zl;yGifhvmatmif 0g;nyf 0g;axmuf
0g;uyfay;vdkufonf/
a<uyef;uefrsm; tvdkvdk tufuGJatmif ajrBuD;xJ xnfhum ajrjyefzdkYxm;onf/
toD;rsm;pGm oD;aom rmvmumyifudk a&G;rSwf roD;awmhatmif vlwufcdkif;
onf/ c&rf;yifawG &Sifatmif cJyHkayonf/
rdacsmif;om; eEGif;ESifh xdMunhf ta&jzpfonf/
ydEJyifwGif toD;rsm;>ywfcJaeonfudk tifom; axmufay; tyifrS toD;awG
a<uusvmukefonf/
ZD;csdKyifwGif ZD;oD;rsm; csOfukefapatmif opfyifatmufwGif rD;xnfhvdkufonf/
uRJEdkYcsufxJwGif uGrf;oD;pdyfuav; xnfh rcsOfatmif xm;onf/
tom;pdrf;rsm; rykyfatmif ,rf;pdrf;yufonf/ "gwfudk rnfonfhae&m rnfonfh
tcgwGif rnfodkYrnfyHk prf;oyfcJhyHk pdwf0if0ifpm;pGm trsdK;rsdK;tzHkzHk tus,fw0ifhBuD; a&;
rSwf xm;avonf/
"gwfoabmaygufomG ; wnfw
h m rwnfw
h m odvQif vlrrmudk wnfo
h nf"h gwfjzifh
csufcsif; vlaumif;jzpfvmatmif vkyfzdkY&m rcufawmhay/ vlaumif;wa,mufudk vlrrm
jzpfomG ;atmif rwnfw
h mESihf vky&f efvnf; rcufawmhay/ vlrrmudk a&m8gwd;k atmif? a&m
8gusatmif? aoatmif? &SifatmifvkyfEdkifonfh xufjrufaom tpGrf;owdBuD;rSm;vS
rolawmfwdkYvufxJwGif ynmwwfodacsu vSnfhpm;Edkifonf/
tajrmftjrifBuD;rm; wwfodvdrmaom a&S;q&mhq&mBuD;rsm;onf ynmudk
tusOf;csKyff twdkaumuf &kyfemrf azsmufum we8FaEGjrKyf pmajcmufwef;jzifh xm;cJh
jcif;jzpfavawmhonf/
]]t&kdif;acgif;aomuf? vlrdkufpdwfwkd. . . owJhuGJY pOf;pm;ayawmh}}
ynmoifpOfu onfvdkpum;rsdK; em;raxmifwwf/ aq;ynmoifay;aeaom
q&mhpum;udk t"dym,f em;rvnfEdkifojzifh onfvdk xufjrufvSonfhaq;ynm&yfBuD;udk
onfavmuf vQdKU0SufaeMuom rxGef;um;&? rjyefYyGm;&? wdrfjrKyf&onf[kpdwfxJu t
jypf zdkYrdonf/
a&S;u q&mawG ynm&SdawG[m olwdkYynmudk odyfvQdKU0SufwmbJ? 'gaMumifh ynm
BuD; wdrfjrKyf&wm/
usr\EIwfrS a&S;ynm&Sdrsm;udk tjypfwifpum; ajymqdkvdkufaomtcg q&mBuD;
23

E-book is created by www.shanyoma.org

*sme,f a usmf r rav;

E-book is created by www.shanyoma.org

jref r mh a q;ynm

u av;av;eufeuf jyHK; acgif;udk wqwfqwfndwfvsuf ]ynm&SdawGu vQKdU0Sufwm


r[kwfbl;uGJY? oGm;tjypfrwifeJY udk,f ynmrrSDwm? udk,fu PfrrSDwdkif; tjypfwif,if
rSm;rSmaygh/ olYacwfeJYolwkef;uvnf; em;vnfMuw,f PfeJYawG;ac: pOf;pm;rSaygh}[k
qHk;raeavonf/
]]OyrmuG,f tckacwfrSm z-q-y-v vdkYac:Muw,f r[kwfvm; t"dym,fu
zufqpfqefYusifa&; jynfolYvGwfvyfa&;qdk r[kwfvm;? aemuf tESpfw&mavmufMu,if
onf z-q-yvudk bmt"dym,fqdk'g vlwdkif; em;vnfygtHk;rvm; udk,fPfrrSDwdkif;
tjypfrwifeJY t&dkif;acgifaomuf vlrdkufpdwfwdk 'gudk t"dyg,fay:atmif pOf;pm;ay
awmh}qdk bmt"dym,frSef; tajzay:atmif pOf;pm;tm;xkwf&onfrSm ESpfnoHk;nyif
quf rdk;vif;oGm;atmif tajzudk &Sm,l&onf/
"mwfoabmudk odjrifuRrf;usifum wnfw
h m rwnfw
h m ydik yf ikd Ef ikd Ef ikd f em;vnfvm
awmhrSyif usef;rma&;udk jyKjyifEdkifpGrf; &Sdvmonf/
"mwfrsm;udk prf;oyf atmifjrifonhftcg aus;Zl;. &Sifq&mBuD;\aus;Zl;jzifh
ynm\t&if;tjrpfjzpfaom yk8vynmwf"mwfusrf;udk avhvm&onf/
usrvnf; q&mBuD;a&SUwGif xdkifum pdef-uHh-[if;&kdif;jy'g;ponfh"gwfrsm;\
tpGrf;udk awG;ai;ae,if; tcef;xJrS vlemxGufoGm; ]Armhaq;ynmu oifnm r[kwf
bl;q&m ynm}[k nnf;qdkvdkufonf/
]]ynmayghuGJY temwckjzpfvm,if wjcm;aq;ukenf;jzpfvmwJhtemudk cGJvdkufcGJ
pdyfvdkufwmbJ onftem b,fvdkaMumifh jzpfvmovJqdkwJh tem&JUZmpfjrpfudk twdtus
rvdkufEdkifbl;}}
a&m8grSmvJ 'Dvb
kd ?J rsufpjd zpf rsufpu
d ak y;vdu
k w
f mbJ? em;jzpf em;ukay;vku
d w
f m
bJ? oGm;jzpf oGm;ukay;vdkufwmbJ/
]]q&mBuD;qD? usr 'DaeYvmcJhwm temwemeJYywfoufNyD; vmcJhwmygq&m aum
vdyfausmif;u q&mBuD;OD;odef;[ef&JUtemyg? rsufESmrSm jrif;zkBuD;jzpfaeygw,f? q&m
BuD; ukay;rS jzpfvdrfhr,f}}
]]bmjzpfvdkYvJ rrav; ukay;vkdufygvm; aysmufrS aysmufyghrvm;vdkY vufwnfh
prf; uk&wmrS r[kwfbJ? udk,fh[mudk,f ukaygh}}
q&mBuD;uvnf; rrav;uk[kqdkaeonf/ ukoay;&rnfh q&maZmf8sDuvnf;
usrtm; q&m[k todtrSwfrjyKcsif cufaeawmhonf/
]]usr ukvdkYrjzpfygbl;q&mBuD;&,f? q&mBuD; ukay;bdkYuRefrawmif;yefyg&ap
usrqkdawmh. . . }}
24

tquf& cufovdk NidrfaevdkufpOf q&mBuD;u axmufay;onf/


]]q&mwynfhvdkYjzpfaevdkYyg}}[kqufajymvdkuf&onf/
]]olu Armhaq;ynmudk av;av;pm;pm; &Sdovm;. . . }}
]]Armqefygw,f? acwfynmwwfayrJh? Armh,Ofaus;rIt&yf&yfudk a&SUaqmifae
wJhyk8dKvfwa,mufjzpfygw,f/ ArmhynmawGudk txifrao;wwfygbl;}}
]]rrav; tuk&cufvdkY&Sd,ifvJ? q&mYqD vTwfvdkufav}}
q&mBuD;u a&Sma&Sm&SL&SL vdu
k af vsmvdu
k
f 0rf;ajrmuf0rf;omESihf tdro
f jYkd yefomG ;
&avonf/
tvkyfudprsm; rtm;vyfEdkif q&maZmf8sDESifhtjrefqHk;awGY&ef aESmifhaES;ae
onf/ waeYwGif tcsdef&ojzifh q&maZmf8sDtdrfodkY xGufoGm;avonf/
q&mhtdrfxJwGif xdkifaeonfhwcsdefvHk; q&mBuD;ESifhuko&ef q&mhudk twif;r&
ru wdkufwGef;ae&avonf/
aq;ynmqnf;yl;ptcgu q&mBuD; qHk;rbl;avonf/ q&mrsm; ryifhbJESifh
vlemrtyfbJESifh aq;ruk&aMumif; oGefoifqHk;rbl;onf/ q&mZD0uyif olYudkryifh a0
'emukd rukEdkifjzpfum aoqHk;&yHkxHk;rsm; cPcP trdefY&Sdavonf/
q&mrsm;\usif0h wfukd &kad oav;pm;zd&Yk mxuf q&maZmf8sDa0'emjrefjrefcsrf;om
a&;udk aZmbBuD;aeavonf/
]]oGm;ygq&m&,f q&mBuD;qD qufqufoGm;jzpfatmif oGm;yg? q&mBuD;ud kusr
ajymxm;NyD;ygNyD? aysmufyghapr,fq&m&,f oGm;yg}}
q&mYtdrfrSxtjyef um;ay: wufxdkif um;rxGufciftxd wwGwfwGwf
rem;wrf; em;ylavmufatmif awmif;yefcJh&avonf/
rMumcif q&mESifh qHkMujyefonf/
]]roGm;ao;bl;vm; q&m&,f}}[k jrifjrifcsif; qD;ajymvdkufonf/
]]at;uG,f q&moGm;rvdkYygbJ? tvkyfawG rtm;wwfao;vdkYyg/ oGm;r,f? oGm;
r,f}}[ktm;emyg;em jyefajymavonf/
,ckwcgrS usrudk wu,fyif tm;emoGm;avawmhonf/ q&mESifhusrrSm q&m
BuD;a&SUarSmufodkY a&muf aeMuayNyD/
]]rsufped jYJ rifwzhJ u
k kd ukvaYkd wmh jyefazgif;vmtH;k rSmbJ? onfzBk uD;b,fu vmw,f
qdkwm owdrSaysmufayawmhraygh}}
q&mBuD;onf rD;jcpfqef\tzsm;uav;udk "m;ESihfcRefae,if; q&maZmf8sDtm;
vSrf;ajymaeonf/
25

E-book is created by www.shanyoma.org

*sme,f a usmf r rav;

E-book is created by www.shanyoma.org

jref r mh a q;ynm

tzsm;cRefNyD;aom rD;jzpfqHESifh ykvif;i,fuav;xJrS aq;wdkYudkvsuf q&maZmf


8sDem;odkY xvmum jrif;zkudk oHk;BudrfwdkYay;NyD; 8Grf;uyfay;vdkufonf/
]]aemuf oHk;av;&ufavmuf Mum,if vmcJhyg? zkcsifvdkYawmif rzk&awmhygbl;/
a[m'D "mwfpm pm&GufxJrSmygwJhtwdkif; pm;yg}}
q&mBuD;u OD;odef;[efESifh wnfhaom"mwfpmudk a&;ay;avonf/
"mwfpm pm&Guf vSrf;ay;,if;. . .
]]OD;ode;f [ef jrif;zkbJ aygufonfjzpfap? cg;bJ emonfjzpfap? zsm;bJ zsm;onfjzpf
ap? bmembJjzpfjzpf a0'emvdkY ac:ayonf? onfa0'em[m jrif;jcH? yckuLu avSi,f
wpif;eJYvmNyD; q&mBuD;wdkY ta':BuD;wdkY zkxGufvmyg&ap? cg;emyg&ap? acsmif;qdk;yg&
ap? tqkyfxJ a&0ifyg&ap avSay:uqif;vmNyD; vmwwfwm r[kwfygbl;? wkdwkdajym&
,if AkdufxJu vmwm}}[k ajymavonf/
q&mESifhusrrSm q&mBuD;ajymaompum;rsm;udk pdkuf em;axmifaeMuonf/
a0'emqkdonfrSm olYtvkdvkdjzpfjcif;rsKd; r[kwfbJ rwnfhwmudk pm;rd jzpf&aMumif;udk
t&dyftaiGY &Sif;ajymaeavonf/
]]ckvlawG[m a&S;uvlawGvkd r[kwfbl;? rsm;aomtm;jzifh rrmawmhrS q&m&Sm
Muw,f? b,frSm&kwfw&uf q&maumif;&rvJ? usef;rmaewJhtcgu rdrd&JUtoufudktyf
zkdY q&morm;&Smxm;&w,f? onfawmhrS pdwfwkdif;us q&morm;aumif; &awmhraygh}}
q&maZmf*sDu acgif;udkndwfum ]]rSefygw,f. . . }}[k ajymavonf/
]]cGJ-pdyf-tyfeJYxkd;wmawG acwfrSDw,f xifaeMuw,f/ a&S;orwrif;vufxuf
u opmqkdaysmufapownf;. . . qkdwmeJY tema&m*gaysmufw,f? ow0gawG p&kdufMurf;
wrf;vmwJhacwf a&mufawmh opmqkdvkdYr&bl;? tema&m*gjzpf,if trIefYawG xkaxmif;
aomufMu&? pm;Mu&w,f? aemuf bk&m;rSef; w&m;rSef;rod? rdbq&m aus;Zl;&SifrSef;
rod rkdufrJMurf;wrf;vmjyefawmh tyfeJYxkd;? "m;eYJcGJ&w,f? 'gudk acwfrSDw,fvkdYqkdMuw,f/
usrwkdY em;axmif,if; jyKH;aeMuw,f/
]]aemuf onfxuf p&kdufMurf;vmMu,if "g;eJYcGJvkdYr&bJ tajrmufeJYypfuk&vdrfh
r,fxifw,f}}
usrwkdYvnf; &,f&,farmarmjzifh q&mBuD;xHrS xjyefcJhMuonf/
tvkyftm;vyfonfhaeYwaeYwGif q&maZmf*sDowif;ar;&ef q&mBuD;xHodkY usr
a&mufoGm;avonf/
]]q&maZmf*sD vmygovm;. . . }}[k usru ar;Munfhonf/
]]csdef;wJh&ufrSm vmw,f. . . olwa,mufxJ r[kwfbl;? pma&;q&mrif;ok0PfvJ
26

vkdufvmw,f? uyfxm;wJh*Grf;udk cGgNyD; zkudk ,lypfvkdufNyD}}


]]csyfoGm;NyDvm;q&m}}[k usru 0rf;omtm;& ar;vkdufonf/
]]acsmoGm;NyD temaygufuav;udk q&mzGifhxm;ay;vkdufao;w,f rydwfao;
bl; vmcJhtkH;vkdY rSmvkdufw,f? aemufwcgvmrS ydwfay;vkdufr,f}}
]]bmajymoGm;ao;ovJ}}
]]q&maZmf*sDu ar;w,fuGJY. . . jrefrmaq;q&mawG[m wa,mufeJYwa,muf r
wlbl;? usrf;awGuvJ uGJjym;aewm b,fvkdygvJwJh. . . }}
q&mBuD;u Nidrfae ]q&mu b,fvkdajzvkdufygovJ}[kq&m\tajzudk Mum;
csif xyfar;&avonf/
]]aq;usrf;awG[m b,faq;usrf;MunfhMunfh awaZmwvkH;om t"duxm;
a&;aewmyg? oifwJhq&mu q&mhxHrS aoaocsmcsm enf;cHroifbJ bk&m;aps;u pmtkyf
udk 0,fMunfhNyD; olrSDwm olajymvkdYuGJaeMuwmaygh? awaZmwvkH;udk aoaocsmcsmod,if
jiif;p&m-ckpH &m &St
d ;Hk rvm;? tcsif;csif; jiif;cHak jymqdak eMuwJw
h csdKUq&mawG[m awaZm
rajymeJY ylwmawmif b,fuylvmrSef; odrSmr[kwfbl;? (t)&,f (1) &,f? we8FaEG&,f?
wrsdK;pD xifaeMuw,f? tm;vHk;aygif;vdkuf&if wrsdK;xJ r[kwfvm;? wrsdK;pD xifaeorQ
awmh tdrfwdkif; vlrrm&SdNyD; apmifjcHKuav;eJY toufwdkMurSmbJ}}
]]q&morm;qDrSm roifMum;&bJ [dkenf;onfenf; udk,fhbmomudk,f vdkufNyD;
vufwJhprf; aq;az:ukMuwJhq&ma,mif q&mwkawGaMumifh Armq&mawG eHrnfysufukef
wmyg? Armhaq;ausmif;BuD;zGiNhf yD; aq;wuov
kd ef YJ wu,fwwfow
d o
hJ rm;awmf BuD;awGeYJ
ususeeoifMum;ay;,if Armhaq;ynm[m wpepfxJ wrlxJ ay:vm&rSmq&m}}
usrrSm aq;wuodkvfBuD; &SdcsifaZmjzifh q&mtm; tm;wdkufoa&majymqdkvdkuf
onf/
]]q&m rMumao;cifu NrdKUwNrdKUa&mufoGm;w,f? q&meJYodwJhvlawG pum; vm
ajymMuwJhtcgawGrSm q&mESpfa,mufvJygawmh q&mu ar;Munfhw,fwJh? q&mwdkY bm
pmtkyf b,faq;usrf;rSm tm;xm;ukygovJar;awmh ESpfa,mufpvHk;u awmifomuk
aMumif;ajymw,f/
]]ae&musvdu
k w
f m awmifomqdw
k m pmtkyef mrnfvm;? &Gmemrnfvm;vdYk q&mar;
awmh wa,mufq&mu awmifomqdkwm &GmemrnfwJh? wa,mufq&mu b,f&Gmemrnf
[kwf&rSm awmifomqdkwm pmtkyfemrnfAs}}vdkYajymawmh q&mu ]]cifAsm;pmtkyfemrnf
t"dym,f b,fvdk&SdygovJ}}vdkYar;Munfhjyefw,f/
]]awmifomqdkwm tm;vHk;q&mawGxuf awmifBuD;vdk jrifharmufomvGef;vdkY
27

E-book is created by www.shanyoma.org

*sme,f a usmf r rav;

E-book is created by www.shanyoma.org

jref r mh a q;ynm

awmifomvdkYrSnfhwmyg}}vdkYjyefajzw,f/
usrrSm &,fae&onf/
]]udkif;. . . q&meJYrrav;eJYaygif;NyD; a&; bdwf xm;0,fu awmifBuD;vdkjrifhatmif
ukEdkifwJhq&mESpfa,muf awmifomvdkY emrnfay;,if raumif;bl;vm;}}
usrvnf; tawmrowfEdkifatmif &,fumaeawmhonf/ q&mvJ OD;odef;[efeJY
rif;ok0PfwdkYudk tenf;tyg; &Sif;vif;awmh ajymvdkufyg&JU avmukw&mrSmvJ wckwnf;
aomw&m;eJY udpNyD;Edkifygw,f? udk,fu rrSDvdkYawmif awmifausmif;oGm; ajrmufausmif;
oGm;&wmyg/ oa&&SpfvHk; Asnf;oHk;q,fhoHk;aygif; 0P 41 vHk;vkdYac:w,f? avmukw&m
rSmvJ onf 0P 41 vkH;u vGwfNyD; ra&;Ekdifygbl;/ avmuDusrf;awGrSmvJ onf0P av;
q,fhwvHk;u vGwfNyD; ra&;Edkifygaybl;}}
]]aA'ifq&m? ya&m8q&m? aq;q&m? "mwfq&m? toHawG ruGJvGJbl;vm;}}
usru uGJvGJaMumif; ]][kwfuJhq&m}} [k qdkvdkufonf/
]]b,fvu
kd u
JG JG aeY (7) aeYuvGNJ yD; b,fou
l bmvkyEf ikd rf mS vJ? aeY(7)aeYukd tusOf;
csKyfvu
kd ,
f if at;wm ylwmbJ &Sw
d ,f? at;wm ylwmudk wcgxyf tusOf;csKyf&if awaZm
wvHk;bJ &Sdw,fr[kwfvm;}}
usrrSm trsdK;om; aq;ynmpcef;udk av;av;eufeuf awG;qum ai;aerd
onf/
]]rrav;aum b,fvdkwkef;? Armaq;ynm jrifhwifcsifw,f ajymajymaew,f?
tvkyef YJ jyrSaygh ckbJ Munfyh gtH;k ? ud,
k f aq;ukay;csifwm ukEikd &f ufom;eJY ud,
k w
f ikd rf ukEikd f
bJ q&mYqDac:&wm b,favmuf c&D;&Snfa0;ovJ}}
usrvnf; q&maZmf8sD\jrif;zkukd aysmufuif;atmif vky&f aom ud,
k w
f ikd f tcuf
tcJudk pOf;pm;vsuf q&mBuD;a&SUwGif NyHK;ae&avawmhownf;/

28

Armhaq;ynmonf uk|Elemudk tjcm;EkdifiH


rsm;xuf atmufrusbJ tpGrf;xufjrufpGm
oJvJpifaysmufuif;atmif
ukoay;Ekdifayonf/

29

E-book is created by www.shanyoma.org

*sme,f a usmf r rav;

jref r mh a q;ynm

E-book is created by www.shanyoma.org

Oa'gif;Muifaz: Zifa,mfvif;ouf
ZE0g&Dv? azaz:0g&Dvxkwf aoG;aomufr8Zif;wGif ]]wDbDvm;}} [laom
aqmif;yg;ESifhtrsdK;om;aq;ynm aqmif;ygESpfyk'f a&;vdkufrdonf/
xdak qmif;yg;ESpyf 'k f a&;rd t&yf&yf te,fe,fu a&m8gonfrsm;xHrS a&m8ga0
'emudk azmfjyum ukoay;&ef aeYpOfqdkovdkyif pmrsm; a&mufvmav\/
usrrSm 8E0if8sme,fudk xkwfa0&ef yHkESdyfpufBuD; r&Sdao; pmazgifrsm;udk pDum
tjcm;yHkESdyfpufwGif oGm;a&muf&kdufESdyfae&aomaMumifh aeYrtm; nrtm; tvkyfrsm;
vsuf&Sdaeonf/
usrxHoYkd wdu
k &f u
dk af omfif; odrYk [kwf aoG;aomufrw
S qifah omfif; aeYpOfrjywf
wzGzJ aJG &mufaeaompmtdwrf sm;udzk iG ahf zgufum rnfox
Yl rH ?S rnfonfah &m8gponfavmuf
om uAsmuoD pmzwfMunfhvdkufNyD; zdkifwzdkfif oD;jcm;zGifhvsuf zdkifxJodkYom nyfoGif;xm;
vdkuf&onf/
te,fe,fu ay;ydv
Yk u
kd af ompmrsm;rSm rsm;aomtm;jzifh pmjyef&ef pmtdwaf cgif;
yg wygwnf; xnfhay;Muavonf/
pmjyef&ef pdwfapwem&Sdvsuf tcsdefr& &kwfw&uf rjyefMum;bJ&Sdum waeYaeY
awmh pkjyefrS[k atmifharhxm;&m zdkifwGJBuD;rSm wajz;ajz; rdkYarmufomvmawmhonf/
8E0if8sme,ftrSwf 1 xGufoGm;Edkifa&;twGuf vHk;yrf;cJhonfrSm pmyHkESdyfwdkuf
vkyfief;? pmayxkwfa0a&;vkyfief;udk rvkyfcsifavmufonfhtxd jzpfcJh\/ usraeaom
tdrfESifh tvkyfwdkufrSm ig;rdkifcefYa0;avonf/ eHeuf tdrfrS ckepfem&Davmuf xGufcJhum
waeYv;kH wdu
k w
f iG f tvkyrf sm;uke;f vkyaf e&onf/ naeapmif;vQif oloil gig tvkyrf S tdrf
odkY jyefMuovdk usrvnf; jyefcsifvmonf/
yHEk ydS x
f w
k af 0a&;vkyif ef;um; tcsdeu
f efo
Y wfxm;&aom vkyif ef;rsdK; r[kwaf y/
yef;csDq&maESmifhaES;ae,ifaomfif;? pmwapmifazgifNyD;pD;atmif aeY&,fn&,f a&G;ae
rjzpfEdkifbJ NyD;onfhtcsdeftxd NyD;atmif vkyf&avonf/
pmazgifoiG ;f NyD;csdef n 10-em&Djzpfap? 11-em&Djzpfap? 12-em&Djzpfap? 1-csuf
2-csufyifjzpfaeap rqdkif;bJ pmazgifudk pufay:wif&dkuf&ef vdktyfvmonf/ pufr&SdbJ
*sme,fudk xkwfa0jcif;jzpf&m olrsm;pufawGwGif nBuD;oef;acgif vdkufvHawmif;yefum
csufcsif; pufay:wGif &kdufay;yg&ef ajymavonf/
tcuftcJrsm;aMumifh 8sme,fudk pwifxkwfa0aponfqdkonfESifhyif tdrfudk
30

nae tcsdefrSefrSef jyef&onf&uf r&Sday/


8E0if8sme,f rxkwfcif usr\rdwfaqG yifvHka':Ek,Ofu ]]vkyfjyefNyDvm; 'Dt
vkyfudk? b,fawmh t&kd;wjcm; tomwjcm; vkdufaumuf&rvJ? rvkyfygeJY}}[kwm;jrpfav
onf/
vdkom pm;csdefr&Sd? em;csdefr&Sd? tdyfcsdefr&Sd? edp"l0 pcef;oGm;ae&rnfqdkvQif
olajymovdk t&d;k wjcm; tom;wjcm; jzpfEikd pf &m&So
d jzifh pufr&Sb
d v
J yk &f aom vkyif ef;
udk *sme,ftrSwf 1 rxGufrDyif yifyef;vGef; rvkyfcsifoavmufjzpfvmrdonf/
*E0if8sme,ftrSwf 1 rwfv xGufNyD;aemuf pufBuD;r&SdbJ rxkwfawmh[k qHk;
jzwfvdkufonf/
8sme,fukd qufrxkwb
f J &yfxm; tm;csdeef m;csde&f oGm;onft
h cdu
k f aoG;aomuf
xJwGif a&;vdkufaom aqmif;yg;rsm;aMumifh tem;&jyefonfr&SdbJ NrdKUay:u vlrrmawG
vmac:&m aemufodkY vdkufum tcsdefukefaejyefavonf/
waeYwiG f tm;vyf tvkyw
f u
kd &f dS pm;yGaJ y:u zdik w
f BJG uD;udk oGm;rsufppd ;l rdonf/
zdik w
f x
JG w
J iG &f o
dS nfv
h rl rmOD;a&u renf;ay/ zkikd w
f u
JG kd qGzJ iG v
hf u
kd u
f m w&GuNf yD;
w&Guf vSefzwfMunfhonf/
vlww
Ykd iG f axGjym;aom a&m8ga0'emrsm;teuf &Siv
f sufEiS afh oae&onfah vief;
a&m8gESifhvlxJolxJ r0ifEdkifonfhuk|Elema&m8gESpfrsdK;udk tjcm;a0'emrsm;xuf omvGef
pdwfyg0ifpm;jcif; jzpfonf/
onfvakd 0'emrsdK;udk aysmufuif;csrf;omatmif ukay;vdu
k
f usrtm; a0'em
&Siu
f trSw&f onfjzpfap? r&onfjzpfap? usrwwfoed m;vnfaom aq;ynm\tpGr;f ukd
rsm;pGm wefbdk;xm;um tESpfodrfhBuD; ESpfodrfhrdavonf/
pmawGxw
J iG f avief;ESihf uk|Ela&m8gonfrsm;udk a&G;ppf rSief jD zihf jcpfrw
S v
f u
kd f
um vlemOD;a& b,fESpfOD;vJ[ka&wGufMunfhonf/
uk|Elema&m8gpGJuyfaeaomolrsm;rSm avief;a&m8g pGJuyfaeolrsm;xuf ydkrsm;
avonf/
a,musfm; rderf toD;oD; a0'emonfrsm;txJwiG f trsdK;orD;uav;wa,muf
rSm ukay;&ef pmom a&;ay;vdkufNyD; vdyfpmtjynfhtpHk rygvmbJ rif;vS[k NrdKUESifhif;\
emrnfom ygvmonf/
uk|Elemudk aysmufuif;csrf;omEdik af tmif tjcm;Edik if t
H jcm;aq;0g;rsm; wwfprG ;f
EdkifMuovdk Armhaq;ynmrSmvnf; tjcm;EdkifiHrsm;xuf atmufrusbJ tpGrf;xufjruf
um oJvJpif aysmufuif;atmif ukay;Edkifayonf/
31

E-book is created by www.shanyoma.org

*sme,f a usmf r rav;

E-book is created by www.shanyoma.org

jref r mh a q;ynm

usraq;ynm oif,q
l nf;yl;pOfu emwm&Snf ud,
k yf sufaeonfu
h |k Elemudk ud,
k f
wdik f vufawGY ukocsifvo
S nfh qEjyif;jyaecdu
k f uHtm;avsmfpmG yif q&mBuD;xHoYkd rMunfh
0HHhatmif ukd,fysufaeaom rdef;uav;wOD; a&mufvmonfESifh tprStqHk; ukxHk;ukenf;
A[kokw udk,fawGY &&SdcGifh&Sd&ef q&mBuD;u oifjyay;avonf/
xdpk Ofu owif;pm8sme,fwzufEiS hf tvkyrf tm;vyfonfMh um;xJuyif tcsdeu
f kd
cdk; rdef;uav;&Sd&modkYom vpfavonf/ ukae&if; a&m8gxl;axG ajymif;vGJonfhoabm
awGrmS rsufpx
d w
J iG f rsufvn
S jhf yaeouJo
h Ydk tqef;wMu,fjzpfum cEmud,
k f ]]"mwf}}awG
upm;aeyHkudk tm&kHjyK&onfrSmvnf; pdwf0ifpm;p&m aumif;vSonf/
aemufq;kH a>rta&cGH vJvu
kd o
f vdk xdrk ed ;f uav; a0'em uRwfomG ;onft
h cgwGif
uk|ElemESifhywfouf toJpGJatmif rSwfom;rdonfhtcsufum; pdef? uHh? [if;&kdif;? jy'g;?
a&TaiG? ykvJponfh temESifhoufqdkifonhf"mwfrsm;udk auR;onfhtcg ruRrf;usifvQif
a&m8gudk olu pm;wwfNyD; uRrf;usifoludk a&m8gu pm;avyHkjzpfavonf/
tcsdKY aq;ukryS q
kd ;kd oGm;&jcif;wdrYk mS "mwfrEdik f "mwfrod t&k;d cdu
k af tmif wud,
k f
vHk;jyefYESHoGm;ukefjcif; jzpfayonf/
vlxrJ 0ifEikd o
f nfb
h 0qH;k aeolukd vlx0J ifEikd af tmif ydNYk yD;onfah emufwiG f usrtbdYk
uk|Elemonf jrifvQif b,fvrkd sm; ukay;csifreS ;f rod olt
Y em,lypfcsif pdwx
f rJ mS r&k;d r&G
txdjzpfcJhbl;onf/
xdu
k o
hJ Ykd uk|ElemESiyhf wfouf pdw0f ifpm;&onft
h xJ usrtm; txl;pdwx
f cd u
kd ?f
pdwf0ifpm;avmufatmif zefwD;vdkufonfhtaMumif;rSm. . .
usr armifwif0if;ac:aom armifti,fq;kH wa,muf&o
dS nf/ usr\owif;pm
wdu
k w
f iG f "mwfyo
kH wif;axmufvyk af eum vli,fb0 jzKef;vGe;f oH;k vGe;f ayvGe;f awvGe;f
ol'Pfudk rcHEdkifojzifh aemifMuOfap&ef olESifha0;a0;aevkdufonf/
usrESifha0;&m uG,f&mwGif aecsif&mae oGm;csif&moG; ayawae,if; vli,f
a&m8g pGJuyfum olY[mol q&m0efESifh Budwf aq;xdk;aeonf/ aq;tvHk;aygif; ra&Edkif
avmufatmif xdk;NyD;aemufrSm a&m8grSm oufomroGm;bJ &kyfysufqif;ysuf jzpfavmuf
atmiftxd tajctae qdk;oGm;onf/
aemufq;kH vlxrJ 0ifavmufatmif vl&yk yf sufomG ;onfb
h 0a&mufryS if olEiS u
hf sr
jyefqakH wGMY u&awmhonf/
olYudkjrifwmeJY olrSef;rodatmif tvGeftrif; &kyfysufqif;ysufaeykHudk uk &yg
awmhrvm;[k pdwfxdckdufoGm;onf/
yef;qdk;wef;&Sd 8sme,fausmftvkyfcef;udk ykHESdyfwdkufxm;aom vrf;40 t,f'Dwm
32

rsm;tcef;odYk ajymif;a&TU&um olt


Y m; udik w
f ,
G af y;rnfu
h v
k m;wa,muf xm;vsuf tvkyf
cef;xJwGif olYudkxnfh aomhydwf&avawmhonf/
tdrf&Sdvlrsm;rSm olYudkb,folrMunfh0HhMu? olYtem;odkY b,folrSvnf; roGm;vdkMu
awmhay/
uk|ElempGJuyf wudk,fvkH; tom;rsm;yGvsuf tzktxGwftoD;BuD;awGydefzl;
xaeNyD;aemuf ta&awG&TJusaeaom tElwa,mufESifhrjcm; olYrSmvnf; rnfolrQ olYudk
aphaph rMunfh&Jp&m jzpfysufaeavonf/
taMumtjcif qdkif;ukefvsuf ajcvufrsm; ukyfvmum rjrif0Hh r&I0Hh b0qHk;ae
onft
h jzpfukd ,lMuHK;r&jzpf,if; onfa0'em tjrpfjywfv;kH 0aysmufuif;csrf;om&m&av
atmif oH;k vwdik w
f ikd f rtdyrf ae tm;wdu
k cf eG w
f u
kd f vH;k yrf;tm;xkwu
f o
k ay;cJ&h avonf/
onfa&m8grsdK; onfaq;ESifh[k yHkaoum;cs ukxHk;enf; onmukrsdK; r[kwfbJ?
ynmjzifh ukoaejcif;jzpfojzifh vlrrmrSm xl;jcm;aomukx;kH ukenf;rsm;udk pdw0f ifpm;vm
\/ waeYwjcm; a&m*gpifvmjcif;udk udk,fwdkfifod udk,fwdkifoufaotjzpfeJY aq;uk,if;
ynmudk avhvmqnf;yl;vdkpdwf aygufvmavonf/
olajymonft
h wdik ;f yif olaY &m8g vH;k 0uif;pif csrf;omoGm;NyD;aemuf usrESirhf ae
awmhbJ q&mBuD;xHwGif wynfhcHvsuf q&mBuD;tdrfodkY ajymif;a&TUaeavonf/
vlaumif;yuwd jzpfomG ;NyD;aemuf tar&duefo&H ;Hk wGif "mwfyXHk mebuf tvkyf
0ifvkyfum q&mBuD;xHwGif ynmudk aeYnrjywf qnf;yl;avhvmoifMum;aeawmhonf/
orwtdraf wmf oH&;Hk {nfch yH pJG onfrh if;ykid ;f pk;d ykid ;f yGv
J rf;tv,fwiG f "mwfyu
Hk ifr&mukd ykc;Hk
vG,fvsuf ta&;ygt&ma&mufaomyk*Kdvfrsm;udk "mwfykHwjzwfjzwf vkduf&kdufaepOf
usrrSm ta0;rS olYukd wpdrfhpdrfhvSrf;Munfhae,if; ]onfynm usroifrdayvkdY awmfygao;
&JU}[k [if;csrdawmhonf/
ynmawmftwef qnf;yl;rdvQif waeY tdrfodkYolaygufvmonf/ usrudk jrifjrif
csif; ]uRefawmf tvkyfu xGufawmhr,f}[k ajymavonf/
]]bmvkyfxGufrvJ rif;vc ig;&mavmuf &w,f r[kwfvm;? b,fajymif;tkH;rvkdY
vJ}}[k usru jyefar;vkdufonf/
]]uRefawmf b,frS ajymif;vkyzf Ykd r[kwb
f ;l ? rEav; oGm;NyD; aq;wdu
k zf iG hf aq;uk
awmhr,f}}
usrrSm ]]a[. . . }} [kom qdkvdkufEdkif\/
olum; tvkyfudk pGefYvTwfum rEav;w&kwfwef;wGif aq;wdkufzGifhvsuf ]]q&m
armifwif0if;}} vkyfaeacsNyD/
33

E-book is created by www.shanyoma.org

*sme,f a usmf r rav;

E-book is created by www.shanyoma.org

jref r mh a q;ynm

uk|Elema&m8gonfrsm;twGuf ta0;rSvSrf;ukoae jrefjrefaysmufEdkifzdkYcuf


onf/ rsufpdatmufwGif Muyfrwfukoay;EdkifrSomvQif jrefjrefaysmufuif;Ekdifayonf/
uk|Elema&m*gonfrsm;\pmrsm;udk wapmifNyD;wapmif zwfNyD;aemuf olwkdYt
wGuf pdwftkdufrdonf/ usrukd,fwkdifvnf; oGm;a&muf rukay;Ekdif? ta0;rS"mwfpmaq;
0g;ay;vnf; rjzpf? onfjyemudk rajz&Sif;Ekdifatmif jzpfrdonf/
xdkYaMumifh xdkpmrsm;udk xm; avief;a&m8gonfrsm;\pmawGudk wapmifNyD;w
apmif vkduf&Smzwfrdjyef\/
udk,fwydkif;aoaomol ajcwpfzufvufwzuf aoaeaomol xdkvlemawGtm;
vnf; arwmtxl;xm;rd\/ &k;d &d;k a0'em&Six
f uf &Siv
f sufEiS ahf oae&onfb
h 0qd;k udk cHpm;
&rSyif rcsifhr&Jjzpfp&maumif;rSef; odEdkifMurnfjzpf\/
xdka0'emrsdK;rSmvnf; jzpfp r&ifhcifomvQif ta0;rS "mwfpmaq;0g;ydkYum enf;
nTefjyoEdkifonf/ &ufMum &ifhaeygu txl;ojzifh touft&G,f BuD;&ifhaeygu udk,f
wdkif rsufjrif tem;rSmaeum Muyfrwf ukoay;rSom jrefjrefaysmufuif;Edkifrnf/
avief;a&m8gonfrsm;udk ukonfhtcgwGif wxHk;wnf;? wenf;xnf;? waq;
wnf; ukr&acs/ olESifhwnfhwmudk t"du xm;&onf/
tcsdKY a&pdrfukocJh&onf/ tcsdKU 'gef;vTJukcJh&onf/ tcsdKU ajr"mwfay; ajrzdkY
ukcJh&onf/ vdrf;aq; aomufaq;rsm;yifvQi fwa,mufESifhwa,muf rwlMu/
aoaeonfhvufwzuf vIyfEdkifajrmufEdkif oGm;Edkifatmifaomfif;? qefYaeonfh
ajcaxmuf axmufEikd f avQmufEikd o
f mG ;atmifaomfif;? jyKvkyaf y;vdu
k &f onfavmuf pdwf
MunfEl;p&maumif;onfr&Sd/ toufoGif;ay;ovdk vIyfvm pdwf0ifpm;yHkrSmvnf; &dk;&dk;
a&m8grsdK;ESifhrwlacs/
usrvnf; avief;a&m8gonfrsm;\pmrsm;udk wapmifNyD;wapmif zwf&,
I if; vGef
cJo
h nfh 2 ESpaf vmufu avief;a&m8gESihf usr eyef;vH;k cJb
h ;l aom xH;k wxH;k udk oGm;trSw&f
rdonf/
usrcifyeG ;f qH;k NyD; ig;ESpaf jrmuftcsdejf zpfonf/ uG,v
f eG o
f mG ;onfv
h u vpOf
vwdkif; vqef; 2 &ufaeYwGif bkef;awmfBuD;rsm;ESifhqGrf;oGwfonfh0wfwck jyKvkyfxm;cJh
&m ig;ESpfjynfhtBudrfajcmufq,fajrmuf qGrf;auR;onfhtvSLudk jyKcsifvmonf/
vpOfvwdkif;vdk oHCmawmfrsm;om r[kwfbJ ig;ESpfjynfhajrmuf txdrf;trSwf
tjzpf olYrdwfaqGrsm;yg vl 100 cefY zdwfvdkufonf/
usrtdrfwGif vl 100 cefY xrif;auR;&ef usrESifhrdef;uav;taz:wa,muf
om&So
d nf/ rcsufjyKwfEikd Mf uojzifh qGr;f twGuaf &m vltwGuyf g qef;umaz;odYk vTt
J yf&ef
34

qef;umaz;wdkufodkY oGm;avonf/
]]vufcHxm;wJhtvSLawGu 'D&ufrSm qHkaevdkY vufrcHEdkifygbl;}}[k qef;OD;xGef;
&if\tudku ajymvdkuf&m vlawGudk zdwfpmvufurf;NyD;ojzifh rMuHwwfatmif jzpfoGm;
onf/
]]vufrcHEdkif,ifawmh tcufbJ OD;&,f? tm;vHk;vJ zdwfNyD;NyD/ &ufu uyfaeNyD/
'Djyif b,frsm; oGm;tyf&rvJ&Sif}}
]]'gjzihf&if 'Dvdkvkyf? cifAsm;taemufydkif;udkoGm; &efukefowif;pmwkdfufem;rSm
vufbuf&nfqdkfifwqdkif &Sdw,f? tJ'DqdkifrSm vl00BuD;wa,mufudk awGYvdrfhr,f? olYudk t
ukev
f v
JG u
kd ?f wm0ef,cl sufay;vdrrhf ,f? pm;yGu
J v
k m;xdik f yef;uefawmh wjcm;rSm oyfoyfig;
yg? uRefawmfwv
Ykd J wcgwav 'DrmS rEdik ,
f if olq
Y rD mS tyfNyD; csufcikd ;f &w,f? tcsuftjyKwf
rnHhzl;}}
qef;umaz;u nTefMum;vdkufonfhtwdkif; vl00BuD;udk oGm;&Smavonf/
vbuf&nfqdkiftem;odkY ra&mufcifbJ qdkifxJwGif xdkifaeaom vlykrJrJ00BuD;udk
ta0;u vSrf;jrifvdkuf&onf/
vl00BuD;[kajymvdu
k o
f nft
h wdik ;f yif 0vdu
k yf rkH mS pnfyikd ;f BuD;wnfxm;ouJo
h Ykd jrif
raumif;&Iraumif;atmif 0aeay\/ acgif;u ao;ao;ESifh cEmudk,fBuD;rSm ykwfBuD;
twdkif;yif? olYudk,frSol Edkifao;vm;&JU[katmufarhrdonf/
qdik x
f w
J iG f touf50cef&Y rdS nfrh ed ;f rydeyf ed w
f a,mufEiS v
hf 0l 0BuD;om &Sad vonf/
]]qef;}}u nTefvdkufonfhtaMumif;ajymjyum vl 100 xrif;auR;&eftwGuf wm0ef,l
csufauR;Edkifrnfvm;[kar;Munfhonf/
]]csufay;wmaygh? 'Dvdkcsufav axmywfxrif;&,f qdwfom;[if;? Muufom;
[if; csOfaygif&u
G [
f if;csdK? vufow
k w
f cGu?f ig;ydausmfvyJ gr,f? vlwa,muftwGut
f NyD;
tNidrf; oHk;usyfbJ? ravQmhzl;? uRefawmfhvuf&m aumif;raumif; aemufawmhMunfhav}}
pum;udk oG,f0dkufajymraebJ vdk,if;udp cyfwdkwfdk jywfjywfyif ajymonf/
]]OD; ajymwJhtwdkif;bJ usr ay;yghr,f? csufawmh b,frSm csufrSmvJ}}
]]reufzefukd aps;0,fNyD; nae 3 em&Davmuf 'Du uRefawmhred ;f r&,f? uRefawmf
&,f? uRefawmhom;&,f vmcJhr,f? [dka&mufrS wnvHk; csuf&rSm? uRefawmfwdkY tdk;cGufeJY
tpHk xif;ygrusef ,lcJhr,f? cifAsm; ae&may;&kHbJ}}
usrrSm p&HaiG ay;vdkufum udpat;oGm;jcif;udk &ifxJwGif ayghoGm;avonf/
csde;f onfah eY oH;k em&DavmufwiG f avmf&u
D m;BuD;ay: td;k cGuyf pn;f rsm;wifum
om;trd om;tzoHk;a,muf aygufvmMuonf/
35

E-book is created by www.shanyoma.org

*sme,f a usmf r rav;

E-book is created by www.shanyoma.org

jref r mh a q;ynm

tdraf emufaz;a&wGi;f teD;&Sd ajray: td;k cGuaf wGcsvsuf rD;zdMk uum csufjyKwf
zdkYpDpOfMuavonf/
olwdkYvJ tvkyf&Iyfaeonf/ usrrSmvnf; tdrfxJwGif pm;yGJukvm;xdkifrsm; cif;
usif;vsuf tvkyfrsm;aeavonf/
tcsdefrSm ukefrSef;rod ukefoGm;onf/ olwkdYcsufaeMuonfhae&mwGif o&ufyif
ukdif; oG,fxGef;ay;xm;aom "mwfrD;a&mifrSm xdefvif;ae\/ rD;a&mifatmufwGif vl
00BuD;\ZeD; ydefydefta':BuD;u pm;yGJckH MuufoGefxkdifvSD;aeonf/ vl00BuD;um; ykqkd;
wxnfudk acgif;wGifaygif;vsuf tusr&Sd udk,fwkH;vkH;BuD;ESifh zkday:&Sd [if;tkd;udk a,mif;
rBuD;ESifhrwfwyf&yf arTay;aeonf/ touftpdwfcefY&Sdonfhom;rSm a&wGif;wGif aumfzD
xkyfrsm;ukd aq;aMumaeonf/
]]OD;BuD; awmfawmfNyD;aeyvm;. . }. }[k usru rD;zdkayguf0u vSrf;ar;vdkufonf/
]]b,ftNyD; csufxm;vdjYk zpfrvJ? tcktom;awGukd i&kyo
f ;D eJY qDeYJ vH;k &kH vk;H xm;&
r,f? n 2 em&DavmufrS xNyD; xrif;a&m [if;a&m tm;vHk;csuf&rSm. . }. }
wudk,fvHk;rSm a&csdK;xm;ouJhodkY acR;vHk;acR;aygufwdkYonf wNydKufNydKuf,dkpD;
vsuf &Sdae\/ rD;cdk; rsufpdryGifhwyGifhESifh udk,fa&SUwGif plxGufaeonfh0rf;AdkufBuD;udk
a,mif;rESifhvGwfatmif cJcJ,Of;,Of; arTae,if;rS atmf ajymaeonf/
olYcEmudk,fESifh olYtvkyfudkjrif&onfrSm roufom ]0vdkufwmuvJ 'kubJ}[k
pdwfxJu nnf;qdk,if; tdrfxJodkYjyef0ifcJhonf/
eHeufbkef;BuD;rsm;twGufESifh {nfhonfrsm;twGuf tay:xyfrS atmufxyf ae
&mxdkifcif; yef;uefcGufa,muf tqifoifhcif;usif;jyifqifaeonfrSm n 12 em&Davmuf
rSNyD;pD;oGm;onf/
]]OD;BuD;wdkYtdyf,if tdrfxJ0iftdyfMuaemf}}[k usru jyLwif;aygufrS vSrf;ajym
vkdufonf/
vl00BuD;rSm tawmfyifyef;oGm;yk&H onf/ rD;zkEd iS rhf eD;ra0;ajray:wGif zsmwcsyf
cif;vsuf yufvufpefYae&m AkdufuG,fae olYajcaxmufudk oljrifcsifrS jrif&ayrnf/
]]tdrfxJrSm rtdyfEdkifbl;? 'Du aumif;w,f? avwdkufw,f? tdyfvJ rtdyfEdkifygbll;
Asm? cPvSJwmyg n 2 em&Davmuf pcsufrS reufrSDrSm. . . }}
waeYv;kH pdwaf rm ud,
k af rm armoGm;NyD; anmif;vm usrvnf; tdraf y:odw
Yk uf
um cif;xm;aom aumfaZmawGay:wGif tanmif;qefY&ef vSJcsvdkufonf/
rsufpdarS;vm rsufvkH;rsm;udk rSdwfvkdufwmESifh ig;ESpf&Sdygyaum[k oGm;avol
udk owd&rdonf/ oGm;avoltaMumif;udk awG;ae&mrS eufjzefvmrnfyh &dowfrsm;udk quf
36

awG;aejyefonf/ y&dowfrsm;teuf q&mBuD;ocifukd,fawmfrIdif;\]at;-at; vmrSm


ayghuG,f}[kajymNyD; oGm;avoltm; owdw& ajymjyvkdufaompum;wkdYonf em;wGif;odkY
wpdrfhpdrfh0ifaeavonf/
[Gef;oH oJhueJ wcsufMum;vdkuf&onf/ rsufvkH;udk ZyfueJ zGifhvkdufum uAsm
u,mvl;vJxvsuf jyLwif;aygufoaYdk jy;Munfo
h nf/ um;aemufyikd ;f \rD;eDav;udk &dyu
f eJ
om jrifvdkuf&onf/
]]t&kPfwufrS bkef;BuD;awG oGm;yifh&rSm b,fhES,f um;u tapmBuD;oGm;&wm
vJ}}[katmufxyf reufqrG ;f twGuf nbufu BudKwif vmtdyaf eaom wlav; armifp;kd
vGifudk atmfar;vdkufonf/
]]xrif;csufwJhvlBuD; wufaevdkY q&moGm;yifhwm}}
usrvnf; avSum;rSajy;qif;um aemufaz;odkY pGwfajy;0ifoGm;onf/
ajray: yufvufvSefaeaom vl00BuD;ay:wGif om;a&m r,m;a&mru reuf
tvSLtwGuf nOD;u a&mufvmMuaom usr\OD;av;a&m wufeif;aeMu\/
]]b,fvjkd zpfwmvJ}}[kajymajymqdq
k kd rsufEmS udk iHMYk unfv
h u
kd &f m wrsufEmS vH;k &GaJ e
vsuf yg;pyfrSxGufaeaomvQmudk oGm;ESifh olY[mol Budwfudkufxm;onf/
ta':BuD;u pdk;&drfpGmjzifh ajym&mwGif idkoHygaeavonf/
jrif&ykH racsrvS usrwudk,fvkH; ylxloGm;avonf/ tajctaerSm uref;u
wef;BuD; jzpfaeNyDjzpf csufcsif; aovQifvnf;ao raovQifvnf; avjzwfawmhay
rnf/
]]'Dtjyifzuf 'gavmuf avwdkufBuD;xJrSm rjzpfbl;. . . aor,fa&TUrS a&TUrS}}
&ifxJwGif xdwfvsuf url;&SL;xkd;ESifh udk,fwkdifayGY,la&TUawmhrvkdyif ajymvkduf
onf/ olYcEmudk,fBuD;udk txJodkYa&TUbkdY&mrSm rvG,fvSacs/
]]a&TUMuyg. . . a&TUMuyg? tdrfxJ ra&mufawmif rD;zdkxJa&muf,if awmfNyD udkif;
udkif;. . . }}
toufr&SLEkdifbJ ZGwftwif;om usr ajymae&onf/ a&wGif;em;rS rD;zdkxJodkY
[D;wdkuf b,fenf;a&TU,lMu&onfudk pmESifha&;om; azmfrjybJ "mwfyHk&kdufom jybdkY
aumif;awmhonf/
rD;zkdxJ a&mufvmaomtcg wawmifawmh ausmfNyD[k atmufarhvkdufum xdwf
rTefysmaeojzifh temESifhwnfhrnfhtxufqkH;vufeufudk tvG,fqkH;vnf; jzpfEkdifatmif
zkwfylrD;wkduf pOf;pm;&onfrSm acgif;udk ylajcmufoGm;onf/
Oa'gif;Zifa,mfMuifaz:vif;ouf [lonfah q;ynmu ay;xm;onfv
h ufeufEiS hf
37

E-book is created by www.shanyoma.org

*sme,f a usmf r rav;

E-book is created by www.shanyoma.org

jref r mh a q;ynm

wkdufrSjzpfrnf/ usrwGif aq;r&Sd aq;vnf; raqmifxm;? rD;zkdxJwGif&Sdonfhypnf;rsm;rS


vGJ olYtwGuf tjcm;udk;uG,ftm;xm;&m r&Sdawmhay/
uref;uwef; tavmoHk;q,fjzpfaeaoma0'emudk wdkuf&ef ynmt& &SmazG
udkif&rnfhvufeufrsm;rSm. . .
1/ i&kwfoD;wawmifh? 2/ a&SmufoD;oMum;? 3/ a&eH? usri,f&G,fpOfu ]q&m
qkdwm udkifrdwm aq;jzpf&w,f}[k Mum;zl;em;0&Sdbl;onf/ onfpum;rSm vlwkdif;yg;pyf
zsm;wGif xGef;um;aom pum;w&yfvnf; jzpfonf/
xdkpOfu q&mYvufESifhudkifvdkfuf,if aq;jzpfoGm;wmudk ajymwmvm;[k onfvdk
bJ xifrSwfcJhonf/
olv
Y ufEiS u
hf ikd w
f mESihf aq;jzpf&w,fqjkd cif;udk ,HMk unfEikd pf &mr&Szd ;l [kvnf; awG;
rdcJhw,f/
aq;ynmudk oif,lvdkufpm;rSyif q&mqdkwm trIefYt&nf aq;&SdrS q&mr[kwf
bJ wnfhwm rwnfhwmudk ydkif;jcm;em;vnfNyD; udkifwwf,if b,ft&m0wKrqdk aq;bJ[k
em;vnfoGm;onf/ ukdifuwnf;u udkifonfht&m0wKrSm aq;buftoHk;0ifwmudk udkif
onfht"dym,f oabmaygufawmhonf/
vlemrSm rD;zdkxJa&mufvQifyif aMumufvefYzG,f&m &kyfqif;ysufvmonf/ ]]z,f
z,f. . . tm;vkH; z,fMu}}[k vlawGudk &SJvkdufNyD;aemuf i&kwfoD;awmifhudk a&pnfydkif;xJodkY
vSrf;ESpfvkdufum vufESifhzspf ta&&vQif vlem\rsufcGefudk wGef;rum rsufpdxJodkY i
&kwfoD;&nfrsm; npfcsvkdufonf/
rsufpdxJ i&kwfoD;&nf0ifonfESifhwNydKifeuf olYoGm;ESifhwtm;udkufxm;aom olY
vQmudk vTwfvkdufavonf/ wudk,fvkH; a&cJwkH;BuD;uJhodkY at;puf awmifhaeonf/ rD;
cJxJwGif a&eHxnfh tckd;rsm; ESmacgif;xJokdYvkH;0ifatmif rIdif;rkefwkdif; wkdufay;&onf/
usrtzdkY toufr&SL&Javmuftmif wxdwfxdwf wzdkzdkjzpfcJh&aom njzpfonf/
olYtwGuf pdk;&drf&onfrSmvnf; rajymzG,fEdkif? tu,f wpHkwckjzpfoGm;u reufusvQif
onftdrfrSm romtdrf rkcsjzpf&awmhonf/
toufraysmufonfhwkdif a0'em roufombl;qkdygu t&kPfwuf<uvmrnfh
uk,
d af wmfrsm;tm; uefawmhqrG ;f ygbk&m;[kvyk &f NyD;vQif rk;d vif;a&mufvmMurnfyh &dowf
udk b,fvkdrsufESmjy&rnf rodawmhay/
nOD;u i&kwfoD;ESifhqDESifhom vkH;xm;onfhqdwfom; Muufom;[if;tkd;ESpftkd;
om &Sdonf/ axmywfxrif;vnf; rcsuf&ao; tjcm;[if;&Hrsm;vnf; rukdif&ao;/
tzufzufu qkH pkd;&drfxdwfvefY Asmrsm;ae&onfhMum;xJ b,fae&mu acguf
38

vkdufrSef;rod em&DoHacsmif; 2-csufacgufoHMum;&ojzifh acgif;udk acgufvkdufovm;yif


rSwfxifvkduf&onf/
vlemeHab;wGif uyfxidk v
f suf yg;pyfukd twif;zGi
hf yg;pyfxo
J 0Ydk ifatmif a&Smuf
&nfESifhoMum;azsmfxm;onfht&nfudk r&yfrem; tpufcsay;ae&onf/
xdktcsdef vlrrmrSvGJ tjcm;bmudkrQ vSnfhrMunfhawmh? tdrfuum;ESifhyifhvm
aomolYwdkY q&mudk vSnfhrQrMunfhtm;EdkifbJ q&mtem;a&mufvmoH Mum;Mum;csif;
]]q&mhukd jyefyv
Ykd u
fkd &f m ta':BuD;u wlr&,f oufomyghrh vm; jzpfyghrvm;}}[k wkew
f ek &f &D D
ar;aejyefacsonf/
]]tkd aysmufr,f-pdwfcs? tck aysmufrSm. . . }} vlrrSm tvsOf;owdr&ao;ay/
ukd,fawG vufawGrS vIyfEkdifygawmhrvm;[k pdwfrcsEkdifojzifh vufudk cPcP qkyfudkif
Munfhrdonf/
um;xGufoGm;oHMum;&rS q&mawmh jyefNyD[k owdjyKrdonf/
vlemtm; rnfrQtm&HkpdkufvHk;yrf;&jcif;? avief;ESifh usr pGefYpGefYpm;pm; b,fvdk
eyef;vHk;ae&jcif;rSm tem;uolrsm; odcsifrSod&ayrnf/ t&SdefESifhajy;aeaom um;
aemufodkY usrrDatmif vdkufae&ojzifh arm[dkufyifyef;vSacsonf/
usrzufodkY ygvmvkduf olYzufodkY ygoGm;vkdufESifhavief;ESifhusrrSm olwjyef ig
wjyef jzpfaeMu\/ vlem\t&dyftuJudk puefYrQtvpfray;bJ rSefMunfhovkd Munfhum
pdwf&Sdvuf&SdEkdifatmif xkdifwkdufae\/
usroif,lxm;aom aq;ynm"mwfoabmum; a&rsm;a&Ekdif rD;rsm;rD;Ekdifjzpf
xufjrufonfh"mwfESifh usrEkdifatmif vkyfbkdYomvqif t"dujzpfayonf/
]wrvGeb
f 0odaYk jymif;oGm;aom cifyeG ;f onftm;if;? uk,
d af pmifeh wf? tdraf pmifh
ewf. . . }}
usronf wkef&DaomvufESifharmif;axmifcGufxJodkY a&pufoGef;csaeonf/ yef;
awmif;q&mawmfBuD; wkdifay;onfhtwkdif; EIwfrSa&pufcsvkdufqkd,if; usr\ig;ESpf
ajrmuftvSL rysuruGuf xajrmufatmifjrifomG ;jcif;twGuf &ifxw
J iG f odrchf gvsuf ESpf
NcdKuftm;&jcif; jzpfae\/
t&kPfwuf oHCmawmfrsm; pm;Muaom qGrf;ESifhxkdaeYeHeufu <uvmMuonfh
rdwfaqGy&dowftaygif;wkdY okH;aqmifoGm;Muaom xrif;[if;vsmwkdYonf vl00BuD; t
csdefrD xcsufay;avaom xrif;[if;vsmrsm; jzpfayownf;/
avief;a&m*gpmrsm; zwf&INyD;aemuf tjcm;a&m*ga0'emonfrsm;\pmrsm;udk
wapmifNyD;wapmif zwfaejyefonf/
39

E-book is created by www.shanyoma.org

*sme,f a usmf r rav;

E-book is created by www.shanyoma.org

jref r mh a q;ynm

wzkid w
f v
JG ;Hk zwfNyD;oGm;aomtcg pmykBH uD;udk ,aeYpmjyefawmht[
hH k zkid w
f u
JG kd arSmuf
vku
d af vonf/ atmufzufq;Hk a&mufaeaom a&S;OD;pGm a&mufonfph mup tpOfvu
kd f
wapmifNyD;wapmif jyefMum;oGm;&ef pmwapmif jyefpa&;Munfhonf/
ol\a0'emudk csdefqvsuf "mwfpmay; enf;ay; a&;om;jyefMum;&rnfjzpfav
onf/
xdkaeYu usr jyefMum;vdkufaompmrsm;rSm 1/ r8Fvm'Hkppfaq;&kHrS udkcifOD;? 2/
wmarG tmabm8vrf;rS udkazodef;? 3/ 'vrS udkusifaz? 4/ wuodkvf0if; waumif;
aqmifrS a':rrav;? 5/ rk'rkH S udn
k eT v
Yf iG ?f 6/ jynfo&Yl u
d m axmufyahH &;&k;H pma&;udik Xf merS
cifjrifhjrifh? 7/ o&ufNrdKUrSudkudkBuD;? 8/ armfvNrdKifNrdKU 'nif;ukef;&yfrSa':MunfMunf? 9/
wHwm;OD;tdrfopfwef;rS udkAat;? 10/ udkoef;xGef;? 11/ arSmfbD qyfoGm;awmaq;&kHrS
ukv
d aS rmif? 12/ "m;wef; rvGe&f yf rEav;qdik w
f ef;rS OD;tH;k az? 13/ MuHcif;NrdKUtif;vyf&yf
rS a':at;Munf? 14/ tv,fawm&ausmif;wku
d f abmif'&Dvrf;rS OD;xGe;f jrif?h 15/ tif'kd
ae&Sm; 8sumwmNrdKU jrefrmoH&Hk; oHtrwfBuD;\ZeD; a':EkEk. . .
wq,fih g;apmifavmuf qufwu
kd af &;om;NyD;onft
h cg vufanmif;NyD; OD;aESmuf
yloGm;awmhonf/
aemuf xyf pma&;&rnfph mrsm;rSm pm w&mausmfavmufjyef&rnfjzpfaeonf/
usrvnf; q,fih g;apmifomvQif waeYxJ a&;Edik af wmhvsuf usefpmrsm;udk waeY
pD enf;enf; a&;jyefoGm;rnf[kxm;vdkuf&jyefonf/
twGif; *E0iftwGuf ykHESdyfpufBuD;rSm wkdufay:odkY a&mufvmacsonf/ ykHESdyf
pufBuD; a&mufvm *sme,fjyefxkwf&ef jzpfvmjyefonf/
pmawG jyefcsdefr&Edkifao;onfhtwGif; vlemrsm;rSm aeYpOf vma&mufawGYqHkpOf
aeMuonfuwzuf aemufxyfvnf; pmawGa&mufaejyefav&m waeYxufwaeY rdkYae
aom zdkifwGJBuD;udk Munfh usrzufu 0w&m;ysufuGufjcif;udk b,fvdkvkyf&yghrvJ[k pdwf
roufrom jzpfrdonf/
&yfa0;&yfe;D vlrsm;tm; "mwfpmay; enf;ay;ae&kEH iS rhf jzpf? aq;0g;yg&Sb
d v
Ykd akd v
ao; aq;jyemuvnf; &Sdao;onf/
aemufq;kH usr\tajctaerSm 8sme,fcsnf; xkwaf erjzpf? aq;wdu
k zf iG
hf aq;
vnf; ukrS jzpfawmhrnfhyHk jzpfaeayawmhownf;/

40

"mwfynmum; . . . a&S;OD;pGm ynwfESifhy&rwf


ukd uGJjym;xif&Sm;atmif jypGrf;Ekdifaom
tajccHynmrsKd; jzpfonf/

41

E-book is created by www.shanyoma.org

*sme,f a usmf r rav;

jref r mh a q;ynm

E-book is created by www.shanyoma.org

oli,fem
rdk;ay:uqif;vmaom odMum;rif;ESihfawGY&ovdkyif rSwfxifMuum 1-rdepf? 2rdepfcefYNidrfoufaeMu&onfhtawmtwGif; &ifxJ ckefaeavonf/
cifav;jrifo
h nf olt
Y azay: xdik af eum q&m0efukd rMunf0h b
hH J rsufv;kH uav;
rdSfwfvsuf ajcaxmufudk tomqefYwef;ay;xm;onf/
q&m0efu ajcrrSudkif ajcaxmufudk qGJcgvIyfMunfhvdkufonfwdkifatmifvnf;
rsufvHk;wcsufrzGifh? aMumuftm;vefYtm;jzifh eif;uefrdSwfxm;avonf/
q&m0efonf ajcaxmufudktomt,m jyefvTwfcsvdkufum csKdjrpGm jyKH;Munfh
vkdufonf/ cav;\acgif;uav; ykwfvsuf ]]cav;a&. . . cav;a&}}[kac:vdkufonf/
cifav;jrifh rsufvHk;zGifh rMunfh OD;cspfarmifuyg ]]0ufr. . . 0ufr. . . 'DrSm azhazhudk Munfh
prf;}}[k iHkYac:avonf/ cifav;jrifhudk awmfawmfESifhrsufvkH; zGifhckdif; r&? aemufrS rsuf
vkH;uav; r&Jw&J zGifhMunfhvsuf olYtaz aygifay:rS usrxHodkY ajy;vmrnfvkyfonf/
]]onfrSm cav;. . . cP aeygtHk;? OD;cspfarmif. . . olYudkvrf;avQmufcdkif;prf;yg}}
usrrSm tajctaeudk odcsifvSNyD? q&m0efpum;udk Mum;csifvSNyD? q&m0ef prf;
oyf rNyD;ao; &ifxJu wxdxdwfESifh apmifhae&onf/
cifav;jrifhudk q&m0efa&SU vrf;avQmufjyatmif acsmhMu&onf/ usrwkdY acsmh
ajymaeMuckduf rsufvkH;jymjym? ESmacgif;cRefcRef tom;eDeD&Sdaom q&m0ef\rsufESmykHyef;
udk tvpfckd;Munfhvsuf aygifay:rS rxbJ ayuyfxkdufaeonf/
]]orD;av;. . . wifyg;xJu emw,fqdk? tJ'gaysmufoGm;r,f? xav avQmufjy
vdkuf? x. . . x}}
q&m0efonf udk,fudk qefYqefY&yfum vuf0g;ESpfzufaemufjzefY cg;axmufxm;
vsuf usrwkdYudk jyKH;Munfhaeonf/ jyKH;vsufuyif cav;a0'emudk pl;prf;aeaomrsufpd
jzifh rsufarSmifMuKwfxm;onf/ q&m0efrSm cifav;jrifhtxudk jyKH;&yfapmifhaeonf/
olYtazu csKdif;rSukdif rxlay;,if; ]t&kyfvkdcsifw,fqkd xav. . . vkdufvkduf}
qkdrS ]azazyg x}[k wkd;wkd;uav; armhajymonf/
]]azazh ukdifrxm;eJYav. . . 0ufrzmom 0ufravQmufrSaygh azazvJ avQmufr,f
vm. . . }}
42

om;tz ESpfa,mufonf {nfhcef;tqkH; tkwfeH&Htxd avQmufoGm;Muavonf/


OD;cspfarmifab;rS cifav;jrifhu cyfajz;ajz; uyfavQmufvkdufoGm;avonf/ q&m0ef
rSm cifav;jrifah vQmufyu
Hk dk rsufawmifrcwf vSr;f Munfah eonf/ {nfch ef;zufoYkd jyefavQmuf
vmMuaomtcg usrtem;odkY ]pdwfryleJY rpfcspfarmif. . . pkd;&drfp&m bmrSr&Sdygbl;}[kvm
ajymonf/
usronf 0rf;omtm;& &Iduf yifhoufcsvkdufum pdwfudk trsm;BuD; ayghyg;oGm;
awmhonf/
ppftwGif; *syefacwfu a&TawmifMum;vrf; Akdvfvusfmtdrf usrwkdYaeMupOf
cifav;jrifhrSm okH;ESpforD; &Sdao;onf/ waeYrSm tzsm;aysmufcgp xupm;ae,if; wif
yg;xJu emw,f[kqkdum ikdaeavonf/ ajy;vTm;upm;,if; taMumrsufoGm;onfxif
rSw
f wifyg;udk vDerD ifaq;rsm; vdr;f ay;vku
d o
f nf/ aq;vl;ay;vnf; tvsOf;raysmuf
oufomovkd xupm;NyD; wifyg;xJu emw,f[k nOf;idkaewwfonf/
usrrSm bmjzpfwmrSe;f rod pdwyf v
l monf/ cifav;jrifu
h kd jynfoaYl q;&ko
H aYkd c:
oGm;um q&m0efqD oGm;jyonf/ q&m0efu ajcaxmufudk prf;oyfMunfhNyd; aq;xkd;ay;
vkdufonf/ ppftwGif; aq;pGrf;aq;aumif; &Sm;yg;vSaMumif;udk q&m0efu nnf;ajym
vkdufao;onf/
]]'g-oli,ffe,ac:w,f[Jh-aq;xkd;raeeJY oli,femtkyfaq;uav; vdrf;ay;
prf;yg}}[k BuD;awmfBuD;u aq;rxkd;&ef uefYuGufonf/ xkdtcsdefu t*Fvdyfaq;omvQif
aq;xifvsuf Armtkyfaq;udk aq;[l av;av;pm;pm; todtrSwfrjyKcsifojzifh BuD;
awmfBuD;pum;udk em;r0ifEkdifbJ aq;&kHomoGm;um aq;xkd;ay;aeawmhonf/
aq;xkd;NyD;aemufvnf; wifyg;xJu emw,f[kom ajymaeonf/ wifyg;emrSm
aMumufNyD; vrf;udk aumif;aumif;ravQmufbJ tNrJxkdifupm;aeawmhonf/
]]ayghraeeJY[hJ. . . 'g[m oli,fem[Jh. . . Armq&mac:jyprf;. . . }}[kBuD;awmfBuD;u
em;ylem;qm vkyfaeavonf/ q&m0efaq;xkd;aeonfjzpf Armq&mudk jy&ef pdwfrul;
bJ q&m0efpum;om em;axmifum q&m0efYtrSmtwkdif; vkyfay;aeonf/
*syefwacwfvkH; cifav;jrifhudk vrf;MumMumavQmufckdif; r&bJ txkdifrsm;ae
avonf/ avQmufckdif; avQmufvQifvnf; cPwjzKwfom avQmufum wifyg;xJu em
w,fqkdvsuf xkdifcswwfacsonf/ q&m0efYtrSmtwkdif; wifyg;udk a&aEG;tdwf uyfay;
&vGef; cifav;jrifhvnf; a&aEG;tdwfudk aMumufaeonf/ vrf;ravQmufbJ aevQif a&
aEG;tdwfudk jy acsmufrS xavQmufoGm;avonf/
*syefwacwfvkH; t*Fvdyfaq;0g; &Sm;yg;vSonf/ t*Fvdyfaq;aumif;rsm; r&Sd
43

E-book is created by www.shanyoma.org

*sme,f a usmf r rav;

E-book is created by www.shanyoma.org

jref r mh a q;ynm

om jrefjrefraysmufjzpf&onf/ t*Fvdyfvufxufwkef;ursm;jzpfvQif ,ckvkd MuMumcH


pm;ae&rnfr[kwf[k xifjrifum t*Fvdyfaq;aumif;rsm;ESifha0;ae&jcif;twGuf pdwf
tm;i,frdonf/
cifav;jrifh touf (7) ESpft&G,fwGif ppfBuD;NyD;oGm;avonf/
8syeftxGuf t8Fvdyft0if usrwdkY odrfacsmif;&Gmu &efukefbufodkYjyefcJh\/ uH
bJhwGif acwaexdkifMu&onf/ xdktcsdefwGif usrwdkYtdrfteD;tem; t8Fvdyfppfwyf cs
vsuf ppfom;rsm;\&Gufxnf&kHrSm tdrfudk0dkif;&HaeMuayonf/ tdrfem; ppfwyfa&mufvm
NyD; ppfwyf rodrf;cifuav; tdrfem;u ppfwyfxJrS rsufESmjzL ar8smppfAdkvfwOD;ESifhtod
jzpfcMhJ uonf/
usrwkt
Yd rd o
f Ykd tvnftywf0ifxu
G f oGm;vmaeaom ar8smppfAv
kd u
f kd waeYo
pum;pyfrd ppftwGif; usrorD;av; vrf;avQmufvQif wifyg;rsufaewm aq;aumif;
r&Sdojzifh aumif;aumif; raysmufbJjzpfaeaMumif; ajymjyrdonf/
]]td;k . . . [kwv
f m; onfvq
kd &kd if jrefjrefuv
k u
kd yf g? tckaq;&kBH uD;rSm taMumtjcif
ukowJh py,f&,
S v
f pfq&m0efBuD; ar8smrpfcs,fv&f w
dS ,f? olu
Y jkd yyg? eufjzefnae usKyfac:
vmcJhr,f}}
ppfAdkvf\pum;udk Mum;&aomtcg usrwdkYZeD;armifESHrSm wa,mufrsufESm w
a,muf vSrf;MunfhvdkufMuum ppfAdkvfa&SU a`Eyif raqmifEdkifbJ ]bk&m;odMum;rwm
bJ}[k 0rf;omtm;& ajymrdonf/
taMumt&dk;py,f&S,fvpfq&m0efBuD;u usrudk udpr&Sdygbl; ajymqdkNyD;aemuf
cifav;jrifu
h kd qdzk may: jyefxikd cf ikd ;f vsuf ajcaxmufuav;udik u
f m ajcrsufaphukd vuf
rESifh ESdyfMunfhaejyefonf/
]]emovm;. . . cav;}}
cifav;jrifhonf rsufvHk;uav; aMumifawmifjzifh q&m0efajymwm rMum;ovdk
t&kyfuav;twdkif; Nidrfaeonf/
]]0ufr. . . emovm;[if. . . q&m0efESdyfawmh emovm;}}
ol\acgif;udk &rf;vdkufum ajcaxmufuav;udk vdrfvsuf rnfholYudkrQ rMunfhbJ
acgif;udk iHkYxm;vdkfuf\/
]]vrf;avQmuf,if wifyg;xJu jrufwm[m ajcrsufpdu taMumuav; xyfae
vdkY jzpf&r,f taMumuav;ukd jznfay;vdkuf,if wifyg;u emawmhr,f r[kwfbl;? reuf
jzef aq;&kHwifyg/ aysmufoGm;atmif vkyfay;r,f}}
q&m0ef jyefoGm;NyD;aemuf cifav;jrifhudk eufjzefaq;&kHwifzdkYta&;? BuD;awmf
44

BuD;u jApfawmufjApfawmufESifh qlyluefYuGufaeay\/


]]nD;wdkYrvJ wqdwf&Sd q&m0ef 'grsm;at aq;&kHwiftHk;rvdkYvm; oli,femath
oli,fem ? vl;aq;tkyaf q;uav;eJY ESyd af y;wmeJY wajz;ajz; aysmufrmS bJvYkd ajymaewm
aq;&kH rwifMuygeJY}}
usrBuD;awmfrSm a&S;tr,fBuD;rkdY t*Fvdyfaq;ynmukd r,kHMunfwm[k xifjrif
um jApfawmufjApfawmuf ajymaejcif;udk pdwfr&SnfEkdifawmhbJ jyefajymrdonf/
]]tkd. . . tBuD;uvJ aq;&kHwifwm bmjzpfovJ? aumif;atmif vkyfay;wmbJ? t
BuD;rkefnif;qD vl;ay;aevkdYaum aysmufvkdYvm;tBuD;&JU}}
]]rken
f if;qD vl;ay;Ekid v
f Ydk oufomwm r[kwv
f m;[J?h wk&Yd mG u udak usmufv;Hk om;
uav;vJ 'DvkdbJjzpfwmbJ? oli,femaq;cGHYNyD; vykdifqDeJYESdyfay;wmeJY aysmufoGm;wmbJ
awmf}}
]]tBuD;vykdifqDu b,fu&rSmvJ? tckukrJhq&m0efu taMumtjcifudk em;vnf
wJhq&m0ef? aq;&kHwifawmh aysmufr,fr[kwfvm;. . . tBuD;&JU}}
usrESifhtBuD;wkdY wa,mufwcGef; jzpfaeMujcif;udk em;axmifaeaomOD;cspf
armifu. . . ]]pdwfryleJYtBuD;&,f? aumif;oGm;rSmaygh}}[k at;at;oufom 0if&Sif;ajym
jyonf/
aemufwaeY usrwdkY cifav;jrifhudk aq;&kHac:oGm;Muonf/ q&m0efu usrudk
tjyifbuf aeapum OD;cspfarmifEiS chf ifav;jrifu
h kd tcef;xJoYkd ac:oGi;f oGm;onf/ tjyif
2-em&DcefY xdkifapmifhaeojzihfh tcsdefMumae b,fvdkrsm; vkyfaeygvdrfh[k odcsifpdwf
BuD;rm;aeawmhonf/
odcsifaZmjzifh apmifhqkdif;aepOf wcsdefvkH; usrvSrf;Munfhaeaomtcef;wHcg;
aygufonf yGifhvmum vufwGef;vSnf;uav; xGufvmonf/ usrvnf; vufwGef;vSnf;
uav;qDodkY xajy;oGm;onf/ vufwGef;vSnf;uav;ay: yufvufuav;ygvmaom
cifav;jrifhonf toufr&Sdovkd rsufvkH;rSdwfvsuf yg;pyf tjrKyfwpDpD xGufaeonf/
]]udkudkNydD;yvm;. . . b,fvdkvkyfvdkufwmvJ}}
vufwGef;vSnf; aemufrS xGufvmMuaom OD;cspfarmifESifhq&m0efudk pdk;&drfBuD;
pGm ar;vdkufonf/
]]arhaq;ay;NyD; ajcrsufaphu taMumuav; xHk;aewm jznfvdkufw,f? tck
ajc axmufudk yvmpwmESifhudkifxm;w,f? wvMumrS jznf&r,fwJh}}
usrrsufpdxJ aysmufrSmbJvdkY wxpfcs xHkMunfxm;aomfvnf; arhaq;rajycif
jrif&awGY&yHkrSm roufomvSojzifh rsufpdrsufESmysufum pdwfxJ aemufoGm;onf/
45

E-book is created by www.shanyoma.org

*sme,f a usmf r rav;

E-book is created by www.shanyoma.org

jref r mh a q;ynm

cifav;jrifo
h nf owd&wmESiyhf if ]]tdrjf yefr,f azaz jyefr,f}}[k atmf[pfiakd jym
ae\/ acsmharmhajymqdkr&atmif idkae aemufqHk; q&m0efu usrudk cav;cef;xJ
cifav;jrifhESifhtwl aexdkifcGifhjyKvdkufonf/
usrrSm cifav;jrifah b;&Sd uav;ukwifuav;wvH;k ay: acGtyd af evsufwn
vH;k yif tdrrf aysmfEikd b
f J t*Fawudik x
f m;onfah jcaxmufjzLjzLBuD;udk cPcPxMunfah erd
onf/
aq;&kH 10-&uf aecJhMuonf/ 10-&ufaphvQif q&m0efu tdrfodkYac:oGm;&ef
cGifhjyKvsuf wvaphrS jznfMu&ef ajymqkdonf/
cifav;jrifhudk aq;&kHrS tdrfokdYac:oGm;onfhtcg tBuD;onf ajcaxmufjzLBuD;
udk vmukdifMunfhvsuf rsufESmraumif; jzpfae\/ ]]acwfrDukenf;tBuD;&JU-'Dvkdukenf;
rsKd; a&S;ur&Sdbl;? tckppfNyD;rS odyfwkd;wufvmwmbJ}}[k ajym&onf/
cifav;jrifh tdrfa&muf 10-&ufcefYMumvQif q&m0efBuD;ar*smrpfcs,fonf
bdvyfodkY jyefoGm;&avonf/ bD;vyfrjyefcif OD;cspfarmifu q&m0efBuD;tm; aus;Zl;
wifaMumif;txdr;f trSwf vufaqmifwck ay;vkv
d o
S nfq
dk q&m0efBuD;ZeD;twGuf pdef
ESifhjr &Hxm;aom 1500d wef vufpGyfwuGif; trSDvkyfum vufaqmifay;vkdufMuonf/
q&m0efu wvaphvQif vTuav;ESifhrHxm;aomyvmpwmrsm;udk wkdufjznf&ef rSmMum;
oGm;avonf/
cifav;jrifhrSm wvvkH; tdyf&may: yufvufae&onf/ zGifh&rnfh&ufudkom w
ar;xJar;um pdwt
f u
dk v
f suf wcgw&Hvnf; txJu ,m;w,f zGiahf y;ygawmh[k atmf[pf
idk,kdaeavonf/
wvaphaomtcsdefodkY a&mufayNyD/
usrwdkYrSm vTuav;udk BudKwif&Smxm;Muonf/ cifav;jrifhudk ukwifay:rS ayGY
vsuf {nfhcef;xJu qdkzgay:wGif xdkifapum olYtazu vTuav;jzifh tzwfMuD;udk tom
wdu
k jf zwfay;avonf/ tBuD;ESiu
hf srrSm t8FawuJo
h rYkd mausmvSonft
h cGBH uD; ruGmrcsif;
tem;u wxdwfxdwfESifhMunfhaeonf/
'l;qpfu ajcz0g;txd rHtHkxm;aom tzwfBuD;rSm vTcsufjzifh wajz;ajz; [yGifh
vmonf/ olYtom;udk xdrnfpdk; wcsufwcsuf vefYzsefY&kef;aejyefaomaMumifh ]]0ufr
NidrNf idraf eav azaz ajz;ajz; vkyaf y;r,f}}[k acsmharmh&vsuf tom; rxdatmif 8&kpu
kd f
NyD; vTEiS w
hf u
kd af eonf/ OD;cspfarmif\ezl; acR;aygufrsm; pdx
Yk u
G af eatmif toufr&SLbJ
owdxm; vkyfudkifaeyHkudk pdwfxJ Mumw,f xifrdonf/
wcef;vHk; wdwfqdwfaeavonf/ vToHonf touf&SLoHrsm;ESifhvkdufum jref
46

qefvmavonf/ 'l;qpfrSajcz0g;txd [yGifhoGm;um txJrSajcaxmufuav; ay:vm


onf/
]][Jh. . . }}
tBuD;\atmfoHjzpfonf/
usronf cifav;jrifh\ajccHkxdyfajcqpf vufndK;wacsmif;pmavmuf&Sdrnfh
uif;ajcrsm;oPmefay:aeaom csKyf&dk;BuD;udk pl;pdkufMunfhum rsufpdxJ jrifvdkuf&aom
ajcz0g;taetxm;udk vefYzsefYoGm;vsuf]]orD; xprf; xprf; avQmufprf;}}[k 8rl;&SL;
xdk;ajymvdkufonf/
cifav;jrihfonf xdkif&mrSxum {nfhcef;tqHk; tkwfeH&Htxd avQmufoGm;onf/
]][if}}
OD;cspfarmif\toHEiS Nhf ydKifwl usru ]]tk}d }[k vefaY tmfjrnfvu
dk rf o
d nf/ ]tr,f
av;awmf}[l vnfacsmif;xJu npjf rnfaeonft
h qk;H Ekid af omtBuD;\toHBuD;aMumifh
&ifxJ vIdufum ykdrkd zkdoGm;awmhayonf/
cifav;jrifhonf ratrGef;wkef;u ajcaxmuftaumif; aq;&kHykdYvkdufumrS ajc
z0g;wzuf ab;okdY&GJUoGm;um ajcwacsmif;utwnfh ajcwacsmif;u t&GJUjzifh usrwkdYudk
t&kyfqkd;pGm vrf;avQmufjyaeonf/
usrrSm rsufpad wG jymvmvsuf &ifwckecf ek ?f wvSyv
f yS jf zifh ]][J.h . . 0ufr wnfw
h nfh
avQmuf prf; wnfw
h nfah vQmuf wnhw
f nhaf vQmuf}}[k aMumufaMumuf vefv
Y efY atmfajym
vdkufavonf/
]]wnfhwnfh xm;vdkYr&zl;. . . arar&JU 'DOpm [dkzufa&mufoGm;NyD}}
OD;cspfarmifonf cifav;jrifh avQmuf[efudk MunfhaepOfu ausmuf&kyfBuD;vkd
jzpfae&mrS. . . cifav;jrifhudk oGm;ayGYvkdufonf/ ukvm;xkdif cifav;jrifhudk aygifay:
wifxkdifNyD; acgif;BuD;ikHYum pdwftawmf xdckdufoGm;avonf/ pdwfraumif;vGef;vGef;
cifav;jrifh\ajcaxmufudk ,k,k,,e,faeonf/ xkdaemuf usrrsufESmudk rMunfh&uf
Munfh&ufjzifh wajz;ajz; armhMunfhonf/
usrrSm ae&mrS vIyf&Sm;vkdYyif r&EkdifbJ ol\rsufESmudk rsuf&nf0dkif;aeaomrsuf
vkH;jzifh jyefqkdifMunhfaerdonf/
]]tr,fav;awmf. . . oli,femygvdYk ig wzGzaG jymyg&ufeYJ aq;&kw
H ufcv
JG u
kd Mf uwm
tckawmh jrifvdkYaumif;Muao;&JUvm;. . . }}
tBuD;onf &SKdufum&SKdufum ikdjrnfwrf;NyD;aemuf tem;wGif raecsifawmhbJ
tcef;xJodkY x0ifoGm;onf/
47

E-book is created by www.shanyoma.org

*sme,f a usmf r rav;

E-book is created by www.shanyoma.org

jref r mh a q;ynm

cifav;jrifrh mS ajcaxmuf&UJG oGm;jcif;udk 0rf;enf;&rSe;f em;rvnfaomfvnf; t*F


awtcGHcGmvkdufjcif;udk 0rf;omauseyfae&Smonf/ olYajcaxmufu csKyf&kd;BuD;udk ukef;
vufESifhyGwfMunfhvkduf &GJUaeonfhajcz0g;udk vufESifhqGJMunfhvkdufESifh tNidrfudk raebJ
aygifay:wGif wvIyfvIyf vkyfaeonf/
usrrSm olaY jcaxmufukd rjrif0ahH tmifjzpfum Munfch sifpw
d f r&Sad wmhacs/ olt
Y az
udkvnf; bmajym&rSef; pum;&SmrawGYbJ qdkYaewm &yfaeonfhtwdkif; &yfae&mrS rsuf&nf
awG pD;usvmonf/
olonf usrvufudk vSrf;qGJudkifvdkufum usrudk bmrSrajymEdkifbJ rsufESmudkom
pdkufvsufMunfhaewkef;yif. . .
]]tysdKuav;rsm;jzpfvm,if. . . udkudk&,f}}
usrrSm a&SUodkYquf ajymEkdifpGrf; r&Sdawmhacs/ ol\rsufESm wjyifvkH; rJarSmif
oGm;onfudkom jrifvkduf&awmhonf/
cifav;jrifh odaYk jcaxmuf&UJG oGm;NyD;aemuf wvavmufMumvQif olt
Y az aq;
&kH qkH;oGm;avonf/
aoaomoltwGuf pdwfqif;&Jjcif; 'kuomru &SifaomoltwGuf pdwfqif;&J
jcif;'kuukdyg aeYpOfaeYwkdif; cHpm;ae&onf/ cifav;jrifhonf wifyg;u emonf[k cgwkdif;
vkd rajymaomfvnf; cg;udkvdrfum &GUJapmif;&GJUapmif; avQmufaeykHrSm MumavMumav t
&kyfqkd;aeojzifh BuD;awmfpum;udk em;raxmifbJ aq;&kHwif &GJU&wm[k &ifxkrem jzpf
ae&onf/ cifav;jrifh\uHMurm[koabmrxm;EkdifbJ rdztjypf[k pdwfxJ pGJemaeawmh
onf/
aool\a0'emudk pOf;pm;vkdufvQif ausmufvkdvkd 0ufoufvkdvkdjzifh bma&m*g
rSef;rod&bJ 10-&ufxJESifhaq;&kHwifNyD; toufukef&\/ &Sifol\a0'emudk pOf;pm;rdjyef
vQifvnf; taMumxkH;ovkdvkd taMumwif;ovkdvkdjzifh aq;&kHwifNyD; taumif;yuwdu
&GJUoGm;avonf/ rsufpda&SUwGif cg;udkvdrf &GJUapmif;&GJUapmif; avQmuf&&Smaom cifav;
jrifhudk jrif&wkdif; pdwfrcsrf;omjzpfaeum tu,f usrom Armaq;0g;udk ,kHMunfEkdifyg
u ,ckvkdjzpfcsifrS jzpfrSm[k awG;xifvmonf/
Armaq;udk ,HMk unfav;pm;zd&Yk efvnf; cufaeonf/ aemufaemifutxifrBuD;
aom pdwfudk &kwfw&uf azsmufr&EdkifbJ ,Hkvnf; ,Hkcsif ,Hkvnf;r,Hk0Hh r,Hk0hH EdkifiHjcm;
aq;0g;udk tm;xm;zdkY&efvnf; pdwfysufvSonf/ wu,fhta&;wGif om;tzESpfa,muf
pvHk; rsufarSmuf vufwavmBuD; yufyufpufpuf jzpfukefMuaomtawGYtMuHKaMumifh
qufvuftm;xm;csifpdwf ukefcrf;aeonf/ usrrSm awmifra&muf ajrmufra&muf t
48

awmfhudk pdwfnpfp&maumif;aeonf/ twGif; aexkdkifraumif;jzpf&m Armaq;vnf;


raomuf0Hh? t8Fvdyfaq;vnf; raomufcsif? b,fzufrSrjywfom;bJ a0'emwzufESifh
tcufBuHKvmonf/
wckckudk a&G;cs,fum jywfom;rSjzpfawmhrnfhtcsdeftcga&mufrSyif pdwfudk jywf
om;atmif vkyf&onf/ EkdifiHjcm;aq;0g;udk tm;xm;csifpdwf ukefcrf;jcif;jzifh qufvuf
rpOf;pm;bJ r,kH0Hhjzpfaeaom Armaq;0g;udk ,kHatmif ,kHMunfEkdifrnfhvrf;udk &SmazG
pOf;pm;Munfo
h nf/ aq;ukd prf;oyfpm;ok;H jcif;xuf ynmudk vku
d pf m;jcif;jzifh ,kMH unfoifh
vQif ,kHMunfrnf[kqkH;jzwfvkdufonf/ xkdqkH;jzwfcsuf\vIHYaqmfappm;csuft& Armhaq;
ynmudk tm;xkwfBudK;pm;avhvmvkdufpm;jcif; jzpfawmhonf/
usr oifMum;,laom aq;ynmum; a&S;OD;pGm ynwfEiS yhf &rwfukd uGjJ ym;xif&mS ;
atmif jypGrf;EdkifaomtajccHynmrsdK;jzpfonf/
ocFw"mwf? tocFw"mwf "mwftm;jzifh 2 yg;tjym;&Sdjcif;udk xifvif;Edkifap
onf/ ocFw"mwfonf t0dZm rmeynwf? orkwyd nwfjzpf avmuDw&m;ud,
k t
f & avm
u"mwfrnf\/
avmuDorkwdynwfrSvGwfaom avmukw&medAmefonf y&rwppfppf jzpf
tocFw"mwfrnf\/ xdktocFw"mwfonf 0dZmrmeynwfjzpf uHpdwfOwktm[m&
taMumif;w&m;av;yg;wdrYk S jyKjyifjcif; uif;\/ ocFw"mwfonf rjrifEikd af om "mwfrsdK;
jzpfonf/
ocFw"mwfrmS t0dZm rmeynwfjzpf uHpw
d Of wktm[m&av;yg;wkrYd S jyKjyifjcif;
ruif;aom ocFg&e,ftwGif; jzpf jzpfysufjcif;taMumif;aMumifh ocFw"mwfrnf\/
ocFw"mwf owavmu? ocFg&avmu? Moumoavmu[k okH;yg;cGJjcm;xm;&mwGif xkd
okH;yg;aomavmuwkdY owyk*v? ow0gyk*Kdvftp&SdonfwkdYonf owavmujzpf\/
jzpfwwfysufwwfjcif;onf ocFg&avmujzpf\/ qkdtyfNyD;aom owavmuwnf&m
`Ed,? ted`Ed,? b'o'&kyftaygif;wkdYonf Moumoavmurnf\/
odyYk nwfEiS yhf &rwf? ocFwESit
hf ocFw"mwf wjcm;pD uGjJ ym;jcm;em;Mu&m0,f
Armaq;usrf; "mwfusrf;wdkY ynwfESifhy&rwf? avmuDavmukw&m a&maxG;,Sufwif
aeum t"dym,ft,ltq r&Sif;Edkifatmif &IyfaxG;aeonf/
avmukw&mrSm ocFg&vGwf&m "mwf? AdaEm? aq;0g; pm;p&mr&Sd? avmuDrSmom
aq;0g; pm;p&m&Sdonf/
usr aq;ynmudk q&morm;xH oifMum;pu q&mBuD;onf ol\EIww
f iG f cJxm;
aom aq;wHudk cRwfum ]]'gbmvJ}}[kar;avonf/
49

E-book is created by www.shanyoma.org

*sme,f a usmf r rav;

E-book is created by www.shanyoma.org

jref r mh a q;ynm

aq;wHukd ]]'gbmvJ}}[kar;jcif;rSm pOf;pm;p&maumif;ojzifh usrrSm q&mtar;


udk acwrQ pOf;pm;aeNyD;aemuf aq;wH[k rajzbJ ]"mwf 8 yg; zGJYpnf;xm;wJht&myg}vdkY
ajzvdkufw,f/
]]bm"mwfawG zGJYpnf;aewmvJ}}q&mu NyHK;um xyfar;vdkuf\/ usrr\tajz
udk tm;wufum. . . yx0D? awaZm? tmayg? 0ga,m? 0P? 8E? &o? MoZmtp&SdwJh "mwf(8)
yg;tpkta0;yg[kajz&Sif;ajymvdkufonf/ usr\tajz qHk;vQif q&mu rsufarSmifMuKwf
xm;vsuf. . .
]]udk,fhrsufpdeJY 'D"mwfawG pka0;aewmudk taotcsm jrif&ovm;}}[kar;\/
]]jrifawmh rjrif&ygbl;q&m}}
]]EdkY rjrif&bJeJY b,fheJYajzovJ}}
]]q&m rdb qdkqHk;rvdkYMum;bl;em;0todeJY ajym&wmygq&m}}
]]wu,fjrifwJhtodu bmvJ}}
]]aq;wHygq&m}}
q&m\rsufEmS rSm vif;oGm;um ynwfy&rwf t"dym ,f&iS ;f oGm;atmif oifMum;
avonf/
]]ud,
k jf rifwm? ud,
k o
f w
d m ajymrSayghu?YJG "mwf (8) yg;? &ky&f pS cf &k w
dS ,fqw
kd m bk&m;
&[Emrsm;om wckcsif;ydik ;f jcm;odjrifwmbJ bk&m;jrifwmudk ud,
k u
f yg vdu
k jf rifovdk ajymqdk
aevdjYk zpfEikd yf ghrvm;? 'Dynmudk wwfcsif&if ud,
k jf rifwm ud,
k o
f w
d majymrSwwfr,f? aq;uk
aeMuwJt
h csdKUq&mrsm;vJ yx0Dysufw,f? awaZmvGeu
f w
J ,f ponftm;jzifh 'D"mwfawG
odovdkjrifovdk ajymukaeMuw,f? yx0D"mwf? awaZm"mwfom wu,fod? wu,fjrif
Muygw,fq,
kd if 'Dq&mawGukd "mwfy&kH u
dk Nf yD;ud;k uG,Mf ubd&Yk aSd wmhw,f/ ynwfe,f y&rwf
e,f ydkif;jcm;em;vnfrS 'DynmwwfrSm/ udk,frodwJhpum; rajymeJY? ynwfudk pOf;pm;
ynwfodrS "mwfodr,f}}
]]ynwfomG ;&m "mwfoufygaMumif; Pfqifah vmif; ukaumif;pGmvS? axG&m0d;k
0g;? ,lrrSm;ESifh}}[lvnf;aumif; &Sift&[Hodkufpmudk owd&um q&mBuD;\Mo0g'
twdkif; ynwft&mudk ynmtp? pwifawG;q qifjcifvmonf/ ynwfy&rwfcGJjcm;um
avmu"mwfobm0tpudk &SmMunfhvdkuf&m ynwfupjcif;udk &dyfrdvmonf/ ynwfudk
t&ifodjrifxm;rSvnf; y&rwf oabmaygufEdkifrnf[kxifonf/
xdkYaMumifh ynwfe,fy,fudk tusOf;csKyf qnf;yl;vdkufpm;onfhtcg tu&m
ynwf? ocsFmynwf? aeYynwf[l ynwf 3 csufay:xGufvmonf/ u-tp? t-tqHk;
33 vHk;aomtu&mwdkYrSm tu&mynwfjzpfonf/ ttm ponfho&(8)vHk;rSm o&
50

ynwf jzpfonf? we8FaEG tp? paetqHk; (7)vkH;rSm aeY[laomynwfjzpfonf/


utp- ttqHk; 33-vHk;aomtu&m? 8-vHk;aomo&? 0P 41 vHk;wdkYrS ygVd
udkjyKjyifjcif;? teufudkjyKjyifjcif; t"dyg,fudkjyKjyifjcif; tenf;enf; toG,foG,f qef;
Mu,fvSpGmaom avmuDavmukw&m t&m&mtaygif;wdkYudk jyKjyifpD&ifzefqif;wwfaom
aMumifh tu&mynwfjzpfonf/
1-tp? 9-tqHk; 9-vHk;aom ocFsmonf ajrmufjcif; pm;jcif;? EIwfjcif;?
aygif;jcif;? odatmif ocFsm? oacsF? uka#uk#m a&wGufjcif;rSeforQwdkYudk jyKjyifpD&if zef
wD;wwfaomaMumifh ocsFmynwfjzpfonf/
xdt
Yk jyif we8FaEGtp paetqH;k 7 vH;k wGif 108 e0if;? Mwif;aygif;? e0if;ayguf
aumif;uifwm&m ae-v euwftp&SdonfwdkYudk jyKjyifpD&if zefwD;wwfaomaMumifh aeY
ynwf jzpfonf/
33-pD;aomqifajymif? awm3-awmif xGufusufpm;aomaMumifh csnftyf
aomBudK;&Spfpif;ESifhwdkifav;wdkifrSm csnfEdkifu aq;ukoawmh[k "mwfynm\Mo0g' w
csuf? Bwdrlvaq;,lMuavmh[laom cifBuD;aysmf\qkdqHk;rt& usr tusOf;csKyf &xm;
tyfaom ynwfoHk;oG,fwGif aq;ynm? "mwfynmudk vdkufpm; &SmazGoifMum;ayawmh
onf/
a&? ajr? av? rD; [laom"mwfBuD;av;yg;onf ed,mr tpOfrysuf urmtquf
qufwnfMuukefonf/
a& ajr av rD; "mwfBuD;av;yg;udk taEm? 8aA? pa& 0Hao cs "mwfcGJvdkuf
aomtcg 8-rsdK;uGJum tzdktr"mwfrsm; wGJay:vmonf/
urmOD;tp jA[mrsm; udk,fa&mifuG,fyum aexGufvmNyD; we8FaEG[k ynwf
onfhtwGuf we8FaEGuyif p ynwfoHk;csufjzifh zGJYpnf;MunfhvdkfufrnfqdkvQif. . .
we8FaEGtu&mtm;jzihf t? 8Pef;ocsFmtm;jzifh N*dK[fpOfum; 8VKef? yd#uwf
um; awaZm? ynwfum; rD;cJ? "mwfo&kyfrSm em? t&omum; tpyf? trsdK;um; 8Ref;?
"mwfudkMunfhvQif "mwfzdk. . .
we8FaEGup paetxd odkYtm;jzifh aumuf,lzGJYpnf; oiftHrSwfom;NyD;
aemuf q&morm;wkdY nTefjycsuftwdkif; wnfhrwnfh? wnfonfh"mwf rwnfhonfh"mwf?
t&Sif tao "mwfynmjzifh opfyifrsm;pdkufum "mwfobm0udk prf;oyfjcif;? wd&pmef
rsm;udk ukoprf;oyfjcif;? vl\a0'emudk ukojcif;. . . wnfhonfh rwnfhonfh"mwfrsm;udk
{uefrvGo
J Ed idk af om Armhaq;ynm&yfukd txifrao;awmhbJ ,kMH unftm;xm;rI BuD;rm;
vmonf/
51

E-book is created by www.shanyoma.org

*sme,f a usmf r rav;

E-book is created by www.shanyoma.org

jref r mh a q;ynm

q&mBuD;rSm aq;ynmudk xl;cRefatmif vku


d pf m;aejcif;udk tm;&0rf;omjzpfum
qxufwefykd;wkd; Pftm;xkwfvmapEkdifatmif ynmukd wkduf&kdufroifbJ oabm
ayguf pGJNrJ,kHMunfEkdifatmif vufawGY&Smenf; oifMum;aponf/
ArmyDo Armqefum a&S;Armq&mBuD;wOD;jzpfojzifh ynmoifMum;pOfu. . .
usrrSm wwfEkdiforQ acwfynm oifMum;cJhaompdwfudk azsmufxm;&onf/
q&mBuD; oifajymoGm;onfhtcsufrsm;rSm acwfem;ESifhacwfynmwwftjzpfESifh
em;axmifvQif ynm\t"dyg,fudk bmqkdvkdrSef;yif odzkdYcJ,Of;aeonf/ t"dyg,frdrd&&
od&Sdatmif em;axmifEkdifygrS tusKd;rsm;awmhonf/
]]aygufyifukdif;udkif;? bmjzpfvkdYukdif;&w,f? AsKdif;em;vkdY ukdif;&w,f. . . AsKdif;bm
jzpfvkdY em;&w,f? ig;ay:vkdY em;&w,f? ig;bmjzpfvkdYay:&w,f? uRJvl;vkdYay:&w,f? uRJ
bmjzpfvv
Ydk ;l &w,f? jzKwfuu
kd v
f v
Ydk ;l &w,f? jzKwfbmjzpfvu
Ydk u
dk &f w,f? rk;d &Gmvku
Yd u
dk &f w,f?
rkd;bmjzpfvkdY &Gm&w,f? zm;atmfvkdY&Gm&w,f? zm;bmjzpfvkdYatmf&w,f? a>rukdufvkdYatmf&
w,f? a>rbmjzpfvkdY ukduf&w,f? 0rf;[mvkdYudkuf&w,f. . . }}
]]'Dpm[m ArmrSef,if odMuw,fuGJY Armwdkif; Mum;bl;MuwmbJ pm&JUt"dym,feJY
toHk;odwJholuawmh enf;w,f bmqdkvdkwmvJ &dyfrdovm;}}
usr i,fi,fwkef;u &Gwfzwfzl;cJhaom tjzpfudk owd&rdonf/ pm\t"dyg,fudk
vnf; rpOf;pm;rd? qkdaumif;atmif tpDtpOfeJYpyfxm;wJhaygufu&pmbJ[k xifrSwfum
xl;jcm;onhft"dyg,fudk awG;&rSef;yif rodacs/
]]"mwfwleHwl aq;buf,l? uufuif;ao&Sif,l qdkwJhpum;bJ r[kwfvm;uGJY}}
Armhynm Armhy&d,m,f Armhenf;ed,rsm;rSm onmtwwfrsdK;r[kwb
f J Pf
ay: appm;xm;aom cufcufcJcJynmtwwfrsdK;jzpf acwfvlrsm; vdkufpm;csifrI r&Sd
aomaMumifh wajz;ajz; uG,fjrKyf&yHkrsm;udk awG;aerdavonf/
]]aygufyifudkif;udkif;? bmjyKvdkYudkif;&w,f AsdKif;em;vdkY udkif;&w,fqdkwJhae&mrSm
"mwfoabm &Smprf;? qlnHaeatmif atmfaewJhbJtkyfudk jymyufvdkuf,if csufcsif; wdwf
oGm;r,f? aygufyifudk eufatmif xGif;NyD; bifudkjrKyfxm;vdkufNyD; oHk;ESpfaphawmh xkxf
,lMunfh,if aygufyifudkif;udkif; AsdKif; bmjzpfvkdYem;w,fqdkwJht"dyg,fudk odvdrfhr,f}}
usrrSm bJESifhjym aygufyifESifhAsKdif;? &kyfuae ckdufonfh"mwf uufuif;oabm
"mwfynmjzifh awG;qMuHpnfum pdwf0ifpm;pGm em,loifrSwfaeonf/
]]AsKdif;bmjzpfvkdY em;&w,f? ig;ay:vkdY em;&w,fqkdwJhae&muawmh ig;uav;
csOfukd txufjrif;jcH yckuL,laqmifoGm;,if &ufMumMumrcHvkdY ypfvkduf&r,f. . . AsKdif;bm
jzpfvkdY em;&w,fqkdwJhtwkdif; ig;csOftkd;tv,fwnfhwnfhrSm vufyHom; apmufxkd;pkdufNyD;
52

,laqmifoGm;,if &ufMumayrJh ig;csOfrlrysufbJ pm;aumif;w,f? vufyHom;u tylrkdY


vm; tat;rkdYvm;}}
"mwfoabmudk t&dyjf y &Si;f vif;oifajymaeav&m taumifxifatmif rdr&d &
t"dyg,faumuf,lEkdif&efum; rvG,fulvSay/ "mwfzkd"mwfr tyltat;udk odem;vnf&kH
jzifh "mwfukd ykid ;f jcm;cGEJ idk Nf yD r[kw&f um;? ykid ;f jcm;cGjJ rifo&d ef ynmtqifq
h ifh &Sad o;onf/
]]ig;bmjyKvkdY ay: uRJvl;vkdY ay:&w,f? uRJbmjzpfvkdYvl; jzKwfudkufvkdY vl;qkdwJh
ae&mrSmaum-q&m}}
q&mBuD;\tajzrSm &kwfw&uf t"dyg,fodatmif ray:EkdifbJ wajz;ajz;awG;
qaumuf,lrS ay:vmayonf/
]]zefbl;qkdwJhykvif;zGifhr&,if aiG'*Fg;eJYtomwD;vkduf zGifhvkdY&rSmaygh? iSufaysm
yifudk tzsm;ujzwf rkd;BudK;oGm;wifxm; tnTefYrxGufzl;? emewfyifudk pkduf,if wl&Gif;eJY
wcsufwl;,if wESpfMumrS oD;w,f? ESpfcsufwl;,if ESpfESpfMumrS oD;w,f? 'D;'l;wacsmif;
tkww
f aomif;qkw
d m Mum;bl;r[kwv
f m;? tkwzf w
dk zkrd mS rsm;aomtm;jzifh tkww
f aomif;
zkdNyD; zkwfavh&SdMuw,f? tkwfwaomif; zkdrD;zkwfwJhtcg 'D;'l;om;wacsmif; ygoGm;,if
tkwfawG ysufpD;&wJh"mwfudk pOf;pm; a&Smufa&npfxm;wm MumMumcHcsif,if b,f"mwf
eJYvkyfrvJ}}
usrvnf; wnfhonfh"mwf rwnfhonhf"mwfudk tweftMum pOf;pm;um ESrf;qD
eJeJ xnhfxm;,ifawmh MumMumcHygvdrfhr,f[kajzvkdufonf/
]]at; . . . 'D"mwfqdk,if cHvdrfhr,f 'gawG[m yx0DysufvdkYvm;? awaZmysufvdkY
vm;? 0ga,mysufvdkYvm;? 0ga,mvGefvdkYjzpfMuovm;uGJY cifBuD;aysmfu "mwfav;yg; nTef
Mum;wm y&rwfnTefMum;wm r[kwfzl;? ynwf nTefMum;wm}}
]]jzKwfbmjzpfvdkY udkuf&w,f rdk;&GmvdkYudkuf&w,f/ rdk; bmjzpfvdkY&Gm&w,f zm;
atmfvdkY &Gm&w,f? zm; bmjzpfvdkYatmf a>rudkufvdkYatmf&w,fqdkwJh t"dyg,fuaum q&m
usr pOf;pm;vdkY r&ao;ygbl;}}
q&mBuD;\pdwfygvufyg oGufvufaom trlt&mrsm;rSm &kwfw&uf av;xkdif;
oGm;um twefMum wdwfqdwfae\/ aemufr.S . .
]]Armhaq;ynm[m bkef;BuD;wyg; ajymoGm;w,fqdkwJhynmrsdK; r[kwfzl;uGJY}}[k
ajymavonf/
]]rrav; ar;wJhar;cGef;udk vlwkdif;odavmufwJhynwfudk qufpyfjyr,f? Zmwf
rif;om;BuD;OD;zkd;pdefeJYOD;pdefuwkH;udk owdjyKvkdufprf;? OD;pdefuwkH;u OD;zkd;pdefavmuf t
oufr&Snfbl; r[kwfvm;? qkdif;0kdif;wD;tausmf OD;barmifu touf&SnfNyD; pdefaA'gu
53

E-book is created by www.shanyoma.org

*sme,f a usmf r rav;

E-book is created by www.shanyoma.org

jref r mh a q;ynm

toufwkdw,f r[kwfvm;? rkd;wGif; zm;*kHnif;awGatmf,if wnif;oD;jyKwfa&eJYavmif;


Munfh toHwdwfoGm;r,f. . . 'D"mwfaygh}}
olESifholESifh wnfh-rwnfh"mwfrsm;rSm em;pkdufaxmif,if; wpp&dyfrdvmonf/
ynwfoGm;&m "mwfoufygaMumif;? Pfqifhavmif; ukaumif;pGmvS? axG&m0dk;0g;? ,l
rrSm;vifhqkdonfhtwkdif; prOD;acgif;cs&mukd usrtbdkY vG,fvifhwul&ygapaomiSm Arm
aq;ynmum; vdkvufawGYtrSefawG &Sdygonf[kodygpdrfhaomiSm oifajymjyaejcif;jzpf
onf/
usronf vufawGY wnfrwnfh "mwfrsm;udk ukd,fwkdifPfvTmpOf;pm;prf;oyf
um ynmudkom tm;xm;vsuf aq;udkrl udk,fhbmomudkf,fjzpfEkdifaMumif; awGY&Sdvmonf/
cifav;jrifh ajcaxmuf&GJUoGm;jcif;udk taMumif;jyK Armhaq;ynmudk vkdufpm;
rdum 7 ESpfcefY oifMum;rdaomtcg usrrSm "mwfoabmudk axmufrd acgufrdaomaq;
q&maygufp jzpfvmavonf/
]]rrav;. . . cav;wa,muf wufaew,f aoawmhr,f oGm;ukvdkufprf;yg}}
q&mBuD;trdefYt& usrrSm raeombJ cav;taz ac:&m a&ausmfOD;a&T*Gef;
vrf;odYk vku
d o
f mG ;&avonf/ usra&mufomG ;aomtdrrf mS wvkid ;f vdrw
f xyftrd jf zpfonf/
tdrf&Sifrsm;rSm armfawmfbwfpfum;rsm; axmifvsuf a&TrsKd;rdom;wpk pka0;aeMuaom
OD;BuD;&Sdef\tdrfjzpfonf/
tdrfay:wGif y&dowfrsm; tdrfESifhwvkH; jynfhusyfaeay\/ tdrfeD;em;csif; tod
rdwaf qGrsm; jzpfvsuf uav;toJtoefjzpfaejcif;udk vma&mufowif;ar; 0dik ;f tkMH unfh
&IaeMuonf/ vlawGrsm;ae usrukornfhukxkH;ESifhjzpfyghrvm;? ujyuf,jyuf vkyfMu
rvm;[kylyefoGm;um tdrfxJr0ifcif ]vlawG rsm;vScsnfhvm;? wa,mufwaygufeJY jzpfygh
rvm;}[k cav;tazudkpdefjrudk ajymvkdufonf/
]]q&mr oabmyg q&mr. . . uRefawmfwdkY tyfygw,f? touf&Sif,if NyD;a&m?
vkyfcsifovdk vkyfygq&mr}}
00wkwfwkwf jzLjzL 10-vom;t&G,favmuf&Sdrnfhcav;av;rSm wcGD;cGD;ESifh
wufae\/ wufykHrSm cav;ESifhrvkdufatmif Murf;vSonf/ rsufpdESpfzufysufaeNyD; qefY
iifqefYiifwufaeaom cav;em; 0dkif;tkHaeMuaom vlxky&dowfudk z,f&Sm;ckdif;apNyD;
cav;udk ayGYcsD,lvkdufonf/
cav;wukd,fvkH; taEG;xnftxl0wfrsm;udk cRwfckdif;um t0wfyg;ESifhvJay;
onf/ ESrf;qDESifhaq;rsm;azsmfum wudk,fvkH; tkyfvdrf;xm;ojzifh wukd,fvkH; rJayae
onf/
54

]]oli,femtkyfaq;q&mu vl;ckdif;vkdY vl;xm;wmyg}}


cav;uk,
d u
f ESr;f qDEiS ahf q;rsm;udk pifMu,fatmif okwyf pfvu
dk o
f nf/ xkad emuf
a&Smufo;D udk cGpJ yd cf idk ;f um cav;\rsufpx
d o
J Ydk a&Smufa&rsm; npfcsvku
d o
f nf/ usrtem;
&Sd vltyk rf mS rsufv;Hk rsufqefjyL;aeum rsufpx
d n
J p af eykH rESpo
f ufovkd Munfah eMuonf/
]]oli,femath? rsufpdxJa&Smufa& npfcsvdkYjzpfyghrvm;}}[ktcsif;csif; wD;wdk;
ajymvdu
k o
f nf/
usr&ifcGifxJ wvGefYvGefYjzifh udk,fvuf qefYiifwufaeaomcav;rSm rsufpdxJ
okdYa&Smufa&0ifvQif xGefYxGefYvl;jzpfoGm;um rMumrD NidrfusoGm;avonf/
]]ausmufjyifeJYoeyfcg;wHk; eHYomjzLwHk; usrem; ,lcJhyg}}
cav;\zGm;atu ausmufjyifESifhoeyfcg;wkH; ,lvmonf/ ]aoG;yg&Sifh}[kajym
vkdufum usrvnf; cav;\ajcz0g;udk a&Smufa&ESifhaq;jzifh ememwkdufay;aeonf/
cav;wudk,fvkH;udk oeyfcg;eHYomjzLrsm; vl;csum tem;&Sd cav;BuD;awmftm;
cav;udk av&atmif ,yfememcyfckdif;&onf/ rD;cJxJwGif ukvm;rufESifhjiKyfaumif;udk
xnfhapum wcef;vkH; rD;ckd;rsm; rIefa0aeatmif rIdif;eHYay;xm;vkdufonf/
cav;onf NidrfrdSef;oGm;&mrS rsufvkH;uav; zGifhvSpfum a0'emoufom&m &
oGm;ouJhokdY toufudk rSefrSef&SLvmonf/ pdefuJausmuf cwfMunfhonfhtwkdif; cav;\
tajctaeudk rjywfapmifhtuJcwfaerdonf/
cav;twufusoGm;vQif rde;f ra,musfm; vltyk Bf uD;vnf; avoHjzifh wa,muf
wcGe;f wGww
f w
G x
f ;dk aeMuawmhonf/ usrrSm wcsdev
f ;Hk b,ft&mrS owdrjyKEkid b
f J cav;
\a0'em oufoma&;? toufcsrf;oma&;udk a&SU&Ivsuf wckNyD;wck EkdifEkdifeif;eif;vkyf
ay;aeavonf/
rSdef;aeaomcav;rSm Nidrfae&mrS wufcsifvmjyefonf/ rsufpdxJodkY vsifjrefpGm
a&Smufa&puf csay;vkdufjyefonf/ vGefYvdrfoGm;NyD;aemuf jyefNidrfusoGm;onf/
]]q&m0efawGeYJ aq;xd;k wmvJ twuf rusbl;/ Armq&mac:vJ r&bl;? cPcP
wufaewmbJ? 'DaeYawmh uRefawmfwdkY ypfvdkfuf&NyDxm;wmyg q&mr&,f}}
]]'Daq; wdu
k v
f u
kd yf g? 'Dvv
kd yk yf g}}[kajym&kH rSm&kjH zifh onfcav; csrf;omrnfr[kw?f
tem;uapmifh udk,fwkdifMuyfrwfvkyfay;EkdifrSom toufcsrf;omp&m&Sdojzifh usrrSm
waeukef waecef; ae&mrSrxbJ apmihfMunfhvkyfaeonf/
aMumifyef;&Guu
f kd cif;apum cav;udk csodyv
f u
dk Nf yD; armif;uav;wvk;H udk 0,f
ckdif;vkdufNyD; armif;a&mufvmvQif cav;em;wGifuyf wD;ckdif;xm;onf/ ,yfudkvnf;
rjywfcyfay;onf/
55

E-book is created by www.shanyoma.org

*sme,f a usmf r rav;

E-book is created by www.shanyoma.org

jref r mh a q;ynm

usr ukoykHudk umvrsufpdESifhMunfhvQif ua&mfurnf jzpfcsifvnf; jzpfrnf/ t


rSerf mS rnfonhef nf;jzifh uku?k a0'emaysmufwmom auseyfz&Ydk mjzpfonf/ bl;ykvif;vSvS
zdwfzdwfvufvuf ypnf;rsm;jzifh a0'emrcsrf;ombJ toufaysmufoGm;u auseyfp&m
r&Sdxkdufay/ toufaysmufwmudk rauseyfrvm; odkYr[kwf bl;ykvif;vSvS zdwfzdwfvuf
vufypnf;udk auseyfrvm;ukd awG;qpOf;pm;zG,f&m jzpfonf/
"mwfrodawmh cufonf/ "mwfod,if tvG,fuav;qkdonfhpum;rSm Armhaq;
ynm&yf jzpfay:aom pum;[k qkdcsifygonf/ usrtzkdYrl onfvkdwnfhonfh"mwfESifhuko
ay;wwfatmif q&morm;xH 7-ESpf? 8-ESpf qnf;yl;oifMum;cJh&aom ynmjzpfonf/
cav;rdzrsm;udk vufwGef;vSnf;uav;wpD; &Smckdif;um cav;udk vufwGef;
vSn;f uav;ay:wifvsuf wa,mufNyD;wa,muf wGe;f aponf/ cav;\a0'emudk cEm
ig;yg;rSae wnfhonfh"mwfrsm;udk wkdufckdufwGef;vSefaeckduf tESihfp? & acwNidKjiif r&Tif
a'go rmetrsuf xGufvdrfhykHao r,Gif;ayonfht&Snfaygif;um oifhwifhyg\[k"mwf
q&mBuD;rsm; nTefMum;cJhonfhtwkdif; rD;"mwfESifhav"mwfwkdY\wefckd;tmedoifukd rsuf0g;
xifxif awGYjrifae&onf/
avpm rD;awmuf ay;wkHajrmufu a&mufonfha&m*g uif;vGwfuGmvdrfh[k q&m
trSm&Sdonfhtwkdif; cav;ESifhwnfhonfh"mwfrsm;jzifh axmufulESdrfeif;EkdifpGrf;rIaMumifh c
av;rSm rwufawmhbJ ysufapmif;aeaom rsufvkH;ESpfzufpvkH; rdarG;wdkif; zarG;wkdif; jyef
wnhfoGm;um a0'emaysmufuif; csrf;omoGm;&onf/
a&ausmfOD;a&T*Gef;vrf; w&yfuGufvkH;u onfcav; b,fawmhaorvJ[k em;
wpGiphf iG hf jzpfaeMuonf/ cav;a0'emaysmufuif;csrf;omoGm;onfukd jrifMuvQif cav;
rsufpdxJ a&Smufa&cyfwmeJY aysmufw,f[k ukxkH;pum; jzpfaeMuonf/ trSefpifppf onf
cav;tzkdYom a&Smufa&eJYwnfhjcif;jzpf rwnfhonfhcav;rsm; wufaeckduf a&Smufa&
cyfvkdufvQif Muufuav; ZufvdrfcsKd;vkdufovkd toufaysmufoGm;ayvdrfhrnf/ wOD;
aysmufwm jrif&onfESifhtm;vkH;aysmufEkdifonf[k xifrSwfjcif;rm vGJrSm;aom0g' jzpf
onf/
cav;rdzrsm;onf cav;av;udk usr\aq;wdkufcef;xJodkY ac:vmum pm;yGJ
ay: wifxdkifay;onf/
]]armifatmif uefawmh rif;ararudk &Sdcdk;av. . . &Sdcdk;}}
cav;\vufxJ aiG 300 wdwdxnfhxm;aom pmtdwfudk udkifapum vlBuD;u
udkif yHkpHjyKay;vsuf &Sdcdk;uefawmhcdkif;aeMuonf/
vlBuD;vkyfay;xm;onfhyHkpHtwdkif; armifatmifu vdkuf &Sdcdk;OD;csaeayonf/
56

usr &ifxw
J iG f vIy&f mS ;aeavonf/ 'DwoufwiG f b,fenf;ESirhf Q ukr&Ekid af tmif
taMumjzwfypfxm;aom cifav;jrifh\ajcaxmufudk oGm;jrifvkdufrdonf/ tysKdayguf
uav;t&G,fodkYa&mufvmvQif cg;udk apmif;um &GJUum avQmufoGm;ae&&Smaom ykHyef;
oPmefonf azsmufzsuf r&atmif ay:aeavonf/ &ifxJ qkdYwufvmaom tvkH;
udk usoGm;&ef ajzqnfazsmufzG,f&m &atmif ESvkH;oGif;vkduf&onf/
cifav;jrifh oli,fem taMumif;jyK onfcav; touf&Sif&jcif;. . . /

57

E-book is created by www.shanyoma.org

*sme,f a usmf r rav;

E-book is created by www.shanyoma.org

jref r mh a q;ynm

Armhaq;rSm aq;rsdK;aygif; w&mY&SpfrsdK;om


&Sdonf/ w&mY&SpfrsdK;wGif oHk;pm;&Sdonf/
usOf;vdkufvQifum; aq;rsdK;
ESpfrsdK;om &Sdavonf/

58

*sme,f a usmf r rav;

aea&mifonf vif;0gvmum a&Tjcnfjzifh vrf;ay:odYk jzef;yufxm;onf/


abmufaxmfvrf;ay:&Sd csdKifhcGufrsm;um; aea&mifwGif rJaeum t&kyfqdk;pGm
a[mufyufaeMuonf/
vrf;ay:wGif jzwfoef;oGm;vmaeMuaom bwfpu
f m;rsm;onf puf&edS f owfvsuf
csdKifhBuD;rsm;wGif bD;epfum weJYeYJ vSdrfharmif;ausmfjzwfaeMuonf/
csdKifx
h o
J Ykd bD;us 0&ke;f 'dik ;f ESio
hf u
G o
f u
G cf g &rf;oGm;aom toHAvHrsm;xGuf ay:
qlnHaeayonf/
usrwdkY aexdkifaom abmufaxmft&yf&Sd ajrvrf;um; wacgufa&mufzl;olwdkif;
]zdefYzdefYwkef}Muonf/ um;ay: tonf;ESvHk;jyKwfusravmuf aqmifhvsuf vrf;w
avQmufvkH; armif;oGm;Muaom bwfpfum;rsm;rSm vrf;ay:wGif OD;pdkufyJhaxmifjzpfaeMu
onf/ ukef;ay:wGif BuD;aom vdIif;um; a&vdIif;xufqdk;ayownf;/
]]tif;pdefydkif}}txdrf;trSwf abmufaxmfajreDvrf;qkHESifh&efukefydkifuw&mcif;
vrf;pyfrSm c&D;b,favmufrS ra0;bJ um;rsm;onf em&D0ufcefYeD;eD;Mumatmif csKdifhxJ
wGif wjznf;jznf; vSdrfhoGm;aeMu&onf/
usr\um;onf vrf;ay:wGif wa&GUa&GU ,dr;f xd;k vIyu
f m armif;ESiaf eavonf/
vrf;qdk;jcif;onf usr\tawG;udk NidrfNidrfoufouf r&Sdatmif aESmuf,Sufae
onf/
,aeYeeH uf tdrrf x
S u
G v
f mjcif;onf cgwdik ;f aeY rsm;vdrk [kwf acgif;xJwiG f pOf;pm;
awG;awmp&mrsm;jzifh jynfhESufaeonf/
tdru
f xGuv
f mcJ,
h if; udpE iS q
hf ufpyf pdwu
f ;l xkwu
f m wvIyv
f yI w
f eJeY EJY iS ahf wG;
,if;awG;,if; oabFmay:odkY a&mufoGm;avonf/
armfvNrdKifuRef;rS bdu
k av;odYk ckwaf rmif;aeaom {&m0wDEpS x
f yfr;D oabmFBuD;
jzpfonf/ oabFmOD;cef;xJwGif usrESifhtwl pD;vmMuaomolrsm;um; 'dkYArmtpnf;t&kH;
rSocifatmifoef;? ocifnD? ocifApdef? ocifwifarmif? ocif rcifcif ocifnD\ZeD;ESifh
jynfocifr rodef;wefwdkY jzpfMuonf/
usrwdkYvlpkonf armfvNrdKifuRef;odkY w&m;oGm;a[m&mrS jyefvmMuonf/ armf
vNrdKifuRef;Z&yfxJwGif udk,fhtvSnfhESifhudk,f toD;oD; vufoD;vufarmif;wef;um t8F
vdyef ,fcsJu
Y kd tm;&yg;& ykwcf wf &IUH csa[majymjyefcMhJ u tawmfuav; armyef;vmonf/
59

E-book is created by www.shanyoma.org

ta&SUESit
hf aemuf

E-book is created by www.shanyoma.org

jref r mh a q;ynm

oabFmcef;xJwiG f Nidro
f ufpmG xdik Mf uvsuf tm;vH;k udv
k v
dk ydk if jrpfurf;ezl;buf&dS
v,fuu
G f opfyif wJtrd f ponfh w&dy&f yd af jy;aeaom oPmefrsm;udk ai;armaeMuonf/
xdt
k cku
d f &ifwek w
f wfaom ocifnu
D ol\ tay:tuFst
D wGi;f tdwx
f rJ S y,if;
a&mifaq;ykvif;uav;udk xkwfum vuf0g;ay:odkY aq;jym;uav;rsm; acgufcsvsuf
yg;pyfxJodkYyufrsdKvdkufonf/
]]bmaq;vJ. . . ocifnD}}
usru vSrf;ar;vdkufonf/ ocifnDrSm aq;jym;rsdKaeckduf &kwfw&uf rajzEdkif
cif. . .
]]t8Fvdyfudk ocifnDwdkY Armjynfu b,fvdkbJ armif;xkwfaeayrJh t8Fvdyfaq;
awmh olYtdwfaxmifxJ b,fawmhrSrcs0Hhbl;As}}
ocifatmifoef;u 0ifaemufvdkufonf/
trsm;&,farmMuovdk usrvnf; &,farmrdw,f/ odaYk omf xdpk um;rSm usrtbdYk
NyD;NyD;aysmufaysmuf r[kwfbJ awG;p&m jzpfawG;rdonf/
]]t8FvdyfawG armif;xkwfvdkufygNyDwJh ArmjynfrSm udk,frif;udk,fcsif; udk,fhvGwf
vyfa&;eJYudk,f&SdygNyDwJh b,frwkef; aq;}}
usr\ar;cGe;f ukd usr auseyfavmufatmif tajzray;Edik cf /hJ Armjynfvw
G v
f yf
a&;&vQif[kpOf;pm;rdwdkif; trsdK;om;aq;jyem ay:vmonf/
Armaq;qdkvQif ESmacgif;&IHUwwfaomusronf t8Fvdyfaq;udk rjywfrSD0Jvsuf
t8Fvdyftpdk;&ESifh twkdufcHvkyfum ociftoif;0if ocifr jzpfaeonf/
xdpk Ofu ocifawG yife0D wfMuovkd usrvnf; yife0D wfcMhJ uonf/ ocifawG Arm
jzpftm;ay;Muovkd usrvnf; jrefrmjzpfukd wwfEkdiforQ tm;ay;onf/
t8Fvdyftpdk;&udk raumif;a[majym t8Fvdyfudk qefYusif t8Fvdyfudk awmf
vSef odkYaomf t8Fvdyfaq;udk vufrvTwf0Hh? oydwfrarSmuf0Hh/
]]olwdkYudk b,fvdk wdkufwdkuf? aq;awmh olwdkYaq; tm;xm;&rSmbJ}}
,ckvkd awG;awmvufc&H onft
h jzpfukd pdwx
f J atmifo
h ufouf&v
dS o
S nf/ ud,
k hf
vlrsdK;? udk,fhaq;ESifhudk,f[ka&SUodkY wqifhwdk;vnf; rpOf;pm;&J? t8Fvdyfaq;0g;udkawmh
tmrcH0Hh udk,fhtoufudk t8FvdyfvufxJ tyfxm;&onf/
w&m;a[m pifay:wuf vuf&kH;wef;um t8Fvdyftpdk;&tm; aoG;pkyf? e,fcsJU?
qdkajymaeaprl pdwfxJum; aq;0g;ESifhywfouf atmifhoufoufESifh. . .
upavonf/ rSwfrSwf&& t*Fvdyfaq; r&Sd,if b,fenf;ESifhrS rjzpfovkd
t*Fvyd af q;om aq;atmufarhcahJ omae&mXmerSm {&m0wDoabFmay: jzpfavonf/
60

aemufaMumif;rsm;udk tawmrowf awG;aepOf um;rSm abmufaxmf ajreDvrf;


qkd;udk ausmfchJ uw&mvrf;ay:odkY a&mufvmavonf/
ajzmifhjzL;aomvrf;ay:wGif wNidrfhNidrfhpD;vsuf wpdrfhpdrfh yDwdjzpfaejyefonf/
cgwdkif;jrifaeus jrif;NydKifuGif;? "mwfqDqdkif? um;qdyf ? 'gawGudk vQH rsufpdxJ
wGif 0dk;0dk;0g;0g;jzpfaeavonf/ &kyfyHkudk rSef;Munfhvsuf&Sd&mtouft&G,fvnf; rcefYrSef;
Ekdif ? &kyfvuPmvnf; ay:ay:xifxifr&Sd? yHkzrf;MunfhaomoPmef xif&Sm;onfhtoGif
um; tom;jzLjzL8g0ef0wf. . .
8g0ef0wfxm;aomtrsdK;orD;\0d;k w0g;oPmefonf usrrsufpad &SU qD;aeav
onf/
]]rrav; reufapmapm aq;wdkufudk vmcJhyg? t8Fvefu rp[wfqifqdkwJhq&m
0efrBuD; Armjynfa&mufvmNyD; Armaq;ynmudk pHkprf;csifvdkY bm;rif;owif;pm t,f'D
wm OD;armifarmifajyu q&mYaq;wdu
k rf mS aqG;aEG;yGv
J yk b
f Ykd csde;f vdu
k Nf yD qufqufvmcJyh g}}
q&mBuD; xHrS ydkYvdkufaompmtm;jzihf rppf[wfqif[l emrnfom od&ao;um
vlcsif;rawGYcif ykHoPmefudk rSef;Munfhrdonf/
aemufwkef;u ]vGwfvyfa&;&vQif b,frwkef; aq;}[k usrukd,fusr ar;cJh
onf/ vGwfvyfa&;r&cif tajzudk usr ray;EdkifcJh/ ,ckt*Fvdyfvufatmufu vGwf
vyfomG ;onft
h csdeu
f srSyif vGwv
f w
G u
f RwfuRwf tajzay;Ekid af omtjzpfukd wpdrphf rd yhf w
D d
jzpfro
d nf/
t*Fvdyfq&m0efrBuD;wOD;u Armaq;ynmudk vkdvkdcsifcsif aqG;aEG;pkHprf;vkdykH
rSmvnf; pdwf0ifpm;p&myif/
t*Fvdyfvufatmufu vGwfajrmufNyD; t*Fvdyfq&m0efrBuD;wa,mufa&SUwGif
Armaq;udk tm;xm;rSD0J Armhaq;ynmudk av;pm;aMumif; jy&rnfrSmvnf; auseyf
p&myif. . . /
um;onf Munfhjrifwkdif uGrf;&GJwef; aev0dZmaq;wkdufem;wGif xkd;qkdufvkduf
onf/
aq;wkdufa&SUwGif um;awG pD&&D&yfxm; tcsKdU{nfhonfrsm; a&mufESifhaeMu
avNyD/
aq;wkdufxJodkY0ifoGm;aomtcg xl;jcm;aom q&mBuD;udk owdjyKrdonf/ q&m
BuD;onf rD;ckd;a&mif befaumufvkHcsnf0wfvsuf yk0gtopf acgif;aygif;xm;onf/
awmufajymifaom t0wftpm;ESifhq&mBuD;udk awGY&cJbd tcgtavsmuf avmut
aMumif;udk vkdufavsmom;bJ[k atmufarh&onf/
61

E-book is created by www.shanyoma.org

*sme,f a usmf r rav;

E-book is created by www.shanyoma.org

jref r mh a q;ynm

*g0ef0wf t*Fvdyfujym;rwa,mufESifhpdefaygausmif;rSausmif;q&mrwkdYonf
pm;yGJckHwckwGif {nfhonfrsm; auR;arG;&ef aygifrkHYrsm; vSD;aeMuonf/ aq;bD&kdrsm;teD;
&Sd pm;yGJukvm;xkdifrsm;wGif {nfhonfrsm; xkdifaeMuonf/
twGif;0efOD;armifBuD;? wuokdvfuxduq&mra':oif;Munf\zcifv,f0ef
OD;BudKU? wuokdvf"mwkaA'Xmeq&mOD;odef;nTefY? ppfAkdvfOD;armifarmif? 0wfvkHawmf&OD;
xGef;td/
olwkdYonf usrt,if apmapmBuD; aq;wkdufodkYa&mufaeMuonf/
q&mBuD;pm;yGJwGif wifxm;aom bm;rif;owif;pmudk aumuf,lMunfhvkduf&m
q&m0efrBuD;rppf[wfqif\taMumif;udk a&;om;xm;aomowif;rsm; zwf&I&onf/
olronf Armhaq;ynmudo
k mr[kwf Ak'b
mom0dyemorxw&m;udk avhvm
tm;xkwf&ef &efukefodkYa&mufvmjcif; jzpfonf/
rppf[wfqif(trf-bD-bD-tufpf? trf-tm&f-pD-tufpf)(vef'ef)[laom*kPf
yk'frsm;tjyif olr ckdifNrJwnfMunfaom*kPft*Fgw&yfvnf; &Sdao;onf/
yxrurmppfBuD;wGif olronf aq;ynmbGJYxl;ukd qGwfcl;NyD;aemuf ppfxJodkY0if
a&muftrIxrf;onf/
ppfwyfxJwGif ppfAkdvfwOD;ESifhawGYqkHum cspfcifpkHrufMuavonf/ vufrxyf&
ao;cif cspfolrSm ppfxJwGif aygifusKd;oGm; olrukd,fwkdif aq;ukay;&avonf/
ppftNyD; aygifusKd;aeaom AkdvfBuD;udk vufxyfvkdufonf/
cifyGef;onf ajcwaygifusKd;ESifhuae'gjynfwGif vkdufaeavonf/ 'kwd,urm
ppfwGif rppf[wfqifonf t*FvefokdYjyefvmcJhum ppfaq;&kHwGif q&m0eftvkyfjzifh 0if
a&muftrIxrf;jyefonf/
rppf[wfqif\a,musfm; uG,fvGefoGm;NyD;aemufwGifum; rppf[wfqifonf
0dyemw&m;udk avhvmtm;xkwfvkd oD[kdVf? uuf&SrD;,m;? wdbufponfhEkdifiHrsm;odkY
vSnv
hf nfomG ;a&mufp;l prf;avhvmum aemufq;Hk wGif Ak'b
momxGe;f um;&mjzpfaom Arm
jynfodkYacwa&mufvmjcif; jzpfayonf/
,aeY rpp[
f wfqif\aqG;aEG;yGo
J Ydk vma&mufMuonhyf &dowfum; t*Fvyd af q;
0g;xuf Armaq;0g;udk tm;xm;rSD0JaeMuaom acwfynmwwfyk*Kdvfu rsm;avonf/
rpp[
f wfqif ra&mufvmao; {nfo
h nfrsm; 0kid ;f zGu
YJ m aumfzaD omufaeMupOf um;wpD;
aq;wkdufa&SUodkY xkd;qkdufvkdufonf/ AkdvfrBuD;wa,mufESifhOD;armifarmifajywkdY um;ay:
rS qif;vmMuonf/ rppf[wfqifrSm touf 50 cefY&Sdonf/ tom;eDeD t&yfcyfjrifhjrifh
cyfydefydef acgif;ay:wGif qHyifrsm; jzLazG;aeonf/ oGm;ykHvmykHrSm cyf&kdU&kdUcyfudkif;ukdif;
62

jzpfonf/ pum;ajymonhftcg jyKH; vludk rMunfhbJ rsufvkH;udk ta0;odkY pl;pkdufum odrf


arGYnifompGm ajymonf/ uZGef;yGifhqifqif *g0efjzLjymjymudk 0wfxm;um &ifa&SU tus
aumfvHatmufwGif us,faphteufBuD;rsm; wyfxm;onf/
rppf[wfqifu olYa&SUwGif wnfcif;xm;aom qDxrif;ESifhyJjyKwfudk t,ifpm;
aumfzu
D kd aomufNyD; ]Armaq;ynmukd aqG;aEG;cGi&hf &Sw
d t
hJ wGuf 0rf;omaMumif;}pwif
ajymqko
d nf/
q&mBuD;rSm rpp[
f wfqifEiS t
hf wl ,SOx
f u
dk v
f suf 0wfvaHk wmf& OD;xGe;f tdu rppf
[wfqif\ab;wGifxkdifum q&mBuD;ESifhrppf[wfqifwkdYudk bmomjyefvkyfavonf/
usrvnf; q&mrBuD;udk pl;pkdufum ar;orQ ar;cGef;udk pdwf0ifpm;pGm rSwfom;
aerdonf/
Armhaq;ynmESifhywfouf opfO? opfzk? opfjrpfrsm;udk pdwf0ifpm;aMumif; t
us,fw0ifhajymqkdNyD;aemuf Armhaq;ynmwGif ]aq;rsKd;aygif; b,favmuf&SdygovJ}[k
q&mBuD;tm; ar;avonf/
]]Armhaq;rSm aq;rsKd;aygif; w&mh&SpfrsKd;bJ &Sdw,f? 108 rsKd;rSm yxrwef;pm;?
'kwd,wef;pm;? wwd,wef;pm; okH;rsKd;&Sdw,f? 'Dw&mh&Spfenf;udk usOf;vkduf,if aq;rsKd;
ESpfrsKd;bJ &Sdw,f}}
olronf rsufarSmifwGefYvkdufum ]'g tNyD;bJvm;. . . aemuf azmftkH;rvm;}[ktHh
Moovkd ar;jref;onf/
]]aemufxyf azmfzkdYr&Sdzl;? 'g tNyD;bJ}}[kq&mBuD;u jyefajzonf/
t*Fvdyfaq;ynmrSmawmh t*Fvdyfaq;rsm;[m azmfpyfvkdY rqkH;bl;/ temwck
ay:,if aq;wrsKd;ay:vmwmbJ temwckaq;wrsKd;az:wJhtwGuf usrukowJhae&m
rSm aq;awGudk odyftm;rxm;zl; ][kdr,kdyufoD}qkdwJhaq;ynmenf;eJYom usrukd,fwkdif
prf;oyfw,f? vltrsm;vJ 'Denf;eJYbJ apmifha&Smufw,f? eef;awmfxJu bk&ifrt,fvDZ
bufrif;orD;vJ ][dkr,kdyufoD}enf;udk prf;oyftokH;jyKw,f? aq;xkd;NyD; rukbl;? rcGJr
pdyfbJeJY ukEkdifwmudk oabmusw,f? t*Fvdyfaq;eJYywfoufNyD; a0zef&r,fqkd,if cGJpdyf
NyD;uk&wmudak wmh usr oabmrusbl;? trSepf ifppf rcGrJ pdyb
f J ukEidk w
f m oabmusw,f?
aq;xkd;ukaewm[mvJ aq;xkd;vkdYtemaysmufaMumif; twdtus rawGY&bl; aq;xkd;
wm aiG&jrefwmom awGY&w,f/
y&dowftm;vkH;yif rppf[wfqiftm; ai;pkduf em;axmifaeMuonf/ cGJpdyf
ukojcif;? aq;xkd;ukjcif;ponfhtaemufEkdifiHukxkH;rsm;udk t*Fvdyfq&m0efru oabm
rusEkdifaMumif; &kd;om;pGmyif &Sif;ajymjyaeonf/
63

E-book is created by www.shanyoma.org

*sme,f a usmf r rav;

E-book is created by www.shanyoma.org

jref r mh a q;ynm

Armhaq;ynmudk txifao;pOfuqkdvQif usrrSm arhaq;ay;um "m;ESifhcGJpdyf


ukoykHudk t[kwfBuD; xifrSwfcJhonf/ rppf[wfqifajymovkd rcGJrpdyfbJESifhukwmukdom
oabmus&rnf[k wcgrSyif oabmraygufrd/ cGJpdyfukwmudkrS txifBuD;um rsufpdvnf
aeayonf/
jyZmwfq&mBuD; bm;ewfa&Smu ]q&m0ef\tcuftcJ}[laomjyZmwf cGJpdyfuk
ojcif;enf;udk oa&mfxm;cJhonf/ olu cGJpdyfjcif;onf vlowfaejcif;[kyif ajymifcJhav
onf/
Armhaq;ynmudk usroifMum;qnf;yl;onft
h cg a0'emwckukd aysmufwwfonfh
aq;enf;(0g)]azmfenf;um;}ukd&Sm ynmudk 0goemxkHjcif; r[kwfacs/ ynmtajccHZmpf
jrpfESifh,xmblwusus trSm;trSefudkom twdtus &SmcJhonf/
ynmwwfvQif aq;udk udk,fhenf;ESifhudk,f azmfpyf&ayrnf/ aq;avmuukd udk,fh
ynmESifhukd,f zefwD;&ayrnf/ aq;trsKd;trnf aq;tr,frsm;ESifhtcsdefwa&G;om; 2a&G;om; ponfhazmfpyfxm;aom]aq;enf;}rsm;udk tm;udk;rSwfom;um aq;ukobkdY&m
pdwful;xJrQ rxnfhbl;acs/
Armhaq;ynmtajccHZmpfjrpfukd vku
d o
f nft
h cg q&mBuD;trde&Yf o
dS nft
h wkid ;f yif
Armhaq;ynmwGif w&mh&Spfenf;rSausmfvGef aq;r&Sday/ 108 enf;wGif okH;pm;&Sdonf
qkdonfrSmvnf; tu,f vlem&Sifu aiGaMu;wwfEkdif jynfhpkHcsrf;omcJhvQif ykvJudkpm;
ckdif;um tu,f vlem&SifrSm rwwfEkdifoljzpfu uElurmaoG;wkduf odkYr[kwf a,muf
oGm;jzifh &rnfhtwGuf okH;pm;cGJxm;jcif; jzpfonf/ ykvJ? uEkurm? a,mufoGm;wkdY\owd
tpGrf;rSm a0'emaysmufjcif;wlum taES;tjref jcm;em;jcif;oabm&Sdayonf/
(108)enf;udk ynmt& csKH;usOf;EkdifvQif Armhaq;ynmwGif az:pyfaq;rSm ESpf
rsKd; ESpfenf;om &Sdonf/
ynmudk oifjyaom q&mBuD;u usrudk Mo0g'ay;bl;avonf/
]]aq;rwkdufrD vlrrmudk wnfhwm? rwnfhwm twdtus q&mu qkH;jzwfxm;
Ekdif&r,f? tu,f vlem&Sifu wnfh rwnfhudk odvkdygu opfyifudkjzpfap? wd&pmefudkjzpf
ap? xkdvlemudkjzpfap? odkYr[kwf tjcm;olwa,mufudkjzpfap? wnfh rwnfhajymNyD; vkyfjy
Ekdif&r,f? aysmuf raysmuf wm0efrcHEkdifayrJh wnhf rwnfhwm 0efcH&r,f}}[koifMum;av
onf/
]]aysmuf raysmuf wm0efrcHEkdifayrJh}}qkdaompum;rSm 0#femuHemrsm;udk >cif;
csufxm; ajymqkdjcif;jzpfonf/
rpp[
f wfqifrmS ]aq;azmf&ef aemufxyfr&Sb
d ;l ? 'gtNyD;bJ? tus,f 108 tusOf;
64

2}[laomq&mBuD;\tajzudk tvGefxl;qef;oGm;ykH&onf/ ]aq;azmfpyfvkdY qkH;wm Armh


aq;ynmom Mum;od&aMumif;}ajymjyum tHhMoaayonf/
q&mBuD;u xyfrH &Sif;jy&onf/
]]rdrd oiftahH vhusufwahJ q;usrf; trSm;trSef csdew
f mr&Sv
d Ydk aq;azmfpyfvrYdk qk;H
wm? oiftHavhusufwJhaq;usrf;&JUtrSm;trSefudk qkH;jzwfEkdif,if aq;azmfpyfvkdYqkH;&
r,f}}
0wfvkHawmf& OD;xGef;tdu q&mBuD;pum;udk rppf[wfqif oabmaygufatmif
&Sif;ajymjy&avonf/ rppf[wfqifonf acgif;udk wndwfndwfESifhav;av;eufeufawG;
awm rSwfom;aeayonf/
]]pdefudk Armhaq;ynmrSm okH;ygovm;. . . usr t,ltqrSm ]pdef}[m enf;enf;
okH;,if tjypfr&Sdbl;? ab;r&Sdbl;}}
rppf[wfqifu Armhaq;ynmudk awmufMunfhvkdufonf/ ar;cGef;udk aq;
ynmvkdufpm;wwfodonfholwkdif;yif b,ft"dyg,fESifhar;aMumif; &dyfrdod&SdEkdifMuonf/
rppf[wfqif\ar;cGef;udk q&mBuD;u ]pdefukd enf;enf;okH;okH;? rsm;rsm;okH;okH;
em;rvnf,if ab;&Sdw,f? em;vnf,if ab;r&Sdbl;}[kjyefajzvkdufonf/
"mwfrsm;ESifhywfouf tokH;cs&mwGif Armhaq;ynmwGif "mwfudk ykdifydkifEkdifEkdif
em;rvnf rwwfodbJESifh aq;udkifbkdY&mcufonf/
"mwfrsm;um; i&kyfaumif;? ydwfcsif;? *sif;wkdYxuf xufjrufaomowd&Sdonf/
]]tke;f ? uRef;? pH? &m? ywfo?H "mwf? &if;aESm}}[lonf "mwfu;dk yg;udk aygufajrmuf
atmif em;vnfcJhygvQif avmu tm;vkH;zefwD;EkdifaomtqifhodkY a&mufEkdifavonf/
pdef? [if;&kdif;? 'k|m? jy'g;? ausmufcsOf? ,rf;? uefY? a&T? qm;? "mwfukd;yg;xJrS
tajrmufAkH;rS tEkjrLtxd zefwD;EkdifMuonf/
ArmrItpOftvmt&qkdvQif ,if;"mwfoabmrsm;udk vlYavmuaumif;usKd;t
wGuf vltrsm; usef;rma&;twGuf touf&n
S af &;twGuu
f o
kd m vkyaf qmifcMhJ uayonf/
"mwfukd;yg;udk em;vnfwwfodacsu tvkd&Sdoavmuf awmif;cHoavmuf xuf
jrufaom aq;pGrf;udk jzefYjzL;ay;urf;Ekdifonf/
uJhodkY xufjrufjcif;&SdvSaom trsKd;om;aq;ynm "mwfynm? 0dZmynmrsm;
rSm t*Fvdyfvufatmuf a&mufaomtcg wdrfaumcJh&onf/
rppf[wfqifonf wpkHw&mudk pOf;pm;ovkd tusaumfvmrS Mu,foD;udk vuf
ESifhyGwf,if; a&m*g&wm bmaMumifh&ygovJ[kar;avonf/
q&m0efr\ar;cGef;wkdif; q&mBuD;u ajzonf/ t*Fvdyfq&m0efESifhArmq&mwkdY
65

E-book is created by www.shanyoma.org

*sme,f a usmf r rav;

E-book is created by www.shanyoma.org

jref r mh a q;ynm

\tar;tajzudk {nfhonfrsm;u pkdufvsuf pdwf0ifpm;pGm em;axmifaeMuonf/


]]a&m*g&wm tm&kHig;yg;rSrwnfhwJht&m0wKaMumifh a0'em&w,fvkdYajymvkduf
yg? olu 0dyemvkdufpm;w,fqkdawmh tm&kHig;yg;udk em;a0;r,f r[kwfzl;xifw,f? t
xl;ojzifh tpm;aMumifh a0'em&w,f. . . vkdY ajzvkdufyg. . . }}
q&mBuD;trdefY&Sdonfhtwkdif;yif 0wfvkHawmf&OD;xGef;tdu q&m0efr em;vnf
atmif &Sif;ajymavonf/
rsufpd? em;? ESmacgif;? yg;pyf? txdtawGYrS ukd,fESifhrwnfht&m? teHY? toH? tm
[m&? txdtawGYaMumifh a0'em&aMumif; tMurf;tm;jzifh ajymjyum tpm;aMumifh a0
'emjzpfwmu rsm;w,f[k tao;pdwf &Sif;ajymjyonf/
]]a&m*gwkdif; aysmufuif;atmif ukEkdifygovm;}}
]]ukEkdifygw,f}}
]]aq;tjyif b,fenf;eJYukao;ovJ}}[krppf[wfqifu pkHprf;jyefonf/
]]aq;eJYr[kwf tpmeJYukw,f? aq;qkdwm pm;&wJht&m0wKawG trIefYt&nf
vkyfxm;wmbJ? ukd,feJYwnfhwJht&mpm;,if 'Dtpm[m aq;bJ aq;&Smp&mrvkdbl;}}
olronf NidrfoufpGmyif pm;yGJudk pkdufMunfhvsuf ol\nmvufarmif;wGif&Sdaom
tzkrsm;udk vufESifhyGwfaeavonf/
]]aq;r&SdwJhae&mrSm a0'emudk aysmufatmif cifAsm;wkdY b,fvkdukrvJ}}
ar;cGef;onf aqG;aEG;yGJ rppf[wfqifudk q&mBuD;u ar;vkdufaomq&m
BuD;\wcGef;wnf;aom ar;cGef;yif jzpfayonf/
rppf[wfqifonf tajzudk &kwfw&uf ray;bJ jyKH;um pOf;pm;aeonf/
wGif 0wfvkHawmf&OD;xGef;tdu Armhaq;ynmwGif q&mqkdwm udkifrdwm aq;
jzpf&r,f[al omynmtajccHoabmudk tMurf;zsif; tcsdet
f awmfMumavmufatmif &Si;f
ajymaeavonf/
]]aemufqkH; aq;r&SdwJhae&m a&mufaeNyD; aq;r&Sdbl;qkdygawmh? pm;yGJay:u pm
&Guu
f kd axmufjyvsuf aemufq;Hk 'DpuLbJ &Sw
d ,fqydk gawmh? tJ'pD uLudb
k J aq;jzpfatmif
Armu aysmufatmifukoGm;w,f}}
q&mrrSm jyKH;aphaphESifhem;axmifaeum pum;qkH;vQif. . .
]]bmaMumifh 'DpuLaMumifh a0'emaysmuf&w,fqkdwmawmh usrem;rvnfbl;?
'gayrJh puLeJYvJ aysmufatmif vkyfwwf,if aysmufEkdifw,fqkdwmawmh usrtzkdY tifr
wef pdwf0ifpm;p&m aumif;aeNyD}}
rpp[
f wfqifoabmaygufatmif OD;xGe;f tdu &Si;f jyaecku
d f usronf Armhaq;
66

ynmorkdif;wGif ,ckwkdifxif&Sm;aomq&mZD0utaMumif;udk okH;oyfawG;awmqifjcifrd


onf/
q&mZD0uonf wuodkvfwGif ynmoif,lNyD;aomtcg wuodkvf'domygarmu
q&mBuD;u q&mZD0uudk ta&SU? taemuf? awmif? ajrmuf? t&yfav;rsufav;rsufESm
odkY c&D;wwkdifpD oGm;ckdif;NyD;vQif aq;bufr0ifonfhopfyifudk &Sm&rnf[k apvTwfvdkuf
onf/
q&mZD0onf ta&SUzufodkY c&D;wwdkifcefYoGm;NyD;aemuf q&mBuD;tm; aq;buf
r0ifonfo
h pfyifq
kd wyifr&S mS rawGcY ahJ Mumif;ajymavonf/ t&yfav;rsufEmS pvH;k yif
c&D;wwdkiftxd aq;bufr0ifonfhopfyifqdk wyifrSr&SmrawGYojzifh q&mxHodkY &Smr&
aMumif;jyefMum;aomtcg ]]toif q&mjzpfNyD oGm;awm.h. . . }} [k 'domygarmuq&mBuD;u
trdefY&Sdvdkufonf/
q&mqdw
k m udik rf w
d m aq;jzpf&rnfqakd om pum;ESiq
hf ufpyf usrvnf; txuf
ygtaMumif;udk jyefvSefoHk;oyfqifjcifMunfhrdonf/
b,ft&mrS aq;bufr0ifwmr&Sad om Armhaq;ynm\enf;udk t8Fvyd q
f &m0ef
rBuD; wwfoed m;vnfrnfqv
kd Qif b,favmufrsm; pdw0f ifpm;vdu
k rf vJ[ak tmufarhvu
kd &f
onf/
]]taemufEdkifiHrSm tck acwfpm;aeMuwmu cGJpdyfuk&kH aq;xdk;&kH r[kwfbl;? bm
bJjzpfjzpf "mwfreS o
f mG ;&du
k cf sifMuwmbJ "mwfreS af y:vmrSval wG a&m8g awmfawmfxv
l mMu
w,f/ ]uifqm}a&m*ga0'em[m aMumufNyD;jzpfwmvkYd usr,lqw,f? xifu
h eJq,
dk if olwYdk
ukd,fwkdifu "mwfrSefajy;&kdufcsifwmbJ usr q&mBuD;eJYArmhaq;ynmudk aqG;aEG;NyD;wJh
aemuf tenf;i,f a0zefajym&r,fq,
dk if q&mBuD;ukenf;ukx;kH [m awm&GmawmNrdKUrSmbJ
uku
d w
f ,f tckvkd cGpJ yd ?f aq;xd;k ? "mwfreS &f u
dk f acwfpm;aewJNh rdKUBuD;jyBuD;rsm;rSm tcuftcJ
awGYvdrfhr,fvdkYoabm&rdw,f? tpdk;&u ulnDr,fqdk&ifawmh atmifjrifygvdrfhr,f}}
rppf[wfqifonf aemufqHk; odkYed8Hk;csKyfvdkufum jyefbdkY&ef ae&mrSx tm;
vHk; vufqGJEIwfqufavonf/
usrvnf; rppf[wfqifudk aq;wkdufxJ&Sd Armhaq;&nfaq;rIefYrsm;udk jyovkduf
onf/
]]'DaeY q&mBuD;eJaY qGq
Y NHk yD; aqG;aEG;Muwm Armhaq;ynmudk b,fvo
dk abmxm;
ygovJ. . . }}[k aemufqkH; q&m0efrBuD;tm; jyefumeD; wHcg;0wGif usru ar;vkdufonf/
]]urmvSnfhNyD; w&kyf? ukvm;? aq;0g;ukxkH;awGudk tenf;tusOf;avhvmqnf;
yl;Munfch w
hJ ,f? rxl;jcm;vSb;l ? 'DaeYq&mBuD; ajymwJ]h a&m*gudk tpmeJu
Y w
k ,f}qkw
d t
hJ csuf
67

E-book is created by www.shanyoma.org

*sme,f a usmf r rav;

E-book is created by www.shanyoma.org

jref r mh a q;ynm

[m xl;jcm;NyD; rSwfom;rdatmif pdwf0ifpm;ygw,f}}


]]Armjynfudk &Sifrvmcifu Armhaq;ynmeJYywfoufvkdY tpte Mum;odcJhbl;yg
ovm;. . . }}[k usruxyf ar;jref;vkdufum rppf[wfqifudk jyKH;Munhfaeonf/
]]ArmjynfrSm aq;buf0ifwJhopfjrpf opfzkopfOawG&Sdw,fqdkwJhowif;udk rvm
cifubJ od&ygw,f? opfjrpf? opfzk opfOawGeyYJ wfoufNyD; pmtkyv
f aJ &;xkwzf ;l w,f? rjyef
cif tcsdef&if Armhaq;ynm aqG;aEG;bdkY &SifeJYusr xyfawGYMu&atmif}}
usrvnf; jyHK;vsufuyif acgif;udkom tomndwfjyvsuf vufqGJEIwfqufvdkuf
um vlcsif;cGJvdkufMu&onf/

68

prrSm vQmucHpm;aom pr? ESmacgif;u


cHpm;aom pr? rsufpdu cHpm;aom
pr? ukd,fu cHpm;aom pr[l
pr ig;rsKd; &Sdayonf/

69

E-book is created by www.shanyoma.org

*sme,f a usmf r rav;

jref r mh a q;ynm

E-book is created by www.shanyoma.org

0efBuD;csKyfO;D EkEiS ahf umufni ;f aygif;


usr\aq;wdkufxJwGif aq;,l vmMuaomvlemrsm; pJoGm;onfhtcdkuf pma&;
q&mudo
k ef;aqGonf usrxHoaYkd ygufvmavonf/ jr0wDtwGuf 0wK? aqmif;yg; tvd&k dS
usrxH vmawmif;onf[k xifrSwfvdkufrdonf/
]]uRefawmf qD;aq;wykvif; vdkcsifvdkYcifAs}}[kqdkrS ]]&Sifu 'Daq;awG pm;aeo
vm;}}[k tHhtm;oifhpGm ar;vdkufonf/
]][kwfw,f. . . uRefawmf aoG;0rf;awG oGm;aevdkY Munfhjrifwdkifu q&mBuD;qDrSm
aq;pm;wm? aq;ukefoGm;vdkY 'DrSm vm0,fwm}}
bD&kdxJrSm olYtwGuf qD;aq;ykvif;,lay;aepOf ]]b,fheJYvJ awmfawmfae&mus
ovm;}}[k udkoef;aqGu vSrf;ar;vdkufonf/ ol\toHrSm cyfwkd;wdk;jzpfaomfvnf; om
oavmuf? pnfoavmuf? pnfjrnfoGm;av\/ udkoef;aqGa&SU aq;ykvif;udk csvdkuf
um ae&mwGif jyefxikd v
f suf tajzay;&ef EIwv
f Qmav;aeavonf/ 0vH;k uJo
h Ykd rsufEmS 0dik ;f
0dkif;ay: qifxm;aom aumfudkif;rsufrSef tydkif;xJrSjrKyf0ifaeaom ol\rsufvHk;rsm;
onf ta&mifwajymifajymifxu
G af eum Mum;&rnft
h ajzudk ESpv
f ckd srf;ajrhpmG 0if;yBudKqdak e
onf/
usrvnf; jyHK;vdkufonf/tEdkifEdkif jyHK;vdkuf&aom tjyHK;rSm a&mY&J&J jzpfae\/
usr\a&mY&&J J tjyHK;udk owdxm;rdrnf/ ol\rsufEmS rSm csufcsif;ajymif;vJomG ;avonf/
0if;ycsdKjraom t&dyft&mifrsm;? ajzmhavsmhoGm;um cyftef;tef;jzpfaeonf/
]]aq;q&mjzpf&wm roufomygbl;&Si}f }[k av;wGw
YJ n
YJG nf;wGm;vsuf vrf;buf
odkYvSnhfum ai;pdkufaerdonf/
wdkufa&SU jzwfarmif;oGm;aeMuaom ykZGefwHqdyfbwfpfum;xJrSc&D;onfrsm;
onf usr\8sme,fausmf rrav;aq;wdu
k [
f al om qdik ;f bkwu
f av;udk vSr;f Munfo
h mG ;Mu
onf/ aea&mifjzifh ajymifvufae uw&mvrf;rBuD;\yljyif;aomt&Sdefonf rsufESmodkY
yif vm[yfavonf/
udo
k ef;aqG rvmcif apmapmu vlemrsm;udk tmaygufavmufatmif ajym&a[m
&ojzifh pdwfyifyef;oGm;aomusrrSm jyif;xefaomae&SdefaMumifh ydkrdknD;pdvmum acgif;xJ
uyif tHkvmonf/
]]vlemuk&wmu tyef;rBuD;bl;? ajym&wmu armygw,f&Sif. . }}
udkoef;aqGonf pm;yGJay:u aq;ykvif;udk xdyfrSae vufjzifh tomudkifvSnfh
70

vsuf ]"mwfrodao;vdYk ajym&wm a[m&wmyg? "mwfoad wmhvJ oabmaygufomG ;wmbJ?


uRefawmfvJ tpu rodbl;? aemufawmh ukae&if; udk,feJYbmrwnfhbl;? wnfhw,fqdkwm
wajz;ajz; em;vnfvmw,f}[k olYtodudk oljyefajymavonf/
aq;ynmudk vdkufpm; aq;q&me,fy,fodkY vlod olod ra&mufvmonfESifh
tvkyfwdkufwGif waeYwaeY vlemrsdK;pHkESifh awGYqHkum aq;ukay;ae&\ tcsdKYaomvlem
rsm;rSm aemufaemufutpGJudk awmf&HkESifhruRwfEdkifMu cHpm;ae&onfha0'em jrefjref
aysmufzdkY&m &Sdygvsuf aESmifhaES;ae&ayonf/
usrvufawGYtm;jzihf a0'emudk ukray;cif tpGJudk t&ifcRwf&olcsnf;jzpfae
avonf/ olwdkYtemudk udk,fhtemuJhodkY jrefjrefaysmufuif;&ef pdwf&Snfvuf&Snf tawmf
BuD;ajym&ojzihf aq;rukcif ouFm&Sif;&jcif;udk pdwfyifyef;&onf/
usr\aq;ynmaqmif;yg;rsm;udk aoG;aomuf? &Ir0r8Zif;rsm;xJwGif zwf&I
& aq;uk vmMuaomolrsm;teuf umvfwef&yk &f iS &f rHk S vufrw
S af &mif;aom udNk idr;f qdo
k l
wa,mufu ajcrsufpu
d 'l;qpftxd ESi;f cla&m8gBuD;pGu
J yfvsuf temxa&mifuikd ;f um
vrf;yif aumif;pGm ravQmufEdkif&SmbJ ajcaxmufudk axmhusdK; avQmufum wkdufxJodkY 0if
vmonf/
usru olaY jcaxmufuv
kd rS ;f MunhNf yD;aemuf ]]&Siahf &m8g jrefjrefaysufcsif&if usr
pum;udk em;axmifrS aysufrSm}} [kajymvdkufrdonf/
]]uRefawmf r8Zif;xJrmS zwf&wmeJv
Y mcJw
h myg? em;axmifyghr,f}}[k av;av;pm;
pm; &Sdaom[efESifh ajymqdkonf/
]]&Sifha&m8gu EGm;om;pm;rS aysmufrSm}}
udkNidrf;\rsufESmonf viykwfzrf;oGm;ovkd arSmifrJoGm;onf/ tnDta[muf
pm;vQif onftemrsKd;ESifhrwnfh[kavSeH"m;xpf pGJxm;aomt,ltqjzifh usrudk r,kH
ouFm&SdaomrsufvkH;BuD;rsm;ESifhvnf; jyL;Munfhaeonf/
]]&Sifhtemu a&xdvdkYvJ rjzpfbl;? oHyk&moD;vJ EdkifEdkifBuD;pm;ay;EdkifrSjzpfrSm}}
udkNidrf;onf ododomom rsufESmysufoGm;jyefonf/ ajcovkH;BuD;wckvkH; ukdif;
a&mifum ta&wpkdpkdjzifh ief;ref;xaeaomESif;clBuD;udk temtcsOfpm;vQif ,Of;onf[l
aom tpGJjzifh oHyk&mEkdifEkdifpm;&rnfqkdjcif;ukdvnf; xdwfvefYykH&Sdaeonf/
]]usrajymwJt
h wdik ;f vkyrf S aq;ukay;csifw,f? usr ajymwmvkyv
f aYkd &m8gwd;k vm
&if usr w&m;cHaygh? usrajymwJhwdkif; rvkyfbJ azgufoGm;vdkY a&m8gwdk;wmawmh usrwm
0ef r,lygbl;&Sif? usrESifhukbdkY pdwf&Sdygovm;. . . }}
udNk idr;f onf awGiikd v
f suf ae\/ xkaYd emuf tm;wkt
YH m;emjyKH;&,fum ]]uRefawmf
71

E-book is created by www.shanyoma.org

*sme,f a usmf r rav;

E-book is created by www.shanyoma.org

jref r mh a q;ynm

awmh aysmufcsifvkdYvmwmygbJ? EGm;om;pm;zkdYqkdwmuawmh temrsm; ydkNyD;qkd;vmrvm;


vkdYygAsm}}[k pdk;&drfruif;oHESifh jyefajymavonf/
]]usr aq;ukaewm aowm &Sifwmudk ukay;aewm r[kwfygbl;&Sif? wnfhwm
rwnfhwm ukay;aewmyg ESif;cla0'emrsdK;[m EGm;om;pm;&if wnfhw,fqdkwJhtodonm
trSwfeJYukaewmvJ r[kwfygbl;? ESif;cla0'em&SifudkNidrf;eJYEGm;om;eJY wnfhw,fqdkwJhtod
ynmeJo
Y mukwmyg&Si?f EGm;om;pm;r,fq&kd if aysmuf&r,fqw
kd musr&J&BJ uD; tmrcHygw,f}}
vlemukd em;0ifavmufatmif ouFm&Sif;aomfif;? tmrcHaomfaomfif;? uk
o&jcif;rSm olYtemaysmufuif;csifvSonfharwmpdwf a&SU&IcsufaMumifhom jzpfonf/ ajc
axmufrS aumif;aumif; raxmufEdkifatmif udkufcJemusifaeaoma0'emBuD;udk vsifpGm
aysmufuif;apcsifaom aZmjzifh tawmfarmavmufatmif &Si;f vif;ajymjyEdik af wmhro
S m
ajymwJhtwdkif;vkyfygr,f[ktajz&avonf/
pm;yGJay:rS pma&;puLqGJ ]udkNidrf;vdkufem&ef pm&GufxJ rygonfudk rpm;&ef
rvkyf&ef txl;owdjyKyg}[la&;vdkufonf/
udkNidrf;onf pm&Gufay:wGif usra&;aeaom pmvHk;rsm;udk rsufajcrjywf vdkuf
zwfaeonf/
EGm;EdkYppfppf (rsufpdtjrif) tpdrf;aomuf? xdu&kef;? tkef;&nf? a&Tz&kHoD;? xef;
vsuf? &kef;ywDoD;? aumufnif;? qDxrif;? c&rf;oD;? pm;awmfyJ? c&rf;csOfoD;? 'l;&if;oD;?
aMumifvQmoD;? MoZmoD;? oHyk&moD;? emewfoD;? 'nif;oD;? ZD;oD;? eHeHyif? EGm;om;? qdwf
om;? refusnf;oD;? ig;jrif;&if;? ig;Zif&kdif;? ykZGef? ig;ykPm;/
ukdNidrf;ESifhwnfhonfhtpmrsm;udk odkYa&;aepOf ukdNidrf;onf vSrf;zwfMunfhae
&mu ]tem<uvmatmif ay;wJhtpmawGvm;}[k jzwfar;vkdufonf/
]]&Sif usrqD temvmukwm oufomatmif aysmufuif;atmif vmukwm r[kwf
zl;vm;? temudk <uatmif vkyfay;&w,fvkdY usroif,lwJhaq;ynmrSm r&Sdygbl;? tem
udk r<uatmif aysmufatmifom vkyfay;&ygw,f? tckay;wJhtpmawGu <uatmifvkyf
ay;wJhtpmawG r[kwfygbl;? r<uEkdifatmif ay;wJhtpmawGyg}}
usrajymonhfpum;rsm;onf olYem;ESifhqefYusifaeonf/ onftpmawGpm;cJh
vQif temBuD;<uvmawmhrSmbJ[k awG;xifaeykHvnf; &Sdonf/
usru qufvuf a&;om;jyefonf/ oluvnf; qufvuf vkdufzwfMunfh
jyefonf/
a&at;-a&pdrf; rcsKd;&? a&aEG;-csKd;&rnf? avpdrf;wkduf rsm;rsm;cHyg? rD;cJxJ
wGif jiKyfaumif;? eHYomjzLxnfh tckd;udk ESmacgif;ESifh&SLyg? yg;pyfxJ r0ifapESifh? waeY
72

okH;Budrf? aq;rIefYESifhtemudk uGrf;&GufESifhememwkdufyg/ aq;&nf waeYokH;Budrf aomufyg/


]]&Sief 'YJ pD m&Gux
f yJ gwmawGeo
YJ m wnfyh gw,f? twnfq
h ;Hk uawmh EGm;om;bJ rsm;
rsm;pm;yg? EGm;om;r&rS 'Dpm&GufxJygwmawG vG,f&mvSnfhpm;oGm;yg? 'Dpm&GufxJ rygwm
udkawmh bmwckrS rpm;ygeJY. . . }}
ukdNidrf;\tuJudkcwfum rQavmuf ajymvkduf&kHjzifh onftwkdif; vkyf0Hhrnfhol
r[kwrf eS ;f od onftwkid ;f vky&f &J ef bmhaMumifh EGm;om;ESiw
hf nfo
h nfukd tmajcmufatmif
&Sif;ajymjy&avonf/ usr ukoenf;um; trSefpifppf temaysmuf&kHomr[kwfbJ olYt
wGuf usef;rma&;rsKd;aphcsay;vkdufjcif;vnf; rnfavonf/ xkdxufwqifhwuf bm
aMumifh onftpmawG wnfh&oenf;[k MuHqrnfqkdygvQif ynm\tpudkyif &Ekdifum
usef;rma&;vufudkif &oGm;ayvdrfhrnf/ usray;aom "mwfpmrsm;rSm 7-ckpm;? 8-ckpm;
vESifh&moDay;aom "mwfpmrsKd; r[kwfay/ ukdNidrf; woufywfvkH; pm&GufxJygonfudk
om pm;aeygu tjcm;a0'empGu
J yfbYdk rqkx
d m;ESihf acgif;yif uku
d cf v
J rd rhf nfr[kwaf y? if;
tpmrsm;ESifhwnfhonf rwnfhonfudkvnf; ol\cEmukd,fu oufaocH&ayvdrfhrnf/
a0'emonfrsm;tm; cEmig;yg;rSae wnfhonhftpmESifhauR;ukojcif;? wnfh
onft
h oHEiS u
hf ak y;jcif;? wnfo
h nft
h eHEY iS u
hf ak y;jcif;? wnfo
h nft
h xdtawGEY iS u
hf ak y;jcif;
ponfh"mwfoabmrS usrajym wnfhonfh"mwfr[kwfbJ udk,fwkdifodjzpfayrnf/ rwnfh
onfh"mwfrsm;udkvnf; udk,fwkdif rdrdESifhrwnfhrSef; od&ayrnf/
udkNidrf; aq;,ljyefoGm;NyD;aemuf usrpdwfxJ xifhaerdonf/ usr ay;vdkufaom
"mwfpmaq;0g;rsm;ESihf olt
Y emESiw
hf nhyf ghrvm;[k xif&h yHrk sdK; r[kwb
f J EGm;om;ESihf oHy&k m
oD;udk pm;rSpm;yghrvm;[k xifhaerdonf/
10 &ufavmufMumvQif udkNidrf;aygufvmavonf/ wdkufxJr0ifcif olYudkjrifjrif
csif; ajymwJhtwdkif; vkyfrSef;odvdkufonf/ zswfvwfoGufvufpGm wdkufxJodkY 0ifvmNyD;
aemuf ]trsm;BuD; oufomoGm;ygNyD}[k jyHK;pGm ajym&if; usrpm;yGJa&SY ukvm;xdkifwGif xdkif
onf/ ]&Sif EGm;om;pm;awmh tem<uao;ovm;} usru ajymNyD; jyKH;aeonf/ ol\wuf
<u&Tifvef;tm;&aeaom rl&m[efyefudk Munfhvsuf tm;&yg;& jyKH;aerdonf/
]]yxrawmh aMumufaeao;w,fAsm ajymwmawG rvkyf0Hhbl; aemufrS b,fhES,f
&Sd&Sd? 'Davmuf tmrcHvkyfr,fqdkNyD; aeYwdkif;EGm;om;eJYoHyk&moD;csnf; pm;aewm tem
r<uygbl; ajcaxmufawmh aysmufcgenf;oavmuf&SdygNyD aq;ukefvdkY vm,lwmyg}}
udkNidrf;\ESif;cltemBuD; aysmufuif;oGm;NyDaemuf pm&if;ppf OD;[ifa0; qdkaom
yk8Kd vfwa,mufukd udNk idr;f uwqifh nTev
f u
dk o
f nf/ vufaumuf0wfuae wawmifqpf
txd &G&H mS bG,&f mvdvd pd&k aJG eaom ESi;f clemBuD;ESiahf &mufvmavonf/ EGm;om;ESio
hf yH &k m
73

E-book is created by www.shanyoma.org

*sme,f a usmf r rav;

E-book is created by www.shanyoma.org

jref r mh a q;ynm

oD;auR;vQif &J&Jompm;&ef ukdNidrf; rSmvdkufaMumif;ukd ajymjyonf/


usru ol\temudkMunhfNyD; ]]OD;&JUtemu EGm;om;eJYoHyk&moD; rwnhfygbl;?
temcsif; wlayrJh vlcsif; rwlMuygbl;? wOD;eJYwnhfvdkY wOD;eJYrwnfhygbl;? udkNidrf;temu
a&xdvrYkd &bl;? OD;temu a&pdrNf yD; uk&rSmyg? OD;uawmh ig;oavmuf vdyOf pm;rS aysmufrmS
yg}}
udNk idr;f uJo
h yYkd if rsufprd sufEmS ysufomG ;jyef usrajymonft
h wdik ;f vkyv
f Qif jrefjref
aysmufuif;oGm;rnfudk rarmryef; ouFm&Sif;ajym&jyefavonf/
EGm;om;ESio
hf yH &k moD;pm; wa,mufaysmufwm ud,
k w
f ikd jf rifc
hJ usrEGm;om;ESihf
oHy&k moD;auR;vQif pm;0Hyh &kH o
dS nf/ ig;oavmufvyd Of [kqv
kd u
kd
f wGeo
Yf mG ;avonf/ EGm;
om;ESifhoHyk&moD;pm; wOD;aysmufwmjrifNyD; vdkufpm;rnfqdkygu tem<uum vufu
tom;awG a<uuszdkY&m&Sdavonf/ olYudk ig;oavmufeJYvdyfOawGauR;NyD;tem<uatmif
vkyfukwm[k xifrSwfaejyef tem<uatmif ay;wm r[kwfbJ? temr<uatmif ESdrfuk
jcif;jzpfonfudk oabmaygufatmif tawmfouFm&Sif;ajym&onf/
a0'emonfwdkYtm; temuk&wm onfavmufrcufvSbJ aemufaemufu pGJxm;
onft
h pGu
J kd cRwf&onft
h wwfu ydck ufaeojzihf usr\tcuftcJrsm;udk udo
k ef;aqGtm;
nnf;nLajymrdjcif;jzpfonf/
]]usr tcufqHk;a0'emawGukd aumufnif;auR;ukwmeJY a&pdrfa&avmif;ukwJh
"mwfudk &kwfw&uf vlawG vufcHzdkY tcufqHk;jzpfaew,f}}
udo
k ef;aqGonf ol\a&m8ga0'emudk q&mBuD;"mwfenf;jzifh ukoaeojzifh "mwf
oabmudk wD;rdacgufrd &Sdaeonf/ olonf Nidrfoufvsufae&mrS wpHkw&mudk pOf;pm;ae
rdonf/
]]uRefawmhfudk 0efBuD;csKyftyg;awmfNrJ a':cifpk(cifESif;,k)u ajymzl;w,fcifAs?
olrsm;awG aumufnif;aygif;pm;,if 0rf;csKyfw,fqkdayrJh OD;Ekuawmh 0rf;csKyf,if 0rf;
EIwfaq; rpm;bl;? aumufnif;aygif;ckdif;NyD; aumufnif;aygif; tNrJpm;w,f? tqef;
bJvkdY ajymbl;w,f}}
usru b,fhES,f&Sdp t"dyg,fouf0ifaom tar;vuPm[efay:oGm;&kHom&Sd
ao;? udkoef;aqGu qufvuf usrar;rnfhtar;udk BudKajzvkdufonf/
]]uRefawmfvJ 'D"mwfoabm&dyfrdrS OD;EkeJYaumufnif;eJY wnfhvkdYomqkdwm ouf
aocH&awmhw,f}}
usrwdkYESpfa,mufpvHk; udk,hftawG;eJYudk,f NidrfoufaeMujyefonf/ udkoef;aqG
bmawG;rnfudk rodEdkifaomfvnf; usrrSmrl aq;ynmoifpOfu q&mBuD; qHk;r jyoaom
74

tcsufudk 'ufueJ awG;aerdonf/


q&mBuD;onf tawm tu&m onmawm? tp&SdaomygVdudk yxr&Gwfjyum t
eufudk &Sif;ajymjyonf/
tawm? teufudk/ tu&m onmawm? tu&mwdkYjzifh aumif;pGmodtyf? rSwf
tyfonf/ a[mwd? jzpf\/ tu&m? 0dywd,H? tu&mwdkY\ysufjcif;onf? owd? &Sdaomf/
txH? teufu/kd 'kE,
wm? 'knmwm? NidKjiifojzifh odEikd cf o
J nf\tjzpfonf/ [d,om?
tMuifaMumifh? a[mwd? jzpf\/ wom? xdkodkYteufudk NidKjiifojzifh odEdkifchJonfh\tjzpf
aMumif/h oA0pemeH? cyford ;f aomygVdawmfw\
Ykd ? tawm? teufu/kd tu&m[d? tu&mwdYk
jzifh/ onm,aw? aumif;pGm odtyf rSwftyf\/ wom? xkdodkYteufudk tu&mwkdYjzifh
aumif;pGm odtyfrw
S t
f yfonf\tjzpfaMumif?h okwa Eo?k okwE m ed? yd#uwfo;kH yHw
k t
Ykd m;/
A[kyum&H? rsm;aom aus;Zl;&Sdaom/ tu&aumovH? tu&mwdkY vdrmaomol\
tjzpf[kqdktyfaom tu&aumovPfudk/ yxrH? a&S;OD;pGm/ oAa'wAH? NyD;ap\/
odq
Yk &mBuD; &Gw&f iS ;f jybl;aom ygVd\teufukd jyefawG;rdum tu&m[lif;?
0P[lif;? pr[lif;? olYae&mESifhol toHk;tm;jzifh cGJjcm; ac:a0:ynwfjcif; jzpfyHk
awGudk awG;qifjcifrdonf/
o& 8-vHk;? Asnf; 33-vHk;udk aygif;ygu 0P41-vHk; ac:avonf/ okwfoHk;
usrf;? 0denf;ig;usrf;? tbd"rm ckepfusrf;? if;oHk;rsdK;udk yd#uwfoHk;yHk[l jyefynwf
jyef\/ if;yd#uwfoHk;yHkudk 41-vHk;aom0PrS ydkra&;om;Edkifacs/ a&;om;aom tu
&mrsm; rysufrSefuefatmif a&;om;ygrS ygVdrSefayonf/ ygVdrSefrS teufrSefayonf/ t
eufrSefrS t"dyg,frSefayonf/ t"dyg,frSefrS tusifhrSefayonf/
tu&mrSm;vQif ygVdrSm;av\/ ygVdrSm;vQif teufrSm;um? teufrSm;vQif t"d
ym,frmS ;vsuf t"dyg ,frmS ;u tusifrh mS ;av\/ xdaYk Mumifh tu&aumovPfukd OD;pGmh
NyD;aptyf\[k o'gBuD; oEdyxrydkif;wGif qdkxm;ayonf/
Oyrm/ ud#k [
f al om tu&ma&;enf;rsdK;um; &Sib
f &k if rud#k o
f mvQif a&;Edik af v
onf/ aMumifuu
kd o
f nf qd&k m xdt
k u&mudk ra&;om;Edik af y/ tu&mtxm;todk vGyJ gu
t,ltqawGtm;vHk; vGJoGm;zG,f&m &Sdayonf/
]]tu&mawGudk tu&mod&kHESifh rNyD;ao;bl;? toHxGufudk em;vnf od&ao;
w,f? Oyrm-vltrsm; oDvaqmufwnfwt
hJ cg Ak' o&PH 8pru
d q
dk w
kd wf&eHk NYJ yD;aomfvnf;
omraPausawmh qdkwwf&kHeJYrNyD;bl;? OyZm,fq&mESifhwuG omraPyg-EIwfcrf;u
xGuf&rnfhtoH? oGm;u xGuf&rnfhtoH? EIwfcrf;tzGifhtydwf ta&;BuD;w,f? onftu
&mbJ toHk;ae&m uGmjcm;w,f/ avmukw&mbufrSm tu&m ta&;BuD;ovdk avmuD
75

E-book is created by www.shanyoma.org

*sme,f a usmf r rav;

E-book is created by www.shanyoma.org

jref r mh a q;ynm

ynmbufrSmvJ pr ta&;BuD;w,f}}
q&mBuD; trdefY&Sdbl;onfhtwdkif; pr tu&m ta&;BuD;aMumif; awG;rdayonf/
pr tu&mrodygu udk,fh[mudk,f rSm;aewm awGY&jyefaomfvnf; bmaMumifhrSm;aerSef;
roday/ udk,fh[mudk,fbJ rSefaewm awGYjyefaomfvnf; bmaMumifh rSefaerSef; roday/ pr
udkodrS tajzodayrnf/
0efBuD;csKyfOD;Ek "mwfcsKyfvQif aumufnif;pm;yHkrSm xrif;rSefojzifh bmaMumifh
rSefaerSef;odbdkY ta&;BuD;ayonf/ 0efBuD;csKyf aumufnif;pm;yHk vrf;rSefaomfvnf; 0ef
BuD;csKyfuawmf a':jr&D0ifpm;ygu rkcsaq;rjzpfbJ ab;jzpfvrd rhf nf/ bmaMumifah ':jr&D
ESifhrwnfhrSef;udkvnf; odtyfvSayonf/
0efBuD;csKyfO;D Ekum; &kyu
f OPk? emrf;um; oDwjzpfaeojzifh aumufni ;f udk upr?
npr? ESpfvHk;aumuf,l u-0ga,m"mwfjzpfae\/ xdk0ga,m"mwfum; OPStaMumif;cH
aom 0ga,m"mwf jzpfaomaMumifh 0efBuD;csKyfO;D Ekonf xrif;pm;rnft
h pm; aumufni ;f
qDxrif;pm;aeygu usef;rm&kHwGif r[kwfbJ vkd&mNyD;pD;atmifjrifayvdrfhrnf/
eHeufwdkif; xef;nufoHk;cJ pm;um a&00aomufvsuf aumufnif;om tjrJpm;
aeygu q&mac:&aom'kurS vGwfNidrf;oGm;ayvdrfhrnf/
xef;nufum; awaZm jzpfaomfvnf; &d;k &d;k awaZm r[kwf e0if;awaZm jzpfay
onf/ xef;um; 10? nufum; 8? if; 1-8 udk 9-ESifhpm;vQif t<uif;r&Sdojzifh e0if;aw
aZmac:jcif;jzpfonf/ um; OD;Ek\prtusdK;jzpfavonf/ prqdkonfrSm olYae&mESifh
oljzpfaMumif;udk &Sif;NyD;avNyD/
prrSm vQmucHpm;aom pr? ESmacgif;u cHpm;aom pr? rsufpdu cHpm;aom pr?
em;u cHpm;aom pr? udk,fu cHpm;aom pr-[lpr ig;rsdK;&Sdonf/ if;prig;rsdK;udk
twdtusrodbJ rsufpdvnfaeygu tEykxkZOfac:ayrnf/ if;prig;rsdK;udk avmukw
&menf;ESifh cEmig;yg;[kac:ayonf/
avmuDenf;ESiahf vmukwe nf;ESihf olaY e&mESio
hf l twdtus cHpm;wmawGukd odyg
rS uvsmPykxkZOfjzpfayawmhrnf/
]]t8Fvyd pf mawG uke;f oifNyD; Arm&JUtu&mpmay pr oabmem;rvnfwo
hJ rl sm;
udk onfynmeJY aq;ukenf; oifjyzdkY[m rvG,fvSbl;&Sif}}
usrvnf; proabmudk tus,fw0ifhjyefvnfawG;ae&mrS aemufqHk; ed8Hk;csKyf
vdkufojzifh udkoef;aqGonf jyHK;um wjznf;jznf; vlawG vufcHrSmygbJAsm? 'DynmjyefYyGm;
&if aq;bdk;twGuf oufomNyD; udk,fhusef;rma&; udk,fydkifoGm;rSmbJ[k pdwfa&mudk,fyg
axmufcH ajymqkdoGm;ayonf/
76

wom;arG; waoG;vSqdkaom a&S;pum;ukd


rdef;rwdkif;yif Mum;bl;em;0 &SdMuonf/
odkY&mwGif ,ckacwf wom;arG;vQif
waoG;vS-rvS. . . /

77

E-book is created by www.shanyoma.org

*sme,f a usmf r rav;

jref r mh a q;ynm

E-book is created by www.shanyoma.org

a,musfm;azgifpD; rdef;rrD;ae
jrpfxJwGif toGm;tvm &Sif;aeonf/
teD;tem;w0dkufvnf; vloHoloHyif rMum;&oavmuf wdwfaeonf/ urf;
em; qdkufuyfxm;aom opfazgifBuD;ay:wGif ig;cla&miftom;uJhodkY rJajymifajymifae
aomol\ausmuke;f udk aevSe;f um azgifBudK;xdik w
f yk af eaom vlwa,mufom awG&Y onf/
urf;em; ajrjyefYudk rsufESmpmjyKvsuf rEav;zufodkY arQmfMunfhaeMuaom rif;
uGef;bk&m;ykxdk;wdkYrSm tqif;ta&mifysufvsuf vlolr&Sd acsmufuyfaeonf/
usronf opfazgifrsm; wef;qdkufxm;aom urf;em;pyfudk vSrf;arQmfMunfhvsuf
urf;em;&Sd taMumfqdkifuav;xJ 0ifxkdifvdkufonf/
oDwif;uRwfv rEav;odkYa&mufoGm;cJh&m rdwfaqGrsm;u rif;uGef;zufodkYydkYay;
Muonf/
a&S;a[mif;bk&m;ykx;kd rsm;ESihf rif;uGe;f acgif;avmif;? vlt&kd pHk aomae&mrsm;udk
vSnfhvnfzl;arQmfMunfh&IMuNyD;aemuf urf;em;odkYjyefqif;vmonfhtcg usrwdkYudk vdkufydkY
aom armfawmfrSm wae&modkY c&D;qufoGm;aeojzifh xdkifapmifhae&onf/
]]armfawmfu awmfawmfeJY vmtHk;rSm r[kwfbl;As? tqmajyuav;}}
rif;uGef;odkY vdkufydkYaom OD;ausmfaomif;onf armfawmfapmifh,if; pm;Mu&ef
taMumfzkd taMumfrsdK;pHk oGm;rSmaeonf/
'yfz&if oGm;zGm;aq;&krH mS Adu
k cf v
JG mNyD;p csKyf&;kd yif tuif;aoOD;rnfrxif&ao;
aom OD;ausmfaomif; \ZeD; rcifpdefonf usrtem; xdkifcsum pkwfoyfvsuf olYAdkufudk
ol ESdyfxm;onf/
]]emovm;}}[k usru vSnfhar;vdkufonf/
ol\&IHUxm;aom rsufESmudk wdk;&IHUum ]vrf;MuyfMuyfa&Smuf,if emw,f? Adkuf
cGJNyD;jyefvmwmu bmMumao;vdkYvJ}[k ajym,if; cg;udk ukef;xm;onf/
usrrSm ol\roufomjzpfaeaom trlt&mrsm;udk pdkufMunfhaerdonf/ rcif
pdefrSm usrxuf toufig;ESpfcefYi,favonf/ olY&kyfuav;udk ai;Munfh&avmufatmif
vSoavuf acsmoavmuf touft&G,fESifhrvdkufatmif qHyifawGjzLaeojzifh tMunfh
&qk;d aeonf/ rsufawmifrsm;aumhnw
T af eum rsufv;kH rsufzefvyS gvsuf rsufuiG ;f ndKae
jcif;aMumifh jzL0if;aeaom rsufESmay: trJ&pfBuD; xifaeonf/
78

usef;rmjcif;ESifhrjynfhpkHaom trSwftom;rsm;udk pkdufMunfh,if; ]bmjzpfvkdY Akduf


ukd cGJ&wmvJ. . . }[kar;vkdufonf/
rcifpdefonf EIwfcrf;uav;udk rodrom&GJUvsuf rsufvkH;udk axmifhuyfum r
ajymcif yifhoufBuD;csvkdufonf/
]]om;o;D &rSmpk;d vkYd cav;r&atmif om;tdraf MumoGm;jzwf&wmaygh usru aoG;
wk;d a&m*g&Sw
d ,f? cav;&S,
d if cPcPysufwmbJ cav;&Sv
d Ydk rjzpfz;l ? cav;r&atmif Aku
d f
cGJNyD; taMumjzwfypfvkdufw,f}}
ol\taMumif;jycsufum; cav;tvkdr&Sd r[kwfbJ? aoG;wkd;a&m*g&Sdaejcif;
aMumifh vraphbJ ysufwwfojzifh cav;r&atmif om;tdraf Mumjzwfxm;&ykrH sKd; &Si;f ajym
jyaeonf/
&Sdonfha&m*gudk aysmufatmifuk cav;tzwfwifatmifomvQif vkyfxkdufyg
vsuf AkdufcGJum cav;r&Sdatmif om;tdrfaMum jzwfypf&aomenf;udk rESpfoufay/
,ckacwf tdrfaxmifonfrdef;rrsm; trsKd;rsKd;&SdMuonf/ tcsKdUrSm cav;vkdcsif
aq;&kHwufum om;tdrfjcpfolawGvnf; &SdMuonf/ tcsKdUvnf; cav;rvkdcsif aq;
&kHwufum AkdufcGJNyD; om;tdrfaMumjzwfonf qkdolrsm;vnf; &SdMuonf/
odYk "m;tm;uk;d jzifh tvk&d mdS &mukd tvk&d o
dS vkd jyKjyifzefw;D Muum 'kuc MH uonfh
ae&m pGefYpm;0Hhaom owdxl;&SdMuayonf/
usr\tdrfeD;csif; rdwfaqGwOD;rSm om;oD;vkdcsifvSojzifh aq;&kHwufum arh
aq;ay;NyD; om;tdrfjcpfavonf/ om;tdrfjcpfaoma0'emudk yifyef;BuD;pGm cHpm;vsuf
aq;&kHay: yuwdvlemBuD;uJhodkY 'kucHaecJhNyD;aemuf aq;&kHrS qif;vmum ig;ESpfavmuf
MumvmcJhonhf,cktcsdefwkdifatmifyif om;orD; r&&Smao;acs/
usrrSm aq;q&mwa,muf tjrifjzifh cav;tzwfrwifjcif;udk tzwfwifap
atmif &Sdonfha&m*g aysmufatmif ukoenf;om oabmusum a&m*g&Sdaejcif;aMumifh
AkdufcGJum cav;r&atmif vkyfxm;aom enf;udk rESpfoufEkdifojzifh ]temcHvkdY rcifpdef
&,f}[k nnf;ajymrdonf/
OD;ausmfaomif;onf taMumfyef;uefBuD;udk vmcsay;um tMurf;tk;d udk ,lvsuf
a&aEG;ylyloGm;xnfhckdif;jyefonf/
usrwkdYvltkyfxJwGif cav;awG ygvmMuonf/ urf;em;pyf ajy;vTm;aqmhae
Muaom cav;rsm;udk rcifpdefu taMumfpm;&ef vSrf;ac:vkdufonf/ urf;pyfrS ajy;vm
Muaomcav;awGudk arQmfMunfh,if; azmifay:u vludk rsufpdwef;oGm;rdonf/
azmifay:u a,musfm;ESifhusrESifhrsufESmcsif;qkdif xkdifaeaom rcifpdefwkdYonf
79

E-book is created by www.shanyoma.org

*sme,f a usmf r rav;

E-book is created by www.shanyoma.org

jref r mh a q;ynm

,SOfwGJusufpm;aeMuonf/ rcifpdefESifhazgifay:u vlqDodkY acgufwHkYacgufjyef ul;oef;


usufpm;aeaom tm&kHxJwGif ]a,musfm;azgifpD; rdef;rrD;ae}[k qdk&kd;&SdMu? yHkcdkif;Muaom
t"dym,fudk wqufwnf; awG;aeMunfhrdavonf/
azgifonf urf;&yfqu
kd x
f m;onfw
h idk f rsufpx
d w
J iG f arsmoGm;aeo[ef 0ifpm;ae
rdonf? azgifpD;aoma,musfm;\oufpGefYqHzsm;jyKvkyf&aomoPmefrsm;onf rsufpda&SU
wGif ay:vmavonf/
azgifpD;&m avSmfwuf? xdk;0g;? tm;rxm;&bJ BudK;ukdomvQif tm;xm;Mu&\/
urf;odYk azgifqu
dk ?f azgifuyf&ef 8Go
J wf ? ikw&f u
dk f BudK;csnf qku
d u
f yfaom tvkyrf mS azmifukd
ukd,fuEkdifykHay:rS ikwfudk tao&kduf BudK;csnf0Hhvsuf EdkifyHkray:bl;xifvQif ikwfudk t&Sif
&dkuf&avonf/ azgifqdkufuyfrnfhae&mra&mufcifu a&xJodkYckefcsNyD; urf;ay:wwfum
ikwfajy;&dkufvsuf azgifBudK;udk qGJxdef;Munfh&onf/ urf;odkY ab;wdkuf0ifuyfvmonfh
azgifrmS qdu
k rf nfah e&ma&mufrS BudK;ESiq
hf u
JG yfvu
kd &f yHrk sdK; r[kwb
f J azgifuyfrnfu
h rf;em;
ae&mu cyfa0;a0; a&SUem;avmuf usvsuf ikw&f u
kd f BudK;csnfMunf&h aomae&mrSm aemuf
em; jzpfojzifh 8Go
J wfonft
h vkyo
f nf awmf&u
Hk sifvnfrjI zifh urf;odv
Yk u
kd u
f yfEikd b
f &Ykd m cufcJ
acsonf/
azgifuyf&ef 8Go
J wfaepOf BudK;udrk Edik
f jywfomG ;cJv
h Qif azgifay:u BudK;&pf BudK;
avQmhvkyfay;aeaomolESifh ikwf&kdufBudK;csnf xdef;Munfhaeaomolyg ESpfOD;pvHk;udprsm;
Edik Mf uonf/ om;a&BudK;udk ESpb
f ufwif;wif; udik q
f x
JG m;wke;f BudK;jywfcv
hJ Qif jyef&u
kd cf wf
rnft
h &Sed f jyef;xefenf;rsdK;wl 8Go
J wfaecdu
k f BudK;jywfxu
G o
f mG ;ygu ESpOf ;D pvk;kH 'kua &muf
zG,f&m &Sdawmhonf/
azgifBudK;qGJonfhtcgwGif 0g;wGif csnfaESmifxm;aom BudK;rsm;rSm 0g;ESifhyGwfxd
jcif; t&Sed jf yif;xefygu rD;xawmufavmifuek Mf uojzifh azgifvu
dk v
f Qif rD;ravmifatmif
a&yufvnftkH;rSjzpfonf/
azgifukd arQmcsvmaomtcg a&pD;oefaomfif;? vIid ;f xJwiG af omfif;? BudK;ESihf
wG,foD qufxm;aom tqufae&mrsm;rSm a&atmufodkYacguf0ifoGm;wwfaomaMumifh
tqufae&mu a&atmufodkYacgufoGm;cJhvQif xdktquftwGJBuD;wwGJudk tjrefjzwfypf&
ojzifh oufpGefYqHzsm; pD;Mu&aomtvkyfrsdK;jzpf\/
]]pm;avAsm. . . wdkY[l;aMumfeJY bl;oD;aMumfawG at;ukefr,f. . . }}
usrrSm azgifbufodkYai;armum udk,fhpdwful;ESifhukd,f azgifarQmxGufaepOf OD;
ausmfaomif; owday;vkdufrS pdwful;udk jzwfvsuf wdkY[l;aMumfwckudk vSrf;,lvdkufonf/
wd[
Yk ;l aMumfukd udik zf ,
hJ if; rcifped u
f kd pum;rajymcif pdu
k Mf unfv
h u
kd af vonf/ acwf
80

qHqH jyKjyifz;D oifxm;aom aumufweG aYf eMuonfq


h yH ifrsm;onf 8kwaf y: zGm;&&m 0Jae
onf/
eDaomEdik v
f eG t
f usrmS ud,
k af y:wGif &Jaeavonf/ MuufaoG;&ifah &mif zJxrDum;
EIwfcrf;eDqdk;xm;aomta&mifESifh wa&mifwnf; rIdif;eDaeMuonf/
teDxJwGif taoG;[lr&Sdaom tom;a&mifrSm ajzmhvsuf jzLzwfjzLa&mfBuD;
jzpfaeavonf/
]]wom;arG; waoG;vSqdkwm Mum;zl;w,f r[kwfvm;? om;arG;NyD; EkacsmvSvm
atmif vkyfEdkifwJhenf; ArmrSm&Sdw,f? cav;&rS vSEdkifawmhraygh}}
rcifpdefonf usrpum;udk em;om Mum;vkduf&ouJhokdY cyfayghaygh ESvkH;oGif;
um taMumfukdom zJhudkufpm;aeonf/
wom;arG; waoG;vSqdkwm a&S;pum;udk rdef;rwdkif;yif Mum;bl;em;0 &Sdonf/
od&Yk mwGif rsm;aomtm;jzifh om;arG;NyD; &kyu
f s&kyyf sufomG ;onfomrsm;jym;Muojzifh wom;
arG; waoG;vSaom a&S;pum;rSm t"dym,fuif;rJhovdk jzpfaeonf/
wom;arG;wom;vSqdkaom a&S;pum; [kwfrSefaMumif;udk ,ckacwf rsufESmjrif
om;zGm;aeMuaom arG;enf;zGm;enf;rsdK;jzifh udkufnDEkdif&ef cJ,Of;ovdk a&S;u arG;enf;
arG;zGm;enf;rsdK;rSom a&S;pum; [kwfrSefaMumif; udkufnDEdkifp&m&Sdonf/
ADZed,mrtm;jzifh ArmvlrsdK;\xHk;wrf;pOfvmonf pvmuwnf;u rdef;rrsm;
om;zGm;vQif rD;vIHcJhMuonf/ rD;ESifhrsufESmjrifcJhMuaomaMumifh rdef;rrD;ae[k pum;&Sd
cJhMuonf/
,ckacwfwGif ADZed,mr tpOftvmxHk;wrf;udk zsufum taemufEdkifiH\ukxHk;
ukenf;? edosnf;twdkif; acwfqefqef rsufESmjrifaeMuonf/
vlrsdK;wrsdK;wGif "avhxHk;pH toD;oD;&SdMuonfhteuf t8FvdyfarG;zGm;enf;? uk
vm;arG;zGm;enf;? w&kyaf rG;zGm;enf;? ArmarG;zGm;enf;ponfjzifh ud,
k "hf avhx;kH pHjzifh ud,
k f
arG;zGm;Mu&m a'o a&ajrvkdkufaomfif;? &moDOwkvkdufaomfif;? tpm;tpmvkduf
aomfif;? xHk;pH wrsdK;pD jzpfMuonf/
usr armfpudkodkYoGm;pOfu w&SuifhNrdKY&Sd aq;&kHw&kHa&mufcJhonf/ xdkaq;&kHwGif
om;zGm;rnfhqJqJ rdef;rwOD; tcef;xJodkY 0ifMunhfonf/ om;zGm;NyD; rdef;rrsm;teuf rdef;
rwOD;rSm ckwifay: ajc&if;bufukd tjrifv
h yk x
f m;ay;onf/ acgif;&if;udk tedrv
hf yk x
f m;
ay;ojzifh aZmufx;kd ae&ovdk awG&Y onf/ usru pum;jyefukd taMumif;ar;Munfrh o
d nf/
aoG;qif;wmrsm;vdkY aZmufxdk;vkyfxm;ay;wm[k pum;jyefu ajymjyonf/
if;wdEYk ikd if \
H &moDOwkrmS {aomEkikd if jH zpf aoG;cJaeaomaMumifh aoG;cJaeaom
81

E-book is created by www.shanyoma.org

*sme,f a usmf r rav;

E-book is created by www.shanyoma.org

jref r mh a q;ynm

a'o rsufESmjrifNyD; aoG;rsm; qif;aecJhvQif toufab;aMumuf&ojzifh aoG;rsm;rsm;


rqif;Edkifatmif umuG,faomoabmjzifh aZmufxdk;xm;ay;jcif;jzpfonf/
olYt&yf olYOwk&moD olY"avhxHk;pHvdkuf olYenf;ESifhol aoG;rsm;rsm; rqif;Edkif
atmif pdk;&drfwBuD; umuG,faomukxHk;rSm rSefuefvrf;usayonf/
ylaomEkid if rH sm;wGif aoG;aysmfaeaomaMumifh rD;zGm;onft
h cg aoG;rsm;rsm; qif;
ygrSjzpfrnf/ rsufESmjrifNyD; aoG;rsm; rqif;cJhvQif rD;aeonftwGuf pdkf;&drf&ayonf/
a&S;u rD;aetdraf &muf rD;aecef;xJ0ifvQif ]rsm;rsm;qif;&JUvm;}[k rde;f rcsif;
rsufpypfum 'gudk ta&;wBuD; owif;ar;wwfMuonf/
,ckacwf arG;enf;zGm;enf;ESihf a&S;acwf arG;enf;zGm;enf;onf zDvmqefYusif
vsuf wbmompD jzpfaeMuonf/
a&S;acwfu udk,f0efaqmifwa,mufonf rD;rzGm;cif vEkEku BudKwif vuf
onf 0rf; qGJt vky fu dk touf i,f i,f &G , f &G , f ES if h rvky folr &Sdoavmuf &Sm ;onf/
0rf;qGq
J v
kd Qif touft&G,Bf uD;&ifv
h suf buf tawGt
Y BuHKtm;jzifh vkyo
f uf&n
S Mf um
Muum olw\
Ykd 0rf;qGt
J wwfynmrSm vufawGv
Y ufxyfoif,rl w
S o
f m;enf;jzifh wqifx
h uf
wqifh tawGt
Y BuHK&ifo
h efaom todPfynmt& uRrf;usifvrd m jcif; jzpfMuukeo
f nf/
a&S;u rD;rzGm;Edik o
f jzifh Adu
k cf
JG uav;xkw,
f al omenf;(odrYk [kw)f arhaq;ay;
um nyEf iS q
hf x
JG w
k ,
f al omenf;rsdK; ray:ao;ay/ 0rf;qGv
J ufonfaumif;ay: wnfae
onf/
rarG;zGm;EdkifaomtcuftcJudk Munfh vdrmuRrf;usifpGm zGm;ay;Muonf/ or
&dk;uszGm;&ef cJ,Of;aeyHkay:vQif rwfwwfzGm;rS vG,fulEkdifrnfhoabm&Sdoltm; rwfwwf
zGm;apvsuf odkYr[kwf cav;rsm; aemufaz;xdkifwnfovdk ajcaxmufay:wGif cGxdkifcdkif;
NyD; zGm;cdkif;aom xHk;enf;rsm; vnf;&SdMuonf/ udk,f0efaqmifudkMunfh AdkufrcGJ& arhaq;
ray;&? nyfrul&bJ xdkifvsuf xvsuf arG;zGm;apaomolwdkY\twwfynmum; wu,f
tm;xm;avmufonhfynmw&yf jzpfonf/
onfrQru rD;rzGm;EdkifbJ tcuftcJ BuHKaevQif aygufyef; jzL 7-&Gufudk b,f
zufvufESifhudkifqkyfcdkif;jcif;? odkYr[kwf 0rf;emaeaomtcsdef ]qDrD;awmufO}jzifh Adkufudk
nm&pf 9-&pf &pfay;um arG;zGm;NyD; vufjzifh b,f&pf 9-&pfjyef&pfzsufay;jcif; ponfh
Armh "mwfoabmudk wwfodem;vnfMuao;onf/
vEkEku 0rf;qGJudk Adkuftyfxm;NyD;aemuf rsufESmrjrifcif 0rf;qGJu vma&muf
0rf;Adkufrwif;atmif aygifrStaMumtjcif avQmhay;jcif; Adkufudk udkifum cav;tae
txm; prf;oyfvsuf jyKjyifay;avh&SdMuonf/
82

veD;vmvQif rD;wGif;xJ aomufrnfh vdrf;rnfh eEGif;wufudk trIefYaxmif;xm;


um vIHrnfhxif;udkvnf; tqifoifh a&G;cs,fpkaqmif;xm;Muonf/
usr i,f&G,fpOfu usr\rdcifonf a&S;Arm"avhxHk;pHtwdkif; rsufESmjrifyHkudk
awGYBuHKbl;cJhonf/
rD;aecef;udk anmfoif;ESifhavvHk&m oD;jcm;vkyfavonf/ rD;wGif;xJoHk;rnfh
tdy&f m jcifaxmif t0wftpm;rsm;udk cyfxx
l l oD;oefaY &G;z,fxm;onf/ vHrk nfrh ;D uyfEiS hf
xif;rsm;yg t&HoifhpDrHxm;avonf/ xif;udk 8&kpkduf&onf/ xif;raumif;vQif rD;ayguf
rsm; vGifhwwfojzifh rsufESmjrifNyD;p rD;aeonfrSm udk,f&nfudk,fom; El;nHhvSojzifh rD;zGm;
txdrcHEdkifaomaMumifh rD;vIH&ef xif;aumif;aumif; a&G;Mu&onf/
uav;0rf;u uRwfvQif taronf acgif;udk qHpkrsm; xnfhaygif;um jrifhjrifhxHk;
vsuft0wfydkif;ESifhaygif;ywfvdkufonf/ rD;wGif;xJ qHpkxnfhxHk;xm;rS rD;xGufvQif qH
pkaygif;Edkifaom tusifh&ayrnf/ odkYr[kwf rD;xGufNyD; qHpkaygif;vQif acgif;udkuf acgif;cJ
aewwfojzifh rD;wGif;xJ tusifhvkyf&Muonf/
taronf acgif;aygif;NyD; tifwHki,fuav;xJwGif eEGif;rsm;xnfhum a&aEG;
ESifhcyfjypfjypf azsmfvsuf rsufESmrSp wudk,fvHk; 0if;xdefaeatmif tESHYtjym; vl;av
onf/
tar\tdy&f mab;wGif rD;uyfBuD;xm;um xif;rjywfxnfv
h suf rD;&Jatmif vkyf
ay;xm;Muonf/ eEGif;vdrf;NyD; yef;uefvHk;BuD;xJ &if;jym;udk aoG;xnfhum eEGif;rIefY
wqkyfBuD; xnfhvsuf a&aEG;ESifhazsmfNyD; aomufcsvdkufonf/
,if;odkY eEGif;vdrf;? eEGif;aomuf? rD;uifaeyHkrsm;udk aemufaemufu bmaMumifh
rSef; t"dym,faygufatmif rpOf;pm;cJhbl;acs/ eEGif;rsm; vdrf;usHvsuf rD;uifaom'kuudk
ab;uMunfhum onfb0rsddK;udk &GH&SmpufqkyfoGm;rdonf/
tarhtwGuf a&aEG;td;k BuD; yGuyf u
G q
f al tmif wnfay;xm;Mu&onf/taronf
wud,
k v
f ;kH eEGi;f rsm;vdr;f vsuf apmifNcHKNyD; a&aEG;ylyal omufum rD;vIaH eonf/ vufrsm;
udk rD;uyfay: qefYxkwfvsuf rD;aiGYcHum rD;uifay;aeonf/
tarhrsufEmS jrifyu
kH kd waphwapmif;Munf,
h if; tarhtpm; yljyif;vmrdawmhonf/
]]tar rylbl;vm;. . . ? rtdkufbl;vm;}}[kar;Munfhonf/
]]rD;aeonfqw
kd m rD;wGi;f xJrmS acgif;upNyD; ajczsm;txd acR;xGuNf yD; acR;wpdpk kd
aerS rD;aeonfcsrf;,if acR;ajcmuf,if aMumuf&w,f}}
vufonftzGm;BuD; ajymjy tcsufudk vlom;rajrmufcifuwnf;u em;xJ
wGif pGJcJhwm/
83

E-book is created by www.shanyoma.org

*sme,f a usmf r rav;

E-book is created by www.shanyoma.org

jref r mh a q;ynm

tcsdeftwef t&G,fa&mufvmum tdrfaxmif&ufom;usNyD;aemuf om;OD;udk,f


0efaqmif,laomtcg usrrSm rD;uyfBuD;ab;wGif eEGif;vl;rD;uif&aom ArmrD;aeonf
b0udk &GH&SmpufqkyfvS ]taemufenf;}jzifh aq;&kHwufrsufESmjrifolrsm;udk tm;usum
usr rsufESmjrifvQif tdyf&mazG;azG; jzLcif;vsuf t0wfjzLuav;udk,fay: zHk;um
acgif;ay:u yefum0D0DESifh aygif'g vl;Edkifaom? pm;csifwm pm;Edkifaom aq;&kHodkYa&muf
oGm;avNyD; oefYoefY&Sif;&Sif; acwfrSDrSD arG;zGm;rnf[kydkif;jzwfvdkufonf/
ArmhxkH;pHtwkdif; eEGif;vl; rD;uifaom rsufESmjrifenf;udk acwfqefolyDyD rsuf
pdxJwGif tusnf;wefaeum awmusonf/ atmufwef;usonf/ vl&kdif;awGom vkyfwm
[ktxifao;rdonf/ ,if;odaYk cwfaemufus acwfrrSD aya&npfywfvaS omom;zGm;enf;
[k rsm;pGmtxifao;xm;ojzifh Armvkd rsufESmjrif&rSmudk vljrifrSmyif &Sufpdwf0ifonf/
&efukefwGif om;OD;udk rsufESmjrifonfhaeYu rdzrsm;xHodkY oHBudK;&kdufvkdufonf/
aq;&kw
H ufzmG ;&ef MuH&,
G x
f m;vsuf 7 vjzifjh zKH;ueJ zGm;&ojzifh tdrf yif vufrw
S &f u&if
0rf;qGJq&mrBuD;udk ac:um t*Fvdyfenf;jzifh rsufESmjrifvkdufonf/
tcef;xJ&dS jyLwif;aygufrsm; zGix
hf m;um tdy&f mazG;azG;jzLjzLay: tnmapmif
yg;yg;av;jcKHvsuf rsufESmudk aygif'g&kdufxm;onf/ av'D&SL;pD;xm;aom u&ifom;zGm;
q&mrBuD;onf usracgif;rSqHyifrsm;udk uspfqHNrD;ESpfzufcGJuspfay;um yckH;a&SU csxm;
ay;onf/ vufudkifyk0gjzLuav;udk atmf'DuvkH; a&arT;rsm; &TJaeatmif qGwfum acgif;
tkH;ay: wifay;xm;ojzifh wcef;vkH; a&arT;eHY oif;BudKifaeonf/
ckwifab;&Sdpm;yGJcHkay: a[mvpfEdkYrIefYbl;? rHkYaowmbl;? ]8vl;udkYpf}bl;? a&aEG;
"mwfbl;rsm;ESifhyef;oD;? oAsufoD;rsm;udk yef;uefESifhwifxm;onf/
]]usrawmh Armvdk rsufEmS jrif&rSm ody&f w
HG mbJ tefw&D ,f? usrom bdu
k av;jyef
rsufESmjrif,if ArmvdkzGm;&rSm ArmvufonfeJYawGY&rSm uHaumif;vdkY tefwDeJYvmNyD; rsuf
ESmjrif&w,f}}
u&ifq&mrBuD;onf [uf[ufyufyuf &,farmvdkufonf/
]]eEGif;rvl;wm uHaumif;wmaygh? ckacwfu eEGif;vdrf;wJhacwf r[kwfawmhbl;?
t8Fvdyfaq; aomufvdkuf,if acR;xGufwmygbJ}}
eEGif;rsm; xdefaewm rD;aeonfudk jrifa,mifvdkufum oefYoefY&Sif&Sif; &Sdaeaom
ud,
k u
hf ,
kd Ef iS hf EIid ;f ,SOv
f suf Armvdk arG;wJrh ;D aeonfawG[m a8:&if8sDuv
k m;rawGeYJ rjcm;
yguvm;[k pdwfxJ &IHUcsrdonf/
]]awmu vufomfawG[m bmrSem;vnfwm r[kwfzl; Adkufemaewm ESdyfwGef;cs
vdkcs? cav;u aoa&m vlBuD;a&m roufombl;? aMumufzdkY odyfaumif;wmbJ}}
84

]]awmu vufonfawG[m rarG;cifu ESdyfwmr[kwfbl;tefwD&JU? arG;NyD;vJ 7


&ufpvHk; Adkufudk twif;wGef;ESdyfaewm usr jrifzl;w,f/ aoG;cGJay;wmwJh}}
]]MuHMuHzefzef arG;NyD;,if om;tdru
f odyEf w
k m rESyd &f bl;? rxd&bl;? txJu om;
tdrfawG tlawG a&mifukefrSmayhg? AdkufudkylwJhaq;uav; vl;NyD; t0wfuav;eJY ywfay;
xm;&w,f? aq;&kHrSm b,fawmhrS ESdyfray;bl;/ ynmrwwfwJh[mawGom vkyfMuwm}}
u&ifq&mrBuD;onf toHcyf0J0JESifh us,favmif us,favmifajymaepOf oHBudK;
& bdu
k av;rS vdu
k v
f maom usrzcifonf avSum;rS ajy;wwfvmum tcef;xJoYkd ajy;
0ifvmonf/
]][Jh orD; aeaumif;&JUvm;}}
zcifonf rsufarSmifBuD; MuKwfvsuf usr ezl;udk vmudkifprf;Munfhonf/
zcifpdk;&drfaom trlt&mrsm; awGY& ]]aeaumif;ygw,fazaz. . . araraum
b,feaYJ jymao;ovJ oHBudK;&awmh tar bmajymao;ovJ}}[k jyefajymaewke;f yif [ifacR;vJ rxGufygvm;? ckbmaq;aomufovJ}}[k txdwfwvefY pdwfylBuD;pGm qufar;ae
onf/
]]ckt8FvdyfaoG;xdef;aq; aomufxm;ygw,f? aeaumif;ygw,f}}
]]b,f. . . t8FvdyfrSr[kwfwm? t8Fvdyfaq;aomufvdkYjzpfyghrvJ? udk,fhArmrsdK;&dk;
xHk;pHtwdkif; vkyf&r,f? 'grSt&Snfojzihf usef;rma&;pdwfcs&w,f? 'Du 0rf;qGJq&mrBuD;
vm;. . . }}
u&ifq&mrBuD;ESifhusronf ArmxHk;pHtwdkif; vkyf&rnf[kajymvdkufonfESifh w
NydKifeuf ESmacgif; &SKHUvdkufrdonf/
]]q&mrBuD;udk aus;Zl;vJwifygw,f? tm;vJemygw,f? uRefawmfwdkYu Armjzpf
awmh uRefawmfwdkYrsdK;&dk;twdkif;bJ vkyfcsifygw,f? bdkuav;u 0rf;qGJyg wygwnf; ac:
vmcJhw,f}}
usrrSm q&mrBuD;udk tm;emrdonf/ rsufESmylyljzifh vSrf;Munfhvdkuf&m q&mr
BuD;rSm ododomom rsufESmysufaeonfhMum;xJrS [efaqmifNyHK;um ]]vkyfygav? udk,f
BudKufovdkvkyfMuyg}}[k jyefajymavonf/
avSum;rS wa'gufa'guf qif;oGm;aom q&mrBuD;\&SL;zdeyfoH aysmufomG ;vQif
usrvnf; rsufESmBuD;rIefxm;vsuf ]]Armenf; rBudKufbl;? rvkyfcsifbl;}}[kZGwftwif;
acgif;rmpGm jyefajymaeonf/
]]r[kwzf ;l av? azazu usef;rmatmif ajym&wm rsufEmS jrifwm bmatmufarh
vdkYvJ zdzdpD;pD;eJY ususee vkyfay;rS wavQmufvkH; usef;rmoGm;rSm EkdYrkdY,if tom;ta&
85

E-book is created by www.shanyoma.org

*sme,f a usmf r rav;

E-book is created by www.shanyoma.org

jref r mh a q;ynm

ajcmufuyfuyf npfykyfykyfeJY b,fawmhrS vlpOfrrSDbl;? em;vnfvm;? rdzpum; em;axmif


rSaygh}}
zcifu acsmh olYpum;em;axmif&ef wGifwGifwkdufwGef;aeonf/
xkdtckduf bkduav;rS vkdufvmaom touf 60 cefY&Sd vufonfa':bDBuD;onf
tcef;xJodkY 0ifvmum usr ukwifajc&if;wGif 0ifxkdifvsuf rdzpum;em;axmif&ef w&m;
csavonf/
usrrSm Armvkd eEGif;vdrf;&rnfhtjzpfudk &GH&Smpufqkyfonf? eEGif;aomuf&rnfh
tjzpfvnf; atmfuvDqefum ysKdUaeavonf/ zciftm; odyfa&S;qefwmbJ acwfaemuf
uswmbJ t,lonf;wmbJ[k rausreyfESifhpdwfxJu usdwftjypfwifvkdufum Armenf;
vkyf&ef tBuD;tus,f pdwfysufoGm;onf/
]]eEGif; rvl;bJ arG;wmawG jynfhvkdYyg azaz&,f. . . 'Dvkdqkd t*FvdyfrawG b,fhES,f
vkyfrvJ b,fawmhrS eEGif;rvl;bl;}}
]][Jh-olwkdYrSm eEGif;vl;wJh"avhxkH;pHrSr&SdbJ vl;yghrvm;? olwkdYEkdifiHeJYolwkdY"avh
[Jh? uRJawGEGm;awGaum Munfhprf;? eEGif;vl;Muovm;? &if;jym;pm;Muovm;? bmom bm
0olw"Ydk avheo
YJ w
l aYdk rG;MuwmbJ? uRJawG EGm;awGarG;ovkd uk,
d u
f vku
d v
f yk v
f jYdk zpfwm r[kwf
bl;? eEGif;vl;wm[m a&S;uwnf;u vkyfvmMuwm. . . 'Dvkdvl;vkdY a&S;urdef;rBuD;awG b,f
avmufusef;rmMuovJ arG;zGm;NyD; tom;ta&udk pkdvkdY ckacwfvkd cav;arG;NyD; tarm
rcHEkdif tyef;rcHEkdifwmrsKd;? rD;,yfcsrf; xaewmrsKd;? rD;,yf0rf;azmfaewmrsKd; rD;,yf
acgif;udkufpGJaewmrsKd; r&Sdbl;? toufBuD;rS t&G,fvGefrS qHyifjzLw,f? toufBuD;rS t
&G,fvGefrS cg;ukef;Muw,f? wcsKdUrSm touf 70-80 om qkdw,f oefrmvkdufwm? tJ'g
eEGif;aus;Zl;[Jh}}
zcifonf a'gESiahf rmESihf rmefraJ jymaeonf/ zcif b,fvadk jymaeae usrrSm em;
r0ifEkdifbJ a&S;acwf\tjyKtrludk t&kdif;tpkdif;awG vkyfwm[k &IHUcsom rsufESmBuD;okef
rIefxm;rdonf/
]]eEGif;awmh rvl;csifbl;azaz&,f? npfywfw,f}}
]]atmifr,f-npfywfowJ?h 7-&ufavmuf vl;&wm b,fvrdk sm; ud,
k u
f sKd;eJomG ;
rSmrkdYvkdYvJ? eEGif;rvl;bJ aygif'gvl;wm taumif;rSwfvkdY. . . aoG;Ekom;EkrSm ]u&if}tvSqD
awG aygif'gawG MuyfMuyfvl; rsufcGufwckvkH; nif;awG wif;wdyfawG jynfhaevdrfhr,f. . .
eEGif;vl;rS ajcmufawmh ylNyD; txJu raumif;wJhtnpftaMu;awG[m acR;tjzpf tjyif
a&mufvmwm 'DawmhrS rsufESmav;[m 0if;vkdYpkdvkdY wif;wdyfawG nif;awG rpGJbl;? em;
vnfvm;? a&S;u rD;aeonf qyfjymawmif rukdifbl;? qyfjymxJrSm tJqpfygawmh xkHrSm
86

usifrSmpdk;vkYd}}
zcifonf acsmhwvSnfh? rmefwvSnfhjzifh tcef;xJrS xGufoGm;um pDpuDykvif;t
vGwfjzifh tqifhoifh xnfh,lvmcJhaom eEGif;ykvif;BuD;udk ,lvmonf/
]]uJ. . . ta':bD cifAsm; vkyf&rJhtvkyfawGudk useatmif vkyfay;prf;yg? olwdkY
acwfqefwJh[mawG udk,fhab;udk,fodMuwm r[kwfbl;}}
zcifonf ajymajymqdkqdk eEGif;ykvif;BuD;udk zGifhvsuf vbuf&nfyef;uefvHk;xJ
odkY eEGif;rIefYrsm; w0ufeD;eD; oGefcsvdkufonf/
usronf toJESvHk;wkefvsuf MuufoD;xoGm;um aomuf&rnfheEGif;uvnf;
enf;enf;r[kwf aovdkufcsifavmufatmif pdwfnpfoGm;onf/
yef;uefv;kH rjynfw
h jynfh a&aEG;ESiahf zsmfvsuf ]]uJ. . . orD; aomufvu
kd }f }[k yg;pyf
em;odkY awhay;vdkufonf/
qdk;0g;aom eEGif;eHYBuD;um; axmif;ueJ xGufvmum atmhtefcsifvkvkjzifhyif
rvGJra&Smifomojzifh toufatmifhNyD; &IHUrJharmcsvdkuf&onf/
]]tdyf&mcif;awG ayukefr,f? apmifa[mif;jzpfjzpf cif;prf;}}
zcifonf jyLwif;aygufwHcg;rsm;udk avQmufydwfavonf/
vufonfBuD;rSm eEGif;vdrf;ay;&ef cGufxJ a&ESifhazsmfaeavonf/
jzLazG;aom tdy&f mcif;rsm;udk z,fum apmifnn
hH cHh if;&vsuf eEGi;f vdr;f &ef t0wf
pm;cRwfay;&onf/
rsufESmudk usrzmom vl;&ef cGufxJu eEGif;rsm;udk vufzsm;uav;ESifh aMumuf
aMumuf&GHU&GHU wdkY,lvsuf oeyfcg;vdrf;ovdk cyfyg;yg;yGwfaeyHkMunfhaeaomzcifu cyfrsm;
rsm; ,lvdrf;&ef apmifhajymaeonf/
usrrSm qHyifrsm; eEGi;f rayatmif acgif;aygif;&vsuf wcPtwGi;f wud,
k v
f ;kH
eEGif;awG ayusHxdef0goGm;um ArmrD;aeonftoGif ajymif;oGm;onf/
]]&efukefrSmrdkY. . . awmrSmomqdk,if rD;uyfeJYarG;&rSm? rD;rygbJ tpdrf;arG;wm odyf
pdwfcs&wm? r[kwfbl;As? xlxlvdrf;ay;prf;yg}}
zcifajymonft
h wdik ;f vufonfBuD;onf ig;rsm;udk eEGi;f ESiq
hf yk ef ,fay;yHt
k wdik ;f
usrtom;udk eEGif;ESifhqkyfe,fay;ae,if; ]a&S;xHk;ry,feJYath awmfawmfMum rD;,yfydef
rD;,yfajcmufuav;jzpfaer,f/ onfvdkvl;awmhrS tom;awG b,fawmhrS xHkjcif; udkuf
cJjcif;udk rjzpfbl;? tom;t&nf pdkajyw,f}[k wzGzGajymaeavonf/
eEGif;vdrf;aomudp NyD;aomtcg usrtm; tdyf&may: vSJcdkif;vsuf aoG;cGJay;
rnfqdkum Akdufudk udkifavonf/
87

E-book is created by www.shanyoma.org

*sme,f a usmf r rav;

E-book is created by www.shanyoma.org

jref r mh a q;ynm

]]rjzpfbl;tBuD;. . . AdkufudkrESdyfygeJY? ckaecg AkdufESdyf&if aoG;NydKwwfw,fwJh? txJ


rSmvJ temjzpfrSm. . . }}
usrrSm u&ifq&mrBuD; oGif;xm;aomt*Fvdyft,ltqjzifh AkdufESdyfrSmudk
aMumufvefYoGm;um tudkifrcHbJ jiif;qefaeonf/
]]rD;aeonf aoG;cGJay;&wm xHk;pHath? aoG;eJYaveJY uGJatmif aoG;rsm;rsm; qif;
atmif vufual y;&wm? 0rf;qGv
J yk &f if 'Dtwwfaumif;aumif;wwf&w,f/ aoG;cGw
J wfzYkd
ESdyfwwfzdkYu ta&;BuD;qHk;bJ}}
ArmharG;zGm;enf;ESifh usrESpfoufoabmusaom t*Fvdyfenf;onf ta&SUESifh
taemuf qefYusifbuf jzpfaeMuonf/ zcifonf usr tESdrfcHbl;toHMum; tcef;xJ
odkY 0ifvmjyefonf/
vufonfBuD;onf rsuf&nfxGufatmif &,faeavonf/
]]MunfhvJ ajymprf;ygtHk;awmf. . . olwdkYvufxufusrS Akdufudkif,if temjzpfr,fvdkY
Mum;bl;ygw,fawmf? aoG;rsm;atmif vkyfwmbJ? aoG;rsm;rSm aMumufaeao;oawmh}}
]]w,fcufwmudk;. . . olwkdYt*FvdyfEkdifiHrSm aoG;NydK,if aMumuf&vkdY Akdufrukdifwm?
olwt
Ydk *Fvyd ef nf;udk azazu rrSeb
f ;l vkYd tjypfqw
dk m r[kwzf ;l / olweYdk nf;eJo
Y w
l rYdk eS w
f ,f?
olwkdYenf;eJYArmEkdifiHu Armru vkyfvkduf,if vGJr,fvkdY ajymaewm[Jh. . . }}
zcif\pdww
f v
kd suf a'goxGuv
f maomtoHuMkd um;&rS vkycf sifovdv
k yk Mf uawmh
[k tavQmhay;vdkuf&awmhonf/
eEGif;aomuf&aomudp? eEGif;vdrf;&aomudprsm;tjyif atmf'DuvHk;tpm; prHk
eufuvnf; tNrJ&SLae&onf/ a&aEG;ylylBuD;vnf; cPcPaomuf&\/ av;yifvdrf Zm
jcifaxmifukd ydwjf cifaxmifajymif;axmifum tom; acR;xGurf xGuf tjrJapmifMh unhaf e
Muavonf/ rD;ruif;&wm awmfygao;&JU[katmufarh&awmhonf/
xrif;pm;jyefvQifvnf; ig;ydaumif taumifvu
kd f iefiefBuD;cwfxm;aom [if;
csdKxJwGif i&kyfaumif;rsm;rsm;BuD; xnfhvsuf rD;aeonf [if;cg;wdkufMu\/
]]rSw
d af omuf? 'grSiefawmh a&iwfr,f? a&aEG;cPcPaomufawmh acR;xGuv
f m
r,f? tykyftpyf pifMu,fr,f}}
ezl;rSp ajczsm;txd acR;vHk;acR;aygufBuD;usaevsuf eEGif;tcdk;jzifh rD;uif
xm;ovdyk if tom;rsm; w&Sed &f edS yf al eawmhonf/ wud,
k v
f ;kH &GaJ eojzifh cPcP t0wfvJ
ay;&onf/
]]ae&wmaygh&JUvm;. . . aoG;av;ovm;}}[k zcifu tNrJapmifhar;wwfonf/
7 &ufraphcif tdyf&mudk waeYwcg vSJcgwdkif; udk,frSuGmusaom eEGif;rIefYrsm;udk
88

tdyf&mxJrS EdkYqDbl;0ufcefYeD;eD; xGufvmwwfonf/


oHk;&ufajrmufaomaeYonf aoG;a[mif;pGefYvsuf aoG;opfvJajymif;aomaeY[k
owfrw
S Mf uonf/ xdak eY aoG;EkveG ;f rD;aeonftem; qdik ;f wD;vQif &l;oGyo
f nf[ak jym
Muonf/
aoG;opfajymif;aeonfhtcsdef &kyfEkvSojzifh rxdwfrvefYatmif owday;vsuf
txl;8&kpdkuf apmifhMunhfMuonf/ xdkn qef;iefa&jyKwfudk wdkufum 0rf;EIwfvsuf 5
&ufajrmufaomaeYrS 7 &ufaphaomaeYtxd 3&ufvHk;vHk; acR;aygif;BuD;ESifh acR;atmif;
&avonf/ 7 &ufaphvQif acR;xGufrD;xGuf&um rD;aejcif;udp NyD;oGm;\/
Armh&dk;&mtwdkif; ArmrD;zGm;enf;\tusdK;tjypfudk ,ckjyef pDppfa0zefMunfh
vdu
k af omtcg ArmharG;zGm;enf;\aumif;usdK;tmedoifukd cHpm;&jcif;udk awG&Y v
dS monf/
rD;,yf0rf;azg? rD;,yfacgif;udu
k ?f xkjH cif;/ usifjcif; rjzpfb;l acs/ i,fi,f rIecf ahJ om rsufpd
yif jyefvif;vmum rsufrSef cRwfypfvdkuf&onf/
rdef;rrsm; udk,f0efaqmifxm;cdkuf 9 vcefY atmif;aeaomaoG; r<uif;rusef
xHk;pHtwdkif; pGefYap&ef rsufESmjrifNyD; rdef;rrsm;tzdkY t"duta&;BuD;qHk;aomtcsufjzpf
onf/
om;zGm;NyD; El;nHhaeaom aoG;Ekom;Ek&kyfudk rD;uifjcif;jzifh rD;ESifh&ifhatmif jyif
ay;jcif;vnf;jzpfonf/ EGm;om;pdkpdkukd rD;uifaomtcg rmNyD; &ifhusufvmapouJhodkYyif
tvGefEl;nHhaeaomtom;t&nfESifhtvGefEl;nHhaomom;tdrfwdkYonf rD;aMumifh jyef&ifh
oGm;aponf/
EGm;om;udk uifonhftcg ta&txGufNyD; ajcmufoGm;ouJhodkYrD;uifonfhtcsdef
raumif;wmawG acR;tjzpf ,dkusum tom;rsm; jyef&ifhrmvmaponf/
om;zGm;NyD;p udk,f&nfudk,fom;rsm;rSm yuwdtom;t&nfESifhrwlbJ EkoGm;av
onf/ xdkYaMumifh rsufESmjrifNyD;p vufaxmufrae&ef vufqpfrcsdK;&ef a&SmifMunfcdkif;
avonf/
rD;aeonftzdkY acR;xGuf&ef ta&;BuD;ayonf/ 9-vcefYatmif;aeaomaoG;
rsm;udk 7-&ufjzifh tnpftaMu; pifatmif vkyfypfaom zGm;enf;rsdK; jzpfayonf/
rD;wGif;xJwGif tnpftaMu;rsm;pifatmif aoG;<uif; aoG;usef rusef&pfap
atmif vufonfu vufygul aoG;cGJay;&jcif; jzpfonf/
9-vatmif;onft
h npftaMu;rsm; rD;wGi;f xJ tzufzufrS uif;pifuek af tmif
vkyfay; tnpftaMu;pifcJhvQif vSyaom ta&miftqif;xGufvmojzifh ]wom;arG;
waoG;vS}qkdaom a&S;pum; &SdcJhjcif; jzpfonf/
89

E-book is created by www.shanyoma.org

*sme,f a usmf r rav;

E-book is created by www.shanyoma.org

jref r mh a q;ynm

ArmxH;k pHtwdik ;f rsufEmS jrifMuaom a&S;tr,ftBuD;rsm;udk jyefa0zefqifjcif


Munfhaomtcg a&S;tr,fBuD;rsm;rS rmcsmvsuf touf 60-70 t&G,fa&mufrS rsuf
rSefaqmif&um ,ckacwf taemufEdkifiHenf;jzifh rsufESmjrifMuolrsm;tzdkYrSmrl uav;
wa,mufESpfa,mufjzifh acgif;udkuf Zufxdk;aeum rsufrSefaqmifaeMu&ayNyD/
usr\aq;wdkufodkY touf 30-rausmfao;aom tdrfaxmifonfrdef;rrsm; t
rsm;tjym; vma&muf aq;ukMuonf/ if;wdaYk &m8grSmrsm;aomtm;jzifh rl;a0aoma&m8g
ESifh&ifwkefaoma&m*grsm;onf touf 30 rausmfao;bJESifh &ifwkefaeMuonf/ tr,f
BuD;rsm;vkd xvku
d v
f Qif rku
d u
f eJvrJ wwf rl;ae\/ ud,
k v
f ufawG ud,
k cf x
J u
Hk sifum "rwm
vnf; rrSefMu? rsufESmjrifpOfu aoG;usefaomvuPm rsufuGif;rsm;nKdvsuf pdkpdkajyajy
r&SMd uay/
]]&SifwdkY rsufESmjrifwkef;u b,fvdkjrifovJ}}[k usru ppfar;vdkufvQif ]]usrwdkY
Armvdk arG;Muw,f}}[k wOD;wa,mufxHurSrMum;&ay/ tm;vHk;vdk taemufenf;ESifh
rsufESm jrifcJhMuonf/
]]&SifwdkY taemufEdkifiHenf;eJY rsufESmjrifwm oabmusMuovm;}}[k ar;vdkuf
onf/ trsdK;orD;tm;vHk;uyif usrwdkY aq;&kHaq;cef;rSm om;arG;ayrJh 10-&ufaphvdkY
tdrjf yefa&mufawmh ud,
k Ahf rmvdk rD;uifaq;pm;wmbJ[k qdMk uonf/ tcsdKu
Y vnf; tdru
f s
eEGif;vl;NyD; acR;atmif;vdkufwmbJ[k ajzMuonf/
usrrSm olw\
Ykd tajzudk tawG;&cufaeonf/ Armenf;vnf; vufrvTw0f ahH om
tajzjzpfojzifh awmifrus ajrmufrus avQmufvyk Mf ujcif; rawG;wwfatmif jzpfro
d nf/
tcsdKrY ;D ,yfuu
G rf sm; xGuv
f suf tcsdKrY mS rD;,yftzkrsm; jAKwfxaeum ,m;,Hae
aomvlemrsm;udk ]]rsufEmS jrifwek ;f u aoG;rsm;rsm; rqif;cJb
h ;l vm;}}[k ar;Munh&f m ]aq;
&kHrSm aoG;rsm;rsm;qif;,if aoG;vGefw,fqdkNyD; aZmufxdk;xm;ay;w,f}[kajymjyonf/
taemufEikd if w
H iG f taemufEikd if eH nf; rSeu
f efaMumif;rSm vufawGjY zpfovdk ta&SU
Edik if H taemufEikd if eH nf;pepf oGi;f onft
h cg oifrh oif?h tusdK;oufa&mufrv
I ufawGjY zpf
rjzpf txl;ojzifh rD;aeonfrsm;twGuf qifjcifpOf;pm;p&m&Sdonf/
rD;aeonf aoG;vGefjcif;ESifhaoG;rsm;jcif;rSm t"dyg,fjcm;em;ayonf/ aoG;rsm;
jcif;udk aoG;oGefjcif;[k ,lq rjzpfay/ rD;aeonf 'va[m aoG;oGefjcif;om aMumuf
&vsuf aoG;rsm;jcif;twGuf pdk;&drfp&m r&Sday/
&moDOwktvdu
k f aoG;rsm;rsm;qif;rS usef;rmaprnfEh ikd if jH zpfonf/ ArmjynfwiG f
txufArmjynfESifhatmufjrefrmjynfyif rwlMuay/ atmufArmjynf rdef;rwa,muf
aoG;qHk;onfhtcg apmapmqHk;jcif;udk ylyifp&m r&Sdaomfvnf; txufArmjynfaeaom
90

rdef;rtwGuf apmapmqHk;oGm;vQif rusef;rmrnfhoabm&Sdaeonf/ um; Owkvdkuf


jcm;em;jcif;yif jzpfMuonf/
,Ofaus;rIXme twGif;0efOD;armifBuD;\ZeD;onf om;tqufqufzGm;cJh&mwGif
rD;,yfacgif;udu
k af 0'emBuD; ESpaf ygif;rsm;pGm pGu
J yfvmcJ&h m xdak &m8g aysmufuif;&ef aemuf
qHk;arG;zGm;aomom;udk Armenf;jzifhyif zGm;ay;rS aysmufuif;csrf;om&m &oGm;onf/
]]a':rrav; tck &efuek rf mS om;zGm;cef;awG odyaf cwfpm;aew,f? Armom;zGm;
cef; zGifhNyD; ArmxHk;pHtwdkif; Armvdk ususee rsufESmjrifay;r,fvdkY vkyfprf;yg}}
twGif;0efuawmfa':zGm;nTefYu wkdufwGef;aeojzifh usru]]Armom;zGm;cef;
zGifh&efrvkd? zkd;zGm;bDbif vufxufuwnf;u udk,fhtdrfrSm ArmvkdarG;vmcJhMuwmbJ}[k
ajymjyvku
d o
f nf/
rcifped t
f em;wGif taMumfxidk pf m;aeaom &efuek rf S usrESit
hf wlwl vmcJMh uonfh
rD;&xm;pwkd;rif;BuD;uawmf]]jrifh}}onf wcgu ESpfvESifhom;a&SmoGm;ojzihf ayghayghqq
rrSwf&ef owday;um om;zGm;aomolrsm;uJhodkYyif *&kwpkduf Armenf;jzifh usef;rma&;
jyKjyifay;bl;onf/
a&S;u rdef;rrD;aevQif eEGif;vl;&ef? aomuf&ef vlwkdif;ESifhwnfhonf[k,lqcJhrd
onf/ ,ck Armaq;ynm "mwfynmudk vkdufpm;oif,lrS eEGif;udkvl;&ef wnfhaomolt
zkYd aomuf&ef vk;H 0rwnfah omoabmudk awG&Y &dS onf/ xked nf;wlpmG eEGi;f aomuf&ef wnfh
aomolwa,muftzkdY vdrf;&ef rwnfhonfudk awGY&Sdvm&onf/
a&S;u "mwfwnfh rwnfu
h kd twdtus rqk;H jzwfEidk Mf u r,kwrf vGef rrSm;atmif
aomufvnf; aomuf? vl;vnf; vl;Muonf/
rD;vIHonfhtcgvnf; udk,fESifhwnfhrnfhxif;udk twdtus "mwfrod ukuKd?
rmvum? uepdkponfjzifh xif;pHkxnhf vIHMuonf/
jrift
h wGuf eEGi;f vdr;f &efom "mwfwnfv
h suf aomuf&ef "mwfrwnho
f jzifh eEGi;f
vl;apNyD; acR;atmif;ay;cJhonf/
jrifhonf rcifpdeftm; usraMumifh Armenf;vkyfcJhaMumif;udk &Sif;ajymjyaeonf/
usrrSm jrpfzufodkY ai;vsuf ]a,musfm;azmifpD; rdef;rrD;ae}qkdaompum;\t
"dyg,fudk tus,fw0ifh qifjcifokH;oyfae&if; y#doaEwnfjcif;tpudk pdwf0ifpm;pGm xif
jrifpOf;pm;Munfhaerdonf/
Armhaq;ynm y#doaEwnfjcif;? t*FgokH;yg; jyxm;avonf/
rdzESpfyg; ESD;aESmjcif;? Owkor,MuKHjcif;? ow0gpkwdqJjzpfap/
Owktrsm;vmckduf ukd,f0efr,lEkdif? t&Sif;oufoufrvmaom umvvnf;
91

E-book is created by www.shanyoma.org

*sme,f a usmf r rav;

E-book is created by www.shanyoma.org

jref r mh a q;ynm

ukd,f0efr,lEkdif? OwkvmaomaeYrS 4 &ufajrmuf pGJaom udk,f0efonf NrJEkdif\[kom&w


'DyeDusrf;u qkdxm;onf/
rdzESpfyg; ESD;aESm Owkvmckduf MuKHonfhwkdif udk,f0efy#doaE rwnfEkdifao;bJ
ow0gpkaw&efuvnf; vkdtyfaeao;onf/
xkjYd yif y#doaEwnfjcif;tponf uvva&Munfuponf[k omreftm;jzifh ,l
qcJhonf/
odkY&mwGif oN*K[f&kyfykdif; pdwfydkif;rsm;udk qnf;yl;aomtcgwGif uvva&Munf
uponf[k qkH;jzwf&ef cJ,Of;aeonfudk avhvmrdjyefonf/ uvmyf 3 pnf;? &kyf 30 onf
wa,mufaomtrd\om;i,ftdrf oGm; Oyg'f&m y#doaE0dnmPfonf xkd&kyf 30 wGif
[',0wK pGrJ
d ra&S;raESmif;wNydKifwnf; Oyg'fMuavuke\
f / if;y#doaE0n
d mPfEiS hf
xku
d o
f nft
h m;avsmfpmG ,SOu
f ek af omapwoduw
f o
Ydk nf ra&S;raESmif; wNydKifwnf;jzpfuek f
\/
b0csKdUrl&kyf 30? b0csKdUrl&kyf 20 wkdYonf &lyuEmrnfonf/
y#doaE0dnmPfpdwfonf 0dnmPuEmrnfum? a0'em? onmwkdYum; a0'emu
Em? onmuEmrnfavonf/
xkduvmyf 3 pnf;udk y#doaEwnfaeonfrSp 7 &uftwGif; uvva&Munf
ac:ayonf/
y#doaEwnfjcif;\tponf uvva&Munfuav;u ponf[x
k if&jim;vnf;
uvmyf 3 pnf;? &kyf 30 vmykrH mS rjrifEikd f rodEidk pf rG ;f aom w&m;jzpfjcif;udk qifjcifro
d nf/
,if;uvva&Munf wnfonfhtcg if;tpkta0;uav;onf yrmPtm;jzifh
vGefpGmao;i,f\/ urZ&kyf? OwkZ&kyfwkdYonf tqifhqifhwkd;yGm;zGHYNzdK;vmjcif;aMumifhom
wpwp BuD;yGm;vm&jcif;jzpfonf/
om;tdrf uvva&Munf wnf 7 &ufjynfhaomtcg tjrKyf[laoma0g[m&
ynwfodkY ajymif;a&TUav\/ a&MunfrS tjrKyfjzpfvmonf/
tjrKyfjzpf 7 &ufMumjyefaomtcg tcJac:vsuf aemuf 7 &uf om;wpfac:
Muavonf/ aemuf 7 &ufMumjyefaomf om;wpfrS cufrig;jzm ay:xGufvmykH jzpfonf/
uvva&MunfwnfNyD; 14 &uftwGi;f trdrsKdtyfaomtpmtm[m&wkrYd mS Mum
&kd;jzifh cHwGif;oGif; pkyfouJhodkY csufBudK;rS oGm;a&mufum ysHUESHYonhftwGuf tm[m&Z
&kyjf zpfay:vmavonf/
tpmtm[m&rS0D o
J jzifh a&MunftjzpfrS ul;ajymif;um tjrKyfjzpfvmykyH ifwnf;/
tcJqo
dk nfrmS vnf; urZ? OwkZ? tm[m&Z&kyw
f o
Ydk nf xyfcgwk;d yGm;vmjyefjcif;
92

aMumifh tjrKyftjzpfwiG rf aebJ tcJoPmefoYkd ajymif;a&mufvmonf/ wzef tcJwiG rf ae


bJ om;wpf? om;cJtjzpfodkY tqifhqifhBuD;xGm;vmonf/
cufrig;jzm[lonfrmS vnf; vufEpS zf uf ajcESpzf ufEiS Ohf ;D acgif;? ig;jzmay:&ef
om;wpf tzkBuD; 5 ckay:vmjcif;udk qkdayonf/
usronf yef;csDpkwfcsufjzifh jc,fa&;ouJhodkY trd\om;tdrfwGif; a&Munfu
av;rsm; pwnf&mrS tjrKyf? tcJ? om;wpf? cufrig;jzmjzpf&ef tzkig;zkay:vm[ef? pdwf
ul;jzifh tqifhqifykHyef;ay:atmif zefwD;Munfhaeonf/
tzkBuD;ig;zkteuf OD;acgif;jzpf&ef tzkum; rsufpd? em;? ESmacgif;? vQm[laom
urZuvmyf 4 pnf;onf yOrowr 35 &uf jzpfay:xkdufoavmuf jzpfay:pjyKvmykH
rsm;udk awG;jrifMunfhonf/
if;uvmyfpnf; 3 pnf;jzpfaom rsufpd? ESmacgif;? em;? vQmponfwkdYonf 11
owr 77 &ufaygif;jynfhvmonfhtcsdefusrS wNydKifwnf; ay:vmMujcif;jzpfonf/
trd0rf;AkduftwGif; tpmopftdrfatmuf tpma[mif;tdrftxuf trd0rf;
jyifEiS ahf usm&k;d ql;Mum;wk\
Yd tMum; uav;onf tpmopftrd u
f kd &Guu
f m aqmifah Mumifh
xkdifaomoPmef vufESpfzufay: ar;wifvsuf&Sdaom uav;ae[efudk rsufpdxJay:
atmif pdwful;Munfhonf/
0rf;AkduftwGif; usOf;ajrmif;pGm tykyfeHYwkdYjzifh ydk;avmufaumifuJhodkY wnfae&
aom oPmefrSm qif;&J'kuBuD;vSonf/
xkdtcsdefa&mufvm trdu at;aomtpm pm;ygu at;onf'kuudk cHpm;&
um tyltpyf pm;jyefvQifvnf; ylpyfylavmif 'kuBuD;cHpm;Mu&onf/ trdjzpfol txkdif
tx Murf;wrf;aomf vl;vSdrfhukef;uGjcif; Murf;wrf;aomf yifyef;qif;&JpGm a0'emudk cH
pm;&onf/ y#doaEaejcif; 0#fqif;&Judk jrifrdonf/
usraq;ynmudk oif,lpOfu q&mBuD;u trd0rf;wGif;aeaom cav;onf
touf&Sdaomfvnf; toufr&SLaMumif; ajymjyonf/
usru]]toufr&SLbJ olcHpm;ae&wJh'kuudk olodovm;}}[k apm'u wufcJh
bl;onf/
]]cav;zGm;vmNyDqkdawmh olYajcaxmufuav;udk tyfeJYaygufvkduf,if emusif
vkdY &kef;vkdufr,f r[kwfvm;? tyfeJYaygufw,fvkdY olodovm;? 'kuomcHpm;vkduf&w,f?
0rf;xJrSmvJ onfvkdbJ 'kua0'emudk cHpm;ae&w,f}}
toufr&SLMuaom 8 OD;udk rSwfom;&ef nTefjyavonf/
1/ trd0rf;wGif udef;aeol/
93

E-book is created by www.shanyoma.org

*sme,f a usmf r rav;

E-book is created by www.shanyoma.org

jref r mh a q;ynm

2/ jrm;qdyfxd rdef;armol/
3/ a&epfaomol/
4/ aoaomol/
5/ pwkwpsmef0ifpm;ol/
6/ &lyjA[m/
7/ t&lyjA[m/
8/ eda&m"ormywf0ifpm;ol/
ol 8 OD;wkdYum; toufr&SLaomolrsm; jzpfMuonf/
zGm;&ef vaph&ufaph tcsdeaf phvmaomtcg urZavrIwo
f jzifh tarhaMumbuf
vSnfhum aqmifhaMumifhxkdifae&mrS wjznf;jznf; aZmufxkd;vnfvsuf zGm;vm&ykHukd jrif
a,mifvkdufawmhonf/
urZav 2 rsKd;&Sdavonf/ rysufrpD; jynfhpkH vIyfjcif;ESifhysufpD;vIyfjcif;?
2 rsKd;&Sdayonf/ 0rf;pemuwnf;u uav;rSm a&GUaeayNyD? jrefjrefemjcif;oabm&Sdaomf
jrefjrefarG;um aES;aES;emaeaomf jznf;jznf;rS arG;zGm;onf/
0rf;wGi;f rS urZav jyif;jyif;xefxef rIwv
f eG ;f ojzifh oli,f\wifyg;ausmuke;f
ponfwkYd trJ? trSwfygvmjcif;udk wcsKdUu vl0ifpm;[kqkdMuonf/
trd0rf;u uRwfuRwfjcif; cav;onf touf&SL&mwGif xGufoufonf a&S;OD;
pGmjzpfvsuf 0ifoufrSm aemufrSjzpfayonf/
trSefpifppf rdef;rrsm;um; tjrKHr&SdMuay/
uvva&Munf wnfaomtcsdef odkYr[kwf tjrKyftqifhodkYa&mufaomtcsdef
tcsdefumvrsKd; ydk;zsufqD;aomfif;/ oaEysufpD;oGm;jcif;om jzpfMuonf/
rdef;rrsm; udk,f0efaqmifvQif yxrv tcsOfBudKufESpfoufonf/ 'kwd,v
tcsdKBudKufEpS o
f ufonf/ 3-vajrmufvQif tqdr?hf 4 vajrmufwiG f tcg;? 5 vwGif tzef?
6vwGif tpyftiefBudKufMuonf/ 7 vwGif tcsdKYarG;zGm;wwfum AdkufaMumpdrf;vmav
onf/
udk,f0efaqmifxm;aom rdef;rtm; a,musfm;av;? rdef;rav; od&ef txdrf;t
rSwfcGJjcm;&mwGif vusfmom;jrwfBuD;u yg;yg;&SdvQif a,musfm;av;? av;vHvQif rdef;u
av;[kqMkd uvsuf tcsdKu
Y vnf; 0rf;Adu
k cf RefvQif a,musfm;av;? 0rf;Adu
k jf ym;vQif rde;f u
av;[k cGJjcm;wwfMuonf/
usrrSm y#doaEtpESifh uav;0rf;u uRwfvmykHtxd &kyfvHk;ay:atmif jrif
a,mif xifa,mifMunfhae,if; oufpGefYqHzsm;a0'em/ emusifqif;&JpGm arG;&zGm;&aom
94

rdef;rb0udk w&m;&rdawmhonf/ y#doaE0#fqif;&Judkvnf; xdwfvefYvdkufrdonf/


]]rdef;rjzpf&wm 'kubJ&Sif? AdkufcGJ&wmvJ 2 cg&SdygNyD;}}[k rcifpdefu nnf;aeav
onf/
usrSm awGa0ai;armvsufae&mrS olb
Y ufov
Ykd n
S v
hf u
kd u
f m ]rde;f rjzpfraS wmh rcif
pdef? ra&Smif rvTJomwJh0#fqif;&Judk cHMu&rSmbJ? ta&;BuD;wm cav;&Sd&Sd r&Sd&Sd? usef;rm
atmif vkyfzdkYu ta&;BuD;ygw,f? rdef;rawG usef;rm&; jynfhpHkMurS vlrsdK;vJ usef;rmoef
pGrf;NyD; a&S;u vlBuD;awGvdk xGm;xGm;usdKif;usdKif; jzpfrSaygh}[kajymvdkufonf/
ArmtdrfaxmifonftrsdK;orD;wdkYtm; wom;arG;zGm;NyD; waoG;vSMuum usef;
rmpGm&SdMuapcsifaom qEonf jyif;xefvmrdavonf/
qEaphaqmfcsuft& Armrrsm; om;zGm;vQif Arm&d;k &m"avhtwdik ;f Armenf;jzifh
prf;oyfzmG ;jrifMunfMh u&ef rD;aeaqmif;yg;wapmif a&;rnf[k rif;uGe;f urf;pyf armfawmf
xdkifapmifh,if; pdwful;aygufcJhrdonf/

95

E-book is created by www.shanyoma.org

*sme,f a usmf r rav;

E-book is created by www.shanyoma.org

jref r mh a q;ynm

u&Pd, atmuf ? 0av;axmuf?


yk8H&SifBuD; xD;ESifhaysmuf/

96

*sme,f a usmf r rav;

]]a&SUvtwGuf 0wKt&Snf a&;ay;yg}}


usrrSm &Ir0pm;yGJwGif xdkifaeum 0wK&Snfa&;&ef awmif;yefaeaom &Ir0OD;
ausmfudk tajzray;EkdifbJ jyKH;Munfhaeonf/
]]'Dwywfawmh a':rrav;0wK&Snf xnhfyg&ap? b,fhES,fvJ. . . ? uRefawmfwkdY&
rvm;. . . }}OD;ausmfrSm 0wKaumfyD&&ef ajymaejim;vnf; olYrsufESmwGif tm;emaomtoGif
ay:aeonf/ &Ir0pma&;q&mrsm;teuf? usrwa,mufrSm pma&;&ef tcsdeftm;vyfcGifh
&ol r[kwfrSef; tpif;odjzpf tm;empGmESifhyif ZGwfajymae&yHk ay:onf/
]]tcsdefr&vdkY OD;ausmf&,f. . . rdk;vif;uwnf;u rdk;csKyf vlrrmawGeJY tcsdefukef
ae&wm? uRefr aMumfjimxm;wJh]]i,fi,f&G,f&G,f}}pmtkyfawmif ra&;tm;bl;? aq;
aqmif;yg;awG a&;rdwm aq;q&mvHk;vkH; jzpfaeNyD}}
usrwdkYtem; vmxdkifaom q&mrif;ok0Pfonf OD;ausmfESifhusrwdkY tjyeft
vSef ajymMum;aompum;udk em;axmifaeonf/
]]tif;. . . udk,fhtwwfeJYudk,f pl;aeNyD/ udk,fhtwwfeJYudk,fpl;EkwfvdkYr&bl;}}
q&mrif;ok0Pfu 0ifajymvdkufum usrudk Munfhvsuf &,faeavonf/
]]Ekwfr&bl;awmh r[kwfygbl;q&m EIwf&atmifawmh EkwfrSbJ}}
usrrSm &ifav;av;jzifh pm;yGJrSxvmcJhonf/
trSefpifppf usronf ]aq;q&m}jzpfcsifaomolwa,mufr[kwfay/ aq;t
wwfynmudk oif,lpOfu aq;q&mvkyf&ef pdk;pOf;rQ rBuH&G,fbl;acs/ aq;ukaevdrfhrnf
[kvnf; rxifrdcJhacs/ aq;q&mjzpfrSmudkyif pdk;vefYaecJhonf/
yJcl;NrdKY a&Tarmfa"mbk&m;BuD; tkwfjrpfcsyGJawmfvkyfonfhtcsdefu yJcl;NrdKYodkYxGuf
oGm;um bk&m;ay:wGif 0efBuD;csKyfO;D Ek ewfyaJG y;onfrh @myfa&SU&Sd Z&yfwaqmif vlaygif;
waxmifausmfudk ukodkvfjzpf aq;vSLukoay;bl;onf/
usrrSm pD;yGm;a&;twGuf vlodatmif aMumfjimvdkonfhpdwfESifhoGm;vljcif;r[kwf
bk&m;BuD;tkwfjrpfcsaeonfhtcsdeftcg aumif;rIukodkvfwckckjyKvkyfcsifaom pdwfqE
oufoufomvQifjzpfonf/
yJcl;odkYroGm;rD olemjyKtwwf atmifNyD;om;q&mruav;rsm;udk aeYpm;ay;
97

E-book is created by www.shanyoma.org

vrf;ESpcf G

E-book is created by www.shanyoma.org

jref r mh a q;ynm

ac:oGm;onf/
Z&yfxJ pdwfwdkif;us oyf,yfcrf;em;pGm jyifqifvdkufonf/ usr\aq;ay;Xme
rSm Armaq;ay;aq;vSLXmeESirhf wlbJ toGijf cm;em;aeonf/ olemjyKq&mruav;rsm;
onf olwdkY\trSwftom; tqifhtwef;tavsmuf acgif;ywfjzL xrDtjym? xrDteD
uav;rsm; 0wfqifxm;Muonf/
a&m8ga0'emtwGuf aq;ay;onfhXme? temawGtwGuf aq;xnfhonhfXme
ponfjzifh ae&mcGJjcm;xm;onf/ temXmetwGuf acwfrSDaomud&d,mqmyvmrsm;udk
yg,lvmcJhonf/ ywfwD;rsm;? 8Grf;vdyfrsm;ESifhuyfaus;? "m;? temaq;onfhcGufpaom
wefqmyvmrsm;rSm aq;&kHtwdkif;yifjzpfonf/ oefYoefY&Sif;&Sif;ESifhacwfrSDrSD vkyfcsifvSo
jzifh wyifwyef; pkaqmif;&SmazG,lvmcJhonf/
]]&efukefu q&m0efr emhpfawGeJY vmwm}}
bk&m;ay:wGif wr[kwfjcif; owif;BuD;oGm;avonf/ t8Fvdyfaq;ay;Xme t
xif&SdNyD; vlemawG vSdrfhvmMuonf/
vmorQ a0'emonfrsm;udk usru qD; a&m*gppfaq;onf/ olwdkYESifhoifhjrwf
onfhtpmudk a&;ay;um q&mruav;rsm;ESifh pnf;0g;&dkufxm;onfhtwdkif; qdkif&mqdkif
&mae&mwGif rnfo
h nfah &m8gudk rnfo
h nfah q;ay;&ef? rnfonft
h emudk rnfonfah q;xnfh
&ef pm&Gufuav;ESifh nTefMum;a&;ay;vdkufonf/
vlemrsm;onf if;wdkY&aom pm&Gufuav;rsm;udkMunfhvsuf ]]u-2}}? ]]t-1}}?
]]&-1}}? ]]o-2}}? ]]o}}[ka&;om;xm;aomaq;Tef;pmudk zwfum ]Armaq;a[h}[k
tkwaf tmfa';,sjzpfomG ;avonf/ Z&yfta&SUtjyifbef;uMunfv
h Qif t8Fvyd af q;[kyif
xifMuayrnf/ aq;Tef;udk zwfrSom Armaq;rSef; odMuvsuf av;pm;oGm;Muonf/
usrrSm Z&yfxJodkY 0ifvmrpJ woJoJ&Sdaeaom vlemrsm;udk aq;vSLaq;ay; t
vkyjf zifh tawmfBuD; 0rf;omyDwjd zpfaecdu
k f 0efBuD;csKyfO;D Ekonf usrZ&yfa&SUodYk a&mufvm
um 0rf;omtm;& EIwfqufavonf/
]]b,fES,fh. . . bmvmvkyfwmvJ}}
]]usrav-ukodkvfvmvkyfw,f? aq;vmvSLygw,f}}
xdkpOfu usr&ifxJwGif pdrfhaeonf? usr\ukodkvfudk ESpfNcdKufcsrf;ajrhrdum yDwd
jzpfveG ;f ojzifh &efuek o
f Ykd jyefa&mufa&mufjcif; &Ir0r8Zif;xJxnf&h ef ]a&Tarmfa"mtkwjf rpf
csyGJ}[kaqmif;yg;wapmif aumufa&;avonf/
aqmif;yg;a&;cJhorQ aqmif;yg;avmuf pdwftm;xufoefpGm a&;om;yHkrsdK;
rBuHKbl;ao;acs/
98

aq;vSLae,if; Z&yfa&SUu 0efBuD;csKyfewfuEm;wGif ewf';kd wD;aeaom qdik ;f oH


xJwGif 0efBuD;csKyfESifhtaygif;ygrsm;? uefawmhyGJrsm;? wyGJNyD;wyGJ ajrmufvsuf yoaeMu
yHkyg ay:atmifa&;onf/
usr\aq;vSLaeaompm;yGrJ S vlemrsm;udk aq;vSLae,if; ewfyu
JG kd wcsuf vSr;f
Munfhonf/
rEav;NrdKUrS OD;baomfonf ykqdk;awmif&Snf odk&if;tuFsDudk 0wfvsuf azghvHk;
aygif;xm;um ]]ewfxdef;BuD;}} vkyfaeonf/
uefawmhyu
JG kd ajrmufyifv
h suf ewfrsm;udk ylaZmfyoaepOf qkid ;f oHwaMumh olt
Y oH
waMumhjzifh pnfum;NrdKifqkdifvSayonf/
ewfrsm;teuf 37 rif;ewfwt
Ykd jyif rMum;pzl;ewfrsm;udv
k nf; aq;vSLae,if;
Mum;ae&onf/
]]ewfrif;armifbcif. . . 0efBuD;csKyfOD;EktrSL;jyK toifhtm; yifhzdwfvdkufyg\/
uefawmhyGJjzifh ylaZmfyoyg\/ yJcl;olyJcl;om;wkdYESifhwuG ArmwjynfvkH;&Sd vltaygif;wkdY
ab;rc &efroDbJ {csrf;om,m csrf;omMu&ef Munfhawmfrlygavmh apmifha&Smufawmfrlyg
avmh}}
ewfyifhoH ewfqdkif;oHrsm;udk em;pGifhvsuf aq;ay;vSLae,if; &ifxJ cHpm;csuf
tvkH;pkHudk OkHazmfjya&;om;rdonf/
aqmif;yg;a&; tNyD;rowfcif aqmif;yg;udk wacgufjyefzwfMunfv
h u
kd rf o
d nf/
usrrSm aqmif;yg;udk &Ir0 xnfh&ef pdwfysufoGm;onf/ aq;oGm;vSL&mwGif
Armaq;ynmESifhynmoif,lyHkrsm; tus,fw0ifh az:jya&;om;xm;rd&m aqmif;yg;
xnfhvQif [dku onfu a&m8gukay;&ef ay:vmMuum raeEdkif ukay;&if wajz;ajz;
aq;q&m jzpfoGm;rSmudk vefYoGm;rdonf/
aq;q&mjzifh rvkyfcsif? aq;ynmjzifh toufarG;0rf;ausmif; rjyKvdkonfh
twdkif; aq;q&mjzpfoGm;rSm aMumuf aqmif;yg;udk rxnfhawmhbJ qkwfypfvdkufonf/
&Ir0rStjyef q&mrif;ok0Pfajymvkdufaom ]]ukd,hftwwfESifhudk,fpl;}}pum;udk
jyefajymif;awG;,if; eukduwnf;u aq;q&mrjzpfcsifbJESifh ,ckaq;q&mjzpfae&jcif;
taMumif;&if;udk wpdrfhpdrfh jyefawG;aerdonf/
aoG;aomufr*Zif;wGif a&;vkdufaom ]wDbDvm;}aqmif;yg;aMumifh aq;q&m
jzpfoGm;&onf/ xkdaqmif;yg;rSm ra&;vQif rjzpfom ZGwfrSdwfum a&;cJh&onf/
]wDbv
D m;}aq;aqmif;yg; xGuv
f mNyD;aemuf *sme,fxw
k u
f m tvkyrf sm;aecku
d f
vlemrsm; usrxH wOD;NyD;wOD; aygufvmMuum olwkdYa&m*gudk ukoay;&ef awmif;yefMu
99

E-book is created by www.shanyoma.org

*sme,f a usmf r rav;

jref r mh a q;ynm

E-book is created by www.shanyoma.org

onf/
tvkyw
f zufEiS ahf q;ukay;&awmhonf/ aq;q&mrjzpfcsifbJ aq;q&mjzpfvm
onf/ tema&m*gudk ppfaq;um wnfhonfhtpmrsm;pm;&ef tem\ukxkH;jynfhpkHatmif
nTefMum;pm a&;&onf/
usrrSm aq;azmfa&mif;olr[kw
f vlemrsm;ESio
hf ifjh rwfrnfah q;0g;udk aev0dZm
aq;wkdufrS aq;,lay;&onf/
e,fu ydkfYaom a0'emonfrsm;xHrS pmawGudkvnf; wapmifrSrjyefEkdif? tvkyf
wkdufxJwGif *sme,ftvkyfu wzuf? a0'emonfawG w&kH;&kH;jzifh aeYpOfESifhtrQ Asmrsm;
aeawmhonf/
*sme,fudk ukd,fydkifykHESdyfpufr&Sd &yfxm;vkduf&onf/ ukd,fydkifpmykHESdyfpuf&SdrSyif
pmayvkyfief;udk vkyfawmhrnf[k qkH;jzwfum pmayvkyfief; &yfem;xm;ckduf rkd;vif;u rkd;
csKyf aq;xkdifukay;ae&onf/
aq;q&mjzpfaejim;vnf; wkdufwGif aq;wkdufqkdif;bkwf rcsdwf0Hhay/ aq;wkduf
qkid ;f bkwf csdwv
f Qif usr\pmayvkyif ef; aysmufomG ;ayrnf/ yuwdaq;wku
d Bf uD;ESiahf q;
q&mtjzpfvnf; vkH;vkH;rjzpfcsif qkdif;bkwfudk rwif0Hhay/
]]a':rrav;wdu
k u
f kd &Smvku
d &f wm qkid ;f bkwu
f av;awmh csdwx
f m;yg}} vlemrsm;
u wkdufwGef;Muonfhwkdif awmfawmfESifhrwif0Hhay/ aq;wkdufqkdif;bkwf csdwf&rnfudk
aMumuf&GHUaeavonf/
aemufqkH; &yfa0;rS wul;wu vmukMuaom vlemrsm;um; wvnfvnfaq;
wkduf&Sm&onfhtcuftcJudk ajymvGef;ru ajymMu vlemawGtwGuf vG,fulap&ef pmykH
ESdyfwkdufqkdif;bkwfudk jzKwfcsum ]*sme,fausmfrrav; aq;wkduf}qkdif;bkwfukd wifcsdwf
vkduf&onf/
aygufwJhezl; rxl;bl;[k aoG;aomuf? &Ir0r*Zif;rsm;wGif aq;aqmif;yg;rsm;
qufwkduf a&;om;cJhonf/ aqmif;yg;a&;jcif;jzifh Armhaq;ynmudk y&dowftawmf
rsm;rsm; av;pm;vmMujcif;udk awGY&onfhtwGuf 0rf;omtm;wufrdonf/
usr\pD;yGm;a&;tajctaeum; *sme,fxw
k af 0aom vkyif ef;xuf 0ifaiGajzmifh
ayonf/ aq;wkdufrS aq;ykvif;rsm; wvvQif ESpfaxmifausmf okH;axmifbkd;cefY a&mif;
&avonf/
usronf ]8sme,fausmfrrav;aq;wdkuf}[k qdkif;bkwfom csdwfxm;aomfvnf;
aq;wdkufudk aq;wdkufESifhwlatmif rvkyfay/ wdkufxJ aq;ykvif;rsm;udk xnfhxm;aom
bD&kDtao;wvHk;om &Sdonf/ usraq;wdkufudk wdk;csJYvsuf acwfrSDrSD om;om;em;em;
100

tqift
h wef;jrifjh rifh rGr;f rHum olemjyKq&mrrsm; xm; ususee zdzpd ;D pD; vkyv
f u
kd v
f Qif
wpfcgprf;oyfMunfhc a&T'8Fg;wjym;,lMuaom vufzsm;aiGoD;aeonfhemrnfBuD;aq;
q&m0efBuD;rsm;enf;wl 0ifaiGenf;rnfr[kwfrSef; awG;rdonf/
aq;vkyif ef; wd;k csJUvkyv
f Qif aq;vkyif ef;jzifh ydu
k q
f u
H kd oJ,
h o
l vd&k Edik u
f m oH;k av;
ESpfESifh olaX;jzpfEdkifrnfhvrf;aMumif; uGufuGufuGif;uGif; jrifrdonf/
usrum; ykxkZOfwa,mufjzpfonf/ rkqdk;rb0 uav;oHk;a,mufjzifh rsufESm
ri,f ryl&ryif& csrf;csrf;omom aexdkifcsifonf? aq;vkyfief;udk wdk;csJYvkyfudkifum
aq;az:a&mif; aq;ukvsuf aq;avmuxJodkY ajcpHkypf0ifvdkuf& aumif;rvm;[laom
tawG;onf wcgwcg acgif;xJodkY0ifvmavonf/
xdktawG;rSm cPom 0ifa&mufvmEdkifum taumiftxnfrjzpfbJESifh aysmuf
oGm;wwfonf/ aq;avmuxJoYkd ajcpHyk pf0ifomG ;vQif pmayvkyif ef;? pmyHEk ydS w
f u
kd v
f yk if ef;
udk vHk;vHk;pGefYypf&awmhrnf/ wudk,fxJ b,fenf;ESifhrQ Mum&SnftvkyfESpfvkyfrvkyfEdkifay/
pmayvkyif ef;oHa,mZOfonf wzuforYkd omatmif qGaJ eojzifh a&SUwd;k vky&f ef0ifvmaom
tBuHtpnfrsm; qkwfqkdif;ae\/
]]8E0if}}8sme,f &yfpu t8FvefoYkd 8Ref'pfuifqifurk P
rD w
S qifh pmyHEk ydS pf ufBuD;
wvHk; rSmxm;vdkufonf/
pmyHEk ydS pf uf a&mufvmvQif yHEk ydS v
f yk if ef;udk vky&f ayrnf/ pmayvkyif ef;xJ ae&
ayrnf/ pmayvkyfief;oHa,mZOfonf aq;vkyfief;xJodkYajcpkHypfr0ifatmif qGJxm;av
\/ pufrSm ta&mufaemufusaeum wESpfcefYMumjrifhaeonf/
pufra&mufrD tawmtwGi;f vlemrsm;udk vufcu
H m aq;a&mif;aq;ukjcif;jzifh
tcsdefukefvGefaeavonf/
ykHESdyfpuf a&mufvmcJhaomf oufoufomom 0ifaiG&rnfhtvkyfrsKd; r[kwf ykH
ESdyfpufvkyfief;udk rvkyfawmhbJ aq;vkyfief;bJ wkd;csJUvkyf&aumif;rvm;? aq;vkyfief;
xJ ajcpkHypf0ifvkyf&ifawmh rkcs[efusrSmbJ [laomtawG;rSm acgif;xJodkY &pfoD&pfoD
a&mufvmavonf/
aq;wkdufqkdif;bkwf csdwfNyD;rS vlemrsm;rSm ajrmfvifhonfxuf ydkrsm;aeonf/ w
aeYvkH; rtm;vyfEdkif nzuf aqmif;yg;0wKrsm; a&;&onf/ wnvkH; nOfheufoef;
acgif tdyfysufcHum tNyD;xkdifa&;NyD; warS;tdyfvkduf&m reuftdyf&mrS rEkd;cif eHeuft
apmBuD; vlemrsm; vmapmifhaeMu\/ waeYvkH; vlemrsm;ESifh&Iwf&SufcwfaeonfhMum;xJ
toJtoef vlrrmrsm;twGuf vmac:vQif csufcsif;xvkdufoGm;&jyefonf/ &yfa0;u
pmrsm;um; wapmifrS rjyefEkdif/ usrxHodkY vkdufvmrSom ukay;Ekdifawmhonf/
101

E-book is created by www.shanyoma.org

*sme,f a usmf r rav;

E-book is created by www.shanyoma.org

jref r mh a q;ynm

&Ir0OD;ausmftvk&d adS om 0wK&SnBf uD;udk a&;ay;&rnfqv


dk Qif wnwnf;ESit
hf NyD;
ra&;Ekdif/ rNyD;rcsif; nwkdif; rkd;vif;csifvif; a&;ydkYay;&rnf/ nbufwGif tdyfysufcHo
jzifh aeYcif; wa&;warS;tdyf&ef tcsdef&SdbkdY a0;pG? xrif;pm;csdefyif rrSefawmhay? vlem
pJrSpm;&onf/ xrif;pm;&if; wef;vef; vlemvmac:vQif xrif;yGJrS xajy;vkdufoGm;&
onf/
usrrSmxm;aom pmykHESdyfpufBuD; a&mufvmcsdef eD;uyfvmNyD/
pmykEH ydS v
f yk if ef;wzuf? aq;vkyif ef;wzufjzifh rEkid rf eif; rnfrQa'gufcsmpkid ;f rnf
udk awG;rdwkdif; &ifav;om aeawmhonf/
&Ir0wkdufrSjyefcJhum vlemrsm; &Sif;ckduf yufvufukvm;xkdifay:wGif vSJrDSvsuf
usr\aq;q&mjzpfvmykb
H 0udk tpujyefNyD; wpdrphf rd hf xkid pf Of;pm;awG;awmMunfrh o
d nf/
usrrSm vrf;qkv
H rf;cGoYkd a&mufaeavonf/ vusfmbufoo
Ykd mG ;&mvrf;onf aeY
nra&Smif yifyef;BuD;pGm BudK;pm;tm;xkwfvsuf pmayrsm;jzefYjzL;um pD;yGm;&Sm&rnfhykHESdyf
vkyfief;jzpfavonf/
wzuf&Sd vuf0JbufodkY oGm;&rnfhvrf;udk MunfhvQif a0'emcHpm;ae&aomvlem
rsm;udk ukoum olvnf; tusKd;&Sd? ukd,fvnf; tusKd;&Sd? ukd,fhaq;wGifus,fvQif jrefjref
BuD;yGm;csrf;omEkdifaomtjzpfokdY rvGJraoG a&muf&Sd&ayvdrfhrnf/
vrf;ESpfoG,fwGif b,fvrf;udk vkdufrnfudk usrqkH;jzwfrSjzpfayvdrfhrnf/
pmykHESdyfvkyfief;ESifhaq;vkyfief;udk wcsdefwnf; wNydKifwnf; rvkyfEkdifay/ pmykH
ESdyfvkyfief;? aq;vkyfief;? vkyfief;ESpf&yfvkH;udk pDppfa0zefMunfh&mwGif toufarG;0rf;
ausmif;twGuf aumif;jrwfaomvuPmrsm; vkyfief;ESpfpvkH; &SdaeMuonf/
pmykHESdyfvkyfief;udk vkyfvQif usrwOD;wnf; vkyfrjzpfEkdifay/ pmpDpm&kduf vlt
rsm;ESifh0kdif;0ef;vkyfrS jzpfEkdifonf/ vkyfief;BuD;vQif BuD;oavmuf vltiftm; vkdvmaom
vkyfief;rsKd;jzpfonf/ owif;pmxkwfrnfqkdvQif t,f'Dwmutp owif;pma0ay;onfh
vltxd tqifhqifhrDSaeum wvufwnf;ESifhNyD;rnfhtvkyfrsKd; r[kwf? wa,mufwnf;
onfydk;&Gufaqmifum pcef;roGm;Ekdif? wm0efBuD;aom tvkyfrsKd;jzpfonf/ aq;vkyfief;
um; rdrdtjyif rnfol&SdrS[k tm;xm;rSDwG,frae&acs/ udk,fwOD;wnf; onfykd;&Gufaqmif
pcef;oGm;Ekdifavonf/
usrrSm pmykHESdyfvkyfief;udk oHa,mZOfwG,faeonfhwkdifatmif rdef;rom;jzpf
rnfolESifhrQ rSDwGJrvkyf&bJ udk,fwOD;wnf; onfydk;xrf;&Gufum pcef;oGm;Ekdifaomaq;
vkyfief;udk b0c&D;twGuf toufarG;0rf;ausmif; vkyfygawmhrnf[k MuH&G,fpdwful;vkduf
onf/
102

Armhaq;ynmudk aev0dZmq&mBuD;q&mckdifxHwGif oifMum;ae&pOf usrqnf;


yl;avhvm&rnfh"mwfynmrSm tvGefcufcJeufeJaomynmw&yfjzpf xkdynm\usrf;&if;
udk odvkdrdonf/ "mwfynm\tarGtESpfudk qufcHMuaom "mwfq&mBuD;rsm; rnfolrnf
0g odvkdrdonf/
q&mhtm; ]]'Dynmudk usrf;jyKoGm;wJhyk8dKvfrsm; r&Sdbl;vm;}}[kpHkprf;Munfhonf/
]]&S d M uwmaygh 'D y nm&J U tajctjrpf u srf ; ud k yk 8 v ynwf " mwf u srf ; qd k N yD ;
usrf;pmtkyfwtkyfa&;oGm;w,f? 'Dpmtkyf&bdkYrsm;awmh tvGefcufygw,f. . . }}
]]q&mhudk 'D"mwfynmoifMum;ay;wJhq&maum &Sdygao;ovm; b,folygvJ}}
]]&Sdw,f. . . awmrSm. . . }}
]]emrnfuaum q&m}}
]]q&mvIdif. . . }}
usrrSm "mwfynmoifMum;ae,if; ]]yk*vynwf"mwfusrf;}}pmtkyfudk Munfhvkd
pdwfjyif;jyrIaMumifh awmifhwrdonf/
]]yk*vynmwf"mwfusrf;}}pmtkyfonf usroif,laeaomynm\t&if;tjrpf
jzpfrSef;od&vsuf pmtkyfrSm &Sm&bdkYa0;pG? rnfonfhyk8dKvfa&;oGm;rSef;yif usrf;jyKq&mudk
aocsmCProd&acs/
aq;ynmoif,if; ]]yk*vynwf"mwfusrf;}}pmtkyfudk pkHprf;&SmazGMunfhaomf
vnf; tpaysmuf &Smr&ojzifh aemufqkH; pdwfavQmhvkduf&onf/
]]yk*vynwf"mwfusrf;}}qkdaomusrf;trnfrSm &ifxJwGif pGJaeavonf/ owd
&wkdif; wordonf/ usrf;jyKq&m rnfolygvdrfh[k q&mudk a&mf&rf;MunfndKaerdonf/
usroif,laeaom "mwfynm\tusKd;oufa&mufrI xufjrufaomtmedoif&Sd
rIrsm;udk odjrifvmavav? ynmudk ]yk*vynwf"mwfusrf;}pmtkyfjzifh jyefYyGm;atmif
jzefYjzL;oGm;avaom "mwfq&m\*kPfaus;Zl;udk atmufarhavav jzpfae&onf/
tvkyfwkdufwGif aq;wkdufqkdif;bkwfcsdwfNyD; vlemrsm;jzifh tvkyf&IyfaepOf usr
wkdY\"mwfynmudk oifMum;qnf;yl;aeaomukdMunfrGefonf waeY usrxHokdY ay:ayguf
vmonf/
olonf vG,ftdwfeDudk pm;yGJckHay:okdY wifvdkufum usrab; xkdifvsuf usrESifh
vlemrsm; pum;ajymtNyD;owfatmif xkdifapmifhaeonf/
vlemrsm; xoGm;rS ]]rrqD vmcJhwm 'DudpbJ}}[k ajymajymqkdqkd vG,ftdwfeDxJrS
pmtkyfuav;udk xkwf,lvSrf;ay;vkdufonf/
pmtkyu
f kd t0wfjzifh jyefz;Hk csKyfxm;onf/ pmtkyu
f kd vSr;f ,lvu
dk u
f m bmrSe;f rod
103

E-book is created by www.shanyoma.org

*sme,f a usmf r rav;

E-book is created by www.shanyoma.org

jref r mh a q;ynm

zGifhrMunfhcif olYrsufESmudk vSrf;Munfhvkdufonf/


olonf csKdompGm jyKH;vsuf Munfhaeonf/ bmpmtkyfrsm;vJ[k &ifxJwGif zdkoGm;
um zGifhvSefvkduf&m ]yk*vynwf"mwfusrf;}ykHESdyfpmvkH;udk jrifonfESifhwcsufwnf; 0rf;
omvGef; rsufvkH;rsm;yif jymoGm;ayonf/
]]uRefawmhfpmtkyf r[kwfzl;. . . ? rrudk jycsifvGef;vkdY wGHaw;u r&ru iSm;vm&
wm jyefay;&r,f}}
usr Munfhcsifaompmtkyfudk ynmoifNyD; 8 ESpfcefY MumrSvmawGY&awmhonf/
pmtkyfrSm usrrarG;cifu ykHESdyf[ef&Sdonf/ cyf&G&GrudkifvQif pm&GufawG jyKwfa<uvkeD;eD;
&Sdaeonf/
rEav;NrdKUZmwd y0wd&efukefNrdKUykZGefawmif ayawmukef;&yfEIduf aphpyfaocsm
rsm;odomzkdY ae&mwus tmp&d,y&Hy& v'rk|d&&Sdonfhtwkdif; aumif;rGefpGm oifMum;
qkH;r ukovsuf&Sdaom "mwfq&mBuD;q&moefYonf (ae) (v)euwfynm? "mwf? oDw?
OPSponfwkdYudk aemufom;aemifvm rsKd;av;jzmwkdY\tusKd;iSm txl;xl;aom usrf;*ef
wkdYrS xkwfEIwfjyKjyifpD&ifa&;om;tyfaom(yk*vynwf"mwfusrf;)
y|rESdyf pmtkyfa& 500
&efukefNrdKU armifaxmfav;vrf;
wkdufeHygwf (43)
jA[0wD-pmykHESdyfwkduf
tzkd;(8)yJ/
pmtky\
f yxrwrsufEmS ]yk*v
ynwf"mwfusrf;}q&mBuD;\trnfq&moefY [k
awGY&Sd&ayNyD/ q&mBuD;um; ,cktcsdef touf&Sifvsuf &Sd r&Sd rodacs/
ArmhtrsKd;om;odyyH nm&yfjzpfonf"h mwfynmudk aemifvmaemufom;rsm;tusKd;
iSm ynm\tarGtESpfudk pmayjzifh xm;cJhayonf/
]]ZrLwefcGef? oljrwfrGefwkdY? nTeftHhvuFm? rSwfom;&mum;? enf;eme,? "mwf
av;0udk? odMupdrfhiSm? rdefYrnfrSmtHh? tif;vnf;onfrSm? tpmonfwGif? aq;vQifonfu?
"eyD,H? od'dvrf;udk? wwfpGrf;Ekdifay? xGufajrmufavMunfh? vkd&efudp? jynfh0{uH? rkcsrSef
\. . . }}
]tif;}tvkd&Sdvnf; tif;/ tpm tvkd&Sduvnf; tpm/ aq; tvkd&SdavvQif
vnf; aq;/ ukd,ftvkd&Sdonfhudp? usrf;xJwGif tpkH&&SdEkdifonf[k vuFmtzGifh nTef
jyxm;onft
h wkid ;f yif tvk&d &dS m aumuf,t
l ok;H csEkid Mf uap&ef 'Gg&&moD? r[me&DueG cf sm?
vuPm'Dy? qe*kwd? e&okcd? bkd;&mZmeuwf? cifBuD;aysmf? "mwkpdEmusrf;paomusrf;
104

tapmifapmif&dS tqDtESpo
f m&udk pkxw
k Ef w
k v
f suf ]tcsKyf}jy &Si;f vif;a&;om;xm;aom
"mwfusrf;wapmif jzpfayonf/
aq;usrf;? "mwfusrf;wkdYudk pmayjzifh a&;om;xm;cJhaomq&mt&SifwkdY\ajc&m
pOfpkdufrysuf? ausmhuGif;csif; xyfaeouJhodkY enf;toG,foG,f y&d,m,f<u,fojzifh avh
vmrSwfom;olrsm;onf obm0jzpfaom av;yg;aom "mwfwkYdukd odaMumif; MuHqonfh
t&m PfBuD;&ifhMuapEkdifonf/
t*F0Zd m t|m&'dAp uKpaomusrf;? abop&iS &f aoh? &Sit
f &[H? yk*v
ynwf
usrf;? if;usrf;wkdYudkrSD Oa'oenf;jzifh "mwfav;yg;\wnf&mXmeb0udk xkwfEkwfjy
onf/
"mwfav;yg;\wnf&mXmeb0ukd jy&m ]avmu}[k ac:a0:Mujcif;rSm avmuk
w&m 9 yg;rS<uif;aom w&m;taygif;wkdYonf avmurnfukefonf/ owavmu? ocFg&
avmu? Moumoavmu[kac:a0:tyfaomavmu "mwfudk jrifatmif Munfeh nf;onf
"mwf\wnf&mXmetvkH;pkHaom &kyftaygif;? emrftaygif;? w&m;taygif;wkdY\pD;0if&m
t&yfum; 33 vkH;tu&m? 8 vkH;aomo&? 41 vkH;aom 0PwkdYonf ynwfrnf\/ "mwf
rnf\/
odkYjzpfaomaMumifh tu&ma&ok? tu&mpum;wkdY/ "mwk? "mwfwkdYonf/ twd
oEd? &SdMuukef\/
"mwfaESmifo
h nf? "mwfajzmifo
h nf? "mwfawmifo
h nf? tjcif;t&mrsm;udk tu&m
rsm;ESifh,lusKH;rS avmu"mwftvkH;udk odpGrf;Edkif&monf/
tu&mok? Asnf;tu&mwkdYudkvnf;aumif;/ yd#uocsFm? yd#uocsFmvnf;
aumif;? 'da0p? aeukv
d nf;aumif;/ orE? taMumif;w&m;ok;H yg;ESijhf ynfph jHk cif;ud/k avm
u"H? w&m;odum ESvkH;oGif;pGJvrf;rdrS/ teE? us,f0ef;aom ynwfudk tusOf;csKyf,l
Ekdifonf/ tusOf;csKyf ,lEkdifrS "mwf\odrfarGYaMumif;udk odEkdifonf/
tu&m\o'g&kHonf 'dk;'kd;a'gufa'guf? Ekd;Ekd;aemifaemif? qkd;oGif;? aemif;eif;?
csdef;? NAdK;? jAKH;? tp&Sdaom pnf? yw&m;? ESJ? c&m? AkHoHwkdYESifhndod&rnf/
usrrSm "mwf\wnf&mXmeb0udk avhvmzwf&I,if; ]&kyfuvmyf ynwfckduf
&m "mwfygaMumif; Pfqifhavmif; ukaumif;pGmvS? axG&m0kdk;0g;,lrrSm;ESifh}[laom
tcsufudk awG;rdowdcsyfrdonf/
"mwf\wnf&mXmeonf 33 vkH;aomAsnf;? 8 vkH;aomo&? 41 vkH;aom0P
tu&mwkdYomru 1? 2? 3? 4? 5? 6? 7? 8? 9-tp&SdonfhocsFmvnf; "mwfwnf&mXme?
"mwkpdEmusrf; t|j*[H? &Spfyg;aomN*Kd[fwkdYudk/ pwkbma0e? 4-ckpm;ojzifh/ aoo?
105

E-book is created by www.shanyoma.org

*sme,f a usmf r rav;

E-book is created by www.shanyoma.org

jref r mh a q;ynm

t<uif;onf/ "mwk? "mwfrnf\[k azmfjyxm;jcif;aMumifh we*FaEG? weif;vm-tp&Sad om


aeYvnf; "mwfwnf&m Xme[l tu&m? ocsFm? aeY? okH;Xmeudk cGJjcm;um rSwfom;avh
vm&onf/
33 pD;aom qifajymifonf awm 3 axmif xGu
f xGu
f usufpm;aomaMumifh
csnftyfaom BudK;&Spfpif;ESifhwkdifav;wkdifrSm csnfEdkifu vkd&modkY a&mufavtHHhqkdaomw
csuf/
&SpfvkH;aom N*Kd[foufaygif;NyD;vQif 4 ckpm;onf&Sdaomf ygyav;vkH; tydkwyg;
xGuf\/ 1 *Pef;xGuf\/ aomr av;vkH; 2-*Pef;xGuf\/
ygyav;vkH; xGufaom 1 *Pef;udk (ae)*Pef; we*FaEG? ol&d,*kdPf;/
aomrav;vkH; xGufaom 2 *Pef;udk (v)*Pef; pE&*kdPf;/
N*Kd[f 8 vk;H udk "mwfoufaygif; wGuaf omf 108 e0if;&\/ if; 108 e0if;N*dK[f
oufudk owADo acsonf&Sdaomf tokH;jzpf\/
usronf 1 *Pef;? 2 *Pef;xGufatmif &Smvsuf awm 3 axmifrS xGufvmaom
33 pD;aom qifajymifwkdYudk wkdifav;wkdif prf;csnfMunfhonf/
taEm? *ar? pa&? 0Hao a&? ajr? av? rD;? "mwfBuD;av;yg;? N*Kd[fBuD; 8 vkH;
ESifhwuG ay:vmonf/
we*FaEG? weif;vmtp&Sdaom aeYtvkdufN*Kd[f 8 vkH;\N*Kd[foufrsm;ukd aygif;
onfhtcg 108 e0if;&onf/
N*Kd[fBuD; 8 vkH;teufrS aomrN*Kd[f ygyN*Kd[frsm; cGJxkwfvkdufonf/ we*FaEG?
t*Fg? pae? &m[k? av;vkH;aomN*Kd[fonf ygyN*Kd[frsm; jzpfavonf/ weif;vm? Ak'
[l;? Mumoyaw;? aomMum? N*Kd[frsm;onf aomrN*Kd[fjzpfMuonf/
aeESifhv tyl-tat;*kdPf; 2 *dkPf; cGJjcm;owfrSwfum aebuf &SdMuaomN*Kd[f
av;vkH;/ vbuf &SdMuaom aomrN*Kd[fav;vkH;/ N*Kd[f 8 vkH;\euwf 27 vkH;/ ow
ADoacs e0if;jzwfMunfhonf/
"mwfBuD;av;yg;/ N*Kd[fBuD; 8 vkH;/ euwf 27 vkH;wkdYwGif tu&mAsnf; 33 vkH;
ESifhvGwfMuonfr&Sd/ e'DjrpfrS usavQmaoma&rsm;rSm r[mork'&mtP0gwGif aysmuf
ys,favbdouJhodkY xD;c&kdifcsKyfovkd tu&mo&kyftcsKyfjzpfaMumif; aumif;aumif;BuD;
oabmaygufoGm;awmhonf/
"mwfynwf\tusOf;csKyfonf *Pef;ocsFm ynwf? aeYynwf? tu&mynwf
xJwGif "mwf&SdaeaomaMumifh ynda`Et&mjzpf odomodaMumif; MuHolwkdif; uvsmP
ykxkZOfjzpfEkdifaeonf/
106

usronf yk8v
ynwf"mwfusrf;udk &&SNd yD;aemuf tcsde&f oa&GU pmtkyEf iS rhf sufEmS
rcGm avhvmqnf;yl;MuHq tm;xkwv
f suf aewwf\/ ]wDbv
D m;}aqmif;yg;a&;NyD; a0'em
onfrsm;udk "mwfynm ae-v8dP
k ;f enf;jzifyh if ukoay;cJ
h csrf;omoGm;Muol\OD;a&
rSmvnf; renf;awmhNyD/
vltrsm;tusdK;iSg ynmudk wqifhjzefYjzL;um jyefYyGm;tmif vkyfcsifaompdwfap
wem ay:vmrdonf/ ynmudk a&SUqufvuftm;xkwaf vhvmBudK;pm;vsuf waeY pmtkyf
a&;rnf[ktMuHjyKrdonf/
usrxHodkY 8Ref'pfuifqifwdkufrS pmyHkESdyfpufBuD; Zefe0g&Dvqef;wGif t8Fvefu
a&mufrnf[k taMumif;Mum;vm\/
usrrSm aq;vkyfief;jzifhyif b0c&D;wavQmuf toufarG;0rf;ausmif; tvkyf
vkyf&ef MuHpnfrdNyD; pufa&mufvQif rnfodkYjyKvkyf&rnfenf;[kacgif;&IyfoGm;onf/
waeY yk8vynwf"mwfusrf;udk avhvmMunfh&Iae,if; vltrsm;tusdK;iSm "mwf
ynm tarGtESpfcH,l&ef usrf;jyKoGm;aom q&m\apwemudk eufeufeJeJ awG;Munfhaerd
onf/
ynm\t&if;tjrpfukd pmayjzifo
h &d jcif;twGuf pmay\8kPaf us;Zl;udk rsuf
0g; xifxifodjrifoGm;onf/ pmay\8kPfaus;Zl;udk odjrifonfESifh ynmjzifh touf
arG;0rf;ausmif;jyK&ef pdwftm;xufoefrIrsm; avsmhyg;oGm;jyefonf/
a&S;u aq;q&mBuD;wa,mufESifh usri,fpOfu eD;eD;uyfuyf aebl;onf/ol
onf aq;ukonfhtvkyfudk y&da,oe 0rf;pmtvkyf oabmrxm;ay/ aq;twwfudk
wwfjim; ol\ pD;yGm;a&;tjzpf v,f,mudik ;f uRef; vkyif ef;udk vkyaf evsuf &yfx&J mG xJwiG f
rusef;rrm a&m8gonfrsm;tm; aq;ukay;onf/ aysmufuif; csrf;om uefawmhMu
aom aiGaMu;udk pkxm;um NrdKUa&mufvQif xdkaiGjzifh b,aq;qdkifwGif aq;ypnf;rsm; pk
0,fomG ;onf/ aiGudk aq;azmfz&Ydk mom toH;k jyKvsuf ud,
k af &;ud,
k w
f mudp toH;k rcsrSe;f
od&ojzifh ]]tzdk; bmjzpfvdkY 'DaiGudk roHk;wmvJ}}[k ar;Munfhonf/
]]vlrrmqDu pm;zG,af omufz,
G f t0wftpm;,l awmfa&maygh[,f? aiGuefawmh
wm aq;az:zdkY xm;&w,f/ 'Daq;eJY olwdkYudkjyefukay;&rSm? aq;ukwm pD;yGm;a&;oabm
rxm;&bl;}}
usrrSm vufx&J dS yk8y nmwf"mwfusrf;xJrS pmaMumif;udrk jrif? uruvl&mG rS aq;
q&mBuD;OD;uHBuD;\rsufESmudk jrifa,mifaeum pmtkyfay:wGif acgif;arSmufvsuf av;
av;eufeuf pOf;pm;aerdonf/
pmyHkESdyfvkyfief; rvkyfawmhbJ aq;wdkufudk wdk;csJUum acwfrSDrSD tqifhtwef;jrifh
107

E-book is created by www.shanyoma.org

*sme,f a usmf r rav;

E-book is created by www.shanyoma.org

jref r mh a q;ynm

jrifv
h yk v
f u
kd v
f Qif BuD;yGm;csrf;omEdik rf nfv
h rf;udjk rifaomfvnf; BudK;pm;NyD; ud,
k ahf vmbud,
k f
odrf;vsuf ynmjzifh pD;yGm;a&; rvkyfawmh[k qHk;jzwfcsuf csvdkufawmhonf/
usrtm; "mwfynmudk pwifoifMum;ay;aom aus;Zl;&Sifq&mBuD;xHodkY
ynmjzifh pD;yGm;a&; rvkyaf wmhbJ toufwqk;H vltrsm;tusKd;iSm wwfEidk o
f a&GU ukov
dk f
jzpfvkyfoGm;awmhrnf[k pma&;taMumif;Mum;vdkufum usr\qHk;jzwfcsuftwdkif; t"d
|mefjyKvsuf aq;wdkufqdkif;bkwfudk jzKwfcsvdkufonf/
"mwfynmudk pD;yGm;r&Sm? ynmomvQif &Smrnf[pk ;D yGm;a&;vkyif ef;&yfpNJ yD;aemuf
ydik ;f aev0dZm q&mcdik u
f kd ynmoifay;aom tkid u
f avmifr"S mwfq&mBuD;q&mvdiI Ef iS hf
awGY&awmhonf/
tdkifuavmifrS "mwfq&mBuD;q&mvIdifxHwGif "mwfynmudk oifMum;Muaom
wynfhwyef;rsm;xJwGif aev0dZmq&mBuD;q&mcdkifvnf; wa,muftygt0ifjzpfonf/
]]yk8vynwf"mwfusrf;}}pmtkyfESifhywfouf odvdkpHkprf;aom tcsuftvuf
rsm;twGuf Armhynmudk tarGtESpfcH,lxm;aom "mwfq&mBuD;&Sd&modkY axmufvSef;
&SmazGpHkprf;oGm;&m uHtm;avsmfpGmyif prf;acsmif;&yf usdKufvwfvrf;wGif aexdkifvsuf&Sd
aom "mwfq&mBuD;q&mvIdifESifh awGY&awmhonf/
tdrfay: tuFsDcRwfvsuf yufvufukvm;xdkifay:wGif xdkifaeaom tzdk;BuD;
wOD;udk vSrf;jrifum "mwfq&mBuD;bJ[k0rf;omtm;& vSrf;wufoGm;onf/
touf 85 ESpft&G,f&Sdjim; rsufpdaumif;ao;onf/ usef;rma&;ESifh jynfhpHkvS
aomtoGifrSm tm;usp&myif? usremrnfESifh"mwfynmudk avhvmvdkufpm;olwOD;
jzpfrSef; a&S;OD;rqGu BudKwifMum;odESifhxm;cJhonfhtwkdif; usrudk 8sme,fe,fausmf
rrav;rSef; odvQifodjcif; 0rf;ajrmuf0rf;om ae&mxdkifcif;ay;onf/
]]yk8v
ynmwf"mwfu
f srf;}}udjk yKpkp&D ifa&;om;oGm;aom "mwfq&mBuD;q&moefY
taMumif;udk rprD? "mwfynm\tarGtESpu
f kd cH,&l vdu
k Mf uaom yk8Kd vfBuD;av;OD;
trnfudk pwiftrdefY&Sdonf/
]]q&maqmif? OD;ykn? OD;ydk? 'Gg&omoemydkiftk8fzdkq&mawmf 'Dyk8dKvfav;yg;u
t&if;cHq&mrsm;uGJY? OD;yknuawmh tcgay;rdwJhtwGuf towfcH&w,f? "mwfq&mBuD;
OD;ydkeJYpavOD;yknwdkYu towfcH&NyD;wJhaemuf q&maqmifeJY]tk*fzdkq&mawmf}wkdY atmuf
jynfa&mufvmMuwmbJ? 'Dyk8dKvfESpfyg;qDu 'D"mwfynmtqifhqifh vufcHjyefYyGm;vmwm
q&mrSYJBuD;wdkY q&mOD;om'Gef;atmif yk8vynwfusrf;a&;wJhq&moefY. . . q&moefY yk8
vynwfusrf;a&;pOfwkef;u aypmawGul;ay;wJhpma&;q&myDrdkeif;&JUtaz q&mNzdK;
tb&JUq&muawmh q&mOD;om'Gef;atmif? q&mqDrSm tb 12 ESpfwdkifwdkif onfynmudk
108

oifcJh&w,f/
usrrSm Armh"mwfynm\q&mtpOftqufudk pm&GufESifhtrSD vdkuful;rSwfae&
onf/
]]rrav; 'Dynmudk wwfcsif,if qef;? uvmyf? oEd? tbd"mef? 'Dynm&yf 3rsdK;udkvJ oif&vdrfhr,f? qef;? uvmyf? oEd? tbd"mefwwfrS 'DynmwwfrSm? tbawmh
q&m rvkyfcsifbl;uG,f}}
q&mrvkyfcsifbl;qdkaom tb\pum;udk av;av;eufeuf pOf;pm;um ]]bm
jzpfvdkY q&m rvkyfcsifwmvJ tb&,f}}[kar;vdkufonf/
]]ow0gawG oem;vdkYa[h. . . }}
usrrSm tbudk ai;Munfhaeonf/
]]tb ukay;bkdY touf&Snfawmh tukodkvfawG eif;vkyfaeMu,if tqdyfyifa&
avmif;ay;wmeJY rwlzl;vm;? tukodkvfvkyfNyD; toufwdkMuwmu tyg,fi&Jusr,f?
touf&Snfoavmuf tukodkvf&SnfaeMu,if t0Dpdusukefr,f? tJ'g oem;vdkYuGJY}}
tbonf pum;xJwiG f "mwfynmtaMumif;udx
k nfu
h m c&m;rS a&vTwb
f o
d uJo
h Ykd
rSwfom;bG,f&mrsm;pGm yHkOyrm aqmifvsuf ajyma[m oGefoifqHk;rae\/
]]tbudk ar;Muw,f? tbwynfhawGu wdkufeJYwmeJY csrf;omvdkY tbuawmh
qif;&Jaew,f? bmaMumifhvJ}}vkdY ar;Muw,f/
usrrSm tb\tajzudk em;pGifhvsuf tbtm; pdkufMunfhaeonf/
]]ig csrf;omcsifrS csrf;omr,f? ig rcsrf;omcsif rcsrf;ombl;? ig rGJcsifvdkYrGJw,f
rrav;&,f. . . }}
tbonf usrtm; NyHK;Munfah evdu
k u
f m ]]csrf;om,if qif;&Jw,f? opfacgif;
xJ ydwq
f aYkd e&wm qif;&Jawmh wHcg;zGiahf e&w,f b,favmuf csrf;omovJ? tb &efuek f
rSm vmaewm av;ig;ESpfavmuf&Sdao;w,f/ tb awmrSm O,smOfpdkufaewm csrf;om
vdkufwmuG,f}}
tbonf vdIufvIufvSJvSJ &,fae\/
'Dynm q&mYqrD mS 12 ESpo
f ifNyD; 45 ESpv
f ;kH vH;k olrsm;toufawG u,fq,fc&hJ wm
tbawmh qif;&JaewmbJ Armpum;udk Armem;rvnfMubl;? tJ'gtcufq;kH bJ? tbawmh
armNyD? at;at;bJaecsifNyD? w,frajymcsifawmbl;? vlawG trSefvufrcHEdkifMubl;?
'Dynmu &efrsm;w,f rrav;&JU}}
usrrSm wcsdefvHk; tbajymwmudkom em;axmifae&onf/ tbonf ynm
aMumif;udk rarmryef;Edkifatmif wzGzGajymae,if; pOf;pm;prf;? rSwfvdkufprf;[kpum;
109

E-book is created by www.shanyoma.org

*sme,f a usmf r rav;

E-book is created by www.shanyoma.org

jref r mh a q;ynm

jzwftrdefY&Sdojzifh pOf;pm;&? rSwf&\? tbajymonfhpum;rsm;udk bmajymaerSef; &kwfw


&uf t"dyg,f&dyfrd&ef? t"dyg,fem;vnf&ef cuf\/
pmav;vHk;udk pajym\/ ]]a,musfm;? rdef;r pmav;vHk;&Sd&w,f? a,musfm;u
tarcsif;pm? r,m;csif;pm? ESrcsif;pm? orD;csif;pm}}
rde;f r ]pm}u tazcsif;pm? armifcsif;pm? vifcsif;pm? om;csif;pm? ]]tJ'D pmav;
vHk; rSwfvdkuf 6 Xmeaum od&JUvm; rSwfxm;tHk;. . . }}
1/ umr*kPfBuD;aomol? b,frSm t&Suf&SdyghrvJ/
2/ bkef;BuD;eJYrdef;r? b,frSm oDv&SdyghrvJ/
3/ ysif;aomol? b,frSm ynmwwfyghrvJ/
4/ a'goBuD;aomol? Opmb,frSm &yghrvJ
5/ tpm;0goemBuD;aomol? olwyg;toufudk b,frSm oem;yghrvJ/
6/ ,pfrl;aomol? pum;b,frSm rSefyghrvJ/
wHceG u
f Ekd ydS ?f tqdyu
f jkd y? "rupkd m;? tdrjf yefa&muf,if? ighorD; awG;awG;NyD; tb
ajymwmawG t"dym,f pOf;pm;cJhprf;}}
usrrSm qufvuf tbajymaeaom pum;rsm;udk qifjcifpOf;pm;&ef rarh
atmif rSwfae&onf/ tyfaysmufvQif qifESifh&Sm qifaysmuf,if pumESifh&Sm? t&Snfvdk
twdkESifhquf? twdkvdkt&SnfESifhquf ? qifjzLrsufcGuf qifrJrMunfh0Hh? acsmifvQif xGif;?
usyfvQifoyfyif;? a&TrrSefawmh i&JrD;pm;w,f? vlrrSefvJ i&JrD;pm;vdrfhr,f/
tbonf 36 Mwif;? 108 e0if;? 4 ESifhpm; 0 <uif;jcif;twGwf q&m&SifrxD;\
u&PD,atmuf 0av;axmuf? yk8H&SifBuD; xD;ESifhaysmuf qdkaom ynmpcef;udk&Sif;jyef
onf/
aev0dZmq&mcdkiftm; enf;ay;xm;aom tb\ ae-v 2 yg;"mwfaq;&nf
tpGrf;xufjrufvSojzifh if;"mwfaq;&nfcsuf&ef aq;csufvdkifpiftvdk&Sdygu qdkif&m
tpdk;&XmewGif awmif;,lay;rnf[kajymjyonf/
]]toJemvGef;vdkYa[h. . . 'DtaMumif; rajymprf;eJY}}[kqdkavonf/
]]awmrSmuG,f uRJawG? EGm;awG? acG;? 0uf? bJ? Muuf? aMumifawG? opfyifawG
aq;ukay;csifvdkY tb 'D"mwfaq;a& csufw,f? aq;csufNyD; 'Daq;&nfESifh wd&pmefawG
opfyifawG touf&SifapcJhw,f? tJ'Daq;csufwm t&ufcsufygw,fvdkY tbudk zrf;NyD;
tpd;k &u 'Pf&u
kd w
f ,f? &yf&mG uvlawG t&ufr[kwaf Mumif; 0dik ;f oufaocHMuyg&ufeu
YJ ,
G ?f
tb tpdk;&tjypf'Pf oifhcJh&w,f? tbwdkYtrsdK;u t&SufBuD;wJhtrsdK;}}
tb\toHum; wkefaeonf/ usrrSm tb\aemufaMumif;&mZ0ifudk pdwfr
110

aumif;pGm em;axmifae&onf/
tpdk;&tjypf'PfoifhNyD; tbvJ rcsufawmhbl;? aemuf uRJawG? EGm;awG rsufpd
atmuf aovdkuf&wm ighaq;om csufvdkuf&,if aorSmr[kwfbl;vdkY toJemvdkufwmrS
'gwif ruao;bl;? tbom;av; vlysdKayguft&G,f ausmufaygufNyD; aooGm;&Smwm?
'Daq;csufEdkif,if raobl; r[kwfvm;? awmfprf; wefprf; rrav; tpdk;&eJY tb b,f
awmhrS rqufqHvdkzl;? tckvJ aq;q&mvkyf,if rSwfyHkwif&rwJh? rSwfyHkvJ rwifcsifygbl;
uG,f? q&mvJ rvkyfcsifbl;? rqvmrIefY axmif;a&mif;NyD; O,smOfpdkufr,fuGm}}
"mwfynmESifhtusHK;0ifaom qHk;renf;jyonfhynmpum;rsm;udk nae 6 em&D
cefYu n 10 em&Dtxd xdkif&mrSrxbJ r&yfrem; ajymvkdufonf/
tbudk ynmjzifh pD;yGm;r&Sm? ynmom&Smvsuf ukov
kd jf zpf t"d|mefjyKvdu
k Nf yDjzpf
aMumif; ajymjyvdkufonfhtcg ]rrav;pum;udk tbESpfoufw,fa[h}[kqdkvdkufonf/
]]tbudk taz&if;uJhodkYrSwf? rrav;udk orD;&if;ESihfrjcm; atmufarhr,f}}
tbtm; OD;csNyD;xtjyef tdrfay:rS rqif;cif tbonf wcGef;pDvSrf;ar;ae
ao;onf/
]]rrav; vlvdrmom; bmjzpfovJ}}
]],Ofyg;ygw,ftb}}
]]vlrdkufom;aum}}
]]&rf;um;ygw,ftb}}
]]at;. . . at;. . . pOf;pm;? oGm;wmh}}
Armh"mwfynmjzifh pD;yGm;r&Smudk,fusdK;ryg ukodkvfjzpfjyKawmhthH[k t"d|mefjyK
awmhrS ukodkvfxl;pGm tdkifuavmif"mwfq&mBuD;ESifhawGY&awmhonf/
Armh"mwfynm tarGtESpfudk qufcHxm;aom tkdifuavmifrS "mwfq&mBuD;ESifh
rawGYcif atmifvHNrdKUodkY tvnfoGm;aom usrtrwa,muf toJtoefjzpfaeMumif;
oHBudK;&NyD; aq;wdkufqdkif;bkwfcsNyD; atmifvHodkY xGufoGm;cJhonf/
atmifvHwGif usr a&mufvmonfMum;NyD; jynfaxmifpkvli,ftoif;rS trI
aqmiftzGYJ onf usrwnf;onfph pfwyfrS Adv
k af usmfaZmtdro
f v
Ykd u
kd v
f mMuonf/ atmifvH
odkY a&mufvmcdkuf pmaya[majymyGJwck vkyfcsifNyD; a[majym&ef ajymvmMuonf/
pmaya[majymyGJvkyfvQif pmay0goemvkdufpm;aom olrsm;avmufom wuf
a&mufMurnf/ A[kokwtjzpfom tusKd;oufa&mufvsuf xdxda&mufa&muf tusKd;&Sd
usef&pfcJhrnfudk rjrif tusKd;&Sd usef&pfaprnfhtMuHwck pOf;pm;rdonf/
]]pmaya[majymyGv
J yk Mf u,if wcP a[majymwmavmufb&J rdS ,f? usr&Sad ewke;f
111

E-book is created by www.shanyoma.org

*sme,f a usmf r rav;

E-book is created by www.shanyoma.org

jref r mh a q;ynm

tifrwefqif;&JNyD; q&mryifhEkdif? aq;0,frpm;EkdifjzpfaewJhvlrrmawGudk &SifwdkYtoif;u


a&Smufpkay;yg? usraewJh&uftawmtwGif; a0'emonfawGudk aq;ukay;oGm;r,f}} [k
tMuHay;vdkufonf/
jynfaxmifpv
k il ,ftoif;tzGYJ rSm 0rf;omtm;&jzpfomG ;Muum ae&mwck&mS um
NrdKYxJwGif qif;&JonfhvlemOD;a& 20 avmuf vdkuf&Smpkay;ygrnf[k ajymoGm;Muonf/
tcsdefrSm aeY 12 em&DcefY &Sdrnf/ usra&mufoGm;aomae&mum; atmifvHNrdKY jrL
eDpDy,f&kH;cef;jzpfonf/ taqmuftOD;rSm oGyfrdk;MuLx&Hum wxyfjzpfvsuf oyf,yfoefY
&Si;f ayonf/ cef;raqmifBuD;xJwiG f wajymajymifzw
d v
f ufaeaom pm;yGt
J opfrsm; pDwef;
csvsuf jzLazG;aom pm;yGJcif;rsm; cif;xm;onf/ pm;yGJESifhcyfuGmuGmavmufwGif tcef;
eH&EH iS rhf u
SD m ukvm;xdik rf sm; cHw
k ef;vsm;rsm;udk tcef;ywfywfvnf cscif;xm;onf/ ukvm;
xdik rf sm;ay:wGif vlemoH;k q,fcefY usrudk xdik af pmifah eMuonf/ usrae&ef jyKvkyaf y;xm;
aomoD;jcm;pm;yGcJ w
kH iG f 0ifxikd &f um jynfaxmifpv
k il ,ftrIaqmiftzGu
YJ vlemrsm;ESihf rdwf
qufay;onf/
Arm"mwfynmtaMumif;ESiu
hf sef;rma&;8&kpu
kd Mf u&ef tenf;i,f &Si;f vif;a[m
ajymNyD;aemuf vlemrsm; usrpm;yGJodkYvm&ef pm&if;oGif;xm;aomtrnfrsm;udk wOD;NyD;
wOD; ac:ay;onf/
jynfaxmifpkvli,ftzGJY\pepfwus pDpOfxm;aom usrukoay;&rnfhvlempm
&if;pm&Gufudk ,lMunfhvdkufonf/ trSwfpOf? trnf? touf? ae&yf? a&m8g? a0'em?
taMumif;t&m ponfrsm;udk olt
Y uGuEf iS o
hf l rsOf;om;vsuf eHygwfpOftvdu
k f jyKvkypf pD Of
xm;onf/
NrdKrY &yf? uefBuD;? &Gmaxmif? puf&?Hk wa&mfuek ;f ? o&ufawm? ausmif;pk? odru
f ek ;f ?
&kH;&yf? aps;ukef;? yGJpm;wef;? prf;acsmif;. . .
vlemrsm;\ae&yfrsm;udk zwfMunfah epOf jynfaxmifpv
k il ,ftzG0YJ ifO;D ausmfcikd u
f
]]uRefawmfwdkYvlpkwm owif;Mum;NyD; pm&if;vmoGif;wJhvlemawGu enf;wm r[kwfbl;?
b,fvdkvkyf&rSef;awmif rodbl;}}[kajymwm usrtm; tm;em[ef&Sdaeonf/
]]b,favmuf&Sd&Sdaygh&Sif 'DaeYw&uf? eufjzefw&uf2 &ufpvHk; usrvkyfygr,f?
atmifvHrSm aemufw&ufaeNyD; usrjyefrSmbJ}}
usrpm;yGJodkY a&mufvmaomvlemrsm;udk olwdkY\a0'emudk ppfaq;um olwdkYESifh
oifhjrwfrnfh rkefYyJoa&pm ? opfoD;0vH? om;ig;rsm;udk zl;puuf pmrsufESm ESpf&GufcefY
a&;ay;um a0'emtwGuf oifhjrwfrnfhteHY? toH? txdtawGYponfwdkYudk "mwftm;jzifh
oufqikd &f mnTeMf um;a&;om;vsuf aq;az:pm;Mu&efvnf; oifjh rwfrnfah q;enf;rsm;udk
112

a&;ay;vdkufonf/
aq;bkd;0g;c wwfEkdifykH ray:bJ r&Sdqif;&JMuonfhvlemrsm;udkrl ykdufqHukefouf
omonfhenf;? ykdufqHrukefrnfhenf;? a0'emvnf; aysmufuif;atmif? "mwfjzihf tpGrf;
xufrnfv
h ,
G u
f rl nfyh pn;f udk wxkid cf sif; OD;aESmufajcmufavmufatmif pOf;pm;um MuHq
a&;ay;onf/
vlemrsm;ESihf olw\
Ykd a0'em ppfaq;ar;jref;cdu
k o
f m acgif;axmifEidk v
f suf wcsdef
vHk;iHkY zl;puufpm&Guf w&GufNyD;w&Guf BuHK;a&;aeonf/
tcsdeftwefMumvQif wcef;vkH; vlawG jynfhvm\/ vma&mufpm&if;oGif;Mu
aom vlrsm;jzifh jynfaxmifpkvli,ftzGJY0ifrsm; tvkyf&Iyfum trnfpm&if; a&;rSwfae
Mu&onf/
usrrSm usr\&nf&G,fcsuft"d|meftwkdif; trsm;tusKd;twGuf ukokdvfjzpf
vkyfaejcif;udk aq;wkduftcef;xJ xkdifukay;cJhonfhxuf ESpfodrfhcsrf;ajrhrdonf/
qif;&Jom;vlxktwGuf aq;bkd;0g;crukefusbJ aysmufapwwfaom "mwf
ynmudk usrf;jyKpD&ifxm;cJMh uonfq
h &mhq&mtaygif;ESiu
hf srtm; oifjyaom q&mBuD;\
aus;Zl;*kPfudk atmufarhum &ifxJwGif vIdufzkdMunfarmvsuf aeonf/
]]usr tar&duefaq;&kHvJ wufcJhygNyD/ tpmtdrfcGJ&r,fqkdvkdY aMumufwmeJY rcGJ
bJ qif;cJhw,f? jyefvmNyD; bmpm;pm; tefwmeJY o&ufNrdKUu aq;&kH oGm;wuf&ygw,f?
roufwmeJY qif;vmcJhygw,f. . . }}
a':ukvm;rqkdaom vlemrdef;rwOD;onf tem;uvlaz;ray;xm;&vsuf csdeJY
arm[kdufaeum ol\a0'emudk toHav;av;oJhoJhjzifh ajymjyaeonf/
rcJ,Of;bJvsuf cJ,Of;aeaom ol\rcsdrqefY tjzpfudk ai;Munhfaeum ]"mwf
rodawmh cufw,f? "mwfod&if tvG,fuav;}qkdaompum;udk owd&aeonf/
olonf aiGukefaMu;uscHum a0'emudk ukcJh\/ tvkyfysuf tukdifysufvnf;
jzpfae\/ vlvnf; aeYao&rvm;? n ao&rvm;tajctae a&mufae\/ ol\a0'em
rSm "mwfynmjzifh ydu
k q
f iH g;rl;avmufom ukepf &m&Su
d m tjrefq;Hk aysmufuif;Ekid af vonf/
]]eHYomjzL? ZD;jzLoD;ajcmuf? Z0ufomudk ysm;&nfESifhpyfaomuf}}[k "mwfpmrsm;
a&;NyD; aq;enf;ay;vkduf&onf/ waeYvkH; a0'emrsKd;pkHESifhawGY&onf/ tcef;xJ&Sd y&d
owfBuD;udk Munfhvkdufum. . . ]]tdrfwkdif; vlrrm &Sdyguvm;? vlwkdif; a0'em&Sdyguvm;}}[k
ArmvlrsKd;\usef;rma&;tajctaeudk rsm;pGm pdwfysufrdonf/
Armhaq;ynm? "mwfynm jyefYyGm;xif&Sm;ay:vGifvmvQif vlwkdif; udk,fhudk,fudk
usef;rmatmif pm;wwfaewwfMuum vlrrmenf;oGm;rnfhtjzpfudk awG;rd pmayjzifh
113

E-book is created by www.shanyoma.org

*sme,f a usmf r rav;

E-book is created by www.shanyoma.org

jref r mh a q;ynm

jyefYyGm;atmif wwfEkdifoavmuf jzefYjzL;&ef tMuHjyKonf/


waeYvkH; vlemawGESifh tcsdefukefvsuf naeapmif;rSyif tdrfodkYjyefcJh&onf/
aemufwaeY apmapmvmyg&ef rSmMu aemufwaeYwiG f eHeuf 8 em&Dta&mufomG ;&onf/
tcef;BuD;wGif raeYuxuf vlrsm;um jynfMh uyfaeonf/ wa,mufxrJ Ekid
f "mwf
pmpm&Gufrsm;udk jynfaxmifpk vli,ftzGJYtm; cGJa&;ckdif;&onf/
avief;jzwfxm;aomtzkd;tkd tzGm;tkdwkdYudk vSnf;ESifhwif,lvmMu ae&mrSx
NyD; vSnf;em; oGm;&yfMunfh&onf/
]]xrif;jyef rpm;ygeJY? 'Dpm;yGJckHrSmbJ pm;ygawmh pm&if;ay;Muwm vl 100 jzpfae
vkdY 'DaeYtdrfjyefzkdYawmh pdwfrul;ygeJYawmh nzuf rD;xGef;ay;yghr,f}}
usrrSm qkdifu rSmay;Muaom xrif;udk pm;yGJckHay:wifpm;&um eHeuf 8 em&DrS
n 10 em&Dtxd ae&mrSrx a&;ay;ae&onf/ Zufrsm;vnf; awmifhvm\/ a&;&onfh
pm&Gufrsm;rSm 0wK&Snf 2 yk'f? 3 yk'f pma&;&oavmuf &Sdrnf/ wa,mufNyD; wa,muf
xonfhMum; tm;vyfckduf tcsdefwGif vufacsmif;rsm; rqefYEkdif qGJjzefYay;&onf/
iHkYa&;aepOf "mwfrD;a&mifjrif&rS b,ftcsdefu arSmifrSef;yif rodvdkufay/ vlem
100 NyD;atmif ZGJBuD;BuD;ESifhukay;aeonf/ vlawGum; 0ifvmrpJ woJoJyif/
]]tm;emp&m aumif;ygNyDAsm? reuf 8 em&DxJu vmxkdifaewm nOfheufygNyD? olY
tdrfrvJ vlemwzufeJY aemufrsm;rSbJ vm&ifawGYMuyg? cifAsm;wkdYpm&if; roGif;Edkifawmh
bl;}}[k jynfaxmifpkvli,frsm;u pm&if;xyfvmay;aom vlopfawGudk wGifwGifawmif;
yefum jyefvTwfaeonf/
nOfheufrS tdrfodkYjyefvmcJh&onf/ pm&if;t& vlem 128 a,mufukd aq;ukay;cJh
&onf/ tdrfa&mufvQif ajcukefvufyef;usum tdyf&mxJwGif acGvSJvsuf Ekef;aeawmh
onf/
atmifvHrSrxGufcif pkd;&drfp&m tajctae&Sdaom a':ukvm;rtdrfodkYoGm;Munfh
cJhonf/ a':ukvm;rrSm tdyf&mxJrS vl;vJxxkdifum a&m*goufom&m&aMumif; rtef
aMumif;udk a&yufr0ifatmif 0rf;omtm;& ajymjyonf/
atmifvw
H iG f a':ukvm;ruJo
h Ykd csrf;omoufom&m&rnfo
h rl sm; enf;rnfr[kwf
ay/ usr\t"d|meftwkdif; trsm;tusKd;ukokdvfjzpf aqmif&Gufay;&onfhtwGuf awG;
rdwkdif; auseyfESpfodrfhaeonf/
&efuek t
f jyef atmifvrH S jynfNrdKo
Y u
Ykd ;l cJ&h m jynfNrdKpY mzwftoif;rS nzufwiG f usr
tm; 8kPfjyK{nfhcHyGJwckjyKvkyfonf/ ]]yk8vynmwf"mwfusrf;}}pmtkyfudk taMumif;jyK
*kPfjyKyGJpmayESifhywfoufNyD; ajymcsifavonf/ ysdKY? uAsm? vuFm? 0wK? aq;usrf;? "mwf
114

*sme,f a usmf r rav;

E-book is created by www.shanyoma.org

usrf;? aA'ifusrf;? ocsFmusrf;paom pmay\8kPfaus;Zl;rsm;udk <uvmMuaom y&dowf


wdkYtm; 1 em&DcefYMumatmif zGifhvSpfxkwfaz: a[majymcJhonf/

115

E-book is created by www.shanyoma.org

jref r mh a q;ynm

emrfwlaou tusdK;&? &efrlaou tjypfjy?


&efaMumifhao tjypf? rdwfaMumifao tusdK;/

116

*sme,f a usmf r rav;

aq;wdu
k q
f ikd ;f bkwjf zKwfum yHEk ydS pf ufwnfvsuf pmyHEk ydS v
f yk if ef; vkyaf pumrl vlem
rsm;um; rpJEdkifbJjzpfaeonf/
usrrSm aq;ra&mif;awmhojzifh vmorQ vlemudk ppfaq;um ukodkvfjzpf "mwf
ay; nTefMum;vsuf aq;twGuf tdkifuavmifq&mBuD;q&mvIdifxHodkY t,lvTwf&onf/
vlemrsm;rSm usrxHvm&onfhwacguf? aq;twGufoGm;,l&onfwacguf? t
qifhqifh 'kua&mufaeMuNyD; nnf;Mu&m if;wdkY'kuNidrf;atmif aq;ykvif;awG oGm;o,f
xm;r&vkd jzpfaeonf/
tdik u
f avmif"mwfq&mBuD;q&mvIid rf mS touf 85 ESp&f NdS yDjzpf ol\ynmtarG
tESpfudk qufcH,l&ef trdefY&Sdum "mwfynmudk qufvufoifMum;ay;onf/
"mwfq&mBuD;onf prf;acsmif; usdKufvwfvrf;&So
d \
l aetdrf ujyifwiG f yufvuf
ukvm;xdkifxdkifum vrf;bufodkYom ajrmfaeonf/ vrf;xJodkYum;0ifoGm;wdkif; rrav;
vm;[k vnfwHqefYvsuf ajrmfMunfhwwfMuonf/
ynmoifay;rnfyh 8k Kd vfu usrudk wajrmaf jrmf apmifah e&onftxd usrrSm tvkyf
rsm;vGef;ayonf/ oHk;&ufwBudrf tcsdef,l oGm;aeMuonf/
]]ESpaf ygif;ajcmufq,f? vufawGu
Y ek nf; ukx;kH awG ighorD; tarGc,
H x
l m;vku
d af y
awmh}}[k qdkum olYtem;xdkifonfESifhvnfacsmif;udk yGxvmatmif r&yfrem; ajyma[m
oifjyawmhonf/
"mwkoEd? pmwkyp,"mwfusrf;rsm;? "mwf\qufpyfyHk? qef;ynm? 'l;8Pef;?
ausmufpm8Pef;ponfrsm;udk rSwfom;rdavmufatmif t"dyg,fteuf &Sif;ajymoifjy
onf/ "mwfbuf tu&mESifh8Pef;wGif 8Pef;udkjzKwfum tu&mprudkom oHk;pGJavmh[k
rSmMum;onf/
,cifu q&mjyonfhtwdkif; vlemwa,mufudk "mwfaumufonfhtcg udk,fht
rSwt
f om;tm;jzifh tylorm;jzpfu 1 xm;vsuf tat;orm;jzpfu 2-cGv
J suf? 1-orm;?
2orm;vlemrsm;udk cGJjcm;cJhonf/
usrxHwiG f vma&mufaq;ukaom yk8Kd vftoD;oD;wdik ;f yif olwu
Ykd ,
kd o
f w
l Ykd wzuf
vl? ESpfzufvl[kcGJay;vdkufonfhtwdkif; rSwfom;um wpform;twGuf rSD0J&ef tpm;tpm
117

E-book is created by www.shanyoma.org

"mwfBuD;av;yg;

E-book is created by www.shanyoma.org

jref r mh a q;ynm

rsm;ESifh wpfaq;[l em;vnf&dyfrdoGm;Muonf/ "mwfwGif 1 ESifh 2 um; qefYusifbuf


"mwfjzpfonfhtwdkif; 1 orm;pm;aom tpm;taomuf aq;0g;ESifh 2 orm;pm;aom
tpmaq;0g; uGJjcm;ayonf/
usr a&;ay;vdkufaom"mwfpmESifhnTefMum;csufrSm ,cktcdkuftwefY usa&muf
aeaom a0'emtwGuo
f m aysmufuif;aponfrh [kw?f a&m8gaysmuf twdik ;f yif rdrd
ESifhoifhjrwfonfhtpmudk pm;aeEdkifu a0'emruyfEdkifojzifh "mwfpmpm&GufrSm oDvay;
vdkufouJhodkYyif olusifhEdkifvQif olYtusdK;&Sdaprnfomwnf;/ tcsdKYwtdrfwnf;wGif 1rm;? 2-rm;[l pH&k MdS u&m 1-tpm; tpmrS0D
J r&? rS0D v
J Qif a0'em&aMumif; olwu
Ykd ,
kd w
f ikd f
odjrifvmMuonft
h csdew
f iG f 1-ESi?hf 2-wdu
Yk kd txl;8&kpu
kd v
f mMuonf/ a0'emjzpfvQif olwYkd
udk,f olwdkY 1-2 cGJum ukwwfMuonf/
"mwfynmudk qufvufoifMum;ay;aeaom "mwfq&mBuD; tbu usrtm;
1-8Pef;? 2-8Pef; roHk;bJ proHk;&ef jyifay;onfhtcsdefup usrvnf; vlemrsm;udk
(ae) orm; (v)orm; odkYr[kwf u? t? [l cGJjcm;owfrSwfvsuf "mwfpm aq;0g;ay;
vdkufonf/
vlemopfrsm;u aeESifhv cGJjcm; odrSwfoGm;Edkifaomfvnf; vlema[mif;rsm;rSm 1
ESifh2udk pGJudk pGJaeNyD; (t)ESifh(u) aeESifhvudk "mwfay;onfhtcg uRefawmf(ae) r[kwf
ygbl;? 1-orm;yg? 1 aq;ay;yg[k ajymqdkMuavonf/
"mwfav;yg;\obm0udk &Si;f rSomvQif (t)ESi(hf u) ? (1)ESi(hf 2) rSm tac:ta0:
jcm;aomfvnf; "mwfoabmwGif wlnDaMumif;? aeESifhv (0g) pronf rlvt"du jzpf
aMumif; &Sif;jy&ef vdktyfonfhtjzpfudk awG;awmqifjcifrdvmonf/
usronf r8Zif;rsm;wGif &Hzef&Hcg aq;aqmif;yg;rsm;udk a&;om;cJhonf/ ,ck
wavm aq;aqmif;yg;rsm; ra&;om;bJ 0wKrsm;om qufwu
kd af &;ay;ae&&m "mwfav;
yg;o&kyfudk &Sif;jyrnf[k tMuHjyKxm;vsuf txrajrmufEdkifacs/
tvkyfrsm;jym;vGef;onfhMum;xJ vrf;ravQmufEdkifatmif ajcaxmuftem&
tbxHoYkd wywfcefrY a&mufbJ &ufMumoGm;onf/ tbrSm usrudk wajrmaf jrmf wwwESihf
&SdaeaMumif; owif;Mum; waeY tvkyfyg;yg;csif; tbxHodkY ra&mufa&mufatmifBudK;
pm;oGm;ae&onf/
]]ighorD;. . . rvmwm wywfawmif&SdNyD MumvScsnf&JU}}[k qD;qdkonf/
usru tvkyfrsm;jym;onfvnf;waMumif;? ajcaxmufwGif temjzpf ukae&
ojzifh rvmEdkifaMumif; &Sif;ajymjyonf/
]]bmtemjzpfowkef;}}[k pdwfylpGm ar;onf/
118

usronf rD;zdx
k w
J iG f aq;vdyrf ;D oGm;ndo
nf/ rD;cJBuD;udk nyEf iS ,
hf u
l m aq;vdyf
ESifhrxd&ao;rD rD;cJonf rD;nyfrSvTwfusum ajccv,fay:us&mrSvdrfhvsuf ajcESifhajcr
Mum;wGif nyfavmifoGm;onf/
rD;avmifavmifjcif;yif rD;zdkxJu qDykvif;udk,lum avmifonfhae&mudk avmif;
csvdu
k o
f nf/ tom;udk awmufavmifaeonft
h ylrmS qDqw
G v
f u
kd
f qDuu
kd ;l avmifomG ;&
aomaMumifh qDrmS qlusufomG ;onf/ qDavmif;NyD; temudk 8&krpdu
k af wmhbJ zdeyfukd tNrJ
vdkyif pD;oGm;aeavonf/ ajcnyfonfhae&mwGif&Sdaom rD;avmifemum; yGef;&dvsuf r
aysmufbJ jzpfaeonf/ usrrSm ayghqpGmyif temudk temuav;bJ[k aq;yifrxnfhrD
zdeyfBudK;ESifh nyfpD;jrJ pD;oGm;umaeonf/
&Ir0wdu
k rf S 0wKaumfyD ta&;BuD;ojzifh vlawGrY cHbJ tcef;yke;f a&;ay;aepOf
tcef;rSm tdrf\aemufzufjzpf tjcm;tdrfrS tanmfrsm;jzifh rTefydwfaeonf/ usrrSm
tanmu
f kd ta&;rxm;Edik f ud,
k Ef iS hf rwnfo
h nfh tanmrf sdK;cHvQif a0'em jzpfwwfaMumif;
odvsufESifh ZGwfayom pmxdkifa&;aeonf/
aemufwaeYwGif jyif;xefaom tanmfaiGYjzifh tem0ifoGm;um ajcaxmufr
axmufEdkifavmufatmif jzpfvsuf aygifwGif tusdwfBuD; ay:vmonf/
temESifhtanmf ayghqrIudk cHpm;&um tusdwfudk tjrefqHk;aysmufaomenf;udk
MuHpnf&avonf/ usrwdkYoif,laom "mwfynmum; aq;rSm yg;pyfxJwGif &Sdaeovdkyif
cufcJrIr&Sdatmif tusdK;oufa&mufxufjrufEdkifaom oabm&Sdayonf/
vlrrm ta&;wBuD;vmac:vQif vdu
k o
f mG ;NyD; vlemawGrY S temESiahf wmf&m avsmf
&m tdrfxJ toHk;jyKaeonfhypnf;rsm;? rD;zdkxJu ypnf;rsm;? aq;0g;tjzpf udkifoHk;uko
um aysmufuif; csrf;omay;cJhonf/
rMumao;rDuyif ajreDukef;&Srf;ukef;vrf;rS pufydkifOD;atmifMunfqdkol\tcg
vnf rausmfao;aom orD;uav; tjyif;txefwufae n-1 csufavmuf vmEId;
ac:oGm;Muonf/ usrrSm onftwdkif;yif xvdkufoGm;onf/ OD;atmifMunfESifhtwl
vmac:aom OD;BuD;&Sdefum; usrukoyHk "mwfod ]olYyg;pyfxJrSm aq;&Sdw,f? olawmif;
wm &Smomay;Mu}[k wGifwGifajymaeonf/
usrrSm rsufjzLvefum toufaysmufvkvk jzpfaeaom cav; tuJMunfhum
oHy&k moD;ay;yg? a&cJ&mS yg? awmifwef uwd;k cGaJ y;? aMumif&mS acguf,cl yhJ gESihf vky
f wtdrf
om;vHk; &Iyf&SufcwfoGm;Muonf/ a&xJ oHyk&ma& npfvsuf xdka&ESifhuav;udk yufum
awmifwef uwdk;rIdif;eHY tcdk;ay;vsuf tjrKyfwpDpDxGufaeaom cav;yg;pyfudk zGifh[NyD;
a&cJpdyfuav;rsm; xnfhay;aeonf/
119

E-book is created by www.shanyoma.org

*sme,f a usmf r rav;

E-book is created by www.shanyoma.org

jref r mh a q;ynm

cav;udk &ifciG x
f yJ u
kd v
f suf pdw&f o
dS abm&Sd twufusatmif wckNyD;wck avQmuf
omvkyfay;aeonf/ usr ukoay;onfht&mrsm;um; tjriftm;jzifh aq;rIefYaq;&nf
r[kw
f txifBuD;p&m r&Sad omfvnf; xdt
k &mrsm;um; rnfrQ tm;xm;avmufaom t&m
0xKrsm;jzpfjcif;udk usryif odawmhonf/
n 1 csufavmufu tjyif;txef wufae&m "mwfukd Edik af tmifvv
k yk af e&onf?
cav;rSm udk,ftjyif;txef ylae&m usr a&yufaejcif;udk rdbrsm;u pdk;&drfMuovm;
vnf; rajymwwfay/
OD;BuD;&SdefrSm cav;tazESifhtarudk tm;ay;aeonf/ ]pdwfom cs? olbmvkyf
vkyf Munfhomae? tdrfu cav;wufwkef;u olvkyfcsifovkd vkyfoGm;wmeJY aysmufwmbJ}
usrrSm bmaMumifh udk,fylaevsuf ta&;wBuD; a&yufae&onfudk vlrrm&Sif
rsm;tm; r&Sif;tm;Edkifay? cav;touf&SifbdkY&mom ta&;wBuD; vkyfae&onf/
eHeufav;em&Dxdk;rS twufusoGm;um? pdwfcs&aomtajc a&mufoGm; ouf
jyif;csvdkuf&onf/
ydwyf ck uf? ydwjf cifaxmifukd a&&T&J q
JT w
G u
f m a&jcifaxmif axmifapvsuf cav;udk
ykcufxJ odyfay;xm;cJhNyD;? 8spfum;ay: wufxdkifvsuf jyefvmcJhonf/
tdrfra&mufrD wvrf;vHk; qdwfNidrfpGm awG;vmrdonf/ usrukoaomukenf;?
ukxHk;? "mwfynmudk acwfrSDatmif tqifhtwef;&Sdatmif b,fvdkjyKjyifzefwD;&yghrvJ[k
pOf;pm;vmonf/ trSefpifppf vltrsm; txifBuD;atmif odkYr[kwf vufcHatmif vkyf&
rnfhenf;rSm vG,fvG,fudk cufcufjzpfatmif vkyfjy&rvdkjzpf pdwfysufoGm;awmhonf/
tusdwftwGuf tjrefqHk;aysmuf&ef udk,fESifhoifhrnfh xufjrufaom"mwfudk MuH
pnfvdkufonf/
OD;BuD;&Sed af jymovdyk if yg;pyfxw
J iG f &kyaf q;az:vdu
k \
f / tjrefq;kH aysmuf&ef t
usdwfBuD;udk "mwf 4 yg;ESifhacsypfzdkYtwGuf udk,fh"mwfESifhoifhrnfh[if;EkEG,f? oHyk&m? av;
nif;? tkef;a&paom if;t&m0wKav;rsdK;udk xkaxmif; e,fy,fvsuf tusdwfay:wGif
tHkpD;ay;vdkufonf/
ykvif;udk aMuaysmfomG ;apEdik af om [if;EkE,
G f a<uudk aMuaysmfapEdik af omoHy&k m
wdkY\"mwfcdkufpGrf;jzifh aemufwaeY tusdwfBuD; aysmufoGm;onf/
&efcsif;owf aoaom"mwf? &efwGif &efpGuf aoaom "mwf? &efwGif rdwfpGuf
aoaom"mwf? rdwfwGif rdwfpGuf aoaom"mwf? emrfwlowf aoaom"mwf? "mwf
emrfMuHqvsuf MunfhvQif ysm;&nfxJ ajrmhxnfhu aMuoGm;jcif;? za,mif;ESifharmif;toH
Munfjcif;? MuufOudk t&ufEiS ehf ,faomf ykvif; 0ifjcif;? aMu;ESiq
hf ef toHtjcif;? OoQpf
120

ESifhzGJrD;? pdefESifhoHyk&m? xHk;ESifhajrmh ? wDESifhqm;? xdkrSwyg; uGrf;yifuav;udk ig;usnf;ql;


xd;k vQif a<uukejf cif;? aMu;zvm;wGif a&xnf
h ausmufjyifrw
S nf EGm;acs;atmufuref
zvm;udk ,lvQif ausmufjyifygonf/ ausmufz&kHESifhrD;aoG;? ykwfjcif;/
emrfwlaou tusdK;&? &efrlaou tjypf&? &efaMumifhaotjypf? rdwfaMumifh
ao tusdK;? odt
Yk m;jzifh "mwfayguf atmif rpl;prf; rBuHpnfMuaomfvnf;? txufaz:
jyyg xnfo
h nfh rwnfo
h nf"h mwfrsm;udk Armwdik ;f vdyk if Mum;bl;em;0 od&NdS yD;om;yifjzpfMu
onf/
usronf tusdwfudk "mwf4yg;ESifhaMuatmif vkyfvdkufaMumif; tbudk ajymjy
vdkufonf/
tbrSm awGa0em;axmifaevsuf ]]tusdwfBuD; aMuoGm;NyD&,fvdkY raygh&bl;?
temrSef,if b,ftemrS rayghESifh? temu emao;vm;}}[kar;vdkufonf/
]]odyfremawmhygbl; tb&,f. . . zdeyfnyfwJhtcg eJeJyg;yg;avmufbJ}}
tbonf yufvufukvm;xdkifrS qif;vdkufum Murf;jyif xdkifvsuf ]]jyprf;
tem}} [k ajymonf/
usrrSm rjzpfpavmuf temuav;[koabmxm;um ajcaxmufjy&ef tm;em
0efav;aeonf/
]]rjzpfavmufygbl; tb&m. . . tanmfrdvdkY tem0ifoGm;wmyg}}
]]tem0ifNyD; tusdwfxGufvmwm? 'DtemrsdK; rayghq&ygbl; jyprf;ygorD;&,f}}
usrrSm ajcaxmufudkjy&av\/ touf 85 ESpf rsufpdrrIHaomtbu temudk
aoaocsmcsm udkifMunfhvsuf ]]qm;,lcJhprf;a[h}}[katmfvkdufonf/
tborD;rsm;u qm;tenf;i,f ,lvmay;&m? wqkyBf uD; ,lcphJ rf;. . . ywfw;D yg,l
cJh[katmfaeonf/
usrrSm temESifhtbudk tjyeftvSef pdwf0ifpm;vmonf/
t0wfay:wGif ajcudk csckid ;f um tay:rS ajcz0g;wydik ;f vH;k zH;k atmif qm;wqkyf
BuD; zHk;tHkaeavonf/
]]temqdkwm raygh&bl;? tbrSm opfpav; pl;wm ayghqrdvdkY renf;vkyf,l&
w,f/ ig;claumif ig;ydaMumfteHrdvdkufwm tem0ifNyD; uHaumif;vdkYraow,f}}
qm;ESifhajcaxmufudk qkyfe,fzHk;ay;aeyHkudk pdkufMunfhvsuf tbudk,fwGif tuFsD
cRwfxm; ycHk;axmifaeaom t&dk;BuD;udk ai;Munfhrdonf/
wdu
k Bf uD;NrdKU zvH&k mG wGif armfawmfum; &ifbwfjzwfeif; tusdwcf &H tb\vuf
jyif&;kd BuD; usdK;oGm;&m xd'k Pf&mudk "mwfynmESihf ud,
k [
hf mud,
k f t&d;k qufum aysmufatmif
121

E-book is created by www.shanyoma.org

*sme,f a usmf r rav;

E-book is created by www.shanyoma.org

jref r mh a q;ynm

ukxm;aom trSwftom;BuD;jzpfonf/
ajcaxmufudk qm;awGtHkNyD;aemuf t0wfywfwD;ESifh wif;usyfpGm pnf;ywfae
onf/
a&S;vlolBuD;olrrsm;[m rayghqMuygvm;[katmufarhrSwfom;vdkufrdonf/
tbwdYk aq;q&m vkypf u aq;tdwrf aqmifb;l ? awG&Y meJv
Y yk v
f u
kd w
f mbJ? u&if
wa,muf rrmawmh ol&Y mG u tbqD vmyifw
h ,f? tbudk olwt
Ykd rd af &SUu ydEo
J ;D cl;cdik ;f NyD;
ydEJoD;auR;ukw,f? tJ'ga&m*gaysmufoGm;awmh tdrfu ydEJoD;eJYukwm? xrif;vJauR;&
ao;w,f? a&mh. . . ig;usyfbJvdkYajymNyD; ay;bl;w,f. . . 'DuxJu aq;tdwfaqmif&wmbJ}}
usrrSm [uf[ufyufyuf &,farmfaeavonf/
]]ay;csifwhJ opmay;. . . tbav b,aq;qdik f aq;az:oGm;bdo
Yk mG ;,if bmeJb
Y m
eJYaz:r,fvdkY wcgrS tdrfu awG;roGm;bl;ygbl;? aps;xJ [if;&HoGm;0,fawmh jrifwm [if;
r,fpyfNyD; 0,fcsrf;vmovdb
k ?J b,aq;qkid af y: jrifwm awGw
Y m aq;pyfNyD; az:vdu
k w
f m
bJ. . . }}
ywfwD;ywfNyD; rMumrD usr\ajcaxmufrS aoG;ckef aoG;wdk;ovdk wif;emvm
]]tba& wzsif;zsif;jzpfvmw,f}}[kajymrdonf/
]]'gaMumifh. . . tbxifwm? 'Dtem rusufao;ygbl;vdkY ,lcJhprf; jiKyfoD;rIefY. . }. }
ywfwD;udk jznfvdkufum qm;ay: jiKyfoD;rIefYykvif;udk arSmufcsjzL;vsuf jznf
ywfwD;pnf;ay;jyefonf/
]]rD;avmifwt
hJ em a&rxd&zl;? rde;f rwa,muf ]v}"mwfzufu &ifbwfr;D avmif
wm tbajy;NyD; ol&Y ifay: qDejYJ iKyfo;D rIeYf avmif;jzL;csvdu
k w
f m rD;tyl tom;ravmifEikd f
awmhbJ jiKyfo;D udk usufomG ;atmif ulavmifomG ;wmbJ? tbwd"Yk mwfu wa,mufenf;eJY
aysmufayrJh wa,mufraysmufz;l qkw
d m ajymvkYd a[mvkYd vG,v
f ,
G u
f u
l el rYJ &bl;? vufawGY
vkyjf yrS rSerf eS ;f odMuwm. . . aq;q&mvkycf w
hJ m tESpaf jcmufq,farmcJNh yD? vlemtdrf &Smrae
&atmif tke;f yifu,
dk w
f idk w
f ufNyD; toD;udk vlemtdrf xrf;yd;k ,lomG ;NyD; ukay;wmorD;&,f?
aq;q&mrsm; rvkyfcsifygeJYawmh tbeJYighorD; rqmvmrIeYfom axmif;a&mif;MuygpdkY?
rqvm a&mif;rvm;}}
usrrSm tbudk awGpu
kd
f Munfv
h u
kd u
f m ]rqmvmwif r[kwzf ;l tb? wjynfv;kH
eEGif;rIefYyg axmif;a&mif;& raumif;bl;vm;}ajymvdkufonf/
tbonf ]tJ'g at;ygw,forD;&,f}[kqdkum vIdufvIdufvSJvSJ &,faeonf/
]]"mwfav;yg; obm0udk aqmif;yg; a&;r,fvdkY pdwful;w,f tb&,f?tpte
azmfa&;,if tv,f? tqHk; vkdufcsifwJhvlvJ vdkufaygh}}
122

]]taEm? *aA? pa&? 0Haoudk aq;rxifMubl;? "mwf 4 yg;rSm yx0D"mwfEiS chf sKyf?
tmayg"mwfEiS ahf rT? 0ga,m"mwfeaYJ cs? awaZm"mwfeo
YJ wf? 'gudk rSwx
f m;? 0ga,m"mwfukd
yx0Du Ekdifw,fvkdYrSwf? 0ga,m&JUtpGrf;udk ajymtkH;r,f? armifrif; BudK;usap. . . tJovkd
ajymwm 0ga,m r[kwfzl;vm;}}
usronf a&ajravrD; "mwfBuD;av;yg; obm0tpudk tEkpw
d f azmfjya&;vsuf
avmu "mwf 4-yg;jzifh jyKjyiftyfaom tvH;k pHak om awmawmifa&ajr ork'& m"mwft
aygif;wdkYwGif tcsif;csif; &efrjyKonfudkjrifvQif rD;ESifhav? a&ESifhajr? rdwf"mwfESpfyg;t
csif;csif; &efjyKonfjzpfvQif rD;ESifha&? avESifhajr? rD;ESifhajr? a&ESifhav &ef"mwfESpfyg; uGJ
jym;atmif a&;rnf[k pdwful;&oGm;onf/
]]ylpyfraebl;vm;}}[kar; usru acgif;ndwfvdkufonf/
]]qD,lcJhtHk;a[h}}
ajcaxmufu temudk ywfwD;ajzjyefum qm;ay: jiKyfoD;rIefYay: qDavmif;cs
jyefonf/
usrtem tuif;aoatmif ESrd af eyHu
k kd qifjcifum ukx;kH od&EHk iS rhf NyD; ukenf;ygod
&ef vdktyfaMumif; oabmaygufoGm;onf/
"mwfq&mBuD; tbrSm awmifwGif;BuD;om;jzpfum cifBuD;aysmfESifhtrsdK;awmf
trsdK;bdk;wl "mwfobm0udk xHk;om"uykHOyrm tenf;enf;jyoif ajymaeonf/ usrrSm
aecsifoavmuf tcsdefr&Edkif? tvkyfwef;vef;jzpf tbudktem;ay;NyD;jyefvmcJhonf/
]]temudk raygheJYaemf} tanmf tanmf owdxm;vdkufprf;}}
usr um;ay:a&mufonfhwdkif tdrfxJrS vSrf;atmfajym usef&pfcJhonf/
temtawmfoufomoGm;aomfvnf; tanmu
f kd owdxm;aeonfMh um;xJrS tdrf
atmufxyf cspfw;D aumfzq
D ikd Ef iS w
hf &kyt
f rd rf t
S anmw
f o
Ykd nf tdraf &SUtdraf emufrS ydwv
f ;kH 0if
vm&m tanmfeHYBuD;udk vTwf&ef tanmf&efawmxJrS tdrfatmufa&mufatmif qif;ajy;
&onf/ tvkyw
f u
kd w
f iG f pmazgifrsm; &du
k Ef ydS o
f nfukd oGm;Munfu
h m rd;k csKyfrS jyefvmcJo
h nf/
tdrfwGif tanmfeHY raysmufa&Smifp&m ae&mrvGwf wtdrfvHk; anmfaeayonf/
nwGif ajcaxmufrS temav;rSm eDndKvmum rcHr&yfEdkifatmif udkufvmonf/
udu
k o
f nfah 0'em jyif;xefvyS u
kH kd atmufarhqifjcifum bmr[kww
f mav;eJY onfavmuf
cH&ovm;[k temem,if; rcHrcsdrcHom jzpfaeonf/
olrsm;jzpfvQifom bmeJb
Y meJv
Y yk f ponfjzifh ud,
k w
f ikd Mf uyfrwfuo
k ay;vdu
k v
f suf
udk,fjzpfvmawmh udk,f[mudk,f ukcsifpdwf vHk;0r&SdonfrSm tawmfxl;qef;ayonf/
n 10 em&DavmufwGif tbtdrfudk wHcg;zGifhcdkif;um tbtdyfaeaom ajc&if;
123

E-book is created by www.shanyoma.org

*sme,f a usmf r rav;

E-book is created by www.shanyoma.org

jref r mh a q;ynm

tbudk EId;um ]tba&. . . tanmfrdvdkYudkufvmNyD}[kajymawmhonf/


tbonf tdyf&mrS ukef;ukef; ukef;ukef;ESifhxvmum ]orD;&,f. . . orD;&,f csuf
csif;oufom&rSmaygh? tomomae}[kqkdvsuf tb\orD;rsm;udk xrif;usdwfckdif;vkduf
onf/
usronf tbtoHudk Mum;onfESifh tudkuftem cHEdkifovdkyifjzpfum tbuk
csifovdk ukwmMunfh&awmhr,f[kauseyfoGm;onf/
]]anmx
f u
G af tmif a&oGm;csdK;prf;? temudk a&rxde}YJ }qd
k usrrSm emvsufEiS ahf &
rxdatmif ajcwef;NyD; csdK;&onf/ tborD;rsm;u avmif;csdK;ay;Muonf/ a&csdK;NyD;rS
temudk xrif;qkyf tHkay;um 'DrSmtdyf reufrS jyefqdkonf/
tbonf ol\orD;rsm;udk ]orD;wkdY b,folrS rtdyfMueJY rrav;em;rSm aeMu}
qdk tm;vHk; rtdyfMu&ay/
]]xrif;u pkyfvdrfhr,f? rcHr&yfEdkifatmif udkufvmr,f atmifhom cHaemf}}
axmif;usdwftkHxm;aom xrif;u tem\ief;ref;awGudk pkyfaeojzifh tawmf
udkufvm&m atmifhcHaeonf/
]]temqdkwm tdyfaysmf,ifvJ oufomw,f? tpmpm;,ifvJ oufomw,fqdk
um}} o&ufoD; cGJauR;avonf/
tbonf wnvHk; aumif;pGm rtdyfay? xvmvdkuf xrif;topf tHkvdkufESifh
vkyfcdkif;ae&m xvmwdkif; ynm\ukxHk;awGudk rSwfom;zG,f&m ajyma[mae ynmwdk;
ojzifh wenf;tm;jzifh tem&onfyif udk,fhtwGuf aumif;usdK;jzpfaeayonf/
eHeuf oHk;em&DavmufwGif tjrefqHk;aysmufcsifaom tvdkustwdkif; oufom
aysmufuif;oGm;onf/ usrrSm avsmif;acGvsuf "mwfav;yg;\obm0udk ynmESiahf 0zef
ppfaq;vsuf tus,fw0ifh awG;awmaeonf/
"mwfynm roifcifu "mwfav;yg;udk a&? ajr? av? rD;[k tMurf;tm;jzifh odcJh
onf/
Armh"mwfynm oif,rl S "mwfBuD;av;yg;udk a&"mwf? ajr"mwf? av"mwf? rD;"mwf
[lif;? yx0D? tmayg? awaZm? 0ga,m[lif;? taEm? 8aA? pa&? 0Hao[lif;?
ygy? ol&Z? tNrdw? aumvD[lif;? 1? 2? 3? 4 [lif; uGJjym;vmonf/
odkY "mwfav;yg;jzpfvsuf uGJjym;aom taMumif;tcsif;&mrsm;udk pDppfMunfh
bdkY vdktyfayonf/

124

yx0D

awaZm

tmayg

0ga,m

yd#uwfynwf

taEm

*aA

pa&

0Hao

tu&mynwf

ygy

ol&Z

tNrdw

aumvD

aA'ynwf

*Pef;ynwf

xkdav;yg;wkdYwGif taEmonf awaZm"mwf? rD;"mwf? 8aAonf yx0D"mwf? ajr


"mwf? pa&onf 0ga,m"mwf av"mwf? 0Haoonf tayg"mwf? a&"mwf/
ygyonf 0ga,m"mwf? ol&Zonf awaZm"mwf? tNrdw tmayg"mwf? aumvD
yx0D"mwf? 1-um; taEm? awaZmrD;? 2-um; 8aA ajr? 3-um; pa& av? 4-um;
0Hao a&? a& ajr av rD; "mwfBuD;av;yg;\jcm;em;oGm;aom tac:ta0:tavsmuf
jcm;em;oGm;aom teuft"dyg,fawGum; us,f0ef;vSavonf/
taEm? 8aA? pa&? 0Hao taEm? taEm"mwfonfum; awaZm? "mwk awaZm
onf/ OPSvuPH? yljcif;? vuPm&Sdonf/
*aA? 8aA"mwfonf cdkifcHhjcif; vuPm&Sdonf/ pa&"mwkvuPH? pa&"mwf\
vuPonfum; arhavsmhjcif;? wkefvIyfjcif;? zl;zl;a&mifjcif;? eHapmfjcif; vuPm&Sdonf/
0Hao"mwfonf ,dkpD;jcif;? ajymif;aysmhjcif; vuPm&Sd\/
xdktaEm? 8aA? pa&? 0Hao? "mwfav;yg;udkyif tu&mwvHk;pD cGJaumufum
jcm;em;oGm;aom teuft"dyg,fcGJjym; pdwf,lvdkufjyefvQif a& ajr av rD; "mwfav;yg;
onf "mwf&SpfrsdK; ynwfuGJoGm;onf/
taEm. . .
tefum;? rD;cJ"mwf/ awmum;? rD;awmuf"mwf/
8aA. . .
8um;? oDvmausmuf"mwf/ abmum;? yHok yx0D"mwf/ ajrajymh/
pa&. . .
pum; avnif;/ a&um; avrkefwdkif;/
0Hao. . .
0Hum; a&csdK/ aoum; a&iH/
125

E-book is created by www.shanyoma.org

*sme,f a usmf r rav;

jref r mh a q;ynm

if;jyif xdktaEm? 8aA? pa&? 0Hao "mwfav;yg;onf "mwfzdk"mwfr wGJaeMu

E-book is created by www.shanyoma.org

onf/
if;wdkYtcsif;csif; tzdktr wGJpyfaeMuyHkum; rD;cJ"mwfzdkESifhrD;awmuf"mwfrp
taEmawaZmjzpf&onf/ oDvm"mwfzdkESifhyHokyx0D"mwfr pyf *aAyx0D"mwfjzpf&
onf/ avni;f "mwfzEdk iS ahf vrkew
f idk ;f "mwfr pyf pa& 0ga,m"mwfjzpf&onf/ a&csdK"mwf
ESifha&iH"mwfr a&mpyf 0Hao? tmayg"mwfjzpfMuonf/
usr i,f&G,fpOf ig;ESpforD;avmufu awm&GmArmausmif;wGif ausmif;pae&
onf/ Armpm tawmftwef zwfEikd af &;Edik o
f nfyh xrwef;wGif wefc;l ? uqke?f e,ke?f 0gqd?k
0gacgif paom vtrnfrsm;? we8FaEG? weif;vm? t8Fg? Ak'[l;paom aeYtrnfrsm;ESifh
wGJvsuf Asnf;tu&m? N8dK[fpOf? N8dK[f&kyf? ta&SU? taemuf? awmif? ajrmuf? t&yf av;
rsufESm? t&yf&SpfrsufESm? wygwnf; oiftHzwfcJh&onf/
uc8Ci? weif;vm/ pqZpsn? t8Fg/ ,&v0? Ak'[
;l / yzbAr? Mumoyaw;/
o[? aomMum/ wx"'e? pae/ t? we8FaEG/
we8FaEG 8VHK? weif;vm usm;? t8Fg jcaoFh? Ak'[l; qif? Mumoyaw; <uuf?
aomMum yl;? pae a>re8g;/
,if;odYk wGpJ yf&w
G t
f u
H sufrw
S cf ahJ om Armausmif; yxrwef;uav;u todynm
\wefbdk;rSm "mwfynmwGif tusdK;rsm;pGm oufaeayawmhonf/
usronf taEm? 8aA? pa&? 0Hao? "mwfav;yg;udk tu&mESiahf eYaumufwpJG yf,l
zdkY&m rcufawmhay/ xdkYaMumifh taEm? 8aA? pa&? 0Haoudk yd#uwftvdk tu&mtvdk
ynwftvdk N8dK[fpOftvdk 8Pef;ocsFmtvdk t&omtvdk "mwftvdk ta&miftqif;tvdk
aumuf,lenf; jrifonf/
usronf "mwfav;yg;? "mwf&pS yf g;wdYk tusKH;0ifaom taEm? 8aA? pa&? 0Hao?
"mwfjyu'defBuD;udk rsufpdxJ ay:vmatmif zefwD;vsuf Munfhvdkufonf/
we*FaEG
N*dK[fouf 6-ESpf
(taEm-tef)
t-tu&m
awaZm-yd#uwf
rD;cJ-ynwf
(1) *Pef;ocsFm/
tpyf-t&om
126

*sme,f a usmf r rav;

em-"mwfo&kyf
*Ref;vlrsKd;-trsKd;"mwfzkd
ta&SUajrmuf/
E-book is created by www.shanyoma.org

weif;vm
N*Kd[fouf 15-ESpf
(*aA-*)
uc*Ci-tu&m
yx0D-yd#uwf
oDvmausmuf-ynwf
(2) *Pef;ocsFm/
tieft&om
*Rwf-"mwfo&kyf
&Srf;rsKd;-trsKd;"mwfzkd
ta&SUt&yf/

t*Fg
N*dK[fouf 8 ESpf
(pa&-p)
pqZpsn-tu&m?
0ga,m-yd#uwf
avajyavnif;-ynwf
(3) *Pef;ocsFm?
tcg;-t&om
oH-"mwfo&kyf
wvkdif;rsKd;-trsKd;"mwfzkd
ta&SUawmift&yf/
Ak'[l;
N*dK[fouf 17 ESpf
(0Hao-0)
v0-tu&m

127

E-book is created by www.shanyoma.org

jref r mh a q;ynm

tmayg-yd#uwf
a&Munfa&csKd-ynwf
(4) *Pef;ocsFm?
tcsKd-t&om
bif-"mwfo&kyf
uwl;-trsKd;
"mwfzdk
awmift&yf/
Mumoyaw;
N*dK[fouf 19 ESpf
(ab-*aA)
yzAbr-tu&m
yx0D-yd#uwf
yHoak jrajymh-ynwf
(5) *Pef;ocsFm
tqdrfh-t&om
jy'g;-"mwfo&kyf
jrefrmrsKd;-trsKd;"mwfr
taemuft&yf/
aomMum
N*dK[fouf 21 ESpf
(o-0Hao)
o[-tu&m
tmayg-yd#uwf
a&iH a&ykyf a&aemuf-ynwf
(6) *Pef;ocsFm
tcsKd-t&om
oGyf-"mwfo&kyf
uoJ-trsKd;"mwfr
ajrmuft&yf/
128

*sme,f a usmf r rav;

pae
N*dK[fouf 10 ESpf
(awm-taEm)
wx'"e-tu&m
awaZm-yd#uwf
rD;awmuf-ynwf
(7) *Pef;ocsFm
tcsOf-t&om
'gef-"mwfo&kyf
ukvm;rsKd;-trsKd;"mwfr
taemufawmift&yf/
&m[k
N*dK[fouf 12 ESpf
0ga,m-yd#uwf
avrkefwkdif;-ynwf
(8) *Pef;ocsFm
tzef-t&om
w&kyf-trsKd;"mwfr
taemufajrmuft&yf/
udwf
9-*Pef;ocsFm
a&T
qm; "mwfo&kyf
'kwm
,cifu usraqmif;yg;rsm; a&;cJb
h ;l &m ,if;aq;aqmif;yg;rsm; owavmu?
ocFg&avmu? Moumoavmu[kqakd om avmuoH;k yg;wGif yx0D tmayg awaZm 0ga,m
[l &Sdaom "mwf 4 yg;udk tusOf;zGJYpnf;MunfhvQif tyl tat; oDw? OPS"mwf 2 yg;
om &SdaMumif; t&dyft>ruf a&;bl;cJhonf/ tyl tat; ESpfXmESifh 12 v? 12 vuf &moD
puf? taEm? 8aA? pa&? 0HaoESifhwuG 8drEOwk? a[rEOwk? 0oEOwk? tyltcsrf;wdkY
onf tvH;k pHyk gNyD;jzpf&m urmOD;vlwYkd aevudw
k ay:vmonfEiS yhf if aerif;onf taEm?
8aA? pa&? 0HaoESifhwuG 12-v-12&moDpufudk eif;xGufvmcJhonf/

129

E-book is created by www.shanyoma.org

E-book is created by www.shanyoma.org

jref r mh a q;ynm

avmu"mwf we8FaEGwnf;[laomaerif;onf aumif;uife,fc&dkif Ou|


tBuD;trSL;wOD; tpjzpfum ae\obm0um; tyljzpfonf/ (0g) OPSjzpfonf/
xdkol&d,aerif;? we8FaEG "mwfav;yg;? t|uvmyf&kyf 8-yg; &SdbdouJhodkY
aumif;uif xGef;yaom aeatmuf aygufa&mufukefaom opfyifawmawmifa&ajr
ork'&mrSmvnf; "mwfav;yg; t|uvmyf&kyf 8-yg; &SdMuojzifh obm0rjcm; oDw? OPS?
tyl tat; 2-yg; omjzpfonf/
(v) qdkonfrSm. . . weif;vmN8dKvfudk taMumif;jyKvnf; usrf;8efac:onf/ v
rSm weif;vmwnf;[laom pef;? pef;vuPmrSm tat;? ,if;tat;rSm aumif;uif
xGef;yaom vESifhtwl? weif;vm\at;jcif;udk qdkvdkonf/
t"dyg,frSm we8FaEGvuPmonf tyl[lif; ae[lif; weif;vmvuPm
tat;[lif;? v[lif; qdkvdkayonf/ xdkYaMumifh "mwfav;yg; &SdvQif tyl tat;
&So
d nf[k oabmaygufz,
G &f mjzpfonf/t|uvmyf&yk f 8 yg;?"mwf 4 yg;tpk Owkpck sKyfonf
qdkaomaMumifh csKyfonfhOwkrSm oDw? OPSomvQif jzpfacsonf/
usronf "mwf"mwfBuD; 4 yg;udk jyu'deftdrfzGJYjrifouJhodkY aeESifhvudk cdkifcHh BuD;
us,fpGm tdrfBuD;ozG,f aqmufMunfhonf/ trdk; eH&H acgifwdkif xkwfavsmuf 'dkif;rQm;
wyfqif aqmufMunfhonf/
ae-ol&d,? a'gif;? OPS? tyl? we8FaEG? 1? vuf0J
v-pE&? ,kef? oDw? tat;? weif;vm? 2? vusfm
ae-vESpfyg;ESifh o[Zmwfjzpfaom ZmwfwdkYudk oabmwl&m jznfhpGufzGJYpnf;
vdkufaomtcg
aewGif ygaom N8dK[f 4 vHk;
vwGif aomrN*dKvf4vHk;
1/ we8FaEGN8dKvf
5/ Mumoyaw;N*Kd[f
2/ weif;vmN8dKvf
6/ aomMumN*Kd[f
3/ t*FgN*Kd[f
7/ paeN*Kd[f
4/ Ak'[l;N*Kd[f
8/ &m[kN*Kd[f
aygif; 108 e0if;puf
aevESpfyg; (0g) oDw? OPS? tyl tat;"mwf 2 yg;udk tus,fcsJYvdkufu taEm?
8aA? pa&? 0Hao "mwfBuD;av;yg; "mwf8yg;wdo
Yk nf PfueG jYf zm tEkpyd af y:vmEkid u
f m
taEmpa&"mwfonf aezufwGif&Sdaom "mwf/ 8aA? 0Hao"mwfonf vzufwGif &Sdaom
"mwf/ if;"mwfrsm; tusOf;csKyfvQif ae v oDw OPS [kxifvif; odtyfEdkifayonf/
utp ttqkH; 33 vkH;aom tu&mynwf? t tm O OD { Mo o& 8
130

vkH;? 41 vkH;aom 0P? 1 tp 9 tqkH;aom *Pef;ynwf? we*FaEG tp? pae tqkH; 7


vk;H aom aeYynwf? 108 e0if;? Mwif;? aumif;uifwm&m aev euwt
f p&Su
d ek af om us,f
0ef;onfhynwfwkdYudk tusOf;csKyf ,lEkdifu odrfarGYaom "mwfoabm\teufudk xif
jrifEkdifayonf/
a&S;u "mwfynmudk *Pef;ocsFmynwfESifh 1 2 [k aq;ukocJh&m tbu tu
&mynwfprokH;um ae v ,l&ef jyifay;ojzifh ae v cGJaom usray;onfh"mwfpmaq;
0g;wkdYonf oabmwl&m jzpfaMumif; aqmif;yg;jzifh t"dyg,f&Sif;vif;EkdifMuayonf/
aoG;aomuf? &Ir0r*Zif;rsm;wGif usronf &Hzef&Hcgyif ]33 pD;aom qifajymif
onf awm 3 axmif xGu
f usufpm;aomaMumifh csnftyfaomBudK;&Sppf if;ESiw
hf idk af v;
wkdif csnfEkdifu vkd&mokdY a&mufonf}[k a&;cJhbl;onf/
avmu w&m;ESifhvGwfuif;onhft&m r&SdouJhokdY "mwfESifhvGwfuif;onfht&m
r&Sdacs/ opfyifif;? toHif;? vlif;? aq;jrpfif;? ynwfac:a0:orkwftyfaom
trnfonf &dSMuonf/ ynwfpum;wkdY "mwf&Sdjcif;aMumifh ynwfoGm;&m "mwfoufyg[k
qkdjcif;jzpfonf/ ynwfpum;udk rnfonfht&m0wKrqkd tb,frnfaom "mwf[kod&m
onf/ ajymaomtoH jrifaomtoHrsm;udkvnf; tb,frnfaom "mwf[ka0zefum od
Ekid &f monf/
rnfonfht&mrqdk tu&mrqdk tu&mESifhvGwfMuonfr&Sd? r[mork'&mxJwGif
e'DjrpfwdkYrS usavQmonfha&onf aysmufysufavbdouJhodkY tu&mo&kyfudk odu "mwf
av;yg; tcsKyfudk od&rnfjzpfonf/
usrrSm temoufomoGm; "mwfav;yg;\eufeJus,f0ef;aom tcPf;cPf;
tuGufuGufwkdYudk pOf;pm;qifjcifaeav&m &mrdk;vif;vkoGm;onf/
tbonf tdyf&mxJu xvmum usrvSJaeaom ab; vmxdkifvsuf aq;wHudk
zGm&dSL,if; "mwkod'd? "mwfqufpyfyHkwdkYudk &Sif;ajymjyonf/
]]Oom pdefyef; 'ef;vSudk&Sm? Oom [m 0ga,m"mwf? pdefyef; [m yx0D"mwf}}
usronf OoQpfo;D rD;zkwaf omf uG\
J qdak om"mwfukd qufpyfawG;qMunfo
h nf/
OESifhoQpf? awaZmESifh0ga,m"mwf? "mwfemrfwlcdkufoGm;yHk a&;a&;ay:um xrif;qkyfESifh
rD;avmifemudk oabmaygufomG ;onf/ qef;us,faom "mwfobm0rsm;um; awG; rqH;k
Edik af y? vltoD;oD;wdik ;f ud,
k u
hf sef;rma&; ud,
k zf efw;D wwfMuavatmif Armh"mwfynmudk
usrf;pmwtkyftjzpf jyKpkum a&;om;Ekdifygap[kqkawmif;,if; rdk;vif;oGm;onf/

131

E-book is created by www.shanyoma.org

*sme,f a usmf r rav;

E-book is created by www.shanyoma.org

jref r mh a q;ynm

a&m8gudk t"duxm;NyD; ukonf r[kwf/


tylBudKufonfhvl? tat;BudKufonfhvl?
tylem? tat;em cGJjcm;NyD; uko
ynmjzifh a&m8gwdkif;
aysmufEdkifjcif; jzpfonf/

132

*sme,f a usmf r rav;

pmyHkESdyfpufwdkuf vQyfppfrD;a<u;
------- 1000/
pmyHkESdyfwdkuf wdkufcef;vca<u;
------- 600/
pmyHkESdyfwdkuf aygifxm;onfh
EdkifiHawmf ul;oef;a&mif;0,fa&; bPfa<u; -------20000/
odrfBuD;aps;rS rjrifhMunfodkYay;qyf&ef
-------3000/
udk0if;pdefodkYay;qyf&ef
-------5000/
paumhaps; a':rrav;odkYay;qyf&ef
-------2000/
ay;qyf&efa<u;rsm; pkpkaygif; oHk;aomif; waxmif ajcmuf&m/
1959 ck? arv 17 &ufaeY usrxrf;xm;aom 0efxkyf0efydk;BuD;udk udkatmif
aZ,sykcHk;ay:odkYajymif;wifay;vdkufonf/ usronf a&SUwGif ajcmufv odkYr[kwf wESpf
tvkyf rvkyfbJ tem;,lawmhthH[k ydkif;jzwfvdkufonf/ tem;,laeonfhtcsdefumvt
wGif; pD;yGm;a&;tvkyfvnf; rvkyf? aq;vnf; ruk? acgif;at;at; xm;vsuf oufom
cdkEdkiforQ cdkum tdrfxJwGif NidrfNidrfuav; aevdkufrnf[k tMuHtpnf jyKonf/
pmyHkESdyfwdkufvkyfief;tjyif wzufvrf;rS pD;yGm;a&;twGuf vkyfudkif&aom rr
av;ukrPDrSm AdkvfcsKyfacwfukrPDrsm; zsufodrf;&mwGif trsm;enf;wl ygoGm; ukrPD
ydwfypfvdkuf&ojzifh pD;yGm;a&; 0ifaiGvkyfief;onf pmyHkESdyfwdkufomvQif &Sdawmhonf/
avmavmq,f ay;qyf&ef&adS eaom txufyg a<u;pm&if;wdu
Yk kd udak tmifaZ,s
tm; wm0ef,l&ef ycHk;ajymif;ay;vdkufNyD;aemuf yHkESdyfwdkufrS vpOfrjzpfrae &SmazGoGm;&
rnfhoHk;aiGpm&if;udkvnf; vGJtyfvdkufonf/
tdrfvc
-------400d/
um;p&dwfESifhum;armif;ol vc -------450d/
tdrfoHk;p&dwf
-------600d/
vpOftvSLaiGrsm;
-------100d/
uav;rsm;ausmif;p&dwf
-------200d/
pmyHkESdyfwdkufp&dwf
-------1000d/
tdrfazmf2-OD;twGuf vpmp&dwf -------150d/
133

E-book is created by www.shanyoma.org

b0[lonf

E-book is created by www.shanyoma.org

jref r mh a q;ynm

wvvQif &SmazG&rnfhaiGrSm atmifwef;oHk;axmifcefY&SdrS &yfwnfEdkifrnfhb0rSef;


od udkatmifaZ,sonf ay;qyf&efa<u;pm&if;ESifhvpOftokH;pm&if;wkdYudkMunfhvsuf
oufjyif;csavonf/
]]tdrfvcu rsm;vdkufwm ajruav; 0,fNyD; wJxdk;aeMu&if 400d awmh oufom
oGm;rSmbJ}}
ajraps; w{u wode;f aygufaeaom acwfBuD;xJwiG f usrwdrYk o
d m;pkrmS {u0uf
rqdkxm;bd? wpdwfyif 0,fEdkifonfhtajctae r&Sday/ wvp&dfwftwGuf wvBudKwif&Sm
azG&efyif tEdkifEdkifBudK;yrf; vkyfudkifae&aomaMumifh ajr0,f&ef b,fvdkenf;ESifhrQ rjzpf
Edkifacs/
]]b,fenf;eJYjzpfjzpf tajccdkifoGm;atmif ajr0,frSjzpfr,f}}
usru wcGef;rS jyefrajymbJ ai;aeavonf/ ukrPDvkyfief;vnf; r&Sdawmh
vuf&Sdta<u; oHk;aomif;ausmf acgif;ay:wifaeyHkESifhvpOfp&dwf oHk;axmif &atmif&Sm
azG&efyif wtm;MuHK;vkyf&rnfhtajctaersdK; b,fenf;eJYrsm; ajr0,fEdkifygrnfenf;[k
pOf;pm; r&atmif ai;aerdonf/
udkatmifaZ,sonf ajrta&;BuD;onf[kajymum yHkESdyfwdkufodkY tvkyfqif;&ef
xGuo
f mG ;onf/ xGuo
f mG ;aom um;aemufyikd ;f udk arQmfMunf,
h if; tvkyrf oGm;&awmhb;l [k
pdwaf &m ud,
k af &m ayghyg;oGm;onfrmS ajymp&mr&Sad cs/ tvkyo
f mG ;&ef aeYpOfacgif;rNzD;&/
t0wftpm; rvJrz,frjyifqif&aom oufomjcif;uyif {&mroufomjcif;BuD;jzpfay
onf/
um;xGufoGm;NyD; oHwcg;udk qGJydwfvdkufum {nfhcef;axmifh&Sd yufvufukvm;
xdkifay: avQmxdkifcsvdkufonf/
tdraf cgif;&if; r&rf;yif&yd Mf um;rS aejcnfaysmufuav;rsm; wajymufEpS af jymuf
om xd;k 0ifEikd af om {nfch ef;rSm at;jraeonf/ pm;yGaJ y: ESi;f qDyef;cufrsm;onf aejcnf
aysmufuav;awGxJwGif ausmhvef;aeMuayonf/ pm;yGJ? ukvm;xdkif rD;wdkifpaom {nfh
cef;&Sd y&dabm8tm;vHk;yif eDndKa&mifNydK;ysufaeaom Murf;cif;ay:wGif wnfNidrfpGm olY
tvSESifhol Muufoa&aqmifaeygonf/
jywif;aygufrS pmuav;i,frsm; 0ifcsDxu
G cf sDjyKaeMuonf/ eHeufyikd ;f tdrf usr
ESit
hf rd af zmfred ;f uav;rsm;om &SMd u&m wtdrv
f ;kH wdwq
f w
d Nf idro
f ufvsuf&pdS Of 0ifcsDxu
G cf sD
jyKaeaom iSuu
f av;wdYk awmifycH wfum wGeu
f sL;wDwmaeaomjrnfow
H o
Ykd nf Munfarm
,kdzdrfhavmufatmif csdKNrdefvSonf/ usr\cg;wGif 0wfxm;aom csnfvHkcsnfuav;rSm
a&tavQmfrsm; ta&miftqif; ajzmhvsuf aysmhzwfaeonf/ 8kwfpkwfaeaom o&uf
134

xnf ajymufydwftuFsDvufwdkrSmvnf; udk,fay:wGif nufanm a&mY&Jvsuf ayghyg;ygbd


onf/
avoifh&mrS wcsufwcsuf ESif;qD&eYHwdkYonf oif;MunfqGwfysHUvmonf/at;
csrf;wdwq
f w
d Nf idraf om oef&Y iS ;f aom vSyaom oyf,yfwifw
h ,faom *kPMf uufoa&wkEYd iS hf
jynfhpHkaeaomtdrf\Muufoa&r8Fvmonf rsufpdat;&kHomru pdwfMunfvnf;ae
onf/
t0wftpm;opfrsm; 0wfum tvkypf m;yGJ wusHKu
Y sHKU xdik v
f yk af e&rnft
h csderf sdK;
,ckvdk yufvufukvm;xdkifay:wGif oufawmifhoufomuav; vSJaeyHkrSm i,fpOfu yk
cufxJ rSdef;ae&ovdkyif csrf;omokc &SdvSonf/
ezl;ay:wGif zGmusaeaom qHyifrsm;udk vufESifhoyfyifhvdkufNyD;aemuf vufudk
jyefrcsawmhbJ yufvufukvm;xdkifwef;ay: wifvdkuf,if; eHeufwdkif; rSefckefa&SUoGm;
jyKjyif0wfqif&aom 0#f'kurSuRwfvGwfum rjyKrjyif uydku&kd xifovdk aecGifh&aeaom
vGwfvyfjcif; t&omudk cHpm;vsuf ]aMomf. . . csrf;omavpG}[kjrnfusL;vdkufrdonf/
Nidr;f NyD/ 'DuaeYupNyD; Nidr;f NyD. . . oufomovdk 0wf/ oufomovdk ae? tcsdeef pYJ m;/
tcsdefeJYtdyf/ &ifylp&m? pdwfarmp&m ? acgif;&Iyfp&m? acgif;aemufp&mawGudk a&SUavQmuf
bmrSvufrcHbJ csrf;om&m csrf;omaMumif; &uf&Snfvrsm; aevkdufOD;tHh/
usronf tem;,l&efom a&SU&IawG;awm MuKH;0g;aeawmhonf/
ud,
k phf w
d ef u
YJ ,
kd u
hf ,
kd ?f ud,
k v
f yk cf sifrv
S yk ?f ud,
k o
f mG ;csifrS oGm;? xkid cf sifxikd ?f xcsif
x? udk,fhoabm? udk,fhqE/
avmuZmwfcHkay: q,fhoHk;ESpfwdkifwdkif rif;om;vnf; udk,f? rif;orD;vnf;
udk,fyif vlwudk,fxJ ESpfudk,fcGJum rDk;ukef,rf;ukef BuJvmcJh& tem;r&aom cEmudk,f
tm; &yfem;cGihf csrf;omcGiahf y;rnf? pm;0wfaea&; &S&d o
dS rQaom wm0efrsm;twGuf MuH&zef
&jzifh vHk;yrf;um EGrf;vIdufacGEkH; vmcJhaom pdwfESvHk;udkvnf; Nidrf;at;cGifh wnfNidrfcGifh
jyKrnf ponfponftm;jzifh b0waxmifh watmifh oufomcdk&ef MunfhawG;awmaeqJ
oumv. . .
]]a':rrav;wa,muf r&Sdygbl;vm;&Sif}}
usrrSm vefjY zefo
Y mG ;um jzwfceJ rsufv;kH zGi
hf Munfv
h u
kd o
f nf/ tdraf yguf0 oHw
cg; tjyifbufwGif trsdK;orD;ESpfa,muf rwfwyf&yfaeMuonf/
]]vlem jycsifvyYkd g&Si/f tvkyw
f u
kd o
f mG ;awmh tvkyrf qif;awmhb;l ajymvdu
k Mf uvdYk
tdrfvdkufvmwmyg&Sif}}
135

E-book is created by www.shanyoma.org

*sme,f a usmf r rav;

jref r mh a q;ynm

E-book is created by www.shanyoma.org

2
eHeufpmudk aeYvnfwcsuf ESpfcsufwD;rS uAsmu&m xpm;&onf/
tvkyfrqif;bJ tdrfaeonfrSm oHk;vcefY&SdoGm;avNyD/ eHeufvif;vQif {nfhcef;
vlawGjynfhvQHaeonf/ tcsdKYrSm xdkifp&m aep&mr&Sdavmufatmifyif wokwfNyD; wokwf
&yfapmifhaeMu&onf/ aeYpOftvkyfqif;cJhpOfu vlemrsm;onf tvkyfwdkufwGif ZGJaumif;
aumif;ESifh xdkifapmifhaerS odkYr[kwf ESpfacguf oHk;acguf vm&SmEdkifrS usrESifhawGY&wwf
onf/
yef;qdk;wef; rrav;ukrPDtvkyfwdkufESifhtaemf&xmvrf; oD[&wempmyHkESdyf
wdkuftvkyfudk wa,mufxJ ESpfwdkuf ajy;vkyfudkif&ojzifh b,fvlemrS usrudk &kwfw&uf
vG,fvifhwul rzrf;rdMuacs/
tvkyrf qif;bJ tdrNf rJaeNyD? tdro
f mG ;&if tcsderf a&G; awGw
Y ,f[al om wa,muf
pum; wa,mufem;jzifh rdk;vif;u rkd;csKyf tdrf vlema[mif; vlemopfrsm; 0ifvmrpJ
woJoJ jzpfaeawmhonf/ waeYxufwaeY rsm;jym;vmaom vlemy&dowfBuD;udk tHMh ovm
awmhonf/ aeYvnf wcsufESpfcsufrS xrif;pm;&um n&Spfem&DavmufrS vlpJoGm;wwf
onf/ usrrSm tdrfrSxGuf aeYpOftvkyfqif;vkyf&onfxuf tdrfxJae&if; pdwfyef; udk,f
yifyef;jzpfvmonf/ &Ir0odkYaqmif;yg;? 0wKwyk'fESpfyk'fudkyif tcsdefvkNyD; a&;ae&onf/
aq;wdkufvnf; r[kwf? aq;cef;vnf; r[kwf? vlaetdrfjzpfae t&yfav;
rsufESmrS vmMuaom vlemrsm;onf tcsdefra&G; O'[kd vmaeMuawmhonf/ wcgw&H rdk;
rvif;wvif; wHcg;vmacgufae ]]rdk;rSrvif;ao;bl;. . . }}[k nnf;wGm;&if; wHcg; xzGifh
ay;&onf/
vlemrsm;udk awGYqHkvufcH&onfrSm roufomvSacs/
usr oif,w
l wfajrmufaom "mwfynmrSm 'Da&m8g 'Daq;[l oifrw
S u
f o
k aom
ukenf;ukxkH; r[kwfay/ a0'emcsif; wlaomfvnf; vlcsif;rwl "mwfcsif; rwlMuvQif vl
vkduf "mwfvkduf ukenf;ukxkH; uGJvGJavonf/ a0'emonf wOD;tm; olYtemESifholY
"mwf ukdufnDatmif aq;0g;"mwfpmay;&ef Pf&Sdovkd xufjrufatmif &SmMuHawG;awm
tm;xkwf&ojzifh vG,fulvSaom tvkyfr[kwfacs/ rSmMum;vdkufonfhtwdkif; rvGJrrSm;
twdtus vkdkufemvkyfudkif&ef tmaygufatmif ajym&a[m&onf/
vlem wokwfxjyefoGm;vQif OD;aESmufrsm; ql acgif;ylusef&pfcJhonf/ ukvm;
xdik w
f iG f ig;em&Dajcmufem&Davmuf rx&bJ wcsdev
f ;kH xdik af e& qefrY & uke;f r& jzpfomG ;
aomcg;rSm awmifhawmifhBuD; jzpfaeawmhonf/ vl&Sif;oGm;cdkuf tanmif;qefY&ef cP
136

wjzKwf tdyf&may:wGif vSJvdkufcg&Sdao; aemufwokwf a&mufvmMujyefonf/


a0'emonf trsdK;rsdK; vmaeMuonf/
acsmif;qd;k aoG;yg? yef;&ifemMuyf? uifqm? avief;? uk|Elem? ausmuf? 0ufouf?
ESif;cl? aoG;wdk;a&m8g? rD;aeonf? rD;,yfonf? oli,fem? c&koif;? jrif;bk? vdyfacgif;?
qifajcaxmuf? pdwfaemufol. . .
a0'emrsdK;pHkjzpfvmMuaom a0'em&Sifrsm;ESifh qufqH& em;csrf;omp&m? pdwf
csrf;omp&mqdk wuGufrQr&SdbJ em;rcsrf;omp&m pdwfrcsrf;omp&mrsm;udkomvQif aeY
pOf qD;BudKvufcHae&onf/
aeYaorvm;? naorvm; toefjzpfaeMuaom vlemrsm;twGuf OD;aemuf&Iyf
& &ifzdk&vSojzifh olYtylrSm ul;puf udk,fhtylvHk;vHk;BuD;jzpfaeawmhonf/ ukxHk;trsdK;
rsdK; MuHqtm;xkwfvsuf tcsdef&Sdoa&GU acgif;xJxnfhum tm&kHpkdufae&onf/
usrrSm tem;,lNyD; tdrfxdkifaeumrS b,frSa&Smifrajy;Edkifatmif tdrfydwfrd
aevsuf aq;q&m vHk;vHk;BuD; jzpfaeawmhonf/
]]vlemqDu aiGr,lom? a&m8gprf;oyf ppfaq;c? aq;ukc? vlemqDursm; ydu
k f
qHawmif;&,if 'Dvkd y&dowfrsKd;eJYykdufqHawGawmh xm;p&mawmif ae&m&dSrSm rIwfbl;}}[k
tdrfom;awGu ajymMuonf/ onfMum;xJ q&m vmyifhjyefMuonf/ b,fvdkrS jiif;r&
atmif ra&Smifomolrsm;jzpfaevQif tcsderf a&G; xvdu
k o
f mG ;&wwfonf/ vufcH ukoay;
&aom vlemrsm;xJwGif rsm;aomtm;jzifh q&m0efESifhr&awmhbJ tvGefqkd;0g;vmaom
tajcqkdufrS aemufqkH;uHw&m;xm; usrxHodkYyHktyf&ef vmMujcif;aMumifh &dk;&dk;vlem
xuf ta&;BuD;aom vlemu rsm;avonf/
nif;nhHnhH wkdkufvmaomavudk &SLvsuf aqmif;0ifvmygyaum[kodvdkufonf/
aqmif;avwd;k oGm;rSyif tvkyw
f u
kd b
f uf ra&mufwm ajcmufvawmif&NdS yD[w
k u
G cf sufMunfh
vdkufrdonf/
waeYxufwaeY vlemrsm;oxuf rsm;vmavonf/ tdrf\&drfNidrfokccsrf;om
jcif;vnf; b,fqDb,fodkY vGifhoGm;avrSef; rodacs/ &efukef? rEav;? arNrdKU? armfvNrdKif?
ykord ?f "EkjzL? ajrmif;jr? vm&I;d ? uavm? [oFmw? 0g;c,fr? jynf? yef;awmif;? aygufacgif;?
o&uf? atmifv?H a&;? Nrdw?f xm;0,fpaom tNrdKUtNrdKUte,fe,frS rsufEmS pdr;f {nfo
h nf
vlemawG aeYpOf t0iftxGuf&IyfaeaomaMumifh tdrfab;ywfvnftdrfeD;em;csif;rsm;yif
rsufpdaemufavmufatmif jzpfaeonf/
&kww
f &uf csufcsif; taqmwvsif tdraf jymif;&ef taMumif;ay:aygufvmonf/
&efukefwGif tdrfajymif;aecJhonfrSm ,cktBudrfonf 26 Budrfajrmuf jzpfonf/
137

E-book is created by www.shanyoma.org

*sme,f a usmf r rav;

E-book is created by www.shanyoma.org

jref r mh a q;ynm

tdrfaxmifypnf; rsm;jym;vS&um; tdrfwcgajymif;vQif toufxGufrwwf yifyef;oGm;


onf/ q&maZmf8sD\ZeD; rr&ifu tdrfvdkuf&Smay;onf/ 8Gwvpfvrf; orwa[mif; p0f
a&Tou
kd Nf cHaemufzufwiG f ESpx
f yfwu
kd w
f vH;k tm;aeonf/ if;wdu
k f iSm;&rf;&ef tmwD,m;
vrf;ae ausmif;q&mrBuD;a':cspfxHodkY rr&ifESifh oGm;Muonf/
]]e,fu rdwaf qGwa,muftrd yf g? iSm;ay;zdYk tyfxm;wm t&ifrsufEmS jzLawG iSm;
wkef;u wv 1400d bJ? 'gayrJh rrav; wwfEdkifoavmufay;aygh? b,favmufay;Edkif
ovJ}}
usrrSm tvGef 500d xuf ydkray;Edkifojzifh ajym&rSm cufaeonf/
]]ajymom ajymyg tm;remygeJY}}
q&mra':cspfwdkY wtdrfom;vHk; usrudk aus;Zl;&SdolwOD;uJhodkY qufqHMuonf/
a':cspf\nDr q&mra':pdef\ausmwGif jrif;bkBuD; aygufae&m q&maZmf8sD\nTefMum;
csufjzifh usrxHwGif vma&mufukobl;onf/ jrif;bkBuD; aysmufuif;csrf;omojzihf
aus;Zl;udk rarhbJ&Sd usray;Edkifoavmufay;yg[k tm;ay;aeMuonf/
]]usr tckaewJhtdrfu 400d ay;&ygw,f? tvGefqHk; 500d bJay;Edkifygvdrfhr,f}}
]]ay;Edkifoavmufay;yg}}[kqdkum aiG 1500d pabmf,lvsuf tdrfaomhrsm; ay;
vdkufonf/
orwa[mif; jcHaemufzuf&Sd 2-xyfwdkuftdrfBuD;rSm vlraewmMum &Snfvsm;
&IyfaxG;aeaom csHKyifaygif;yifrsm;tv,fwGif xD;xD;BuD;jzpfaeonf/ NcH0if;w0if;vHk;
pdkajyom,maom toGifoPmefr&SdbJ ajcmufuyf wdwfqdwfvsufaeonf/ rajymif;cif
waeY tdrfoGm;aq;&onf/ eHeuf 9-em&DrSp vSJusif;wdkufcRwfaq;aMumvdkufonfrSm
nae 3-em&DrNS yD;pD;ojzifh ajcukev
f ufyef;usoGm;awmhonf/ tdraf q;? Murf;wdu
k af epOf
a&m8gtajcaetaMumif;jyef&rnfholrsm; ajreDukef;tdrfrSwqifh vdkufvmMuavonf/
xrDwdkwdk0wfvsuf wdkufcRwfae&mrSx aq;ukae&onf/ naeapmif; tdrfa&mufvQif
{nfhcef; apmifhaeMuaom vlemrsm;udk awGY&jyefonf/
&Srf;jynfudkwifat;rSm tvGeftm;udk;vmaom rsufESmjzifh EIwfqufaeonf/
]]usaemfhrdwfaqG &Srf;jynfyif;',u vlemwa,muf om;tdrfrSm uifqma&m8g
jzpfvdkY 8EDaq;&kH wifxm;wm tckawmh aeYaorvm;? naorvm; tajctaejzpfvm
vdkY wqdwfukay;ygAsm}}
]]usr tdrfajymif;rJhqJqJyg? rtm;ygbl;/ usrudk,fwdkif vdkufrMunfhEdkifao;bJeJY
vufcHzdkYcufygw,f}}
]]awmif;yefygw,fAsm? usaemfwYkd aq;&kzH iG w
hf t
hJ csdef oGm;Mu&if tavmif;bJ awGY
138

&awmhrvm;vdkY xdwfae&w,f/ q&m0efawGuawmh vufavQmhvdkufygNyD}}


&Srf;jynfudkwifat;ESifhygvmaom vlem&Sif\cifyGef; apmcGef;OD;u 0ifajym
onf/
tdrfajymif;&rnfhtwGuf ypnf;rsm; odrf;qnf; xkyfydk;&ef&Sd tvkyf&IyfvSojzifh
vufrcH&apESi[
hf jk iif;aeao;onf/ aemufq;kH jiif;r&bJ &Sr;f jynfuw
kd ifat;\ awmif;
yefjcif;udk oabmwlvdkuf&onf/ vlemudk aq;&kHrS cscdkif;vkdufonf/
{nhfonfrsm; pJoGm;csdef ypnf;rsm;xkyfydk; odrf;qnf;aecdkuf jynfvrf;wuodkvf
qHoESifhuyfvsuf taqGawmf"mwfyHkwdkufrSm vli,fwOD; aygufvmjyefonf/
]]usaemfZh eD; &ifom;rSm zl;a,mifNyD; tusdwt
f cJBuD;awG jzpfvmw,f? usaemfu
rcGJcsifbl;? tckawmh emvGef;vdkYatmf[pfae&w,f? ukay;yg trBuD;&,f}}
t8Fvyd t
f ac: &ifom;uifqm paoma&m8ga0'emrsm;um; touftaeESiehf ;D
vSonf/ tem\tajctaeudk aeYpOfMunfEh ikd rf jS zpfonf/ avmavmq,f wm0ef r,lEikd f
aomaMumifh q&m0efESifhuk&ef awmif;yef&onf/ q&m0efESifhrukvdkyg[kajymum r&ru
xdkifajymaeawmhojzifh vufcHvdkuf&jyefonf/
ypnf;rsm; xkyfydk;NyD;csdefrSm nOfheufvSacsNyD? wtdrfom;vHk; tdyfarmusaeNyDjzpf
xdt
k csdew
f iG f usrESit
hf azmf&o
dS rl mS ]tdr}f yif jzpfonf/ usrtazmfrmS &SKd ufiifwo aMuuGJ
ae&SmyHk &av\/ aeYpOf woo wajymifajymif aevmcJ&h aomb0rS &kwcf snf; ndK ;rdeS o
f mG ;
&&SmaomtjzpfrSm oem;p&m aumif;aeavonf/ tdrf rGrf;rHjyifoxm;aom taqmif
ta,mif[lorQ jzKwfodrf;&Sif;vif;ypfvdkufaomaMumifh tcsdKUae&mwGif [mvm[if;? t
csdKUae&m a[mif;avmif;aygufjzpfum ikH;wdwdESifh usufoa&uif;rJhoGm;vsuf tdrfvkH;
wD;csnf; ay:aeavonf/ aepOfaeYwdkif; yGwfwdkufokwfoif&Sif;vif;rGrf;rH jyifovsuf
olYtm; w,kw,vkyfolESifh cGJcGm&vQif rnfolvm olYudk,k,jyifqif rGrf;rHygtHhenf;[k
wrf;wjrnfa<u;aeouJo
h Ykd &So
d nf/ usruvnf; tdru
f kd cifw,
G yf g\/ usr ajymif;oGm;
vQif olYudkrnfolvm jyKjyifrGef;rHygrnfenf;[k ylyefawG;awmrdyg\/ ae&mxkdifcif;rsm;
ESihf tcef;cef;wdu
Yk kd oHa,mZOf NidaeaomtMunfEh iS hf wG,w
f ,
G w
f mwm avQmuf Munfah e
rdonf/ rvGo
J m cGcJ mG MutH;k pd[
Yk al om EIwq
f ufaejcif;jzifh tcsdeu
f ek af epOf NAHK;ueJ acgif;
xJodkY olwdkYwawG tvQdKtvQdK a&mufvmMuonf/
8sLbvDa[m taqmuftOD teD;u wudk,fvHk; c&koif;jzpfaeaom uav;r
av;? pdwZaq;&kHwGif avmui&JcHum usifpufoGm;ESdyfaomfvnf; a&m8graysmufbJ ae
&if;xdkif&if; wcpfcpf&,faeaom auwDausmif;q&m OD;ausmfwifh\wlruav;? udkf,f
ysufaeaom MunhfjrifwdkifrSoGm;pdkufq&m0ef\ESr? tysdKjzpfvmonfup ig;ESpfvHk;vHk;
139

E-book is created by www.shanyoma.org

*sme,f a usmf r rav;

E-book is created by www.shanyoma.org

jref r mh a q;ynm

aeYpOfrjywf &moDay:aeaom w&kyfujym;rav;? rsufvHk;rSp wudk,fvHk; eEGif;uJhokdY


0gxdefum azga&mifaeojzifh aq;&kHrScsum usrESifhuko aysmufuif;csrf;omoGm;aom
"EkjzLa':apmjrifhuwqifh nTefvkdufaom "EkjzLvlemwpk? rsufpdraumif;aom yef;xdrf
q&m? uk,
d v
f ufazma&mifaeaom rke[
Yf if;cg;onf? ESv;kH wkef &ifcek
f aoG;wd;k a&m8gpGaJ e
onfhtzGm;tdk? uefawmfav;? Munfhjrifwdkif? ausmufajrmif;? aAg"dukef;? [,fvyifvrf;?
ykZeG af wmif? w&kyw
f ef;rS acsmif;qd;k aoG;yg? vnfyif;BuD;a&m8g? ESi;f cl? rD;,yfuu
G ?f yef;em
&ifMuyf? qHkqdkYem? 12-v 12 &moD aeYpOfzsm;aeaom cav;uav;. . .
aeYpOf&ufjcm; usrtdro
f v
Ykd mMu&aom ukvufp wef;vef; a0'emonfawGu
usr b,fajymif;oGm;rSe;f rodMuvQif cuf&acs ajymif;rnfah e&yfajymyg&ef owday;ae
Muonf/
ajreDuek ;f jynfvrf;&Sd cifw,
G af eaom tdru
f av;udk r,lo,faqmif roGm;
Ekid af omfjim;? tdrw
f iG f aeYpOfawGq
Y akH eus vlemtkyBf uD;udrk l ryifo
h mG ;&ef pm;yGw
J iG f xdik f
um aMumfjima&;&av\/
aq;pm;aeaomvlemrsm;odkY
8Gwv
pfvrf;? orwa[mif;NcH0if;aemufzufoYkd ajymif;a&TUoGm;ygojzifh vlemrsm;
ae&mopfwGif vma&mufawGYqHkEdkifygonf/
8sme,fausmfrrav;

140

*sme,f a usmf r rav;

eHeufvif;p tdy&f mrSE;kd vmaom ESpx


f yftrd Bf uD;onf jyLwif;rsm; zGiv
hf pS u
f m tdrf
ay:wufMuaom vlopfrsm;udktuJcwfaomtMunfhjzifh NidrfMunfhaeav\/ tdrfywfcsm
&HwGif cg;0ufavmuf&Snfaeaom aygif;yifjrufyifrsm; &IyfaxG;aeaom ow0gwaumif
ajray: 0yfpif;aeovdk xif&onf/ tdrfwzuf wdkufykuav;wvHk; uyfaevsuf tdrf
a&SUtdrfaemufab;wdkYwGif&Sdaom wdkufrsm;rSm jcH0if;us,fBuD;awGomjzpfvsuf wtdrfESifh
wtdrf tvSr;f a0;vSayonf/ tdraf cgif;&if; acsmufBuD; &Sad vonf/ acsmufxJ a&uef
wuefESifh O,smOf&Sdavonf/ O,smOf&Sdopfyif awmtkyfxdyfzsm;wdkYonf &dyftHkYa0aeay
onf/
jcHxJ opfyifqdk r&rf;yif? o&ufyif? oajyyif? a8G;csdKyif opfyifBuD;av;yif
om xD;xD;&Sdonf/ vloGm;vrf;rSm tdrfbufodkY auGYcsdK;0ifvmaom vrf;uav;wvrf;
om &Sdojzifh um;oHvloH wdwfqdwfvsuf avwdkufaomtcgrS opf&Gufopfudkif;csif;
yGwfwdkuf wdk;oGm;oHrsm; xGufvmonf/
]]olcdk;ol0Sufrsm; &Sd&ifawmh aMumufp&mbJ}}
uav;awG NcHxJavQmufMunfhMu&if; xif&mjrif&m ajymaeMuonf/
'Dtrd rf mS "jrwdu
k af e&if b,fou
l rS odrmS r[kwb
f ;l ? rd;k [de;f onf vufcgcg ajccg
cgjzifh atmfus,f[pfus,f pGwfajymaeonf/
]]o&Jacsmuf&ifvJ acsmufrSm tdrfBuD;u Munfh&wm wdwfaewmbJ aMumufp&m
BuD;}}
o&Jwap aMumufwwfaom cifav;jrifhu ykckH;ESpfzuf wGeYf ajymaeav\/
raeYu tdrfaq;cJhNyD; ypnf;rsm; ae&mwus jzpfatmif a&TU& o,f& cs&ESifh
wtdrfom;vHk; zg;aeMuonf/
]]a[m'DrSm arar vlemawG vdkufvmMuw,f}}[k rdk;[def;u ukef;atmfavonf/
tay:xyf tvkyfrsm;aeaom usrrSm txkyftydk;rsm; z,f&Sm; ausmfvGm;um ajy;qif;
vmcJh&onf/
ESpx
f yfwu
kd cf ef;us,fBuD;rsm;jzpf aeYpOftrd o
f rd ;f &aomtvkyrf mS ydrk sm;vmav
onf/ eHeufzuf tvkyfoGm;ol? ausmif;oGm;olrsm; xGufoGm;MuvQif usrESifhtdrfazmfrdef;
uav;wa,mufom usef&pfcJhonf/ wcef;0if wcef;xGuf tay:wufvdkufatmufqif;
vdu
k Ef iS hf wreufv;kH tdro
f rd ;f tdr&f iS ;f tvkyjf zifh armaeonf/ rd;k vif;onfEiS hf tdrrf mS {nfh
xlvmwwfonfhtwdkif; vlemawG 0ifvmrpJwoJoJjzpfaeonf/ vlpJvQif rD;zdkxJu xGuf
141

E-book is created by www.shanyoma.org

E-book is created by www.shanyoma.org

jref r mh a q;ynm

vmum awGq
Y akH jymqdNk yD;aemuf rD;zdx
k o
J Ykd jyefajy;&av\/ aeYvnfbuf vlemrsm; tvmpJ
oGm;csdef apmifBh udKac:aeMuaom vlem&Sirf sm; um;ay:okYd wufvu
dk o
f mG ;um toJtoef
vlrrmrsm;udk vkdufMunfh&avonf/
&Sr;f jynfuw
kd ifat;\om;tdru
f ifqmvlemrSm *EaD q;&krH S ajrmufOuvmodaYk &TU
,lvmojzifh olYxHokdYoGm;&ef toGm;tjyef tcsdeftawmfukefonf/
aq;&kHrS vlrSef;rodwcsuf odwcsufjzifh aocgeD;qJqJ o,fcsvmaom vlemukd
udk,fhvufxJ toufrxGuf&ef tawmfBudK;yrf;uko&onf/ 0rf;Akdufudk qm;ESifhMuyfpD;
wrsKd;? a&pnfydkif;xJ wukd,fvkH; jrKyfatmifxnfhum. . . nOfhodyfa&pdrfwenf;? 'gef;vTJ
wzkH? enf;rsKd;pkH MuHquko&avonf/ xufjrufaomteHYrsm; rjywfay; xufjruf
aom tm[m&rsm;udk a&G;cs,fauR;um tem\vuPmtwkd;tavQmh rjywfapmifhMunfh
tuJcwfEkdifrS toufcsrf;ombkdY vrf;&Sdonf/
owdr&wcsuf &wcsufESifh tem;vlruyfEkdifatmif tykyfeHYvIdifaeaom vlrrm
onf wywfavmuftwGif; teHYrsm;aysmufum xEkdifxkdifEkdifoGm;\/
]]q&mr&,f. . . usrawmh aoNyD atmufarhwmyg? aus;Zl;BuD;ygw,f? usrukd
cPcPvmMunfhygaemf. . . }}
&Srf;oH0J0Jjzifh rsuf&nfuav; wvnfvnfqD; ajymonf/ olYtem;wGif xkdif
um pdwf&Snfvuf&Snf tm;ay;pum;jzifh ESpfodrfh&onf/
]]usr ajymwJhtwkdif; twdtus vkyfEkdifbkdY ta&;BuD;w,f? wckrSrSm;vkdYr&bl;?
'Da0'emrsKd;u trSm;rcHbl;? rSm;oGm;&if ukvkdYr&awmhbl;}}
vlem\cifyGef;onf p0fcGefOD;u ]]pdwfcsygq&mr. . . rrSm;&ygbl;}}[kwm0efcHav
\/
qk;d 0g;aomtajctaerS rsufvn
S jhf yvku
d o
f vkd wywftwGi;f tajctaeaumif;
oGm;yku
H kd tm;&auseyfaeMuum aus;Zl;wifpum;om rk;d rTeaf tmif ajymaeMuonf/ ouf
omonf[k ayghqoGm;rSm pdk;&drfvSojzifh usr ajymonfhtwkdif;rvkyfbJ wdrf;rSm;oGm;vQif
b,fenf;ESifhrQ aemufu vkduf r&aMumif; rrSm;ap&ef txyfxyfzdajymcJh&onf/
wuokdvfqHo qHyifnyfqkdifab;&Sd taqGawmf"mwfykHwkdufrS vlemrSmvnf; pdk;
&drf&onhftwGuf twdtus vkyfyg&ef apmifhMunfhEId;aqmf&ayonf/
]]tdrfuvlBuD;awGu 'Dtemudk Armq&meJYukowm BudKufMuwm r[kwfzl;? q&m
0efbuf oefMuwm. . . usaemfuawmh udk,fhZeD;jzpfaevkdY pkd;&drfvGef;vkdY q&mreJYuk&wm?
wckckrsm; jzpfoGm;&ifawmh usaemfawmh 'kuygbJ}}
vlem&Sifonf usrudk vmapmifhac:um um;armif;&if; ajymjyvmonf/
142

]]rrSm;bkdY ta&;BuD;w,f? ajymwJhtwkdif; vkyfzkdY ta&;BuD;w,f. . . }}


]]'gaMumifhayghq&mr. . . usaemf tvkyfroGm;bJ cGifh,lNyD;tem;rSm apmifhvkyfay;
aew,f? q&mr a&pdrfckdif;wm 'gavmuftzsm;BuD;aewm pdrf&rvm;vkdY tdrfu odyfr
BudKufzl;? usaemfuom twif;pdrfwmbJ}}
usru &,farmvkdufvsuf ]]a&pdrfawmhrS tzsm;aysmufoGm;w,fr[kwfvm;}}
[kajymvkdufonf/
]]aysmufayvko
Yd mayghq&mr&,f? raysmufrsm; raysmuf,if tcufb?J 'geJq
Y &mr
tusdwt
f cJBuD; 'gavmufrmawmifah ewJ[
h m "m;eJrY cGb
J J txJu[mawG aygufxu
G v
f mygh
rvm;}}
]]pdwfcs? tckqefaxmif;NyD; aq;eJYtkHay;wm olYtvkdvkd aygufxGufvmukefvdrfh
r,f}}
Eke,faom tom;tpdwt
f ydik ;f ae&mjzpf tqkyt
f onf;awGEiS ehf ;D uyfvo
S jzifh
ajymonfhtwkdif; vkyfMu&ef rvGJrSm;&ef txyfxyfowday;&onf/ temraysmufrSmukd
ryl&bJ ajymonhftwkdif; rvkyfMurSmukd vefYae&onf/
txyfxyftcgcg owday;aeonfhMum;uyif OuvmyvlemrSm qD;csKyfoGm;NyD;
a&m*gazmufvmonf/ vlem&Sifrsm; rsufvkH;rsufqefjyL;vmMuonf/
]]&Siw
f rYdk mS ;vkjYd zpfwm a&m*gok;H ykEH pS yf u
Hk soGm;NyD;rS azmufvmwm rSm;vkb
Yd J bmrSm;
ovJqkdwm usrukd ajymyg&Sif}}
]]q&mrajymwJhtwkdif; vkyfaewmbJ bmrSrrSm;ygbl;}}
wnvkH; waeYvkH; qD;oGm; r&awmhbJ qD;csKyfoGm;jcif;oabm tpm;rSm;
r[kwfEkdif? teHYjzpfap txdtawGYjzpfap rSm;oGm;aMumif; xif&Sm;aeonf/
]]&SifwkdY a&rSpdrf&JUvm;. . . }}vkdY ppfaMumar;jref;&jyefonf/
]]q&mr pukwJhaeYupNyD; aeYpOf pdrfaewmbJ}}
]]nOfhodyfa& [kwf&JUvm;}}
p0fcGefOD;onf awGoGm;um idkifwkdifwkdifESifhcyftrf;trf; jzpfoGm;onf/ NyD;rS cyf
jznf;jznf; cyfqkdif;qkdif; jyefajzonf/
]]tck okH;av;&uf pdrfwmawmh q&mr nOfhodyfa& r[kwfzl;? olvJ tawmfBuD;
oufomvmwmeJY nOfhodyfa&u at;w,fqkdNyD; aeYv,f 2-csufavmuf bkHbkdifykdufu a&
,lNyD;pdrfw,f? a&uawmh ylw,f}}
usrrSm pum;rajymEkid af tmif jzpfomG ;onf/ pdwx
f J vnf; rcsifrh &JBuD; jzpfomG ;
um EIwfcrf;rsm;udk wif;MuyfpGm aphxm;rdvkdufonf/
143

E-book is created by www.shanyoma.org

*sme,f a usmf r rav;

E-book is created by www.shanyoma.org

jref r mh a q;ynm

]]olY"mwfu tylBudKufwJh"mwf r[kwfbl;? tat;BudKufwJh"mwfjzpfvkdY wrifudk


nOfhodyfa& pdrfckdif;wm&Sifh? a&at;at;BuD;pdrfvkdY ckavmufjrefjref xEkdif avQmufEkdifjzpf
vmwm tykyfeHYawG aysmufoGm;wmvJ a&at;owdaMumifh aysmufoGm;wm? &SifwkdYaq;&kH
rSm aeYpOf 'Dom;tdrfudk rD;jyrD;uifvmcJhw,f r[kwfvm;? aeYwkdif; tyl"mwfay;vmwm
tykyfeHYxGufvmNyD; rxEkdif rxlEkdifatmif jzpfoGm;w,f r[kwfvm;}}
]][kwfygw,f? [kdrSm aeYwkdif; rD;uifwm roufomygbl;? teHYxGufvmawmhrSbJ
aemufqkH; r&bl; ajymvkdufMuawmhwmbJ}}
]]usrwkdY ukowmu a&m*gudk t"duxm;NyD; ukowm r[kwfzl;? t"duxm;wm
u tylBudKufwJhvlvm; tat;BudKufwJhvlvm;qkdwm cGJjcm;NyD;rS ukwm[m usrynmbJ?
jrpfBuD;em;u &J0efaxmufuawmf[m 'Dyt
Hk wkid ;f jzpfwmbJ? olu
Y sawmh olu tat;BudKuf
wJh"mwf r[kwfbJ tylBudKufwJh"mwfjzpfaevkdY a&at;qkdvkdY waygufwpufrSrxdapbJ a&
aEG; 'grSr[kwf a&udk aejyNyD; ylwJha&eJYukay;vkdufvkdY toufcsrf;omoGm;wm? temcsif;
wlayrJh vlcsif;rwlMuvkdY ukoenf; wlwmr[kwfzl;? tck a&ylokH;&ufpdrfawmh tykyfeHYjyef
rxGufvmbl;vm;}}
]]eJeJxGufvmw,fq&mr}}
usrrSm idkifusoGm;onf/ rrSm;ygeJY[k twefwef owday;ygvsuf olESifhtckduf
qkH;jzpfaom tyl"mwfudkrS vkyfrdatmif vkyfvkdufavojzifh ukd,fhaouGif;rS ukd,fa&G;pGyf
rdovkd jzpf tajz&cufvaS vonf/ oufomNyD;rS trSm;vkyrf
d jyefazmufvmjcif;vu
Pmonf touf&SifEkdifzkdY&m vrf;rjrifacs/
]]q&mr&,f usaemfwkdY rSm;oGm;ygNyD u,fEkdif&if u,fygtkH;? tckawmh raeEdkif
rxkdifEkdifatmif jzpfaeygNyD}}
wkd;vmaoma0'emudk aemufxyf q,fqvkdufNyD; trSDvkduf zsufEdkifrS csrf;om
&mvrf;jrifojzifh usrrSm OD;aESmufylajcmufoGm;atmif tenf;enf; tzkHzkH ukxkH;ajymif;
&vsuf a&m*gESifhwkdufyGJqif&onf/
OuvmyrS usrjyefvmvQif usrrSm vlemuJhodkYyif tdyf&may: acGoGm;onf/
armfawmfum;aqmifhaom'PfaMumifh ajcukefvufyef;usum rvIyfcsifatmif jzpfoGm;
onf/ vlemay: tm&kHodyfpkduf&ojzifh OD;aESmufrsm; yGufqlNyD; acgif;acR;rsm;yif pD;us
aeonf/ usrtjyef apmifhaeMuaom vlemtkyfum; {nfhcef; xkdifaeMuonf/
]]udk,fhukd,fudk jyefMunfhtkH;rr? armfawmfum;aqmifhwm waeY rr pkcH&raemf}}
OuvmyrS jyefvmwkdif; nDr0rf;uGJ rMunfu owday;onf/
ykEH ydS w
f u
dk zf ufoYkd ra&mufawmhonf&h ufrsm;udk b,fEpS v
f b,fEpS &f uf[k vufcsKd;
144

wGufMunfhrdonf/
tdrfaeNyD; tem;&ovm;[k ppfaq;Munfhrdonf/ ppfaq;MunfhcgrSyif rem;&yg
uvm;[k ydkrkd pdwfarmudk,farmjzpfoGm;onf/ &Ir0r*Zif;wGif 0wKwkd 3 yk'f? aqmif;yg;
2 yk'fom a&;EkdifcJhonf/ tem;r,lcifu vpOfrSefrSef a&;om;Edkifao;onf/ ,ckaomf
tem;,lum tdraf eawmhrS rk;d vif;urk;d csKyf &S&d o
dS rQaom tcsdew
f o
Ydk nf ud,
k yf idk q
f idk af om
tcsdefrsm; r[kwfawmhay/

4
apmcGefOD;onf vlempdwfcsavmufaom tajctaejyefa&mufoGm; vlemudk
tyfcu
hJ m yif;',odYk acwjyefomG ;avonf/ taqGawmf "mwfyw
Hk u
dk rf S vlemrSm temayguf
xGufoGm;NyDjzpf temjyefrSusufyghrvm;[k pdk;&drfaomu a&mufvmjyefonf/
]]temusufzkdYu tvG,fuav;&,f? txJu raumif;wmawG ukefpifoGm;rS
usufatmif vkyf&r,f}}
]]'DtemaygufBuD;awG[m b,fenf;eJYrS usufEkdifrSm r[kwfbl;vkdY xifaeMuw,f
q&mr? txJu[mawG rukefcsifaeygap? usufatmifom vkyfay;yg}}
usrrSm aq;q&mb0udk wcgwcg pdwu
f ek cf ef;oGm;onf/ t&ifvrdk aumif;onf
udk tvkdrvkdufEkdifonfhtwGuf vlemESifhqefYusifaeonf/ &iftkHwckvkH; uif;ajcuJhodkYoGm;
aeaom tjrpf&Sdonfhae&mu waygufNyD;wayguf yGifh,dkpD;vmaomjynfykyfjynfcJwkdYukef
pifrSom tjrpfudk owf&efjzpf waygufNyD;wayguf yGifhvmonfudk raMumuf&ef ravm
&ef em;csajyma[m&avonf/ vlem&Sifrsm;rSm ]temBuD; usufEkdifygawmhrvm;? wtkH
vk;H avQmufpm;oGm;vdrrhf ,f}[k pd;k &draf MumifMh u BuD;rm;aeMuavonf/ temESirhf [kwb
f J
tem&Sif\"mwfESifhtxdqkH;jzpf&rnf jzpfaomaq;udk &SmMunhfvkduf&m naeav;em&Dyef;
ajrZl&u
G u
f kd awGo
Y nf/ ajrZl&u
G u
f av;uyfvu
dk &f rHk QESiyhf if &kww
f &uf rusufEidk b
f ;l [kxif
rSwfaeMuaomtemBuD;rSm rdarG;wkdif; zarG;wkdif; taumif;yuwd jyefjzpfoGm;onf/
&Ir0rS pmrlaumfyDawmif;ae\/ wvNyD;wv a&GUcJh& a&SUv yg&ef[k vl&Sif;
wkef; pm;yGJ xkdifvkdufonf/ ]omauwurf;ajcOD;rS}[ktrnfay; pma&;aepOf &kwfw
&uf yif;',rS apmcGefOD; aygufvmav\/ rsufpdrsufESmysufvmaomaMumifh pdwfxJxifh
oGm;onf/
145

E-book is created by www.shanyoma.org

*sme,f a usmf r rav;

E-book is created by www.shanyoma.org

jref r mh a q;ynm

]]usaemfhudk oHBudK;&dkufac:vdkY tjrefjyefvmcJhw,f? vlemu nu wnvHk; 0rf;


aygufw,f? r&yf rydwfawmhbl;? ckcsdefxJ oGm;wkef;bJ? tarmvJ azmufvmbD}}
usronf tHhtm;BuD; oifhaeonf/
]]wavmu usra&mufwkef;u taumif;bJ/ usreJYwem&DavmufbJMumr,f?
xdkifNyD; pum;ajymaewm bmrsm; rSm;MujyefovJ&Sif? 0rf;aygufwm tpm;rSm;NyD}}
apmcGefOD;\ysufaeaom rsufESmrSm ndKrJ oGm;onf/ rsufcGHudk vSefvdkufcsvdkuf
ESifh wkef&DaomtoH xGufvmonf/
]]usaemf r&Sdwkef; c&rf;csOfoD; pm;rdw,fq&mr? pm;aumif;vdkY aeYpOfqufpm;
owJh}}
usr EIwfrS ]]bk&m;. . . bk&m;}}[kxGufoGm;onf/ usrrSm vIdufvIdufvSJvSJ 0rf;enf;
oGm;onf/ vlESmESifhrwnfhaomtpmtm[m&xJwGif c&rf;csOfoD;rSm olESifhtcdkufqHk;aom
"mwfjzpfNyD; udpacsmNyD[k wGufvdkufNyD;jzpfonf/
usru toHysufysufESifh]usrpm;bdkYay;xm;wJhpm&GufxJrSm c&rf;csnfoD;ygo
vm;&Sif}[kar;vdkufonf/
]]rygbl;q&mr c&rf;csOfu usaemfwdkY &Srf;jynfrSm b,f[if;csufcsuf MuufoGef
oH;k ovdb
k J c&rf;csOfo;D oH;k wm "avhjzpfaew,f? tJ'aD wmh bmrSrjzpfwef&mqdNk yD; csufpm;
wmbJ}}
usr &ifxJ wvSyfjzpfoGm;onf/ temuk&onfrSm 'Davmufryifyef;rcufcJbJ?
rrSm;ap&eftwGuf pm&GufxJrygwm rpm;&ef tmaygufatmif owday;aeonfhMum;xJrS
rSm;rdatmif rSm;avjcif;[k&ifxrk emjzpfomG ;onf/ ,cifu a&ylBuD;pdrcf NhJ yD; 'kur sm;oGm;
pOfu aemufuvdu
k
f tzwfq,fEidk af o;onf/ ,ckrl aq;&mrsufpEd iS w
hf u
G v
f Qif p0fceG Of ;D
OuvmyrS usrqDov
Ykd maeonft
h csdew
f iG f touf xGuo
f mG ;Ekid o
f nft
h ajctaersdK; &Sad e
onf/
]]r&awmhygbl;? aeYawmif rul;awmhbl; xifw,f/ wnvHk; 0rf;aygufw,fqdk
awmh temu vufOD;oGm;NyD? aemufu vdkufzdkYrrSDawmhbl; xifw,f? toufrxGufcif
rcsdrqefY rarm&atmif &ifudk "mwfaq;&nf EkdifEkdifzsef;ay;bdkYbJ &Sdawmhw,f. . . }}
]]aocsifwJhvl[m q&mr? b,favmuftrSefeJYawGYawGY MuHzefNyD;trSm;eJYudk wdk;yg
w,f? usaemf a&mufvmvdYk Munfv
h u
kd af wmh aq;&ku
H r&awmhb;l qdv
k Ykd csvmwJt
h ajctae
rsdK; jyefjzpfaeygNyD}}
jrpfBuD;em;rS &J0efaxmufuawmfudk ukcJhpOfu om;tdrftwGuf a&aEG;tyl"mwf
ay;um c&rf;csOfo;D udk pm;Ekid o
f avmuf pm;yg[k"mwfay;cJo
h nf/ a&m8gcsif;wlaomfvnf;
146

"mwfcsif; rwlygu wOD;\tpm wOD; tqdyfjzpfaMumif; &Sif;ajymjyonf/ a&at;ESifh


rwnfhaom tylemorm;rsm; pm;&rnfhyHkESdyf"mwfpm&Gufudk xkwf,lcJhvsuf c&rf;csOfoD;udk
axmufjyvdkufonf/
]]tqdyaf wmhjzpfomG ;ygNyDq&mr? uRefawmfvJ &Sirf ,f rxifawmhygbl;? &kyu
f ysuf
oGm;ygNyD}}
usrxHrS &ifememESifh xjyefoGm;aom apmcGefOD;xuf usrrSm ajymbG,f&m r&Sd
atmif pdwfrcsrf;om jzpfusef&pfcJhonf/
c&rf;csOfoD;qdkvQif wEdkifiHvHk; wurmvHk;ESifh wnhfonf[k,lqxm;Muonf/ AD
wmrif"mwf ygonf/ tm;&Sdonf[kvufcH,lqxm;Muonf/ c&rf;csOfoD; owfao
aoaomrom[k rnfolu vufcHygrnfenf;? tpm;rawmfwvkyf toGm;rawmfwvSrf;
qdkaom a&S;pum;twdkif; rwnfhaomtpmESifhtoufqHk;&IH;yHkudk ocFPf;pm&rdawmhonf/
pyfcGefOD; xoGm;NyD; jywif;aygufrSarQmfMunfhvdkufonf/ usrwdkYtdrfa&SU w&kyfjcH
wGif NcHpnf;&k;d wavQmuf jrufajcmufrsm;udk rD;wku
d x
f m; rD;awmufr;D vQHrsm; t&Sed jf yif;pGm
awmufavmifaeonf/ wjzpfjzpf jrnfvsuf&adS om rD;yHx
k w
J iG f rD;awmfr;D nTew
Yf Ykd 0g;[yfae
Muonfh csHKykwjf rufzw
k w
f u
Ykd kd rjrifbJ OuvmywGif pum;vufqu
kH sum &,farmpum;ajym
aeaom vlemudkom pefYpefYBuD; jrifaerdawmhonf/
olt
Y wGuf tyifyef;cHcahJ vorQ tcsD;tES;D jzpf&jcif;vnf; 0rf;enf;\/ olcspfvS
aom om;i,fuav; pGefYypfcJhavNyD[kvnf; 0rf;enf;vS\/ usr&ifxJ w'dwf'dwfckef
vmonf/
&ifxJ raumif;vS tdyf&may: acGvSJaevdkojzifh tcef;xJodkY 0ifvmcJhonf/
ukwifay:wGif rvSJcif tdrfaxmif&SiftrsdK;orD;rsm; awGYBuHKcHpm;&wwfaom a0'emwck
jzpf&ef vuPmjyvmonf/
usrrSm xdka0'emrsdK; b,fwkef;urS rjzpfcJh tawGYtBuHKr&SdaomtawGYtMuHK
&Sdbl;aom rMunfudk vSrf;ac:vdkufonf/ rMunfESifha':a':onf tcef;xJodkY ajy;0ifvm
Muum rsufESmysufoGm;Muavonf/
]]tJ'g rr. . . udprsm;csifwJhoabmbJ}}
]]a[. . . }}
]]tJ'gaMumifh rrudk wzGzaG jymaewm? pdwyf ifyef; ud,
k yf ifyef; bmrSrcH&bl;? Nidrf
Nidrfae&w,frr&JU? rru pdwfa&m udk,fa&m odyfyifyef;cHwmbJ? tdrfajymif;wHk;uvJ rr
Munfh&wm awmfawmfyifyef;w,f? OuvmyvlemqD oGm;aewmvJ armfawmfum;u b,f
avmufaqmihfovJ}}
147

E-book is created by www.shanyoma.org

*sme,f a usmf r rav;

E-book is created by www.shanyoma.org

jref r mh a q;ynm

]]tJ'DOuvmytaMumif; rajymprf;ygeJY[m}}
rMunfonf ]xdkif? xdkifrr}[kqdkum usrudk az;rvsuf Murf;ay:wGif tomxdkif
cdkif;onf/
usronf ajymNyD; &,fcsifvmNyD; cpfceJ&,fvdkufonf/ rMunfonf pdk;&drfBuD;pGm
rsufarSmifMuKwfxm;&mu rsufvHk;BuD; jyL;oGm;um ]]rr rudkufbl;vm;}}[k&,faeaom
usr rsufESmudk tHhtm;oifh[efjzifh Munfhvsufar;onf/
]][ifhtif;. . . bmrSrjzpfbl;}}
]]tJ'g[m rr"mwfu awmfawmfaumif;vGe;f vdb
Yk J 'grsdK;jzpfwrhJ ed ;f rwdik ;f w&mrSm
udk;q,fhukd;a,mufqdkygawmh udprNyD;rcsif; udkufwm cJwmtjyif;txef vSdrfhcH&wmbJ}}
]]a[. . . [kwfuvm;}}
emusifjcif; wpdkYwapYrQ rjzpfay:bJ udpNyD;oGm;onf/ rMunfonf ZvHki,fwck
wGif eEGif;rsm; azsmfum usrqDodkY vmonf/
]]udkif; rr olrsm;awGudkawmh 'grsdK;qdkwm taumif;xuf *&kpdkuf&w,f? raygh&
bl;? eEGif;Ekdifatmif vl;&r,fvdkY cdkif;cJhwmawG uJ-uJrrvl;ayawmh}}
usrrSm NyHK;ae&mrS &IUH rJomG ;onf/ tjzpfrsdK;pHo
k nfb
h 0udk &,fcsifae&mu eEGi;f udk
jrifNyD; idkcsifoGm;jyefonf/
usef;rma&;udk a&SU&Ium &IHU&IHUrJhrJhESifhyif eEGif;awG wudk,fvHk; 0if;xdefaeatmif
vdrf;vdkuf&onf/
]]a':BuD;. . . vlemvmygw,f}}? tdraf zmfred ;f uav; tnGeo
Yf nf tcef;xJoaYkd jy;0if
vmonf/
]]bk&m;. . . bk&m;. . . eEGif;awGeJY rawGYcsifbl;[m b,folrsm;ygvdrfh}}
]]a&0ef&kH;u rif;BuD;OD;0if;az&JUZeD;wJh}}
usrrSm tMuyf&dkufum idkifoGm;onf/
]]a&m8gjycsifvdkY vmwmyg? awGYy&apwJh}}
twefMumatmif idkifae&mrS oufjyif;csvsuf ]udkif;[m tcef;xJodkYac:cJhay
awmh}[k qdkvdkufonf/
trsKd;orD;ESpfOD; usrtdyf,mab;odkY a&mufvmMuonf/ rD;aeonf&kyf ayguf
aeaom usrjzpfyu
Hk kd Munf
h tHt
h m;oifo
h mG ;Muonf/ usru tckcsufcsif; jzpfomG ;aom
udk,fhtajctaeudk t&if&Sif;ajymNyD;rS olYa&m*gudk ppfaMumar;jref;&onf/
{nfhonfvlrsm;rsm; tcef;xJu xGufoGm;aomtcg usrrSm tm;enf; usef
&pfco
hJ nf/ aoG;tm;enf;aecku
d f vlemay: tm&kpH ;l pku
d &f jcif;jzifh tm;ukeo
f mG ;um toH
148

rsm;yif wkefaeavonf/ tdyf,may: jyefvSJumyif&Sdao;? tcef;wHcg; yGifhvmjyefonf/


]a':BuD; vlemvmygw,f}
usronf tdyf,may:rS tnGefYudk tm;,l vSrf;Munfhaeonf/ bmajym&rSef;
rodatmif cufaeonf/ eEGif;awG xdefaevsuf ,ckvkd tm;enf;aecsdef0,f b,fvlem
ESifhrQ rawGYcsifay/ rawGYcsif rawGYcsifovkd aevkdufrnf[k jzpfay:aompdwfESifh]wm0ef
&Sdonf}qkdaompdwfwkdY wzufESifhwzuf vGefqGJaeMuavojzifh tnTefYrSm twefMumatmif
yif &yfapmifhae&onf/
]]rrawmh cufwmbJ}}[k tem; apmifhaeaomrMunfu nnf;aeonf/
]]b,folrsm;vJ[m vmaeusvlvm;}}
]]b,folvJawmh rodbl;? tom;jzLjzL rdef;r ydefydefbJ a&m*gonfjycsifvkdYawGY
y&apwJh}}
]]udkif;[m ac:cJhayawmh}}
]]rrav;awmh udk,fhtwwfeJY udk,fpl; EIwfvkdYr&bl;}}[k q&mrif;ok0Pf wcgu
&Ir0 usrudk ajymbl;ojzifh q&mudk owd&vkdufum tckrS wu,fpl;wmbJ[k pdwfxJu
ajymvku
d rf o
d nf/
touf 40 ausmfcefY tom;jzLjzL ydefydefyg;yg; rdef;rwOD;ESifhcav;rwa,muf
usrukwifem;odkY a&mufvmMuonf/
usrudk jrifrS tvGeftm;emoGm;onfh[efjzifh tef;aeMuonf/
usronf tdy,
f mrS xvku
d u
f m qHyifrsm; eEGi;f rayatmif acgif;aygif;xm;aom
t0wfjzLudk jzKwfcsvsuf tm;wif; jyKH;vkduf&onf/ vlem\a0'emudk rppfaq;cif
q&mha0'emudk t&if&Sif;ajym&onf/
]]usru jrifuGef;rif;&JUorD;awmfyg/ jyifopf tif'kdcsKdif;em;rSm zGm;ygw,f}}[k
tpcsD &mZ0ifaemufaMumif; jyefum vuf&SdcHpm;ae&aoma0'emudk qufajymjyoGm;
onf/ nifomaom toHESifhodrfarGYaysmhajymif;aom trlt&mwkdYrSmay:vGifxl;jcm;ae
onf/ em&D0ufcefY a0'emudk ppfaq; aq;0g;"mwfpmrsm; ay;vkdufonf/ tcef;xJrS
vlem{nfhonf rxGufrD tcef;xJodkY tnTefY0ifvmjyefvsuf {nfhonfa&mufaMumif; vuf
&dyfajc&dyfESifhvmjyonf/ {nfhonf xGufoGm;rS b,folvJ[k ar;&onf/
]][kd. . . onf;ajcysufNyD; wcpfcpf &DaewJhvlemav. . . olwkdYom;trdvmw,f? awGY
y&apwJh}}
]]ac:cJh. . . ac:cJh. . . }}
]]rr odyfpum;rajymeJY? rrtoH[m armaew,f. . . }}[k rMunfu owday;onf/
149

E-book is created by www.shanyoma.org

*sme,f a usmf r rav;

E-book is created by www.shanyoma.org

jref r mh a q;ynm

tcef;xJ0ifvmaom om;trdrmS usrudk tm;emaeMuonf/ auwDausmif;q&mOD;ausmf


wifh\wlrav; jzpfonf/ a&m*ga0'em aysmufuif;oGm;ojzifh tvkyf0ifoifh r0ifoifh
vmar;Mujcif; jzpfonf/
rde;f uav;\ onf;ajcysufaoma0'emudk aysmufatmif toHEiS u
hf ck &hJ onf/
trSefpifppf olYa&m*gaysmufuif;atmif ukoolrSm a&Tref;wifarmif? pdefatmifrif;ESifh
OD;rif;ausmfwkdY jzpfMu\/ b,fae&m ZmwfyGJ&Sdonfudk owif;axmufvSrf;um npOfn
wkdif; qkdif;aemuf ae&mcif;ckdif;NyD; rdef;uav;udk qkdif;ESifhukcJh&onf/ ewfqkdif;rSm Zmwf
obifqidk ;f xuf toHjyif;xefwuf<u ewfuEm;ay;&modv
Yk nf; rde;f uav;udk ac:vsuf
qkdif;em; aeckdif;&onf/ qkdif;oHjzifh a0'emaysmufuif;oGm;onf/ pdwfcs&oxuf cs&
atmif awmifjrifhjrifhudk wufNyD;rS tvkyf0ifyg[kajymvkdufonf/
vlem{nfhonfrsm; xGufoGm;aomtcg acgif;xJ tkHaeonf/ &ifxJvnf; wkef
ae rIdif;wkduf&onf/ rIdif;wkdufaepOf a':a': tcef;xJodkY 0ifvmonf/
]]rrav;. . . vlemvmw,f? a,musfm;BuD;wa,muf}}
a,musfm;BuD;qkv
d u
dk
f ]]rawGyY g&apeJaY ':a':&,f? usr aeraumif;vdaYk emufrS
vmyg}}vdkYajymvdkufyg[kajymvdkufonf/
rMunfu &,farmvsuf ]q&mvkyfaeNyD; aeraumif;bl;vm;vdkY atmufarhoGm;
rSmbJ} [kajymNyD; xyf&,faejyefonf/
a':a': atmufqif;oGm;NyD; jyefwufvmavonf/
]]rawG&Y &ifvJ aeygap? aq;awmhay;ygwJh olw
Y ud,
k v
f ;kH temawGjzpfvrYkd aeEdik f
rxdkifEkdifatmif ,m;vJ,m;? emvJemvGef;vdkYygwJh}}
]]cufawmhwmbJ}}
rMunfu &,fjyef usryg a&m&,frdonf/ ]temaeyHk b,fvdkvJqdkwm aoao
csmcsm oGm;MunfhygtHk;a':a':}
a':a': qif;oGm;jyefonf/
a&S;a&S;u rde;f rrsm; aoG;Ekom;Ekjzpfaecsdew
f iG f rD;wGi;f xJwiG f owif;vmar;ol
wdkif; tajymtqdk qifjcifMu&onf/ ,m;emtaMumif; ajymrdvQif aoG;Ekaeaom rD;ae
onfrSm csufcsif; ,m;,Hwwfvm tajymtqdk txl;qifjcifMuonf/ usrrSm ra&Smif
omaom aq;q&mb0udk awG;rdum pdwfaqmifxm;&onf/
a':a': jyefwufvmonf/
]]cg;awmif;udk ajrmifaeatmif usdKufjyw,f? wifyg;awG&m? aygifawGa&m tem
awGu 8syfxlBuD; tjyifBuD;jzpfNyD; aoG;wpGwfpGwf? jynfwpGwfpGwfeJY}}
150

]]awmfawmh? a':a':}}[kqdkum aq;0g;"mwfpm ay;&onf/


a':a':tcef;xJoo
Ykd w
k o
f ;D okwyf sm 0ifvmjyefonf/usrrSm rSed ;f ae&mu rsufv;kH
ryGifhwyGifh zGifh ]]bmvJa':a':}}[kar;vdkufonf/
]]ppfAv
dk Ef pS af ,muf vmw,f? pdw"f mwfppfqifa&;u ukad pmOD;u vTwv
f u
dk o
f wJ?h
rrav;eJYawGYNyD; vlemtaMumif; ajymcsifvkdYygwJh}}
]]tJ'grS cufawmhwmbJ atmufvJ rqif;Ekdifbl;? tcef;xJ ac:vkdYvJrjzpfEkdifbl;?
b,fvv
dk yk f awGrY vJ a':a':? Munfo
h m ajymvku
d yf gawmh? a,musfm;{nfo
h nfvm,if Munfh
omajymvkdufygawmh}}
a':a':onf usrrSmxm;onhftwkdif; ae rukefrcsif; aemufxyfa&mufvmMu
aom a,musfm;vlem{nfhonfrSeforQ MunfhomajymvTwfaeonf/ ae0ifcsdefwGif ]rdef;r
vlemawG vmw,f}[k vmajymjyefonf/
tem;,lNyD; tdrfaernf[k tem;,lcsifvSaom usrrSm tdrfaeNyD; waeYrS rem;
cJh&acs/ ,ckvkd aoG;tm;enf;csdef tem;,lrSjzpfrnfhtcgrsKd;yif tem;r&aom b0rSm
idkcsifp&m aumif;aeawmhonf/
tcef;xJodkY q&maZmf*sD\ZeD;rr&ifESifhcav;rav;wa,muf 0ifvmMuonf/
rr&ifrSm ukwifay: eEGif;awG xdefaeaom usrukd awGY tHhtm;oifhoGm;onf/
]]tkd. . . b,fvkdjzpfwmvJ}}
usru tm;,l xvkdufum jzpforQ tusKd;taMumif; ajymjyonf/
]]yifyef;vGef;vkdY 'Dvkdjzpfwm. . . tyifyef;rcH&bl;? rrvJ yifyef;NyD; 2 v 3 veJY
'DvkdbJjzpfcJhbl;w,f? a&tkd;vSJoGefvkdufovkdygbJuG,f? oGefvkdufwJhaoG;awG vlYudk azsmhjzL
oGm;wmbJ? odyftm;ukefwmbJ? vSae rxeJY}}
rru usrudk tdyf,may:odkY twif;jyefvSJckdif;av\/ vlemac:vmrdonfudk
tm;emoGm;vsuf pum;rajym&ef wm;jrpfonf/
]]waeYvkH; xkdifajymae&wmyg rr&m. . . ajymomajymyg? 'Duav;rav; b,fvkd
a0'em jzpfvkdYygvJ}}
rru vufumvsuf acgif;udk cgvkdufonf/
]]tkd. . . aemufawmh vmr,f? ckaecg vlemtaMumif; rpOf;pm;wm aumif;w,f?
zsm;wm emwmrsKd;u udpr&Sdbl;? aoG;om;eJYywfoufNyD; tifrwef aoG;Ekwkef;rSm acgif;
&IyfbkdY raumif;bl;. . . NidrfNidrfuav; aeyg}}
usru cav;rav;udk tm;em a0'emudk twif;ar;&um aq;0g;"mwfpm
rsm; ay;vkdufonf/ rrrSm tcef;xJrS rxGufcif wzGzG tem;,lae&ef owday;NyD;rSxGuf
151

E-book is created by www.shanyoma.org

*sme,f a usmf r rav;

jref r mh a q;ynm

E-book is created by www.shanyoma.org

oGm;av\/ rrwkdYxGufoGm;NyD; a&Tbkef;yGifhvrf;rS qefpufolaX;OD;BuD;&Sdef\nDESifhc,fr


rsm; ta&;wBuD; aygufvmjyefavonf/ rdwfaqGwOD;\orD;uav; tysif;zsm;wuf
ae usrudk vmac:onf/ usrrSm &Snf&Snfa0;a0; rajym&awmhbJ ]]jrifwJhtwkdif;bJ
tjrifha&. . . }}[k ajymvkduf&awmhonf/

4
wywfvkH;vkH; tcef;xJrS rxGufbJ tcef;atmif;ae&avonf/ tcef;atmif;
aewkef; aeYpOfvmMuaom rdef;rvlemrsm;udk tdyf&may:rS aq;ukaevsuf aeYpOfvmMu
aoma,musfm;vlemrsm;udkum; Mum;vlxm; uko&onf/
ukd,fhusef;rma&;twGuf wywfavmuf vkH;0tem;,laerSaumif;rnfudk od\/
tem;,lvnf; aecsifr\
d / odaYk omf ud,
k af ecsifwidk ;f rae&wkid ;f aq;q&mb0\tMuyf
twnf;udk wpwp &dyfpm;rdvmonf/
8 &ufajrmufaomnjzpf\/
tdyf&may:rS vlemrsm;udk awGYqkHum ajym&qkd& tm&kHpkduf& tm;xkwf&orQ n
bufwGif &ifckefvsuf rsufvkH;aMumifaeonfrSm okH;&ufcefY&SdaeNyD/ ,aeYnvnf; oef;
acgifausmfonftxdd tdyfr&acs/ nrSm tvGefwdwfqdwfae\/ tdrfajrmifrsm; pkwfxkd;ae
aomtoHAvHrsm;rSm wae&mNyD;wae&m tqufrjywf Mum;ae&onf/ uav;rsm;rSm
ausmif;pmar;yGJBuD; eD;uyfaeojzifh rD;xGef;um nOfheufoef;acgiftxd xkdifpmMunfhae
Mu\/ usronf &ifxJ ckefaeum tdyfraysmf acgif;xJa&mufvmaom vlemrsm;udk r
pOf;pm;&ef z,f&Sm;ypfvsuf tdyfaysmf&ef BudK;pm;aeonf/ acgif;&if;tdrfrS oHacsmif;w
csufacgufvkdufNyD;aemuf arS;arS;arS;arS;ESifhtdyfaysmfvkqJjzpfaeckduf usrtcef;0em;odkY
a&mufvmaom AvkH;AaxG; 0&kef;okH;um; jzpfaeonfhqlqlnHnHESifhtoHBuD;onf em;xJ
okdY wcJeuf aqmifh0ifoGm;awmhonf/
]]tr,fav;. . . bk&m;. . . bk&m;. . . }}
usr&ifxJ av,mOfysH tawmifjyif;pGm cwfoGm;ouJhodkY jzpfNyD; tvefYwMum;
xdwfvIdufzdkvIdufykHrSm ajAmif;qefatmif axG;vkH;oGm;awmhum bkrodbrodjzifh yg;pyfrS
xGufoGm;jcif;jzpfavonf/
]]arara&. . . trav;. . . arar. . . arar. . . }}
152

usronf tdyf&mrS ZufueJ xvkduf&m &ifnTefY wuf abmifbifcwfaeaom


tvkH;BuD;udk vufjzifh zdvkdufvsuf touf&SLMuyfoGm;ckduf cifav;jrifh\ryDro *a,mif
acsmufcsm; ajymvdkufoHudk em;rSMum;&onf/
usr\acgif;rSm tqrwef BuD;oGm;av\/ &ifxJrS vIdif;xaeaom tvkH;BuD;
rSmvnf; t&Sdefjyif;pGm ykwf&kdufaeacsonf/
aemufaz; vomaqmifcef;buf&Sd tcef;xJ pmMunfhaeaom udkfatmifaZ,s
onf tcef;xJodkY ajy;0ifvmonf/
usrrSm tm;rmefcv
J suf jcifaxmifpudk twif;qGzJ iG u
hf m vlwykid ;f tjyifoaYkd &muf
oGm;pOf cifav;jrihfESifhrcifvif;wkdYu usrukd qD;zufvkdufMuonf/
]]tarav; arar. . . o&J. . . o&J}}
]]aeMuprf;ygOD;}}
usronf 8du
k w
f &mcefrY aS jy;vmaomoluo
hJ Ykd armBuD;yef;BuD;jyefajymvdu
k u
f m a&SU
qufrajymawmhbJ &ifxJ qdkYaeav\/
]]bmjzpfvdkYvJ[if. . . }}[kudkatmifaZ,su cav;rsm;aemufrS &yfvsuf pd;k &drf
pGm ar;vdkufonf/
]]OD;av;&JU o&Jacsmufw,f? rav;jrifhwdkYpmMunfhaewkef; [dk. . . [dk. . . . a&csdK;cef;
wHcg;udk oHk;av;csufavmuf vmacgufw,f}}
]]r[kwyf gbl; tdraf jrmiftNrD;ykww
f myg? OD;av; pmMunfah ewke;f u ckeuwHcg;udk
tNrD;eJYykwfoGm;ao;w,f? tdrfajrmifBuD;awGu enf;wJhtaumifBuD;awG r[kwfvm;}}
usr aoG;vefYoGm;rnfukd pdk;&drf aoG;aq;ESifhoMum; azsmfwdkufMuonf/ usr
&ifxJ wqwfqwfckefaeaomtvHk;udk awmfawmfMum&if ajyoGm;rnf[kxifrdonf/ w
qwfqwf aqmifch ek af eaomtvH;k rSm awmfawmfEiS v
hf nf; rajyacs/ jrefvu
kd f aES;vdu
k jf yef
jrefvmvkdufESifh omyif a&mifjcnfrsm;oef;um t&kPfwufvmav\/ acgif;&if;tdrfrS
em&DoHacsmif; 5-csuf acgufoGm;vdkufonf/ yxr acgufvdkufaomtoHjzifh wudk,fvHk;
zsef;ueJ jzpfomG ;onf/ oHacsmif;oHreS ;f odvsuf xde;f r&awmhbJ &ifneT q
Yf o
D Ykd tvH;k BuD;
vdrfhwufoGm;um abmifbifcwf ckefaeonf/
rdk;vif;p jyKvm\/
usrrSm &ifxu
J tvH;k ESihf toufr&SLr&atmif tBudwt
f e,fjzpfaevsuf rsufpd
rsm; wajz;ajz; jyma0vmonf/
usrrsufpad tmuf wOD;wa,muf usruJo
h Ykd rcsnfrh qefY jzpfaecJyh gvQif usrrSm
oufom&m oufomaMumif; MuHqpdwful;um tjrefukovdkufrnfomjzpfonf/
153

E-book is created by www.shanyoma.org

*sme,f a usmf r rav;

E-book is created by www.shanyoma.org

jref r mh a q;ynm

usrudk,fwdkif rcsnfhrqefY a0'emcHpm;ae&cdkuf? udk,fhudk,fwdkif udk,fjyefuk&ef


MuHpnfpdwful;EkdifbdkY aeaeomom toufr&SLEkdifatmif tvHk;BuD; aoG;wufoGm;awmh
rnfudk odayonf/ aoG;ysufoGm;EdkifwmvJ odayonf/ Muufuav;rsm; udkif&dkufovkd
tck csufcsif;yif r&SLEkdif r&IdufEkdifbJ toufxGufoGm;EkdifonfhvuPmrSef; odvmonf/
usrrSm a0'emtjyif;txef cHpm;ae&NyD; usrudk ukay;&ef q&mvdkaerSef; od
vmonf/
]]a':oef;cifudk jrefjrefac:yg}}
usronf &ifudkyifhNyD; MuyfarmvIdufzdkaeonfhtwGif;u tm;pdkuf ajym&onf/
a':oef;cifrSm usrudk aq;ynmoifay;aom tb"mwfq&mBuD;\orD;jzpfonf/ onf
"mwfynmudk wufajrmufum aq;q&mtvkyf rvkyfbJ aq;omvQif azmfxkwfpDrHol jzpf
onf/
em&D0uftwGi;f a':oef;cifEiS ahf ':oef;cif\wynfu
h av;]aygufq}D wdYk usrt
cef;xJodkYa&mufvmMuonf/ usrrSm tarmqdkufaeonf/ a':oef;cifESifhaygufqDwdkY\
&kyfyHkvTmrSm usrrsufvHk;xJwGif csmvywf vnfaeMuonf/
a':oef;cifonf &kyfysufoGm;NyDjzpfaom usrudk jrifjrifcsif; acgif;ebef;BuD;
oGm;onf/ aoG;prf;&ef vufESifhajcudk vmukdifvkduf&m a&cJwkH;BuD; prf;rdouJhodkY wkefYoGm;
onf/
]]rjzpfzl;? udkatmifaZ,s a'geyef;tcuf 200 avmuf &atmif tck um;eJY
oGm;0,fckdif;yg? yufvufukvm;xkdifwvkH;udk BudK;okdif;csnfNyD; tJ'Day:rSm wifNyD; 'gef;
jrefjrefvTJrS jzpfawmhr,f jrefjref. . . jrefjref}}
tdrf&Sd vlukefyif Asmrsm;oGm;Muonf/ usrtajctaeqkd;vmonfudk Munfhum
pk;d &drv
f mMuonf/ usrudk a&csKd;cef;xJoYkd ayGo
Y mG ;Muonf/ a':oef;cifEiS ahf ygufqw
D Ydk a&
cGuf wa,mufwcGufpDudkif a&cyfavmif;Muonf/ a&avmif;NyD; ukwifay:odkY jyefayGY
,lvmum "mwfaq;a& pyfvsuf wukd,fvkH; uAsmu&m vdrf;Muonf/ usrrSm owdvpf
csif owdvpfroGm;atmif pdwfukd ckdifckdifBuD; wif;xm;vsuf rcHr&yfEkdifatmif &ifwuf
aqmifh ckefaeaom tvkH;BuD;udk usdwfrSdwfNyD; tvl;tvJcHae&avonf/ a'geyef;rsm;
a&mufvmum yef;cufrsm;ESifhacGxm; usrrSm a'geykHBuD;xJ jrKyfaeonf/
tdrfay:xyf BudK;&Smol 'gef;qifol aq;aoG;olwkdY ysm,mcwf vkyfudkifaeMu
pOf tdrfatmuf armfawmfum;wpD; xkd;qkdufvkdufonf/
we*FaEGaeYwkdif; 0wfwckxm; rysufruGuf a&Twd*kHbk&m;wufzl;aom usr\
om;ti,f bk&m;'umarmifrkd;[def;onf bk&m;rStjyef [mrpfwdwfvrf;ay: armfawmf
154

um; wkdufoGm;onf/ vnfyif; [ufwufuGJoGm;um wukd,fvkH; jyif;xefaom 'Pf&m'Pf


csufrsm; &vsuf aoG;tvdrf;vdrf;vl; owdr&wcsuf &wcsuf jzpfaepOf vrf;jyykvdyf
u aq;&kHokdY armif;ydkYrnfjyKonfudk ]uRefawmfhtarqDykdYyg? tar ukvdrfhr,f}[k twif;
ajym olYukd ykvdyfrsm; ayGY,lvmaom armfawmfum; jzpfonf/
a':oef;cifrSm tdrfay: usrtwGuf ysm,mcwfNyD; a'gifcsmpkdif;aeovkd a':
oef;cif\wynfhuav; aygufqDrSm atmufxyfwGif owdarhaeaom rkd;[def; owd&&ef
twGuf a'gif;awmufAsmrsm;aeonf/ tdrf&Sd vlukefvnf; tay:wcsKdU atmufwcsKdUESifh
tylrD;awmuf &Iyf&Sufcwfatmif tvkyfrsm;aeMuonf/
udkatmifaZ,s 'gef;qifNyD; usrukd 'gef;ay:odkYayGYwifMuum a'geyef;rsm; jcH
&Hvsuf 'gef;pvGJavonf/ tdrf&Sd vlawG &kwf&kwfoJoJ jzpfaeykHudk usrtwGuf[kom xif
rdonf/ atmufxyf rkd;[def;aovkarsmyg; jzpfaeonfudk vkH;vkH;rodacs/
]wem&Dwdwd vTJr,fAsm. . . }}[k aygufqDu ajymonf/
usr 'gef;ay:a&mufomG ; a':oef;cifonf rk;d [de;f qDoYdk cPajy;qif;oGm;um
aq;xnfhMuyfpD;Muyfxkyfxkd;ESifhtvkyfrsm;aeonf/
udak tmifaZ,swvSnhf aygufqw
D vSnhf 'gef;vTaJ eMuonf/ a':oef;cif jyefajy;
wufvmNyD; usr tajctaeudk tuJcwf&ef tem;rS&yfapmifhMunfhNyD;aemuf rkd;[def;qDodkY
jyefajy;qif;oGm;jyefonf/
'gef;ay:a&muf rdepf 20-avmuf&SdvQif &ifnTefYwGif rcHpm;Ekdifatmif wuf
aqmifch ek af eaom tvk;H BuD;rSm t&Sed af vsmhyg;vmonf/ a'geyef;rsm; jcH&x
H m; 'gef;ay:
t&Sed Ef iS ahf jrmufwufomG ;&if; yef;eHrY sm;onf oif;BudKifaeawmhonf/ &ifay:wGif zdpnf;
xm;aomoHyk&moD;xkyfrSvnf; oHyk&meHYrsm; woif;oif; xGufaeonf/
]]b,fhES,fvJ a':rrav; cHom&JUvm;}}[ka':oef;cifu vSrf;ar;onf/ usru
acgif;ndwfvkdufonf/ em&D0ufausmfoGm;vQif touf&SL& oufomcGifh&vm igawmh
]raoEkdifawmhbl;. . . }[k ukd,fhudk,fudk pdwfcsoGm;onf/
usr oufomcGiahf v; &oGm;yk&H rdS S ab;u apmifah eolrsm; &,f&,farmarm pum;
ajymEkid v
f mMuonf/
]]om;ysufvYdk aoG;EkEek YJ vluvJ tm;enf;NyD;aewke;f ckvdk aoG;vefo
Y mG ;wJt
h wGuf
'Davmufjzpf&wm? usrwkdYvmwmrSDayvkdYbJ? EkdYrkdY,if 'Dvkduref;uwef; jzpfykHrsKd;[m tck
avmuf&Sd udprsm;NyD}}
a':oef;cifu jyKH;ajymonf/
]]vmvkdufMuwJhvlemawGuvJ renf;ygbl;cifAsm? aeYpOf tdyf&may:uae aq;
155

E-book is created by www.shanyoma.org

*sme,f a usmf r rav;

E-book is created by www.shanyoma.org

jref r mh a q;ynm

ukaewm tJ'Duwnf;uukdbJ tm;uenf;vSNyD}}


udkatmifaZ,su ajym aygufqDu vTJae,if;u ]]'Dvkdjzpfaewkef;rsm; bmjzpf
vkdY vlemawGeJY awGY&ovJAs? cifAsm;&ifvJ 'Dynmoifxm;Asm. . . }}[k udkatifaZ,sudk rJ
ajymaeonf/
1 em&DcefY &Sdvmonf/ udkatmifaZ,su oufom&JUvm;[kvmar; usr ouf
omaMumif; pum;jzifh jyefajymEkdifonf/
]]1 em&D aphNyDAsKdU. . . a&avmif;r,f}}
aygufqDu BudK;udk t&SdefavQmhvsuf vSrf;atmfvkdufonf/
]]'Day:rSm oufom&ifvJ cPaeygtkH;vm;}}
udkatmifaZ,su usrudk ajymonf/
]]vTJav. . . }}
a&SUquf 10 rdepfcefY t&Sdefjyif;jyif; vTJaepOf BudK;jywfoGm;ygonf/ BudK;jywf
oGm;vQif oGm;csif;rSm usrrSm jywfNyD[k renf;owdxm;vkduf&onf/ owdckdifcdkif xm;Ekdif
aomfjim; t&Sed Ef iS v
hf iT u
hf soGm;aomaMumifh tm;vk;H x ajy;zrf;Muaomfvnf; rrSb
D J vGwf
oGm;avonf/ 'gef;ay:wGif cHom&um Nidr0f yfomG ;aomtvk;H BuD;rSm 0ke;f ueJ &ifneT q
Yf o
D Ykd
wufaqmifhum rsufvkH;rsm; jyma0vsuf rkdufueJ arhoGm;onf/ usrudk aumufayGYMuum
a&csKd;cef;qDodkY ayGYajy;vmMuonf/ a& 10 cGufavmufavmif;rS owdjyef&onf/ ayguf
qDrSm wtm;cyfyufavmif;aeonf/ a':oef;cifrSm usr&ifudk wcsdefvkH; zdxm;onf/
owdjyef&aomfvnf; &if0 aqmifhaeaom tvHk;BuD;rSm jzpfpuxufyif t
aqmifjrefveG ;f vS rcHEikd f atmif jzpfaeonf/ usr &SKd ufum &dKk ufumjzpfaeaomtoHEiS hf
]]'gef;jyefqifyg}}[kajymvkdufonf/
,ckwBudrf atmufxyf{nfhcef; rsufESmusufwGif wef;&Sd atmufxyf 'gef;
ajymif;Muonf/ usrudk a&avmif; aq;vl;NyD; atmufxyfoYkd ayGcY sonf/ atmufxyfwiG f
pefYaeaom rdk;[def;udk usr rjrifap&ef rD;zdkpwdkcef;xJodkY uAsmu&m a&GUajymif;vdkufMu
onf/
'gef;ay:a&mufNyD; em&D0ufcefYMumrS w'def;'def; aqmifhaeaomtvHk;rSm ajypjyK
vmavonf/ a':oef;cefrSm 'gef;jywfusoGm;wkef;u usrudk]aoNyD}[kwGufvkdufonf/
olYrsufvHk;rsm; jymoGm;um &ifxJ w'dwf'dwfckefaeaom tvHk;udk atmufxyfwGif jyef
qifaom 'gef;ay:odkY usra&mufoGm;rS a&csdK;cef;xJ0ifNyD; [if;csvsuf olY&ifol zdum
&ifckefajyapatmif cPNidrfxdkifae&onf/
aygufqD wvSnfh? udkatmifaZ,s wvSnfh 2-em&DcefYjyif;jyif;xefxefvTJMurS &if
156

xJu tvHk;BuD;rSm jyefNidrfoGm;avonf/ a':oef;cifonf ZvHkBuD;xJwGif aq;a&rsm;


pyfvsuf usrudk 'gef;ay:rScsNyD; wudk,fvHk; vl;avonf/ a'geESifhESif;qDrsm; wayGYwydkuf
BuD;yif usrtdyf&mrSywfywfvnf acG&Hvsuf &ifudk qm;Muyfxkyf xdk;ay;Muonf/
]]emwm&Snfu ta&;rBuD;bl;? jAKef;ueJ ta&;wBuD;jzpfvmwJha0'emudk vlEkdif
EkdifeJY eifvm; igvm;? tusdwfte,f vkyfEkdifrSjzpfwm. . . }}
usrrSm toufudk rQif;rQif;&SLae&if;rS ]usrtwGuf a':oef;cif&SdayvdkYbJ r&Sd
rsm; r&Sd&if tcufbJ}[kawG;awmrdonf/
n-9em&DcefYtxd a':oef;cifESifhaygufqDrSm em&DudkMunfhvsuf olYtcsdefESifhol
'gef;ay:wifvkduf a&avmif;vkduf aq;vdrf;vdkuf vkyfay;aeMuonf/ rdk;[def;udk owif;
vmar;aom aqGrsdK;rdwfaqGwdkY\armfawmfum;rsm;onf jcHxJodkYt&Sdefoyf 0ifvmum
tdraf b; auGq
Y u
kd Mf uvsuf pwdck ef;xJoYkd toHrMum;atmif wdww
f w
d Bf udw
f owif;0if
ar;Muonf/
n-10 em&DavmufwiG f a':oef;cifonf aygufqu
D kd napmifx
h m;cJu
h m jyefomG ;
av\/ aygufqDESifhudkatmifaZ,,swdkY wnvHk; xdkifapmifhMuum tvSnfhus 'gef;vGJNyD;
aq;vl;Muonf/
usrrSm tiftm;ukefcrf;vsuf rsufvHk;rsm; aMumifaeonf/ tdrfajrmifBuD;awG
pkwx
f ;kd vdu
k w
f ikd ;f aoG;vefaY eawmhonf/ wxGmavmuf&adS om tdraf jrmifBuD;rsm;rSm tcef;
wcef;wGif taumif20-avmuf &SdMuonf/

5
aea&mifjcnfrsm;0ifvmonf/
usrrSm tdyf&may: vlrrmBuD; jzpfaeonf/ acgif;tHk;rsm;NcH&Hvsuf rwfxlay;
xm;um &ifudk wa,mufNyD;wa,muf zday;xm;Mu&onf/
]]uJ cifAsm;wdkYpmar;yGJ 'DaeYppfr,fqdk oGm;ajzavAsm}}
aygufqDu tem; ikwfwkwfxdkif rdk;vif;oGm;aom udkatmifaZ,sudk vSrf;ajym
vdkufonf/ usrtwGuf pdk;&drfaomu a&mufaeaom udkatmifaZ,su ]]rajzcsifygbl;
uGm}} [k ajymvkdufonf/
]]tem;rSm uRefawmfwdkY&Sdom;bJ oGm;om ajzacsAsm? ajzNyD; toHoGif;pufxkwf
157

E-book is created by www.shanyoma.org

*sme,f a usmf r rav;

E-book is created by www.shanyoma.org

jref r mh a q;ynm

cJhyg}}[kaygufqDu wdkufwdkufwGef;wGef;vkyfrS udkatmifaZ,sonf t0wfvJum wuodkvf


ausmif;bufodkY xGufoGm;onf/
a':oef;cif a&mufvmum usrudk ayGY,la&avmif;vsuf aq;vl;Muonf/ usr
ESifhtxdqHk;jzpfrnfh"mwfrsm;udk pDppfa&G;cs,fvsuf teHYwrsdK;? aq;0g;tm[m&ESifhwrsdK;?
txdtawGYESifhwrsdK; wNydKifwnf; "mwfqifcs&ef tpDtpOfvkyfonf/ aq;vdrf;NyD; wnfh
onfhteHYudk a&S;OD;pGm ay;onf/ udkatmifaZ,sonf toHoGif;pufBuD;udk qGJ0ifvmum
]aemufqHwif;vkdufwm bmawGajzcJhrSef;awmif rodygbl;}[kajymavonf/
qdkif;oHygaom aw;oHrsm;udk zGifhvdkufonf/ tcef;xJ wcef;vHk; arT;xHkoif;
ysHUaevsuf aw;oHuvnf; csdKcsdKomom oDqdkaeum usrSm NidrfhNidrfhanmif;anmif; vTJae
aom 'gef;ay:wGif wjznf;wjznf; idkufrsOf; tdyfaysmfoGm;onf/ usr wa&; tdyfaysmf
oGm;cdkuf ukvufpwef;vef; vlemrsm; tvQKdtvQKda&mufvmMuonf/ a':oef;cifESifh
aygufqDu usrudk,fpm; xGufNyD; awGYqHkvufcH ukoMuonf/
tdyf&mrSEdk;vmaomf &ifxJu tvHk;BuD;jyefNidrfoGm;vsuf tenf;i,f tm;jynfh
vef;qef;oGm;onf/ tjrefq;kH aeaumif;&ef ud,
k zf &d ifzd 0dik ;f jyKMurnfh a':oef;cifwt
Ykd rd f
odkY a&TU,loGm;&ef qHk;jzwfMuonf/
um;ay:odkYwGJwifum tdrfrStxGuf um;em;&yfaeaom cifav;jrifhwdkYem;odkY
a&csdK;cef;xJacsmfv
J rxEdik af omaMumif; zH;k zdajymxm;Muonfrh ;kd [de;f onf ywfw;D rsm;
pD;xGufvmaom ]aumif;oGm;ygNyD arar}[kvmajymonf/
eHeuf 7-em&DrSpNyD; nOfh 7-em&Dtxd olYtcsdefESifhol a&avmif; aq;wdkuf aq;
vl; tpmauR;ESihfa':oef;cifwdkY wtdrfom;vHk; usrtwGuf tvkyfrsm;aeMuonf/ uk
vufpwef;vef; vlemtkyfBuD;onf tdrfrSnTefvdkufNyD; a':oef;cifwdkYtdrfodkY wOD;NyD; wOD;
vdkufvmMuonf/
usrESifhawGYyg&ap awGYrSjzpfygrnf[k twif;awmif;yefaeaom vlemrsm;udk
tcef;xJrSxGufNyD; tawGYcH&onf/ tcef;xJrS vlaumif;vkyf xGufvmum vlemrsm;udk
aq;ukay;vkdufNyD; vlemrsm; jyefoGm;vQif usrrSm tcef;xJ0ifum vlrrm jyefvkyfae&
onf/
*Gwv
pfvrf;u tdrrf mS &ufrsm;rMumrD pay:wifxm;aomaiG oH;k vjynfah phawmh
avrnf/ tdrfrS cav;rsm; vkdufvmum tdrfwGif rae&Jojzifh a&SUquf pabmfaiGrwifbJ
tdrfajymif;&ef ylqmMuonf/ usru ukdatmifaZ,sukd tdrf&Smckdif;onf/ udkatmifaZ,s
rSm tdrfr&SmbJ ajrBuD;om&atmif usdwf&Smaeav\/ abmufaxmfjynfom,mvrf;
a&mif;rnfhajruGuf awGYcJhonf/ tdrfajymif;ae&aom 'kurS 0#fuRwf&ef ajr0,f&atmif
158

[ktwif;wku
d w
f eG ;f \/ ]b,frmS vJaiG}[kqv
dk u
dk
f olw
Y m0efxm; MuHzefaiG&mS Nyd; rjzpfjzpf
atmif tjrefqkH;tdrfaqmufrnf[k ajymavonf/
bPfwkdufrS aiGxyfacs;NyD; ajr0,fvkdufonf/ tkdifuavmif&GmrS vuform; 3
a,mufudk rSmum tdrfaqmuf&ef pkdif;jyif;avonf/ *Gwvpfvrf;utdrfrSm &ufaphvm
tdrfraqmufNyD;rDtwGif; acwtdrfiSm;aeMu&ef tdrfvkduf&Sm&jyefonf/ jynfom,mvrf;
ay:wGif vliSm;r&Sd ydwfxm;aom0efBuD;ocifyef;NrKdiftdrf&Sd acwae&ef oGm;iSm;onf/
]riSm;bl; a&mif;rnf}[kajymvku
d o
f nf/ usrrSm a':oef;cifwt
Ydk rd af &mufrS oufomaomf
vnf; tm;r&SdvSbJ tdyf&may:yif vlrrm jzpfaeao;onf/ acwajymif;ae&ef &kwfw
&ef tdrf&Smr& vlrrmvkyfae&if; pdwfaomu a&mufae&jyefonf/
0efBuD;ocifausmfxGef;wkduftm;rnfjzpfaMumif; owif;Mum;&\/ 0efBuD;ocif
ausmfxeG ;f udk wcgom awGb
Y ;l onf/ *syefjynf [D&&dk ;DS rm;aeYomG ;&efupd t
wGuEf iS zhf qyv
&k;H 0efBuD;ocifausmfxeG ;f udk oGm;awG&Y onf/ yxrtBudrf awGb
Y ;l jcif;jzpfonf/ ig;rdepf
cefYompum;ajymcJhbl;\/
0efBuD;ocifausmfxGef;rSm pum;enf;um rsufESmxm; wif;rmoa,mifa,mif&Sd
olYtdrfiSm;rSm r[kwfygbl;[kpdwftm; avsmhoGm;avonf/
0efBuD;ocifausmfxGef; wkdufudk uGif; teD;tem;w0kdufu wtdrfNyD;wtdrf &Sm
aomfvnf; b,ftrd rf rS tm;acs/ *Gwv
pftrd u
f a&TUay;&ef aemufq;Hk &ufaphvmav\/
0efBuD;ocifausmfxGef;tdrfudk iSm;vkdiSm;jim; ocifausmfxGef;xHodkY pma&;ay;vkdufonf/
usrrSm avmavmq,f tdrftwGuf 'kursm;aeyg tvkd&Sdaom tdrfvcudk ay;ygrnf
tdrfaqmufrNyD;rD acwiSm;yg&ef tpGrf;ukef awmif;yefa&;om;vkdufonf/
usrpdwfxJ b,fenf;ESifhrQ iSm;rnfr[kwbl;[kxifxm;\/ udkatmifaZ,s
jyefvmaomtcg usru ]]riSm;bl;[kwfvm;}}[k t&ifqD;ar;vkdufonf/
]]riSm;bl;. . . tdrfaqmufvkdY rNyD;rcsif; tvum;aeygwJh. . . }}
usrrSm txifESifhtjrif vGJacsmfae ocifausmfxGef;ay: tm;emoGm;onf/
0efBuD;ocifausmfxGef;wkdufokdY ajymif;onfhtBudrfrSm 27 Budrfajrmuf tdrfajymif;jcif;jzpf
onf/ tdrfaqmufNyD;vQif 28 Budrfajrmuf ajymif;&ef&Sdao;onf/ tdrfajymif;oGm;vQif
ukvufpwef;vef; vlemrsm;ukd todray; rjzpfjyefojzifh wm0ef&Sdonfhtwkdif; ,ck
wBudrw
f iG f aMumfjimc ESpcf gruke&f ef aemufq;Hk ajymif;rnft
h rd v
f yd pf mjzifh owif;pm aMumf
jima&;&onf/

159

E-book is created by www.shanyoma.org

*sme,f a usmf r rav;

E-book is created by www.shanyoma.org

jref r mh a q;ynm

aq;pm;aeaomvlemrsm;odkY
*Gwv
pfvrf;rS abmufaxmfjynfom,mvrf; jcHeyH gwf (8)odYk ajymif;a&TU&ygojzifh
vlemrsm; ae&mopfwGif vma&mufawGYEkdifygonf/
*sme,fausmfrrav;
usronf 0efBuD;ocifausmfxGef;\jcH0if;xJrS yef;O,smOfudkjrifvkduf MunfEl;
oGm;onf/ ESif;qDyef;rsm;\&eHYuvnf; oif;xkHaeonf/ aejcnfonf ,luvpfyifrsm;
udk ausmf a'vD,myef;yifrsm;ay:odkY ikdufnTwfusqif;vsuf aeonf/ ocifausmfxGef;
wkdufrSm 2 xyfwkduf jzpfonf/ usrwkdYtdrfaqmufrnfhjcHajruGufESifh odyfra0;vSay/
tm;tifjyefjynfu
h m usef;rmp&Sad o; atmufxyf&dS tcef;wcef; usrtwGuf
ae&mjyifMuonf/
abmufaxmfrSm ,cifu aecJhbl;aom t&yfjzpf udk,fh&yfukd,fhajrudkjyefa&muf
ouJo
h Ykd &Tiv
f ef;tm;wufomG ;onf/ rMumrD aqmufNyD;rnfu
h ,
kd yf idk t
f rd af y:odYk wuf&awmh
rnfhtwGuf ydkrkd tm;&SdoGm;onf/ wefcl;v0if aerSm wjznf;jznf; usJusJBuD; ylvm
aomfvnf; usraeaomtcef;rSm pdrf;aomopfyif&dyfrsm; 0kdif;&Hvsuf at;jraeonf/
abmufaxmfa&mufNyD; aemufwaeY eHeufpm pm;NyD; {nfhcef; xkdifaepOf jcHxJodkY
armfawmfum;wpD; 0ifvmonf/ um;ay:rS rsufESmpdrf;{nfhonfrsm; qif;vmMuonf/
]]a':rrav;qkdwm cifAsm;bJvm;}}[k touf 50 cefY&SdvlBuD;wa,muf par;
onf/
]][kwfygw,f}}
]]owif;pmxJ ae&maMumfjimawGYvkdYvkdufvmw? [dkajruGuf vuform;awGu 'D
tdrfrSmvkdY nTefvkdufvkdY vm;. . . vm;. . . q&mudk vlemu tckrSbJ awGYbl;w,f? usKyfudk rod
bl; rSwfw,f. . . }}
]][kwfuJh}}
usrrSm wcgrSrjrifbl; cyfpdrf;pdrf; Munfhaeonf/
]]usKyfayghAsm. . . *Gwvpfvrf;tdrfrSm cg;awmif;usKdufjywm wukd,fvkH;,m;em
awGrS &p&mr&Sdygbl;? cifAsm;ukvdkY aysmufoGm;wm? usKyftrJom;csnfhzdpm;awmh tdrfu
Elygvdrfhr,fvkdYajymw,f? cifAsm;rSmwJhtwkdif; vkyfwm tckawmh tm;vkH;aysmufoGm;vkdY
usKyfrdwfaqGvlemudk ac:vmcJhw,f Munfhay;ygtkH;. . . }}
olnTefjyaomvludk Munfhvkdufonf/ touf 60 cefY w&kyfvlrsKd;jzpfonf/ ESm
acgif;rsm;yGvsuf em;ESpfbuf xltef;aeum jzLazG;aomtom;ay: usyfjym;cefY&Sdrnfh
teDuGufBuD;rsm; qHusKd;waxmifhcefY xlaeNyD; wudk,fvkH; jAKwfxaeonf/
160

usru trSwfrxif q&mrsufpdESifhtemMunfhovkd vSrf;Munfhvkdufonf/ Munfh


ae&if; Munfhae&if; &ifxJ ,m;usdusdESifhtefcsifovkd rl;csifovkdvkd jzpfoGm;onf/ a&m
*gtajctaeppfum ar;jref;aepOf &ifxJ wvSyfvSyf jzpfvmonf/ onf;cH pdwfwif;
um ajymqkdae&onf/ aq;0g;"mwfpmESifhwuG nTefMum;csufrsm; a&;om;ay;aeonfrSm
em&D0ufcefYMumoGm;onf/ wcsdefxuf wcsdef &ifxJwGif wvSyfvSyf jzpfaeonfudk owd
xm;rdonf/
vlem{nfhonfrsm; xjyefoGm; xkdifae&mrS rwfwyfx&yfvkdufonf/ rkdufueJ
jzpfoGm;um aoG;rsm; tkd;vSJoGefvkdufouJhodkY jzpf rsufvkH;rsm; rSdwfxm;&onf/ usrrSm
wukd,fvkH; aoG;ukefoGm;ouJhodkYyif csufcsif; azsmhjzLoGm;onf/
a':oef;cifEiS ahf ygufqu
D kd tjreftac:vTw&f onf/ a':oef;cifrmS wjzpfawmuf
awmuf jzpfaeonf/
]]a':rrav;&,f. . . jzpfrSjzpf&av aeaumif;w,fqdkayrJh aoG;u jyefr&ifhao;
bl;? udk,fhrSm aoG;vefYNyD; aoG;ysufwJha0'em r[kwfbl;vm; udk,fraumif;wJhvlemawGeJY
awGYzdkYraumif;bl;ao;zl;? pdwfucdkifayrJh aoG;urS r&ifhao; rcdkifao;bJ}}
usrrSm tdy&f may:wGif vlrrm jyefjzpfomG ;jyefonf/ aygufqo
D nf ykq;kd wdw
k kd jyif
0wfum &SyftuFsDvufrsm; yifhwifvsuf ZvHkxJwGif aq;azsmfpyfavonf/
]]uJAsm. . . 'DaeY t&ifuvdk 9-cg jyefvl;r,fAsm. . . tckwcg vl;NyD; ajcmufawmh
a&pdrfr,fAsm}}
a&&Spfxrf;0ifonfh opfom; pnfydkif;BuD;xJ a'geyef;cufrsm; acRxnhfum
wudk,fvHk;jrKyfatmif a&pdrf&avonf/ a&pdrfae&if; tem; apmifhaeaom aygufqDu
awmufacgufvdkufonf/
]]oufomNyD;rS 'Dvdkjzpfvmwm emw,fAsm? 'DvdkjzpfrSmpdk;vdkY rjzpfatmif aq;awG
ydkvl;vmcJhwm}}
]]yufyif;BuD; wdk;aewm b,fES,fhvkyfrvJuG? rMunfhbJ rsufpdrSdwfxm;&rvm;}}
]]tJ'gcufwmaygh. . . aq;q&mvkyf&wm tckvkdqkdawmh rcufvm;}}
aq;q&mu igvkyfcsifvdkY vkyf&wm r[kwfzl;uG? t&yfucefYvdkY q&mjzpfaewm
aeraumif;vJ aeraumif;vdyYk gvkYd aeomwm r[kwb
f ;l ? olaY &m8gu ud,
k x
hf uf ta&;BuD;
vmwm igjzifh tbajymwmbJ owd&aew,f}}
]]bmvJAs. . . }}
]]ouFef;0wfawmh ouFef;cRwf,if vljyefjzpfao;w,f? aq;q&m odumcsvdkY
b,fawmhrSr&bl;wJh}}
161

E-book is created by www.shanyoma.org

*sme,f a usmf r rav;

E-book is created by www.shanyoma.org

jref r mh a q;ynm

a':oef;cifonf waeYv;kH apmif


h aq; 9-Budraf phatmif vl;ay;&onf/ xdak eY
twGuf vmMuorQvlemrsm; ]udkaygufqD}ESifh wqifhNyD;&onf/
udkatmifaZ,srSm vuform; 3-a,mufESifh tdrftjrefNyD;atmif aqmufae
onf/ oGyf&&ef? bdvyfajr&&ef wef;pD wdk;0,f&onf/ tdrf&dkufoHudk wydm 8-usyfEIef;
ESifharSmifcdkaps;wGif avQmuf&Sm0,faqmufae&onf/
pD;yGm;a&;wzuf? tdrfaqmufa&;wzuf vlrrmtwGuf wzufESifh Asmrsm;aeay
onf/ b0vHkNcHKrIESifh wm0eft&yf&yf ulnD xrf;yg&ap[k olY[mol apwem 0efxrf;
]abmfvHw&D}vmvkyfoljzpf tm;rem&awmhonf/
jyefaeraumif;uwnf;u tcef;xJu rxGufawmhbJ &if;ESD;aom vlemrsm;udk
tcef;xJyif aq;ukae&onf/ eHeuf 7-em&DwBudrf a&csdK;vsuf aq;vl;&jyefonf/
10 em&D xrif;pm; 12-em&DrS 1-em&Dtxda&pdrf&onf/ nae 3-em&D a&jyefcsdK;um
aq;vdrf;Mujyefonf/ nae 5-em&D wBudrf? 7-em&DwBudrf a&avmif;Mujyefonf/
odkYjzpfvQif wudk,fvHk; azmvmwwf razmatmif a&wGifwGif zdavmif;&onf/
usrrSm pdwfnpfnL;vmonf/ b,fawmhrsm;rS &Sif;&Sif;BuD;aeaumif;yghrvJ[k
pdwfr&Snfatmif jzpfvmonf/ "mwfynmoifNyD; 13-ESpfvHk;vHk; tdyf&may: 3-&uf
avmufyif wcgrSrvJb;l cJah y/ vlrrm pjzpfonfah eYukd a&wGuMf unf&h m? tdro
f ;kH tdraf jymif;
vsuf oHk;vxJa&mufvmNyD/ usef;rmpjyKNyD;rS jyefjzpfvmonfhtwGuf vlemawGESifha0;&m
odkYom xGufajy;csifawmhonf/
awmfb&k m;av;ZeD;]ar}ESix
hf yd pf jk rwfb&k m; axG;wdYk aq;,l&efaygufvmMuonf/
tdyf&mem;wGif pum;xdkifajymaecdkuf vlemrdef;cav; 0ifvmonf/ xdyfpkjrwfbk&m;axG;
u ]bma&m8gjzpfvdkYvJ}[kvSrf;ar;vdkufonf/
]]usrtysdKjzpfvmuwnf;u ig;ESpfvHk;vHk; aeYpOfaewdkif; "rwmjzpfaeygw,f?
q&mrsdK; pHk? aq;rsdK;pHkayrJh raysmufbl;? aeYpOf jzpfaewJhMum;xJu wcgwcg cav;ysuf
ovdk jrifraumif; &Iraumif;atmif aoG;oGeaf o;w,f? ig;ESpv
f ;kH vH;k b,frv
S J roGm;rvm
0Hhbl;&Sifh ig;ESpfvHk;vHk; pdwfqif;&JvdkufwmrS}}
xdyfpkjrwfbk&m;axG;u rsufESm&IHKU 0ifajymaeonf/
]]tr,fav;. . . oHk;av;&ufawmif b,favmufpdwfnpfp&maumif;vJ? ig;ESpfqdk
wm aocsifp&mBuD;}}
usrrSm vlemrdef;uav;udk ai;Munfhaeonf/
trBuD;eJY ukawmhrSbJ a&m8gaysmufoGm;awmhw,f? tckrSbJ rEav;wdkYjynfwdkY
bk&m;vnfzl;&awmhw,f? tckvJ c&D;xGufvnfrvdkY aq;vm,lwmyg}}
162

rif;wkef;rif; &Sifbk&ifvufxufu usrwdkY"mwfynm\ "mwfq&mBuD;jzpfaom


OD;ydo
k nf a0'emrsdK;udk vrf;Murf;Murf;wGif vSn;f Murf;ay:wGif wifarmif;apum uko
avaom xHk;&SdcJhonf/
rdef;cav;\a&m8gudk NrdKUywf&xm;ESifhukcJh&onf/ ]]NrdKUywf&xm;azmufwm?
a&m8gaysmufzdkY azmufay;wmbJ rSwfayawmh}}[kqdkum aeYpOf reufwBudrf? naewBudrf
NrdKUywfNyD;&xm;pD;cdkif;&onf/ pD;cdkif;pu a&m8gESifh b,frSroGm;vm&Jygbl;qdkae pD;
jzpfatmif tawmfem;csajyma[m&onf/ txdtawGrY aS e olEiS t
hf xdq;kH "mwfukd a&G;
ukcJhjcif;jzpfonf/ wvcefY aeYpOf&ufqufpD;jcif;jzifh oufomaysmufuif;oGm;jcif; jzpf
onf/
usrrSm vlemrde;f cav;udak i;Munfah eum ]ig;ESpv
f ;kH vH;k jzpfaewmawmifaysmuf
ao;wm ighrSm 3-v&Sdao;w,f bmjzpfvdkY raysmuf&rSmvJ}[kudk,fhudk,fudk jyeftm;ay;ae
rdonf/
a':oef;cifESifhaygufqDwdkY zdzdpD;pD; vkyfay; waeYwjcm; jyef oufomvm
onf/ usrrSm ]tawmtwGif; udk,fysufaeaom a0'emonfrsm;vnf; rvmMuygap
eJY}[k usdwfqkawmif;ae&onf/ tdrf&Sdvlrsm;vnf; rSmxm;onf/
wnaewGif udkatmifaZ,su tdrfwkdifxlvsuf rdk;umNyD; &kyfvHk;ay:vmaom
tdru
f av;udk vdu
k Mf unhyf g[kac:avonf/ abmufaxmf a&mufuwnf;u tdrx
f u
J wcg
rSrxGuaf o; ajrBuD;ay: avQmufcsifonfEiS hf tvSr;f ra0;vSaom tdraf qmufae&modYk
avQmufoGm;avonf/
tMurf;xnftrd yf o
kH Pmef ay;vmaom taqmuftOD;udMk unfv
h suf b0udak wG;
rdonf/ tdrfESifhajr twnfwusjyefjzpf&awmhrnfb0udk qifjcifawG;awmaepOf rdk;[def;
ajy;vdkufvmonf/
]]arar tdrrf {S nho
f nfawG a&mufaew,f? tmwD;,m;vrf;u q&mrBuD;a':cspf
&JUnDrawG vlemvJygw,f}}
vlemvJygw,fq
kd usru]]bm. . . vlem[kwv
f m;. . . }}ESihf usrEIwrf S wcGe;f pD wHq
Yk ikd ;f
wHkYqdkif; xGufoGm;onf/
ocifausmfxGef;wdkufodkYjyefavQmufvmcJhMuonf? {nfhcef;xJwGif q&mra':pdef?
a':abbDESifhtjcm;trsdK;orD;oHk;a,mufxdkifaeMuonf/ trsdK;orD;oHk;a,mufteuf
wOD;rSm tvGef0NzdK;vsuf apmifBuD;NcHKxm;um trsdK;orD;wOD;udk zufvsuf rsufpdrSdwfNyD;
rSDxm;onf/
]]a[m'Du usrwkdYtdrfem;u rdwfaqGawGygbJ? ausmrSm temyqkyfBuD;aygufae
163

E-book is created by www.shanyoma.org

*sme,f a usmf r rav;

E-book is created by www.shanyoma.org

jref r mh a q;ynm

vkdY q&m0efawGeJYukwm roufomygbl;? q&m0efubJ 'DtemrsKd;[m Armq&maumif;


aumif;eJY&SmukygvkdY ajymvkdufw,f. . . usr jrif;zkBuD; aysmufoGm;wm olwkdYodvkdY vkdufykdYyg
qkdvkdY vkdufydkY&ygw,f? wqdwf ukay;ygaemf. . . }}
wDudkqm;ESifhwdkYvkdufouJhodkY temyqkyf[kMum;vdkufonfESifhusrrSm wGefYoGm;av
onf/ a0'emoufompwGif usrvdkf a0'emrsdK;rSm b,fenf;ESifhrQ temrsdK;udkMunfh&ef
roifhawmfao; pdwfnpfoGm;onf/ ukrnfqdkvQif temudk aoaocsmcsm MunfhrSjzpf
rnf/ temyqkyf ausmvkH;ykyf qkdouJhokdY tem ykyf rykyf aocsmuse Munhf&ayrnf/
usrrSm ukd,fha0'emwzufESifh tMuyftwnf; qkdufaeonf/
]]usr rukyg&apeJ&Y iS }f }[kajymvku
d cf sifonf/ odaYk omf temrsdK;rSm rukEikd v
f Qif
aowmrsm;ojzifh vlemay:wGif u&kPmoufjyefonf/ usrudk tm;udk;vsuf tdrfwdkif,m
a&mufvmcJhMuNyD; rS usr vufrcHojzifh jyefoGm;&awmhrSmudkvnf; pdwfraumif;p&mjzpf
aeonf/
usrrSm a0cGJ r&Ekdifatmif jzpfvsuf &ifxJ zdkaeayonf/
]]uJ. . . vm. . . vm. . . q&mrudk jy&atmif}} a':abbDon fvlemudk vSrf;ajymum
wGaJ c:NyD; usra&SU xkid cf idk ;f onf/ apmifjh cKHukd z,f&mS ;um tusrsm; 0kid ;f yifrh aeMuonf/
usronf aoG;rckdifao;rSef; udk,fhudk,fudkod pdwfukd wif;vsuf tHBudwfxm;
onf/ vlemay: arwmaZm yGm;rsm;aqmufwnfvkdufum ukd,fhudk,fudk w&m;csvsuf
arwmyGm;ae&onf/
tvGefwrif; 0vGef;vS ausmjyifBuD;rSm omrefvlxuf 2 qavmuf&Sdonf/ t
usudk qGJyifh&if; vufoD;wqkyfavmuf temBuD;ay:vmonf/
]]Munfhygq&mr 'Dae&mw0kdufvkH; ndKykyfaewm usrwkdYuawmh jynfykyfawG aoG;
ykyfawG cJaew,fxifwmbJ. . . a[m'Dtaygufawmh aoG;awG jynfawG xGufaew,f}}
usrrSm yg;pyf[aeovkd yGifh[aeaomtem0rS aoG;ykyfjynfykyfrsm;udk aoao
csmcsm ukdifwG,fprf;oyfMunfh&onf/ Munfhae&if;. . . &ifxJu ,m;usdusd? aemufawmuf
awmufESifhtefcsifovkd rl;csifovkd jzpfvmum temudk Munfhaeaom rsufvkH;rsm;onf
csufcsif;tm;enf;oGm;onf/
]]tzsm;vJ 0ifaew,fq&mr? ukd,fawGvJ jcpfjcpfawmuf ylaew,f}}
tem\vuPmum; rMumrD ykyfawmhayrnf/ temrsKd;ykyfvQif b,fq&mESifh
ukrS r&awmhacs/
&ifxJ wvSyfvSyfjzpfvm pdwfudk wif;um OD;aESmufxJ temtwGuf txuf
qkH;"mwfudk csmvywfvnfatmif pOf;pm;,l&onf/ aq;0g;"mwfpmESifhwuG tvkH;pkHnTef
164

Mum;ajymqkdtNyD; tdrfa&mufa&mufcsif; a&avmif;&ef ajymvkdufonf/


]]odyfzsm;aew,fq&mr? jzpfyghrvm;}}[k vlem&Sifrsm;u ajymMuonf/
]]tem0ifcsifvkdY zsm;vmwm a&avmif;ay;EkdifrS 'Dtzsm; ajy;rSm &J&J0Hh0Hhavmif;
omavmif;yg? usrajymwJhtwkdif; wckrusef twdtusvkyfzkdY ta&;BuD;w,f}}
armoHygvmaomtoHjzpf usru BudK;pm;NyD; toHrysufatmif xdef;vsuf
jyefajym&onf/ armfawmfum;rsm; jyefxGufoGm; jcH0if;jyifokdYrS ra&mufrD aygufqDESifh
a':oef;cif\tra':cifMunftdrfokdY aygufvm usrrSm aygufqD\ykckH;udk uAsmu,m
vSrf;udkifvkduf&onf/ vlwukd,fvkH;&Sd aoG;rsm;rSm a&tkd;vSJarSmufoGefvkdufonhftwkdif;
tkdifxGef;arsmpD;oGm;avonf/
]]cifAsm; rMunhfeJY. . . rMunfheJY. . . rsufvkH; ydwfxm;Asm}}
aygufqDonf usrudk wGJxm;&if; url;&I;xkd;ajymaeonf/ usru rsufvkH;rSdwf
vkdufonf/
]]cifAsm;rsufvkH; rzGifheJYaemf? a&csKd;cef;xJa&mufwJhtxd rzGifheJY uRefawmfu zGifh
qkdrSzGifhAs}}
usrudk ok;H av;a,mufwv
JG suf a&csKd;cef;xJoYkd ac:oGm;Muonf/ aygufqo
D nf
ykq;dk wkw
d jdk yef0wfvsuf t&yfuav; rrSw
YD rSED iS ahf &cyfyufonf/ a& 10 cGuaf vmufavmif;
NyD;rS zGifh. . . zGifh. . . [katmfvkdufonf/
usrrSm udk,fhtm;ESifhudk,f rwfwwfyif r&yfEkdifawmh okH;av;a,mufu az;
udkifxm;Mu&onf/
apmapmu taumif;? temhyqkyfvufcsufjzifh tdyf&may: vlrrm jyefjzpfoGm;
&onf/
]]cifAsm;uvJAsm. . . q&m&ifhrmBuD; wa,mufvkH; vkyfNyD; od&JUom;eJY? tckaecg
rSm xdwfp&m vefYp&m pdwfnpfp&m ESvkH;rcsrf;omp&mawGudk MuyfMuyfa&Smif&r,f r[kwf
vm;/ 'DtemBuD; cifAsm;Munfhwm tHhyg&JUAsm}}
]]ajymawmhuGm. . . ajymawmh}}[k usru toHuav; ,Jh,JhESifhjyefajymvkdufonf/

7
tdraf qmufNyD;oGm; 0efBuD;ocifausmfxeG ;f wku
d rf S ajymif;Mujyefonf/ ESpq
f ,fh
&SpfBudrfajrmuf tdfrfajymif;jcif; jzpfonf/ tm;enf;NyD; armaeaom usrrSm vlwGJ tdrf
165

E-book is created by www.shanyoma.org

*sme,f a usmf r rav;

E-book is created by www.shanyoma.org

jref r mh a q;ynm

ay:okdYwufcJh&onf/
a&m*ga0'emtajctaetusKd;taMumif; jyefMuonfhvlemrsm;rSm wa,muf
wufwa,mufqif; jzpfaeonf/ usrrSm tdyf&may: wa,mufvmvQif wcgpOf;pm;
ajymae&onf/ temhyqkyv
f el mESi&hf rI 0armifMunfaqG vTwv
f u
dk af omyifv,fbufrS rsuf
pdwzuf uG,foGm; vmukaomvlemtjyif acsmif;qkd;aoG;yg vlemESpfa,muftwGuf t
a&;wBuD; tm&kHpkdufvsuf pOf;pm;ae&avonf/ a':oef;cifESifhaygufqDrSm usr rouf
omrcsif; aeYpOfvm Munfhae&onf/
tdraf &SUwHcg;acgufoMH um;um vlem{nfo
h nfrsm;a&mufvmMuonf/ aygufqrD mS
usrudk aq;vl;rnfjyKaeckduf vlemvm aq;cGufcsum olxGufoGm;onf/
]]cufygw,fAsm? uRefawmferYJ jzpfb;l As? olwu
Ydk cifAsm;udo
k m awGcY sifMuwm awGY
yg&apwJh ukvufp wef;vef;vkdYajymwmbJ}}
usronf tdy&f may:rSxvku
d u
f m rSew
f ifcaHk &SU oGm;&yfonf/ acgif;yGae a':
oef;cifu bD;ESifhoyfzD;ay;&if;. . . ]pum;udk jznf;jznf;ajymaemf? em;em;NyD;rS ajym}[k
a':oef;cifu rSmonf/
usrrSm vlaumif;wa,mufuJhodYk a`Erysuf {nfhcef;odkY xGufvmcJhonf/ a':
oef;cifESifhaygufqDwkdYrSm vkdufumaemufrSacsmif;aeMuonf/
&Ir0armifMunfaqG\tudk OD;pef;wifwkdYvifr,m;ESifh&Srf;jynfrS vlrrmrsm;jzpf
aeonf/
vkdufumaemuf acsmif;Munhfaeaom usrq&morm;rsm;u usr toHarmoH
ygvmvQif aygufqDonf *sif*smbD&mbdvyf&nfud kajy;azmufvsuf usrtem; vmcs
onf/
wa,mufNyD;wa,muf a0'emudk ppfaMum ar;jref;ae&aomusrrSm wxkid w
f nf;
a0'emrsKd;pkH jzpfaeonf/ pum;ajymae,if; acgif;xJ rl;oGm;vkduf &ifxJ eifwifhwifhESifh
MuyfwwfBuD;jzpfvmvkduf avoHrSm tm;aysmhoGm;jyef tm;jyef,lvkduf&ESifhtajctae
tawmfqkd;aeonf/
vlemrsm; jyefomG ;rSvu
dk u
f maemufrS a':oef;cifEiS ahf ygufqw
D Ydk ajy;xGuv
f mum
]vmAsm? vmAsm aq;vl;r,f}[kajymajymqkdqkd wGJac:Muonf/
]][ef[efao;awmhAsm? cifAsm;u a&SUu vlrrmawG xGuu
f ?k cifAsm;udk uRefawmf
wkdYu aemufujyefuk}}
aygufqDonf ajymNyD; [uf[ufyufyuf &,faeonf/
aq;vdrf;NyD; apmifawG txyfxyftkyfxm;Muonf/
166

tb"mwfq&mBuD; ruG,fvGefrD wvu usrudk yJcl;okdY ac:oGm;onf/ yJcl;rSt


jyef ol\"mwfynmudk tarGqufcHawmh[k vTJtyfay;NyD;aemuf. . . ]]ighorD;awmh yg;a&
wGeNYf yD; tr,ftBdk uD;jzpfaewmawmif aq;awmh ukae&rSmbJ}}[k ajymoGm;bl;onf/ usr
rSm apmifjcKHxJ tbudk owd&aeavonf/
]]awmif;yefyg&ap&Si?f usrcav;tBuD; jzpfwek ;f uvJ a':rrav;bJ ukay;wm
bJ? tckcav;u ti,fyg? tysif;zsm;NyD; wufaeygw,f? pum;wcGef; ESpfcGef;avmuf
awmh ajymcGifhay;yg&Sif? awGYyg&ap&Sif? wnifzufuawmif ul;vm&wmyg}}
usronf apmifjcKHxJ auG;aepOf tjyifcef;rS idkawmhrvkdajymaeaom toHudk
twkdif;om; Mum;&avonf/ idkoHygaeaom toHaMumifh usrrSm raeomawmhum aq;
rajcmufcif apmifrsm;vSyf aq;xGufuk&awmhonf/
usra&m*g raysmufEidk jf cif;udk waeYxufwaeY pdwrf &SnEf idk af tmif jzpfvmonf/
wcgw&H vlaumif;awGudk Munfhvsuf tm;i,fpdwf 0ifvmonf/
ueOD;u tem;,lcsifvSaom usrtjzpfudk jyef pOf;pm;rdonf/ tem;,lcgrS
tem&aeykHudk awG;rdavonf/ oufomoGm;NyD;rS jyefjzpf&onfwGif wa0'emwnf; r
[kwfawmhbJ a0'emtrsKd;rsKd; xlvmavonf/ 13 ESpfvkH;vkH; "mwftm;udk;vsuf Ekdifwkdif;
nOf;qJvmcJhrd\/ nvkH;ayguf rxwef;rtdyfbJ tvif;pma&;cJhonf/ tcsdefrrSefpm;
onf/ aeukefaecef; tanmif;xkdifonf/ aeYwkdif; a'gufcsmpkdif;vsuf tyifyef;cHcJhorQ
awGrSm tem;,lumrSyif xGefjzKwfvkdufaomEGm;uJhodkY acGusoGm;um a0'em&ckduf aemuf
qufwGJtukefpkukdifaeav\/
]]usrwkdY rSefwm vkyfaewm? bmylp&m&SdovJ aoG;awG b,fvkdoGefoGef aoG;tm;
enf;oGm;rSm bmrSaMumufp&m r&Sdbl;? tm;enf;&if waeYbJ? 'D"mwfawGeJY csufcsif; aoG;
tm;jyefjynfhvmwmbJ r[kwfvm;. . . tckae taMumif;rod&if a':rrav;udk MunfhNyD;
b,folu vlrrmvkdYxifrvJ azsmhjzLvJ raebl;? ydefcsKH;vJroGm;bl;? eukdtwkdif;bJ. . . ouf
omNyD;rSjyefjzpf&vkdY 'DavmufcHae&wmyg. . . }}
a':oef;cifu pdwf&Snf&ef tm;ay;aeonf/
tdro
f Ykd aeYpOfvmaeMuaom vlemrsm;xJwiG f tcsKdUrSm usr aeraumif;aeonfukd
vHk;vkH;rodMuacs? q&mvmyifhaom q&mvmyifhaom yk8dKvfwa,mufrSm rvdkufojzifh
pdwfqdk;oGm;onf/ om;tdrfa&m8gonf aq;&kHucs usrudk vmac:onf/
]]rvkdufEkdifygbl;&Sif. . . }}
]]bmjzpfvv
Ykd AJ sm aoawmhrq
hJ q
J jJ zpfaewJt
h oufwacsmif;yg cifAsm;q&m r[kwf
vm;? cifAsm;qDomG ;? cifAsm;uk&if csrf;omr,fvYkd aysmufwv
hJ u
l nTev
f u
kd v
f v
Ykd u
kd v
f mwmyg
167

E-book is created by www.shanyoma.org

*sme,f a usmf r rav;

E-book is created by www.shanyoma.org

jref r mh a q;ynm

vdkufygAsm. . . }}
]]usr aeraumif;ygbl; rvkdufEdkifygbl;}}[k usru jiif;vdkufonf/ usrudk r,Hk
ouFm rsufv;kH BuD;jzifh ajcqH;k acgif; qH;k Munh
f ]]cifAsm;u bmjzpfvv
Ykd AJ s}}[kppfaeonf/
]]aumif;umif; aeraumif;vdkYyg}}
ydkrdkr,HkEdkifavmufatmif rsufESmESifh ]'DrSmAs cifAsm; vdkcsifoavmufawmif;
usKyfwdkYay;r,f}[kqdkvdkufonf/
]]usr tckvel mawGukd ukaewm ukov
kd jf zpf ukay;aewmyg&Si?f b,fvel mqDurS
ydkufqHwjym;rSvufrcHygbl;/ vlemqDu q&m0efawG ydkufqH,l&&if usrolaX;jzpfaewm
MumvSygNyD}}[kqdkvdkufrS toHaysmhoGm;onf/ xdkyk8dKvfrSm usraeraumif;jcif;udk r,HkbJ
rvkdufcsifom[k xifum xjyefoGm;onf/
&if;ESD;aomaqGrsdK;rsm;u aeraumif;bl;od ]q&mvkyfNyD; aeraumif;aeo
vm;}[kaemufonf/ ]q&mvkyaf evdYk emwm&Snaf e&wmAs? q&mom rvky&f ifMumvSNyD ae
aumif;aewm}[k aygufqDu a'gESifh rmefESifh jyefajymvkdufonf/
temyqkyfvlemrdef;cav;onf olYnDrESifhtwlvmMuonf/ a&m8gaysmufuif;
csrf;omoGm; ydkufqHvufrcHbl;owif;jzifh rkefYoawm? axmywfbl;rsm; ,lvmwm
xkdkifuefawmhavonf/
usrrSm wudk,fvHk;aq;vdrf;xm; apmifNcHKBuD;ESifhxdkifuefawmhcH&if; ukay;wJh
vlemu aysmufoGm;NyD; q&mu raysmufEdkifao;onfudk jyHK;vdkufrdonf/ olYtwGuf q&m
b,favmuf oGufoGufvnfatmif 'kursm;cJhonfudk oluawmh rodacs? aus;Zl;wif
aMumif; ajymaeavonf/
]]tdrfeD;em;csif;awGu usrwdkYtdrfudkMunfhNyD; 'Dtdrfawmh b,faeYidkoHMum;&rvJ
apmifhMunfhaewm b,folurS usrudk &Sifr,f rxifbl;? aumvdyfausmif;u a'gufwm
a':oif;MunfwdkYu usrudkaorSmbJvdkYxGufxm;wm tckawmh odyftHhMoaeMuw,f}}
tHhMornfqdkvnf; tHhMoEkdifayonf/ olYtemBuD;udk EGm;acs;rsm;jzifh tHk ukcJh
onf/ EGm;acs;qdkvQif roefY&Sif; tqdyfjzpfrnf[kxifMuonf/ temrykyf&ef vlaumif;
yg;pyfxJu usdK;aom oGm;rsm;udk &Smcdkif;um wacsmif;NyD; wacsmif; aoG;wdkufcJhonf/
temyqkyfa&m8gwdkif; aq;enf;ESifhraysmuf? olY"mwfESifholudkufatmif ay;Edkifom
aq;jzpfNyD; aysmuf&avonf/
usr oufomNyD;rS olYaMumifh vlrrmjyefjzpfcJhum vlrrmb0ESifh olYtemBuD;
raysmufaysmufatmif tdyf&may:rS ukaecJh&\/ temtwGuf aeYpOf acgif;yl pdwfarmcJh
&avorQ ,ckrS pdwfcsrf;omoGm;avonf/
168

usrudk r&Sdcdk;bJ EGm;udkom xdkif&Sdcdk;bdkY aumif;aMumif; &,farmajymvkdufonf/


olwkdYxjyefoGm;NyD; rD;&xm;bufrS rD;&xm;rif;BuD; OD;omqifuawmf ]jrifh}
aygufvmonf/
]]rra&. . . rra&m8g &xm;udk tdrfvkyfNyD; MumMumpD;&&if jrefjrefaysmufr,fajym
wm rrawmh &xm;pD;&NyD? jrifw
h w
Ykd ywfavmuf c&D;xGu&f r,f? ysOf;rem;? awmifwiG ;f BuD;?
rEav;? rHk&Gm? arNrdKUqdkawmh &xm;u wywfavmuf avQmufckwfae&rSm? &xm;ay:rSm
wywfvHk;ae&rSm rr. . . vdkufcJh}}
usrrSm NrdKUywf&xm;ESifh ukocJhaomrdef;cav;udk owd&vdkufum 0rf;omtm;&
][efuswmbJ}[kajymvdkufonf/ vlemawGtwGuf tukefrSmMum;xm;cJhum n 8-em&D
rxdk;rSD blwm&kHodkY qif;oGm;avonf/
aeYnrem; ckwfaeaom &xm;ay:wGif ig;&ufajrmufaomaeYwGif vGefaeaom
"rwmrSm &Sif;&Sif;BuD; &yfoGm;avonf/ ]jrifha& rr aeaumif;ygNyD}[kajymvdkuf jrifhrSm
&TifjrL;oGm;&Smonf/
wywfausmfrS &efuek o
f Ykd jyefa&mufvmonf/ jyefa&mufNyD; aemufwaeYeeH ufapm
apm tdyf&mrS xvdkufonf/
tdraf emufbufNcHraS ea&mifjcnfxw
J iG f yef;yGirhf sm;udjk rif&av\/ pdr;f pdak om opf
yifrsm;ay:wGif aus;iSuu
f av;awG wyifEiS w
hf yif ul;um aysmfjrL;aeMuavonf/ eHeuf
apmapm atmf[pf oGm;aom aps;onfrsm;\toHrsm;udk woHNyD;woH Mum;vdu
k &f onf/
ta0;rS tdraf qmufae&mqDu vuform;rsm; &ku
d Ef u
S af eaom wloH aqmuforH sm;vnf;
wnHnHxGufvmMuonf/ tdrfa&SU tdrfab;w0dkuf&Sd um;8dka'gifxJrS um;rsm;udk xkwfum
wkdufcRwfaq;aMumaeMuonf/
usronf rSecf akH &SU oGm;&yfvu
kd u
f m acgif;NzD;vdu
k o
f nf/ acgif;NzD;NyD; a&oGm;csdK;
um t0wftpm;vJaeonf/ rSefcHka&SU jyifqifaeaom usrukdawGY udkatmifaZ,srSm
tHhtm;oifhoGm;onf/
]]apmapmpD;pD; b,foGm;rvdkYvJ [if}}
]]tvkyfqif;rvdkY}}
]][m. . . r[kwfwm. . . tckrSusef;rmvmwm tem;,lygtHk;}}
]]tr,fav;av;. . . r,lyg&apeJ? aMumufvSygNyD awmfygawmh}}
tvkyfroGm;bJ tem;,lrd tdyf&may: tem&um tcsdeftuefYtowfr&Sd?
rdk;vif;u rdk;csKyf vlemawGESifh wESpfeD;yg; ebrf;vHk;aeaomb0udk aMumufoGm;rdonf/
]]Nidr;f Nidr;f aeygtH;k ? tvkyq
f if;&wm yifyef;ygw,f? wa,mufxJ vkyaf e&wmjzpf
169

E-book is created by www.shanyoma.org

*sme,f a usmf r rav;

jref r mh a q;ynm

E-book is created by www.shanyoma.org

wmbJ/
]]Nidrf;Nidrf;aecsifayrJh Nidrf;Nidrf;ae&wJh Zmwmr[kwfbl;? b0udku Nidrf;Nidrf;rae
&wJb0}}
eHeuf 9-em&DwGif tvkyfwdkufodkYxGufvmMuonf/ tvkyfwdkuf 2-wdkufjyef&Sd
wa,muf wwdkufpD vkyfr,f[kwm0efcGJ,lvdkufonf/ bm;vrf;xJ&Sd rrav;ukrPDwdkuf
cef;a&SUwGif usrudk csxm;cJhum udkatmifaZ,sonf taemf&xmvrf;yHkESdyfwdkufodkY quf
armif;oGm;onf/
a&S;,cifuJhodkY tvkyfqif;vmaomyHkpHESifh jzwfjzwfvwfvwf avSum;udk eif;
wufcJhum tvkyfpm;yGJ xdkifvkdufNyD; reufxGufrnhfowif;pmrSD&ef pm&Gufw&GufqGJum
usrudk awGEY ikd rf nfah e&mESit
hf csdeu
f kd vlemrsm; odap&ef aMumfjimaumufa&;vdu
k af vonf/

170

ZD0dwESifh? 'gejzpfatmif? BuHaqmifapom;/


orm;t&m? t8Fg&Spfwef? usrf;8efaq;pm vuPmvnf;?
jrifumodap? aA'if Zmwm N8dK[fvmoufa&muf? awG;axmufEkdif
aMumif;? olawmfaumif;ESi?hf aygif;rdap&m? NrJopmjzih?f oDvmEkwd?
pm8&S d a p? rsm;a0ae0,f ? tE & m,f v nf ; ? aysmuf y ,f a pjim;?
&if0ifom;od?Yk wd;k yGm;arwm? 8&kPma&SUxm;? ryGm;avmb? y&vmab
enf;ygap&Si/hf

171

E-book is created by www.shanyoma.org

*sme,f a usmf r rav;

jref r mh a q;ynm

E-book is created by www.shanyoma.org

"mwfudk "mwfapmifhonf
aemufaemufu a&eHajrokdY wacgufrS usr ra&mufbl;ay? acsmufNrdKUrS jynfolY
a&eHvyk if ef;t&m&Sd OD;at;\om;? armifjrifah qG toJtoefjzpfae vlemMunf&h ef a&eH
ajrodkY usr oGm;a&mufcJhjcif;jzpfonf/
acsmufNrdKUodkY um;t0ifta0;rSvSrf; rdk;ajrmfoHjirf;pifBuD;rsm;udk awGYvkduf
onf/ ukef;jrifhukef;apmif; csdKifh0Srf;wdkYwGif [dkw0dkuf [dkwauGY oHjirf;pifBuD;rsm;udk p
awGYjrif&ojzifh usrrSm EdkifiHjcm; NrdKUwNrdKUodkYa&muf&SdoGm;ouJhodkYyif rSwfxifcHpm;rdawmh
onf/
NrdKUt0if vloHvloHrsm; rMum;&? oHNidrf;pifrsm;atmufrSwNidrfhNidrfh vIyf&Sm;ae
aom armif;wHarmif;vufBuD;rsm;ESifh w&SD;&SD; jrnfatmf vnfywfaeaom pufoHrsm;udk
p Mum;&onf/ um;ay:rS t&yfav;rsufEmS udMk unhv
f u
kd o
f nf/ b,fuMkd unhMf unhf NrdKU\
toa&udk aqmifxm;aom a&eHwl;a&eHpkyfonfh oHNidrf;pifrsm;? a&eHavSmifaom oHuef
BuD;rsm;? ydkufvkH;rsm;? puf&kHawGrSxGufaeaom rD;cdk;wvlvlwdkYonf usr rsufpdESifhrvGwf
bJ ae&mwdik ;f &Sad eMuonf/ 1300-jynfEh pS u
f "e&Sief ,fcsJUpepfukd qefu
Y sifvsuf oydwf
vufeufjzifh wdkufyGJ0ifum trsdK;om;vGwfvyfa&;vIyf&Sm;rIBuD;udk wjynfvHk;ysHUESHatmif
jyKvkyfcJhMuaom a&eHajroydwftvkyform;xkBuD;\csDwufvmyHkudk jrifa,mifum owd
w&& jzpfrdonf/
OD;at;\tdro
f q
Ykd u
kd af &mufomG ;onfEiS yhf if acsmufNrdKUrSvel mrsm;onf usr vm
rnfod 0dkif;zGJYum apmifhaeMuonf/
usrrSm tdrx
f J tdy,
f may:wGif a&m*goJaeaom tdrw
f iG ;f vlrrmarmifjrifah qG
udk uko&onfuwzuf? tdrfjyifu pka0;apmifhqdkif;aeMuukefaom tjyifvlemrsm;udk w
OD;NyD;wOD; vufcHawGYqkHMunfh&Iukoay;&jcif;wzufESifhxrif;pm;csdef? tdyfcsdefuav;yif
usr em;Ekdifaomtcsdefr[kwfbJ jzpfaeonf/ xrif;pm;csdefvGefaeonhfwdkif tdrfjyifrS
vlemawGESifh awGYqHkaeaom tvkyfudk &yfem;ypf r&? ae&mrSxr&? vlemawG pJukefrS
xrif; xpm;Edkifonf/ xrif;pm;aecdkufwGif vlemrsm; wa,mufNyD; wa,mufNyD; tvQdK
vQdKa&mufvmvdkufMuonfrSm tdrfa&SU&Sd uE jzif;atmuf tpkta0;BuD;jzpfvmonf/
aexGurf aS e0if rd;k csKyfomG ;onftxd usrrSm pm;yGw
J cHk ukvm;xdik w
f vH;k ESix
hf ikd v
f suf vm
orQaomvlemrsm;udk "mwfay; aq;ay; jyKvkyaf e&onf/ vlemwdik ;f udk nTeMf um;csufrsm;
vlwud,
k f oH;k av;&Guf a&;ay;&aomtvkyu
f rdk l usr rwwfEikd yf g/ acsmufNrdKU jynfoaYl &eH
172

vkyfief;tvkyform; armifatmifNrdKifu vlemwOD;twGuf usrEIwfrS&Gwfqdkay;orQudk


pm&Gurf sm;jzifh w&GuNf yD; w&Guf vku
d af &;ay;onf/ usrud,
k w
f ikd f a&;om;ay;&rnfqv
kd Qif
vlpkvla0;BuD;udkMunfh 0wK&Snfwyk'fpmavmuf a&;&awmhrnf[k usr xifrdonf/
tdr&f iS af wGrmS waeukeaf e&mrS rxwef;jzpfaeaom usrudk tm;emaeMuonf/
waeYv;kH nzufou
Ykd ;l oGm;onf/ nzufa&mufvmaom vlemrsm;rSm olwu
Ykd kd ukocsdeaf y;&ef
qdkif&Sifudk 0ef;0dkif;awmif;yefaeMuonf/
]]q&mr&,f tcsdefvJr&Sdbl;? tm;vJ emyg&JU? rvTJomwJhvlawG jzpfaeawmh Munhf
ay;ygtHk;}}
usrudk ulnDaeaom armifatmifNrdKifrSm yef;aeaom usrudk tm;emaeonf/
nyg quf&awmhonf/
&[ef;? oHCm? a,musfm;? rde;f r? cav;oli,faygrsm;vSonfah 0'emonfh a0'em
onfawGrSm aeYn rpJawmhay? aemufwaeYwGif tdrfa&SUuEm;jzif;atmufwGif vlrqHh
wnf;tdrf&Sifu wzuftdrfaemufaz;ae&mvGwfwGif pm;yGJcHkwef;vsm;rsm; cs ae&mopf
wck vkyfay;onf/ vlemawGtwGuf usro,f,loGm;aom aq;owmrSm vlwdkif;aph aq;
ray;Edik af cs/ a&eHacsmif;odq
Yk ufp&m&So
d jzifh aq;ykvif;rsm; cGaJ 0ay;&onf/ aq;ykvif;
ay;olrSm vufrvnfatmifjzpfaeonf/
waeYv;kH anmifcsnfh armyrf;vsuf ajcukev
f ufyrf;usoGm; tdy,
f may: tdyf
csifrl;wl;jzpfaepOf tdrfwGif;rSvlrrmu a&m*gazmufvQif azmufvmovkd tdyf,mrSajy;
qif;um a0'emcHom oufomoGm;ap&ef "mwfudkMuH&q&jcif;jzifh acgif;vnf; yl&onf/
&ifvnf; yl&onf/ ukd,fwdkif rIdif;qifrIdif;wdkuf oufomatmif jyKpkay;&onf/
,if;odkY tdrfwGif;vlem tdrfjyifvlemrsm;jzifh aeYrem; nrem; pdwfa&m udk,fygyif
yef;vsuf tm;tifuek cf rf;oGm;oavmuf oH;k &ufajrmufaomaeYwiG f armifjrifah qGoufom
csrf;omoGm;NyD; acsmufNrdKUrSa&eHacsmif;odkY c&D;quf&jyefonf/
{&m0wDjrpfurf;yg;ay: wnf&Sdaeaom a&eHacsmif;NrdKUodkYt0if ]BudKqdkyg\}qdk
aom pmwrf;BuD;udv
k rS ;f jrifvu
kd &f onf/ awmifurlawmifMum;wdYk aqmufvyk x
f m;aom
oHjirf;pifBuD;rsm;ESifhwuG wa&GUa&GU vIyf&Sm;aeMuaom armif;wHBuD;rsm;? ydkufvdkif;BuD;
rsm;? a&eHavSmif oHuefBuD;rsm;udk ae&mwdkif; awGY&jyefonf/ a&eH&Icif;udk acsmufNrdKU
pwif jrifb;l cJo
h jzifh tqef;jyefrjzpfaomfvnf; w&S;D &S;D atmfvnfaeMuaom armif;
wHrsm;ESifh puf&kHBuD;rsm;onf usrudk toHxGufum qD;BudKaeMuonf/
]]BudKqdkyg\rrav;a&. . . yef;aytHk;awmh? armaytHk;awmh &SD;&SJ. . . &SD;&SD;. . . }}
a&eHacsmif;odrYk a&mufz;l a&eHacsmif;ol a':a':csdKudk usrESit
hf wlac:cJo
h nf/
173

E-book is created by www.shanyoma.org

*sme,f a usmf r rav;

E-book is created by www.shanyoma.org

jref r mh a q;ynm

wnf;cd&k eftwGuf a':a':csdKu pDpOfay;onfrmS &efuek rf S tdik pf t


D ufO;D ydik \
f ESr a':a':
wif\wdkufjzpfonf/
a':a':wif\ESpx
f yfwu
kd Bf uD;rSm us,f0ef;vSonf/ atmufxyfwxyfv;kH rSm {nfh
cef;aqmifjzpfonf/ {nfhcef;xJ&Sd rsm;vSpGmaomukvm;xdkifpm;yGJwdkYrSm aysmufaeo
avmuf {nfhcef;BuD;u us,f0ef;vSonf/ vlq,fa,mufcefY wef;pD tdyfEdkifaom uGyf
ypfBuD;ESpv
f ;kH rSm zdwzf w
d af wmufaeaom aq;a&mifwjYkd zifh ESpv
f ;kH ,SOw
f NJG yD; cscif;xm;ao;
onfhwdkif {nfhcef;BuD;rSm ae&mus,f0ef;wkef;yif/ c&D;a&mufrqdkuf NrdKUay:rSoHCmawmf
q&mawmfrsm; a&S;OD;pGm <uvm aq;ukMuonf/
usr a&mufaMumif; owif;jzifh em&Dydkif;twGif;wGif NrdKUay:rSvlemawG wjznf;
jznf; rsm;vmonf/ a0'emtrsdK;pHkvSonf/ tcsdKUudk,fraumif;aom a0'em&SifawG
vnf; ygonf/ udk,fysufaom a0'em&Sifrsm; wdkufxJ0ifum aq;ukvmMuonfhtwGuf
tdrf&Sifrsm; pdwfrSoefYygrnfvm;[ktm;emrdonf/
wjznf;jznf; vlawGrsm;vmawmhonf/ a&eHacsmif;NrdKUay:rSusr\aq;0g;"mwf
pm pm;olrsm;rSm vlig;q,fcefY&Sdonf/ usrrSm xdkyk8dKvfrsm;udk rjrifzl;bJ ta0;rSpmESifh
vSr;f ukaeolrsm;jzpfonf/ xdv
k il g;q,fcefrY w
S qifph um; wqifMh um;um c&D;a&mufrqdu
k f
waeYwnf; vlw&meD;yg; jzpfvmonf/
acsmufNrdKUuJhodkYyif pm;yGJwvHk;? ukvm;xdkifwvHk;ESihfoHrIdpGJxm;bdouJhodkY ae&mrS
rxEdkif&Sd&awmhonf/ vlawGtHk0dkif;aeMuum rwwfomvGef; awmif;yefum a&xcsdK;&
onf/ vlemrsm;twGuf nTefMum;vTm a&;ay;&ef usr rwwfEdkif NrdKUay:rSausmif;
q&mra':OD;aru uln
D a&;ay;onf/ a':OD;arrSm acgif;raz:Edik af wmhbJ vuftaH o
vmonf/
n 8-em&DcefYwGif tdrf&Sifrsm;u wdkufwHcg;ydwfvdkufonf/ nzuf vlpdrf;olpdrf;
wdkYudk vufrcHawmhbJ &if;eD;onfholrsm;om rwwfom ukay;&efajymqdkonf/
a&eHacsmif;odkY a&mufonfhaeY nzufwGif tdyf,may:wGif usr tarmBuD; arm
aeonf/ ajcukefvufyef;usyHku cHEkdifygao;\/ pdwfyef;usoGm;yHkrSm ,aeYawGYqHkvdkuf
&aom vlw&mausmf\a0'emtrsdK;rsdK;onf usrud,
fk f ul;pufusef&pfbo
d uJo
h Ykd &Sad wmh
onf/
aemufwaeY rdk;vif;vQifvif;csif; usr a&csdK;aeckduf atmufxyfwGif vlemawG
wyHkBuD; apmifhaeMuNyD jzpfaMumif; od&onf/ usrrSm tjrefqHk; t0wfvJvsuf tdrfay:rS
qif;cJhum vlemawGudk wOD;NyD;wOD; vufcHNyD; awGY&onf/xdktcdkuf tdrf&SiftrBuD;rsm;u
usrudk vufwdkY vlemawGtv,frS xrif;pm;cef;xJodkY ac:xkwfvmMuonf/
174

]]'DrSm ESpf&ufuav; aeEdkifrJhOpm? 'gavmuf vlrsm;yHktwdkif;omqdk,if rrav;


'DNrdKUay:u bk&m;zl;bl;awmhrmS r[kwb
f ;l ? a[m'D ab;aygufu tomxGu?f paeeHb&k m;
vdkufydkYr,f}}
]]vlemawG b,fES,fhvkyfrvJ}}
usru vltkyfBuD;udk tm;emonfhtoHjzifh ajymonf/
]]udk,fu {nfhonf olwdkYu apmifh&rSmayghvm-vm}}
a&eHacsmif;NrdKUrSpaeeHbk&m;onf tdrfa&SUvlemawG xm;cJhNyD; ab;aygufrS vl
rodatmif vpfz;l cJ&h aombk&m;jzpfavonf/ bk&m;rStjyef apmifah eMuonfv
h el mrsm;rSm
wkdufESifhwvHk;jzpfaejyef vlpkvla0;BuD;udkMunfhvsuf toufudk b,fvdk&SL&rSef; rod
atmifjzpfoGm;rdonf/ usr ,lcJhaomaq;owmrsm;rSm vlemawG aphiSatmif ray;Edkif
acgif;cJvmonf/ tcuftcJudk tdrf&Sifrsm;u 0ifajz&Sif;ay;onf/ aq;owm
rsm;udk zGifhvsuf xrif;pm;cef;xJ&Sd pm;yGJcHk&SnfBuD;ay:wGif pDwifMuonf/
tdrfa&SU{nfhcef;BuD;xJwGif usrESifhawGYqHkNyD; ukovkdufaom vlemonf nTefMum;
csuf pm&Gufrsm;xJwGif yg0ifaom aq;udk 0,f,l&eftwGuf pm&Gufudkif xrif;pm;cef;
zufodkYoGm;&onf/ xrif;pm;cef;xJ yg0ifaom tdrf&Sifrsm;u aev-"mwfcGJxm;onfh
tnGef;pm&Gufudk Munfhaq;ay;rnfjzpfonf/ vlq,fhESpfa,mufpm pm;yGJcHk&SnfBuD;ay:
wGif aq;ykvif;rsm; tjynfhwifxm;onf/ vlemwdkif;tm; tnTef;pm&Gufygtwkdkif; aq;
ykvif; tpHkray;Edkif vlwudk,f wykvif;om ay;rnf/ usefaq;rsm;udk &efukefu tjref
ydkYay;rnf/ xdktpDtpOfudk vkyfMuonf/
{nfhcef;rS xrif;pm;cef;odkY aq;,l&ef 0ifMurnfhvlemrsm;rSm vltkyfBuD;jzpfae
onf/ aq;ykvif;xm;aomxrif;pm;cef;xJoYkd olx
Y ufigt&ifO;D atmif a&muf&eftwGuf
twif;wdk;aeMuonf/ b,fvdk arwm&yfcH awmif;yefrSr&bJ wdk;a0SYaeMuyHkrSm &kyf&Sif
&kHwdk;onfhtwdkif; qlnHaeMuonf/ usrESifhausmif;q&mra':OD;arrSm xkdvltkyfBuD;udk
vSnfhrQ rMunfhtm;ay/ pm;yGJckHa&SU ckHab;wkdY 0kdif;tkH aeMuaom vlemwdkYudk wOD;NyD;
wOD; vufcHuko nTefMum;csufrsm; a&;aeMu&onf/
]]usr aomufaq;bJ &w,f? aq;rIefY r&bl;}}
]]usKyfudk oHk;ykvif;AsdKU? uRefawmfaq;r&,if rjzpfbl;AsdKU}}
toHrsm;onf wOD;pDrS xGufay:vmjcif;r[kwf? vlYtrsm;pkNydKifwludk,fvdk&m
ud,
k f atmf[pfawmif;qdq
k n
l aH eMuaom toHAvHrsm;jzpfum wdu
k o
f jH zifh [de;f nHaeonf/
tcef;xJoYkd wOD;NyD;rSwOD;0if&ef wef;pDxm;aom pepfuzkd sufMuvsuf aq;r&vdu
k rf mS pd;k
olYxufig a&SUa&mufatmif nmoHay;um wdk;aeMuonf/
175

E-book is created by www.shanyoma.org

*sme,f a usmf r rav;

E-book is created by www.shanyoma.org

jref r mh a q;ynm

]]cifAsm;wdkY 'Dvdkwdk;vdkYb,fjzpfrvJAs? cifAsm;wdkY 'Dvdkwkd;,if wykvif;rSray;bJ


ydwfypfvdkufr,f}}
tcef;0wGif wm0efus apmifh&aomolu wdk;a0SYaeaomvltkyfBuD;udk rEdkif
atmf[pf[efYwm;aeonfhtoHBuD;rSm usrem; rdk;csKef;aeonfhtwdkif;yif/
usrpm;yGJa&SUrS vlemwOD;u qdk\/
]]uRefawmfwdkY 'Dvdky&dowfeJY 'DvdkArmq&mrsdK; rMuHKbl;ygbl;Asm? a&eHacsmif;u
a'gufwmawG vlrsm;vSNyD atmufarhwm q&mru pHcsdefcsdK;oGm;wmyJ}}
tdrf&Sifrsm;rSm rsufvkH;0kdif;aeMuonf/ y&dowfESifhaq;ESifhrrQ rauseyfoHwkdY
rSmvnf; yGufavmnHaeMu vefYp&myif aumif;vmonf/ wHcg;apmifh wm0ef,lolrSm vl
emawGudk rEkdifawmh wHcg;ydwfypfvkdufonf/ usrrSm ae&mrSxum vlemtkyf vlpkvla0;
BuD;udk NidrMf u&ef rwk;d Mu&ef wa,mufNyD;rSwa,muf wef;pDMu&ef arwm&yfc&H awmhonf/
rQwatmif aq;a0ay;um r&&So
d rl sm;udk tjrefq;Hk ydaYk y;ygrnf[ak wmif;yef&onf/ b,f
tcsdefu ae0ifoGm;rSef;vnf; rod? rD;rsm;vif;rS rkd;csKyfrSef;odawmhonf/ tdrf&SiftrBuD;
wkdYonf usrudk uufeufpdefZmwfyGJjy&ef zsm0,fNyD;jzpf rapmifhEkdifawmhbJ oGm;ESifhMu&
awmhonf/ usrrSm 0kdif;0kdif;vnfaeaom vlemrsm;ESifhusef&pfcJhonf/ n 9 em&DcefYrS &kHxJ
odkYa&mufoGm;onf/ uufeufpdef b,fZmwfcif;rSef;yif rMunfhEkdifbJ r[efEkdifatmif arm
yef;aejcif;aMumifh apmifwckqGJum acgif;NrD;jcKHvsuf Zmwf&kHxJ tyef;ajz&onf/
rdk;vif;rS Zmwf&kHu jyefum a&csdK;NyD; a&eHacsmif;rSjyefxGufcJhonf/

2
&efukeftjyef&xm;ay:wGif vlemtkyfBuD;udk rsufpdxJrSrxGufbJjzpfaeonf/ xdk
vlpkvla0;ESifh wqufwnf; twdwfrSvlpkvla0;BuD;udkvnf; jyefjrifa,mifrdonf/
atmifvNH rdKU jrLeDpyD ,f&;Hk cef;xJwiG f eHeuf 8-em&DrS natmufvif; "mwfr;D xGe;f
NyD; wnvHk;u aemufwaeYeHeufoHk;em&Dtxd rpJEdkifaom vltkyfBuD;/ [oFmwNrdKU a':jr
wdu
k f n 8-em&DrS eHeuf3-em&Dtxd wnvH;k vH;k rd;k vif;vkvk rpJEikd af om vlpv
k ak 0;BuD;/
jzL;NrdKU w&kyfbkHausmif;BuD;xJ waeukef waecef; rpJEdkifaomvlemrsm;/ armfvNrdKif bl
176

wm&kH y&dwfowf xdkifp&mae&mr&Sd ausmif;q&mra':xGef;artdrfodkYoGm;pkMuNyD; n


7-em&Dro
S ef;acgifausmf aemufwaeYquf aeYw0uf tHck aJ eaomvltyk ?f awmifwiG ;f BuD;
odkY pmay a[majymyGJ toGm; awmifwGif;BuD; AdkvfwJay: rsm;vSpGmaomvlemrsm;/
usr c&D;xGuo
f mG ;aom a&mufav&mt&yfwYkd awGBY uHK&aom vlpv
k al 0;BuD;rsm;
yg aygif;pyf jrifa,mifrdaeonf/ Armh"mwfynmudk 1947-ckESpfrSpoif,lNyD; 1951ckEpS af vmufrpS 8-ESpcf efY aev0dZm q&mcdik \
f aq;rsm;jzifh vlemrsm;udu
k o
k ay;cJo
h nf/
15-ESpfcefY q&morm;aq;rsm;jzifh vlemrsm;udk ukoay;NyD;aemuf tb"mwfq&mBuD;
q&mvIdif uG,fvGefoGm;rS usraq;udk usrudk,fwdkifazmf vlemawGudk ukoay;jcif;jzpf
onf/ usr aq;udk pazmfonfhESpfyif acsmufESifha&eHacsmif;NrdKUodkY a&mufoGm;jcif;jzpf
onf/
aev0dZmq&mcdkif&SdpOfu ]rrav; q&m 10 ESpfavmuf vkyf&rJhpD;yGm;udk rrav;
omvkyf&if 3-ESpfeJYjzpfr,f}[kajymcJhaom pum;rsm; usraq;pazmfonfhESpfwGifyif usr
twGuf pD;yGm;jzpfawmhrnfhtajzay:aeonf/ &efukefodkYa&mufNyD; 2-&uftwGif; a&eH
acsmif;ESifhacsmufodkYydkY&ef aq;rsm;udk tNyD;azmf& vkyf& ydkY&onf/

3
a&eHajrrStjyef &ufrsm;rMumrD rajrmv
f ifah omudpw
ck MuHKawG&Y um usrtrIEiS hf
usr xdef;odrf;cH&onf/
usrudk xde;f odr;f onfEiS hf tdru
f vlrsm;rSm usrtwGuf aqmufwnf&m r&atmif
pdk;&drfylyefaeMuonf/ usrrSm "mwfpmpm;oljzpfonf/ "mwftwdkif; usifhoHk;aexdkifoljzpf
onf/ a&udk waeYig;Budrcf sdK;oljzpfonf/ ESpaf ygif; ESpq
f ,fcefY "mwftwdik ;f usifo
h ;kH oljzpf
"mwfpm rpm;&rSm? a&rcsdK;&rSm ylyefaeMuonf/
usr xdef;odrf;cH&NyD;aemuf oufqdkif&mwdkYu usrtdrfrSmuJhodkYyif aeYpOfESifhtrQ
uRJEpYkd pfppf 75-usyfom; &atmif&mS ay;onf/ "mwfpm pm&Gut
f wdik ;f aeYpOf"mwfpm csuf
auR;onf/ oufoufvGwfudk vTwfonfhaeYtxd pm;rnf[k t"dXmefjyKvdkufNyD; owfowf
vGwf "mwfpm zG,fzG,f&m&mcsufauR;onf/ waeY a&ig;Budrf pdwfBudKufcsdK;&onf/ a&pdrf
&efvnf; opfom;pOfydkif;BuD;wvHk; 0,fay;onf/
]]rrav; avmurSm w&m;udk w&m;apmifhw,f? tJovdk "mwfudkvJ "mwfapmifh
177

E-book is created by www.shanyoma.org

*sme,f a usmf r rav;

E-book is created by www.shanyoma.org

jref r mh a q;ynm

w,f? udk,fu "mwfudk &dkao vdkufemusifhoHk;,if b,fvdktcuftcJ&Sd&Sd "mwfu udk,fhudk


jyefapmifhayvdrfhr,f}}
pum;udk tb"mwfq&mBuD;q&mvdIif raorDu cPcPajymzl;onf/ ouf
qdik &f mu xdeo
f rd ;f xm;onfah eY&ufupNyD; 8&kwpdu
k f usrtwGuf wul;wuefY uRJEUkd &Smay;
jcif;? "mwfpmoD;jcm; csufauR;jcif;wdrYk mS txde;f odr;f cH&aomolEiS hf vH;k 0rwl xl;jcm;jcif;
aMumifh tpdk;&\apwemudk aus;Zl;wifvSonf/ "mwfudk "mwfapmifhonfqdkaom tb
pum; rSefavpG[k awG;rdonf/ "mwfynm\pGrf;tm;udk a&S;u av;pm;onfxuf usr
ydkrkd av;pm;vmonf/
"mwfynm\euf&SdKif;aom tpGrf;xufrIawGudkvnf; ydkrdkjrifvmonf/ waeY
wGif tanmrf &d mrSayghayghqq avwdu
k x
f w
J iG f tcsdeMf umjrifph mG ykw;D pdyaf etzsm;0ifvm
onf/ usr zsm;rSef;odvQif aq;rSL; a&mufvmum tylcsdefwdkif;onf/ usru ]usra&
csdK;EdkifvGef;vdkY 102 jzpfoGm;w,f? aeYv,fu 104-ru &Sdrnf}[kajymjyonf/ ]][m. . .
zsm;aewm a&avmif;vdkYjzpfyghrvm;}}[kpdk;&drfwBuD; aq;rSL;u ajymqdkonf/ usr"mwfeJY
usrbJ rpkd;&drfygeJY}}[k usrjyefajymonf/ aq;rSL;ay;onfhaq;udk vufrcHbJ ]usr
aq;&Sdygw,f? aysmufoGm;rSmyg}[k awmif;yefvkdufonf/ aemufwaeYreuf oufqdkif&mrS
0w&m;twdkif; q&m0efac:Munfhonf/ q&m0ef\EIwfrS ]tzsm;r&Sdbl;}[kqdkvdkufvQif
aq;rSL;\rsufvHk;rSm thHMoaomtoGifodkYajymif;aeonf/ q&m0efu qufvuf EGm;EdkY
rsm;rsm; wdkufygqkdavonf/
]]EGm;EdkY raomufygbl;/ uRJEdkYaomufygw,f}}[koufqdkif&m t&m&Sdu 0ifajzay;
onf/
]]aq;aum. . . }}
]]trBuD;u olYaq; olpm;ygw,f? 'Duaq; bmrSroHk;ygbl;}}
cspfcspfawmufaeatmif ylaeaom udk,fyludk a&Smufa&aomufNyD; a&ckepfBudrf
avmif;umjzifh w&ufwnf;ESifhtzsm;aysmuf&avonf/ um; "mwfodvQif tvG,fu
av;qdo
k nfph um;twdik ;f "mwfukd odvG,&f jcif;jzpfonf/ "mwfynmtmedoifukd usOf;xJ
MuyfxJ usrud,
k w
f ikd f cHpm;cJ&h onft
h csufrsm;? rsm;avav ynm\8kPaf us;Zl;udk odav
av jzpfvmonf/
"mwfynm\8kPaf us;Zl;udk odavav "mwfynmjzifh toufarG;0rf;ausmif;
jyKrvm;? aq;az:jcif;jzifh vlemawGrSD pD;yGm;&Smrvm;[k usrudk,f usr ar;rdavav
jzpfaeonf/
]]rrav; 'DynmeJyY u
kd q
f aH wGtrsm;BuD;&cJ,
h if bmvkyrf mS vJ}}[kaus;Zl;&Sif tb
178

"mwfq&mBuD; ynmay;pOfu ar;cJhbl;jcif;udk owd&rdonf/


ar;cGef;udk trSwf& "mwfynmudk aiGESifhvJrvm;? ukodkvfESifhvJrvm;[l
aom jyemw&yf usrpdwfxJwGif jzpfay:vmonf/ 0rf;pmtwGuf usr aiGudk vdkcsifyg
onf/ ,k,
d iG ;f jcpm;aeom opfom;tdru
f av;tjzpfrmS cdik cf efaY om wdu
k t
f rd Ef iS ahf ecsifyg
onf/ 8sHK;8sHK;usaeaomum;tpm; rysufrpD;aomum;udk pD;vdkygonf/ usr\vdktif
qErsm;onf vlemrsm;twGuf aq;azmfjcif;jzifh vG,fulpGm jynfh0Edkifonf/ ESpftenf;
i,fcefY "mwfynmjzifh aq;azmfuo
k &kjH zifh usr\vdt
k ifqErsm;jynh0f onfxuf ausmfveG f
vdrfhOD;rnfudkvnf; odjrifygonf/
usrpdwf jzpfay:aeaom jyemudk a0cG
J r&atmifcufaeonf/ ynm\
BuD;rm;aom aus;Zl;*kPfudk wqifhNyD;wqifh wuf a0zefESvHk;oGif;onfhtcg "mwf
ynmonf avmbESifhrtyfpyf? aiGESifhrtyfpyf[k qifjcif,if; tusdK;tjypf odjrifvm
onf/ ynm\8kPfaus;Zl;udk odjrifvmonfESifhtrQ ynmjzifh jynhfpHkcsrf;om <u,f
0EdkifrIudk pufqkyf&GH&Smvmonf/ wGifrS usr woufwGif "mwfynmudkaiGESifhrvJ pD;yGm;
r&Sm[k pdwfydkif;jzwfvdkufonf/
1327? uqkev
f qef; 10 &ufaeYu eHeufav;em&D bk&m;&Scd ;kd tNyD;wGif bk&m;a&SU
usr opmjyKavonf/ "mwfynmudk aiGEiS rhf vJyg/ ukov
dk Ef iS v
hf yJ grnf/ toufxufq;Hk
aq;azmf a&mif;rpm;yg/ opmysufygvQif ynmysufygapom;? epfrGrf;ygapom;?
opmwnfygvQif "mwfynmjzifh vlemtaygif;wkYdtm; u,fq,fukoEkdifygapom;/
opmjyKNyD; usr\0rf;ajrmufrI pdwcf srf;omrIrmS usrtzkYd rarhEidk af tmif pdwaf &m
ukd,fyg oefYpifayghyg; oGm;aomxl;jcm;rIw&yfudk cHpm;&onf/ usrvGwfajrmufonfh
aeYu tdrt
f jyef um;ay:odYk twufwiG f ]ae&monf usr\avmbudk csKyfNidr;f aponfh
ae&maywum;}[k aecJhonfhae&mudk tav;tjrwfjyKNyD;rS um;ay:odkY wufcJhavawmh
onf/

179

E-book is created by www.shanyoma.org

*sme,f a usmf r rav;

E-book is created by www.shanyoma.org

jref r mh a q;ynm

usrf;aygufvQif wvkH;? usrf;avQmufvQif tqkH;?


tvsm;vkduf jrpfjyifudk? Pfr&Sif ul;odkYxkH;?
ukef;ra&muf urf;rwif. . .
&SifrxD; q&mocifu? As*usm;udk? Ekdifjim;aprl?
yl;qifoD[? emronm? wefcGefom &moDra&G;
&onfhaq;udk awG;,lbd. . .

180

*sme,f a usmf r rav;

a0'emrSeo
f rQ aysmufuif;apEkid af omjrefrmh"mwfynmaq;ynmudk bmynmvJ
[kodvdkpHkprf;onfh&[ef;&Sifvl aygrsm;vmonf/ oifvdkMum;vdkolrsm;vnf; waeYwjcm;
rsm;jym;vmonf/
tESpfESpfq,ftwGif; usrxHwGif ynmoif,lyg&ap? oifwef;ay;yg[k csOf;uyf
vmaom yk8dKvftaygif;udk usrtuJcwfMunfhrdonf/
tcsdKrY mS ynmjzifh aowGi;f xJr&S iS v
f m&aomolrsm;jzpfonf/ tcsdKUrSm vlavm
utjyifbufoaYkd &mufae&onfb
h 0rS ynm\aus;Zl;jzifh vlaY vmuxJojYkd yefa&mufvm
aomvlemrsm;jzpfonf/ trsm;tm;jzihu
f m; ynmudk A[kow
k tjzpf oifMum;vdo
k rl sm;
jzpfMuonf/
ynmoifcsifolrsm;teuf jrefrm"mwfynm\aus;Zl;w&m; vufawGYcHpm;bl;
aom yk8dKvfrsm;udk ig;yg;oDv\tusdK;w&m;udk od ig;yg;oDv tjrJrjywf apmifhxdef;
aomoluJhodkY "mwf\tusdK;aus;Zl;udk vufawGYcHpm;od&Sdbl;oljzpfu? rdrdusef;rma&;
twGuf "mwftwdik ;f tjrJrjywf usifMh uHapmifx
h ed ;f &efEiS hf usifMh uHapmifx
h ed ;f NyD; ynmudk
&SmrSD;ygu avhvQif vm&rnfjzpfaMumif; tm;ay;orIjyKvkdufonf/
a0'em usef;rmaysmufuif;NyD; "mwftwdkif; apmifhxdef; pm;oHk;usifhMuHaeum
ynm wwfodvdkonfholrsm;udkrl ynm\vrf;pudkjyum qufvuf usifhMuHBudK;ukwf
tm;xkwfcdkif;onf/
a0'emaysmufuif; csrf;omNyD; av;ig;ESpf azgufvGJazgufjyefr&Sd "mwftwdkif;
&Sdaoapmifhxdef; pm;oHk;usifhMuHaeol? cspfzG,f&Sdol/ oDvjzLpifol/ aq;usrf; "mwfusrf;
tapmifapmif zwf&aI vhvmol? vlemrsm;tay: arwmxm;Edik rf nfo
h ?l olawmfaumif;ESihf
rSaygif;az:ol? ynmjzifh pD;yGm;a&;avmbuif;rnfhol ? oufaMuaA'ifwwfol? a0'em
uko aysmufonf[rk meraxmifrnfo
h l ponft
h 8Fg&yfrsm;ESihf jynhpf o
kH u
l u
kd m; usr wwf
odoavmuf ynmoifjy ay;onf/
A[kow
k tjzpf odvq
kd nf;yl;vdo
k w
l u
Ykd u
kd m; ynmoifyg&ap[k usrxHoaYkd jymvm
vQif woufvHk; olESihfwnhf olpm;&rnfh "mwfpm&Gufay;vdkufum usrajymonfhtwdkif;
vdkufem usifhoHk;Edkifu vkdufemusifhoHk; oHk;ESpfaphvQif usrxHodkYvmcJhyg[krSmMum;vkduf
181

E-book is created by www.shanyoma.org

usrf;aygufvQif wvHk;?
usrf;avQmufvQifrqHk;/

jref r mh a q;ynm

E-book is created by www.shanyoma.org

onf/
"mwfpmtwkid ;f twdtuspm; enf;nTev
f u
kd o
f nf"h mwftwdik ;f rysufruGujf yK
vkyaf exdik yf gu usef;rma&; jynfph v
kH rd rhf nf/ ol\usef;rma&; aumif;vmonft
h cg ymm
\aus;Zl;udk odayrnf/ odrSomvQif ,HkMunfayvdrfhrnf/ ,HkMunfrSomvQif ckdkifNrJrnf
jzpfojzifh ynmoifvdkol olYtwGuf yxrpcef; usifhprf;Munfh&ef ay;vdkufjcif;jzpfonf/
ynmoifvakd omolwYkd vmwdik ;f uG,v
f eG o
f mG ;aom tb"mwfq&mBuD;udo
k wd&rd
onf/ waeYwGif tb"mwfq&mBuD;tdrfodkYusra&mufoGm;um tbESifhxdkifpum;ajym
aepOf OD;yOi;f wyg; tdraf y:odw
Yk ufvmonf/ tbu olxikd af eaom yufvufuv
k m;xdik f
wGif ae&may;onf/ oifjzL;ay:wGif qif;xdkifum bmudpvmaMumif; avQmufar;vdkuf
onf/
OD;yOif;u jyHK; cyfoGufoGufyif jyefajymonf/
]]'umBuD;qD vm&wmtjcm;udpawmh r[kwfygbl;? 'umBuD; wwfwJh"mwfynm
udk usKyf oifcsifvdkYyg? tJ'g b,fvdkoifay;Edkifr,fqdkwm odcsifvdkYpHkprf;wmyg}}
OD;yOif; wufvmpu 0wfrjznfh OD;rcsaomtbonf vuftkyfcsDjyefavQmuf
vkdufonf/
]]'DrSm udk,fawmf wynfhawmf 'Dynmudk oifcJh&wm q&mqDrSm wynfhawmfoHk;ESpf
oHk;rdk; tvkyftauR;jyKcJh&w,f? xif;vdk,if xif;cGJ&w,f? a&vdk,if a&cyfay;&w,f?
q&mh&JU0wfBuD;0wfi,f aeYpOfjyKNyD;q&moGm;&m waumufaumufvkdufNyD; oHk;ESpfMumrS
wynfhawmfudk 'Dynm oifay;w,f? wynfhawmf tckvdkoifcJh&wJhynmudk tdrfOD;cef;rSm
OD;Zif;udk wynfhawmfu OD;csNyD; oifray;Ekdifygbl;bk&m;? onf;cHygtHk;awmh/
OD;yOi;f rSm ukvm;xdik af y:wGif Mum&Snpf mG xdik rf aeawmhbJ tbajymNyD;vQif NyD;
csif; jyef<uoGm;awmhonf/
acwfynmwwf taemufwidk ;f aq;rsm;udk tm;xm;rS0D v
J sufae&mrS q,fEh pS &f moD
ESmacgif;rS ESm&nf,pkd ;D aeaomvlwa,muf usrxHoaYkd &mufvmonf/ q&m0efBuD;rsm;ESihf
ESmacgif;a&m8gukonfrmS ESpcf sih
f aeaMumif;vnf; ajymjyonf/ ESmacgif;txJrS tom;ydk
udkjzwfawmufNyD;aMumif;ajymjyonf/ odkYukcJhaomfvnf; roufombJ aeYpOf csDum em
&nfw&G&J jJG zpfvsufyif&
dS ukoay;&ef vmajymonf/ usru "mwfpmaq;0g;ESihf nTeMf um;
csuf a&;ay;um wywftwGif; oufomrnf[kajymvkdufonf/ q,f&ufavmufMumaom
tcg ola&mufvmum rcsDawmhaMumif;? ESmacgif; rydwfawmhaMumif;? ESm&nfrusawmh
aMumif; 0rf;omtm;& ajymjyonf/
]]aA'ifrmS t8F0Zd m enf; rSew
f ,fvMYkd um;bl;w,f q&mr? q&mrukwm taysmuf
182

jrefvdkufwmt8F0dZmusaewmbJ/
olonf &,forG ;f aoG;um trSww
f rJah jymvdu
k o
f nf/ usru t8F0Zd m usrf; zwfz;l
ovm;[k ar;prf;Munfo
h nf/ rzwfb;l ? rawGb
Y ;l aMumif; Oyrm EIid ;f ajymwmom jzpfaMumif;
ajymjyonf/
,ckacwf vli,frsm;onf t8F0Zd m qdv
k u
kd v
f Qif aA'if[o
k m omrefrQavmuf od&dS
aeMuojzifh ydkrdk od&Sdapvdkaom apwemjzifh usru ajymvdkufonf/
]]usr ukwmvJ tJ'Dt8F0dZmusrf;eJY qdkifw,f}}
]][m. . . q&mr? t8F0dZmu aA'ifajymwm r[kwfvm;}}
olu em;vnfovdkjyefajymaeonf/
]]t8F0Zd m usrf;rSmvnf; aA'ifynmvJygw,f? "mwfynmvJygw,f? aq;ynmvJ
ygw,f/ tif;ynmvJygw,f? a&TjzpfaiGjzpf od'q
d ,fyg; aygufatmif t8&d wfvyk &f yf ynm
vJ ygw,f? t&IH;tEdkif ppfwdkuf? Muufwdkuf? avSNydKif jrif;NydKif tNydKifrSeforQ Edkifatmif
MuHEdkifw,f? olYpdwfudk twwfodEdkifwJhynmygw,f? ,MwmynmvJygw,f? 0dZmr,d'dpr?
t|m&o pr? pwktu&m pr? pwk0dZmpr? ajrvQdK;rdk;ysH? avmuDpsmefawmif aygufEdkif
w,f/
olonf thHMo[efvnf; w0ufygonf/ em;&Sdom Mum;&onfhyrm ,Hk&tcuf
r,Hk&cuf jzpfaeaom r,Hkw,HktNyHK;rsdK;jzifh NyHK;aeonf/ NyD;rSqufvufajymonf/
]]Armh"mwfynm rSefwmawmh usaemfh a0'emeJY usaemfvufawGYbJ? Armhaq;pGrf;
wmvJ usaemfodygNyD 'gawGukdawmh usaemf,HkygNyD? aA'ifwmh usaemfvufcHwJhtydkif; ,HkwJh
tydik ;f vJ&w
dS ,f? r,Hw
k t
hJ ydik ;f vJ&w
dS ,f? aA'ifukd vH;k 0ypfy,fNyD; r,Hw
k mrsdK;awmhvJ r[kwf
ygbl;? tif;awGqdkwmuawmh 8Pef;uGufawGbJ? 'gawGu bmpGrf;rSef; usaemfrodvdkY r,Hk
Ekdifbl; qdkygawmh prawG ,MwmawGawmh usaemf vHk;0r,Hkbl;}}
]]prawG ,MwmawGu rodvdkY r,kHwmvm;? odNyD;rS r,Hkwmvm;}}[kusru ar;
vdkufonf/
]]rodvJ rodbl;? 'gawGudk ,Hk&r,fvdkY usaemf pdwfrSm rxm;bl;? ,Mwmqdkwm
,Hk&rSmvm; q&mr}}
usr olu
Y akd i;Munfu
h m pOf;pm;aerdonf/ ol\ar;cGe;f ESiphf yfvsOf; olem;vnf
Edkifrnfhtajzudk ajym&ef pOf;pm;aeonf/
ArmrSm pum;&Sprf sdK;&Sw
d ,f penf;? wabmif? odu
k ?f "mwf? edrw
d ?f Asm'dw?f twdwf
tem8gwf? 'D&SpfrsdK;rSm "mwfudk odkufEdkifw,f? ,Mwmwwfajrmuf,if jy'g;aoaomol?
oHaoaomoleJY tvm;wlw,fvkdYqdkw,f/
183

E-book is created by www.shanyoma.org

*sme,f a usmf r rav;

E-book is created by www.shanyoma.org

jref r mh a q;ynm

olonf usrpum;udk em;a0; em;vnf&cufav[efjzifh pdwf0ifpm;yHkrjybJ olY


pum;udkol tqHk;owfypfvkdufonf/
]]'Dynm&yfawG[m q&mr&,f? ,ckacwfrSm rSdefoavmuf rSdefukefygNyD wjznf;
jznf;awmh aysmufoGm;rSmbJ}}
]]'Dynm&yfawG[m b,fawmhrrS edS rf mS vJr[kwb
f ;l ? aysmufrmS vJr[kwb
f ;l pdwcf s?
aumif;uifrSm aeveuwfawG&SdaeorQumvywfvHk; 'Dynm&yfawG wnf&SdaerSmbJ tck
acwfval wGu ud,
k Ahf rmaq; ud,
k Ahf rm"mwf tm;rxm;vd'Yk gawGut
kd avhtvmr&SMd uawmh
PfrrSb
D J bmrSe;f rodjzpfaewmyg? Oyrm-qdyk gawmh pmwrf;uav;wckukd &Siaf wGNY yDqykd g
awmh 'Dpmwrf;u ]tdik x
f jJ ra&TaiG? MuHyvlt
Y aoG? qif&efoEl iS ahf v? a&oJuRef;aqmifjrL;?
aysmfMuL;{vSnfhEdkif? omvIdifqifMuvrf;? eef;atmifa&TNrdKUpH}wJh? udkif; b,fhESmawGygvJvdkY
xifrSmbJ rxifbl;vm;}}
usru ajym&kHwif r[kwfbJ pmwrf;uav;udk aumufa&;um olzwf&ef olYa&SU
odw
Yk ;kd jyvku
d o
f nf/ olonf zwf,if;jzifh NyHK;vsuf acgif;udk &rf;um ]usaemf bmrSe;f rodb;l }
ajzvddkufonf/
'Dpmwrf;uav;udk avhvm,if 'Dpmwrf;xJu we8FaEGtp? paetqHk; aeYawG
ay:vmr,f? aeYrmS &Sw
d hJ 8VKef? usm; qif tp&Sw
d t
hJ &kyaf wGay:vmr,f? rd? Nyd? arxke?f
u&u#ftp&SdwJh 12-&moD? 12-v ay:vmr,f? rd? Nyd? arxkef? u&u#ftp&SdwJh
12 &moD? 12 v ay:vmr,f/ tJ'D&moDu EGm;? qdwf? jcaoFh? owdkYorD;? csdefcGif tp&SdwJh
t&kyfawG ay:vmr,f? tjzL? teD? t0g? tjym ta&mifawGay:vmr,f? we8FaEG?
weif;vmN8dKvfBuD;&Spv
f ;kH ygy? aomr cGNJ yD;ay:vmr,f? N8dK[fawG&UJ toufawG ay:vmr,f?
tom0eD? b&PD? Muwdum? a&m[PD? rd8oDtp&SdwJh euwf 27-vHk; ay: vmr,f? yx0D?
tmayg? awaZm? 0ga,m yd#uwfawG ay:vmr,f? taEm? *aA? pa&? 0Hao "mwfzuf
awGay:vmr,f? "mwfzdk"mwfrawG ay:vmr,f? ta&SU? taemuf? awmif? ajrmuf?
t&yf&SpfrsufESm ay:vmr,f? a& ajr av rD; "mwfo&kyfawG ay:vmr,f? "mwftu&m?
utp ttqHk; 33vHk;aomtu&m? 8-vHk;o&? 41vHk;0P? 1tp 9tqHk; ocsFm8Pef;
awGay:vmr,f?tcsKd tcsOf tpyf tieft&omawGay:vmr,f? jy'g;ao? oHaorJv
h yk &f yf
ypnf;jzpfwJh pdef? bif? abmf? 8Rwf? oH? oGwf? 'ef? em? ,rf;? cJrjzL ay:vmr,f? &Srf;? jref?
w&kyf? ukvm;? vlrsdK;awGay:vmr,f? bk&m;av;ql ay:vmr,f}}
'Dpmwrf;uav;u t"dym,f teufBuD;? 'gaMumifhrdkY ]"mwfav;0udk? MupdrfhiSm?
tif;vnf;onfrSm tpmonfwGif? aq;vQifonfu? "eyD,H? od'dvrf;udk? wwfpGrf;Ekdif
onf} qdkcJhwmbJ teufudk ppfaMumMunhfvdkuf,if aA'ifvJ 'Dpmwrf;eJY wdkifaxmifa[m?
184

"mwfvJ 'geJYwdkifaxmifay; tif;vJ 'geJY8Pef;&Smcs? vkyf,yfvJ 'geJYMuHpnf? aq;vJ 'Dpm


wrf;t& 'D"mwfav;yg;udkpk N8dK[fouft&azmf ,MwmvJ 'geJYqif ajrvQdK;rdk;ysHcsif,ifvJ
'Dpmwrf;xJu preJYMuH edAmefa&mufcsif,ifvJ orm"dtp? oDvtvnf? r8fzdkvftqHk;
tJ'Dpmwrf;u jyw,f}}
olonf tvGefpdwf0ifpm;pGm em;axmifae&mu pdwfygvufyg jyefajymonf/
]]q&mrajymwJhtwdkif;omqdk,if 'Dpmwrf;eJY'Dynm&yfu tHhMop&mbJ usaemf
awmif 'DynmawG 'Dusrf;awG vdkufpm;csifvmw,f}}
]]ynm&SmrS;D wm t&I;H r&Syd gbl;&Si?f avhvmyg? avh,if vmygw,f? ud,
k u
hf ,
kd w
f ikd u
f
'DynmawG bmrSef;rodbJ rwwfbJ ? r,kHpum; rajymygeJY udk,fwdkif aygufajrmufatmif
odNyD; wwfNyD;rS Armhaq;ynm&yfudk ,Hkxkduf r,Hkxdkuf qHk;jzwfyg}}
xdkaeYnaeyif A[kdukefoG,fa&;rS acwfynmwwf vli,fwa,muf usrxHodkY
a&mufvmonf/ Armh"mwfynmudk odvakd Mumif;? oif,v
l akd Mumif; ajymonf/ xdo
k El iS hf aqG;
aEG;ajymqdkMuonfhpum;xJ usroif,laom "mwfynmonf t8F0dZmusrf;ESifhqdkifonf
[kqdkMuonfrSm [kwf r[kwf? qdkif rqdkifar;jref;aeonf/ usrrSm reufydkif;u vmaom
oludk owd&um NyHK;aerdonf/
]]qdkifygw,f &Sif? t8F0dZmusrf; ayguf,if rdk;awmifysHedkifw,fvdkYtqdk&Sdygw,f}}
]]'D"mwfynm usaemf wwfcsifygw,f? 'DynmrSm Mumoyaw; pGr;f w,fvaYdk jymyg
w,f [kwfygovm;}}
usrrSm olYar;cGef;jzifh olYudk tuJcwfvsuf ]eHeufu vlxufawmh A[kokwydk&Sd&
rnf}tuJcwfrdonf/
]]Mumoyaw;[m pGr;f ygNyDvm;&Si?f we8FaEGNyD;,if olbJ awmoH;k axmifukd tpd;k
&wmaygh}}
olu Mumoyaw;\tpGrf;udkom ar;onf/ olodcsifaom Mumoyaw;xuf
tpGrf;xufonfhwe*FaEGudk odEkdifMuHEkdifrS vkd&mc&D; a&mufEkdifonf/ taEm? 8aA? pa&?
0Hao "mwfzuftm; we8FaEGjzifh oraom"mwfudk MuHpnfjcif;? "mwfaMu 27-vHk; Om
pdeyf ef; 'ef;vSu&kd mS we8FaEGukd "mwfav;yg;ESifh ydik ;f jcm;,l Om? 0ga,m"mwf? pdeyf ef;
yx0D"mwf/ 'ef;vS tmayg"mwf/ udk&Sm? awaZm"mwfudk MuHpnfjcif;/ Oaomif? ykZGef? "l0H?
ig;&HUponfh prtu&mtpGrf;tm;jzifh p"A0tu&mMuHpnfjcif;/ taEm? *aA? pa&? 0H
ao"mwfzuf? atmify ukvm; aqGom; awmf&if; rdwfzwf? if;"mwfrdwfESpfyg;wdkYwGif
we8FaEG tkyfpD;jcif;/ OD;a0 pHul; a&bl; awmol qdkonfh "mwfzdkcsif; "mwfrcsif; roifh
rwifh &SMd uonf"h mwf&efrsm;wGif we*FaEGyif tkypf ;D vsuf&o
dS nf/ "mwftyk "f mwf&ef? &efrw
d f
185

E-book is created by www.shanyoma.org

*sme,f a usmf r rav;

E-book is created by www.shanyoma.org

jref r mh a q;ynm

we8FaEG pGrf;tm;udk odem;vnfrSomvQif "mwfaygufEdkifrnffjzpfonf/


]]'DynmESiyhf wfoufNyD; aq;usrf;"mwfusrf;awG Munfzh v
Ykd ykd govm;}}[kou
l ar;
aeonf/
Armh"mwfynmudk wwfcsif,if usrf;pmtapmifapmifukd qnf;yl;zdv
Yk ykd gw,f? 'Dvkd
qnf;yl;rSvnf; "mwfrsm;udk tu&mtm;jzifh cGJjcm;a0zefNyD; odedkifygr,f/ emrf? tnTefY?
Bwd&ef;? pwk&ef;? yOyGwf? qyGwf? tjrpf"mwf&JUtajctjrpfudk em;vnfygvdrfhr,f? 8Pef;
ocsmFtm;jzifhvJ Mwif;aMu? e0if;aMu? euwfaMu? csdefcgem&D &moD pef;e0if;udk odygr,f?
emrfe&YJ yk o
f abmudk odygr,f? uHeu
YJ wm;udk odygr,f? ta&;tBuD;qk;H u tapmiftapmif
aom "mwfusrf; aq;usrf;awG&UJ pum; tpOftac:ta0:awGukd odem;vnfzv
Ykd ykd gw,f?
Oyrmtm;jzifh taEm? 8aA? pa&? 0Haoudk"mwfzdk"mwfr? ol&Z? aumvD? ygy? tNrdw
jcm;em;rI awGYjrif&ygvdrfhr,f? &0d? Ak'? aom&D? abmr? aomMu? ol&Z? 8k&k? ESHjynfpkwf?
zg;? a>r? Oa'gif;? rkqdk;? usm;? jcaoFhpwJhusrf;pum; tpOfawG[m "mwf,l"mwfaumuf
tvGefta&;BuD;ygw,f? 'DvdkodrSvJ atmifvHawZousrSDtHk; eEDaoeHxHk; qdkwJh"mwf
pum;tpOf? jcaoFhxD;aqmif;taygif;0if&m qkdwJh"mwfpum;tpOf? xef;? tkef;? 8sKwf?
ZD;? 0g? rHk? oD;qdkwJhpum;tpOfawGudk "mwftkyf "mwfpD; "mwfrH woDwwef;BuD; jrifygvdrfh
r,f}}
]]q&mr b,fusrf;awG zwfovJ? zwfwJhusrf;awG usaemfhudk nTefMum;yg}}
usrrSm tajzay;&cufomG ;onf/ usrf;awGukd wapmifNyD; wapmif &Gwjf y&rnfuhJ
odkYjzpfaeonf/
toDwd"mwfusrf;? t|omcgusrf;? avmuDt8FkwKusrf;? o&zlusrf;? uyvuFm
usrf;? t8F0dZmrlvusrf;&if;? t|rkc? "mwk&o? &o"mwk? "mwkop? "mwk0dbm8'DyeD?
tm'duy? Emp&d,BwdaeMw? ZrLUcsrf;om? "mwkyudPu? "mwkoEd? vuPm'Dy? vu
Pmo&? &mZ8@Kusrf;/
"mwfESifhpyfqdkifaom "mwfusrf;rsm;udk &Gwfjy&vQif t&SnfBuD;jzpf "mwfusrf;
rsm;teufrS tcsdKUusrf;trnfrsm; ajymjyvdkufNyD; if;"mwfusrf;rsm; tBuHK;0ifaom
"mwfynm\rl&if;jzpfonfh yk8vynwf"mwfusrf;udk zwf&Iqnf;yl;&ef ajymjyonf/
]]usrf;avQmuf,ifawmh rqHk;ygbl;/ usrf;ayguf,if wvHk;ygyJ}}
ol xrjyefrD aemufqHk;tm;jzifh pum;udk olYtm; usr rSmMum;vdkufonf/
23-11-67

*sme,fausmfrrav;
186

Оценить