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Lindsi McClellan English 1102-103 Dr.

Andrew Brown 4 April 2013 Annotated Bibliography for the Health Benefits of Video Games APA. Stress in America Findings. N.p.: n.p., 2010. American Psychological Association. APA, 9 Nov. 2010. Web. 4 Apr. 2013. The American Psychological Association released an electronic book pertaining to what stresses people in America and how people are handling said stress. Going to the part regarding video games, people of the millennial generation, male, and in poor health were the most likely group of people to use video games to relieve stress. This technique was above the consumption of alcohol and smoking to relieve stress. However, listening to music was the top ways to relieve stress in all three categories based on health, generation, and gender. This electronic book is helpful even though the information on video games is limited to graphs talking about many ways to relieve stress. The study was only for the year 2010, making the data only good for that year, but the data collected can be used to predict future results. There is nothing biased about this source due to the nature of the piece all being scientific research. These results give a basis for how video games can be used for the stress relief benefit without going into too many details. I personally feel that this is one of the most sound sources that I have other than the results being restricted to 2010. Anything the APA puts out is usually well done, and their result on who uses video games to relieve stress is a coincidental bit of good news. Gaming can be used as a stress reliever, and is preferred above drinking and smoking. Chard, Philip. "Let the Therapy Gaming Begin." JS Online. Journal Sentinel Online, 25 Mar. 2013. Web. 04 Apr. 2013. This article is mainly focused on the uses of video games in therapy. From addressing depression and anxiety, to PTSD and phobias, psychology labs are currently trying to develop video games to help with mental disabilities. Games do not even have to be used in a medical setting to benefit people. Most of these innovations are still in the developmental stage. However, several new video games out to the public can boost brain functions such as memory, problem solving, attention, and visual processing without even having a specific purpose behind the creation of it. The author is this article is psychotherapist himself, giving this article even more credibility. This piece could be used to back up the theory that video games can be useful in certain situations such as helping children with Autism become more sociable. It also gives many examples for different treatments gaming can be used for, and not just for children, but for possibly soldiers coming back from war as well. I would not have expected such a wide range of uses for video games, especially in the

McClellan 2 medical and psychological field, before reading this article. If games can be created for children and adults to help with illnesses, and done successfully, think of the possibilities of video games in schools. Enayati, Amanda. "Do Videogames Cause Stress in Kids? It's Complicated." Media Shift. PBS, 15 Mar. 2013. Web. 04 Apr. 2013. This article gives a bit of both sides regarding video games causing stress in children, especially the violent genre. Research from Christopher Ferguson of Texas A&M found that, playing video games, violent or not, can cause stress. However, this is a good kind of stress such as playing a sport or reading something so exciting you do not want to put it down. Video games can either be good or bad depending on what your mindset is when you come to play said games. On the other side of the argument is Brad Bushman from Ohio State University. According to Mr. Bushman, decades of research shows that playing violent video games can lead to players having increased angry feelings, behaviors, and thoughts. These games can also impact a persons empathy and pro-social behavior. With two great arguments, the author of this article turned to Dr. Rajita Sinha to settle the score. Her response was that the results of studies are all over the place, and there should be some caution in what types of games children are allowed to play. Extended periods of playing can even be a stressor in and of itself. Video games can take up and drain a persons resources when playing for an extended amount of time. Andrea Kuszewski finishes up the article by summing up that video games can have its good sides, such as teaching, and bad sides, such as stress after extended periods of time. The moral of this article is to play video games in moderation. This source is not as sound as the APA statistics, but this article still brings up both sides of the argument on video games and interviews specialists on what they believe is the best course of action regarding children playing violent/non-violent video games. The moral of balance could have easily been put in two sentences into the article, but giving both sides, backing those up, and comparing them helped make this topic sound and give the reader the option of having an option on the subject. I personally feel this article goes into depth what both sides feel is the answer to violent video games causing stress in children. There are no corners cut and this piece is sound in its sources and final summation of the argument. Griffiths, Mark. "Video Games and Health." PMC. National Center for Biotechnology Information, 16 July 2005. Web. 4 Apr. 2013. This article from the NCBI is another piece vouching for the therapy benefits of video games. However, the argument is added onto with a discussion about pain management using video games as well. Children need a distraction from such diseases as cancer and sickle cell! There is even a study that states that distracted patients, compared with those at rest, had less nausea and lower systolic blood pressure controls after treatment and needed fewer analgesics. Video games can also be made to help develop social and spatial ability skills of children and

McClellan 3 adolescents with severe learning disabilities such as Autism. The negative side of video games is also touched on, noting that gaming can lead to game addiction and increased aggressiveness. Seizures can be triggered by rapid scene changes in the games for children with epilepsy. Adverse effects have also been reported while playing games such as wrist pain, hand-arm vibration syndrome, and peripheral neuropathy. The moral of this article is that gaming in moderation can be beneficial. However, more research is needed. This article is useful in that it gives more uses of video games in the medical field, but also touches on the negatives of too much gaming. Injuries can be developed over time from too much gaming. This source is also from a government organization, so it has more pull that some of the other articles I have seen in my research. This article gives more concrete illnesses and their negative side effects that can be helped by video games in moderation. I personally like this article and how it gives more examples of diseases that children are going through. Video games are needed to keep these kids calm while they are going through a procedure or recovering from one. Any help in the recovery process is much needed for children. Hotz, Robert Lee. "When Gaming Is Good for You." The Wall Street Journal. The Wall Street Journal, 5 Mar. 2012. Web. 4 Apr. 2013. Robert Hotz in this article touches mostly on the positive sides of gaming with many statistics to back his information up. Many of the same studies are brought up, such as gamers being faster at making decisions and also the improvement of hand-eye coordination. Some myths are busted such as video games actually improve a persons vision instead of hindering it. Gamers can pay attention to six things at once while nongamers can only focus on four. Video games even increase the ability to mentally manipulate 3D objects in women, a skill men are usually more adept at. After these many benefits, a scan of a healthy young mans brain comes up in the topic. After a week of playing, Indiana University finds that the activity of regions associated with emotional control depresses. This discussion leads into associations between compulsive gaming and being overweight, introverted, and prone to depression being found. The brain is brought up again with the topic that video games change the brain like learning how to read does. Concentration and rewarding surges of dopamine strengthen neural circuits like building muscles. The brain may be changing after playing video games, but the verdict is still out as to a confident answer whether or not gaming is beneficial or not. This article also covers many of its bases with splashes of statistics thrown in. This piece was one of the more in depth articles like the PBS article. Both sides are covered with more emphasis on looking at the brain and how it reacts to video games. The source is not biased and leaves the ending open to interpretation with the research inconclusive at the moment. This article is long and gives away the big beneficial findings in the first two sentences of the piece. Not my favorite article, but it does have some nice statistics on the changes seen in gamers and how much game companies are making off of said games that are up for debate. It also seems rushed with no discussion between the different research topics that are brought up.

McClellan 4 Hult Labs. "Why Video Games Are Good For You Really Good For You." Hult Media. Hult International Business School, 6 Dec. 2012. Web. 04 Apr. 2013. This article is actually a summation of a Ted Talk by Dr. Daphne Bavelier. She is a neuroscientist and addresses in more detail the effects of video games on the brain. Her main focus was on violent video games, and she found that gamers gained and maintained better focus than non-gamers. The myth that video games made a persons eyesight worse was busted, and the truth that gamers are better at distinguishing between different levels of gray, such as when driving in the fog. This little perk can mean the difference between a crash and making your way safely to your destination. Gamers also are better at tracking data, such as going through mass amounts of information and identifying specific data points. Dr. Baveliers neuroscientist studies then come in to note that in the brain of a gamer, the parietal lobe (orients attention), the frontal lobe (maintains attention), and the anterior cingulate (controls and regulates attention) are all much more efficient than those parts of the brain in a non-gamer. This leads to gamers being able to resolve conflicts in information and change tasks quickly. Video games are then compared to wine: if you take these two in moderation, you will be fine and enjoy the health benefits. However, if you partake in too much of either, you are in for bad results from your body. This is one of the most useful articles I have. It mainly focuses on the effects of video game on the brain, giving a whole different side to the argument. Ted Talk is usually pretty reliable with not putting crazy people on the stage, so Dr. Bavelier can be trusted to an extent. There was no major counter argument other than too much gaming at one time can be harmful. Overall a good source with no reason to doubt it. I really liked Dr. Bavelier. She gave great examples in the video (with the link in the article). She also did not give the same old argument and does a more in depth look at out the brain is affected by gaming. If students in school can somehow gain this ability to focus more, then I think everyone would be happier with grades and how their children turn out. Nauert, Rick. "Video Game Lowers Stress Hormone." Psych Central. Ed. John M. Grohol. Psych Central, 24 Oct. 2007. Web. 04 Apr. 2013. This article is one about an unexpected reaction to a game. There was a game created to help people changed their perception of social threats and boost self-confidence. An added bonus to the expected results was that this game also helped lower the stress hormone called cortisol in a person. This game helps shift the way a person sees social information by making everyday situations more positive. One of the games is a screen full of frowning faces with one smiling face. Players had to find the smiling face as quick as possible. This game was used in a call center every workday morning for a week, and the results were a 17 percent reduction in cortisol levels. There was also a control test without smiling faces with different results. Professor Baldwin of McGill University hopes that these types of games will be used more in the future, from treating social anxiety to helping athletes focus on the game rather than worrying about a poor performance. This article is the product of an unexpected outcome. The feeling from this article is that

McClellan 5 the smiley faces are the only way to go. However, I do think they are trying to sincerely help people with their stress levels. Three studies is better than no studies from other articles and there has been no change in results after the game: everyone is still helped and their stress is still lowered. I need this game! Maybe they should bring these games in to educational institutions. Not too many people have more stress than students at any level of education. This may not be a video game in the sense of the modern games that are out now, but this group is the closest to having a working game to help people with some sort of problem they are having.

Commentary Dear Lord. You even included the document title. This is one of the best ann bib pieces I have seen in years: it does everything it should, and is well written and carefully composed on top of that. I am delighted by the summation, which covers the thesis and supporting matters of each source, without fluff. Moving into the personal responses and analysis prove to be non-problematic, as each source receives equal attention and care. Ref = 30/30 Ann Bib = 70/70

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