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Review of related literature and studies Motivation: Intrinsic and Extrinsic Factors Motivation is a highly complex concept that

is influenced by a large number of factors, but can be summarized generally as either extrinsic or intrinsic. Extrinsic refers to external factors and intrinsic refers to internal factors as it relates to an individual. Internal motivators are intrinsic needs that satisfy a person, whereas external motivators are considered environmental factors that motivate an individual (Bassy, 2002).

According to Vallerand (1992) one of the most important concepts in education is motivation, and a scale used to measure motivation in individuals is the self determination scale. The self-determination scale is composed of 28 items divided into seven subscales assessing three types of intrinsic motivation (intrinsic motivation to know, to accomplish things, and to experience stimulation), three types of extrinsic motivation (external, introjected, and identified regulation), and amotivation (Deci & Ryan, 1991).

In general, intrinsic motivation refers to the fact of doing an activity for itself and the pleasure and satisfaction derived from participation (Deci & Ryan, 1991). Intrinsic motivation to know can be defined as performing an activity for the pleasure and satisfaction that one experiences while learning, exploring, or trying to understand something new. Intrinsic motivation toward accomplishments can be defined as engaging in an activity for the pleasure and satisfaction experienced when one attempts to accomplish or create something. Intrinsic motivation to experience stimulation is operative when someone engages in an activity in order

to experience stimulating sensations (e.g., sensory pleasure, aesthetic experiences, as well as fun and excitement) derived from ones engagement in the activity (Vallerand, 1992).

Contrary to intrinsic motivation, according to Deci and Ryan (1991) extrinsic motivation pertains to a wide variety of behaviors which are engaged in as a means to an end and not for their own sake, and can be ordered along a self-determination continuum from lower to higher levels (Deci, 1975).

Study Habits and Learning Styles In one study made by Ward (1972) he categorized his respondents in better students and weaker students and the result was better students are more likely than weaker students to: 1. Study alone, 2. Study without a radio/record player on, 3. Study longer, 4. Attempt to maintain attention in lectures, 5. Prepare and keep to a timetable of evening study, 6. Pay attention to detail in textbooks, 7. Keep methodical notes, 8. Allow adequate time for the preparation of written work, rather than rushing just before it has to be handed in, 9. Attempt to relate private study reading to lectures, 10. Revise for examinations principally from hand-outs and notes rather than from textbooks.

In an article made by Dr. Bob Kizlik, Effective study skills must be practiced in order for you to improve. It is not enough to simply "think about" studying; you have to actually do it, and in the process use information from what you do to get better. This is the central idea of this page. All that follows depends on this single concept. There is a saying that goes like this:

"Practice doesn't make perfect; perfect practice makes perfect." If you want to be an achiever, take this saying to heart. Effective Study skills are about more than understanding The value of a schedule. Before you even begin to think about the process of studying, you must develop a schedule. If you don't have a schedule or plan for studying, then you will not have any way of allocating your valuable time when the unexpected comes up. A good, well thought out schedule can be a lifesaver. It's up to you to learn how to develop a schedule that meets your needs, revise it if necessary, and most important, follow it. A schedule saves time.All schedules should be made with the idea that they can be revised. A good schedule keeps you from wandering off course. A good schedule, if properly managed, assigns time where time is needed, but you've got to want to do it! Making every hour count.A schedule should take into account every class, laboratory, lecture, social event, and other work in which you engage. There are givens such as classes and so on that have to be incorporated. You must focus on the other "free time" available and how you will use it. Make a weekly schedule and block off the 24 hour day in one hour increments. Indicate times for classes, labs, lectures, social, and work time. Also block off a period for sleeping each day. With what is left over, plan time for study. This gives you a rough road map of the time available. Of course, you can revise your schedule as circumstances warrant. When to study.The problem of when to study is critical. A good rule of thumb is that studying should be carried out only when you are rested, alert, and have planned for it. Last minute studying just before a class is usually a waste of time.

Studying for lecture courses. If your study period is before the lecture class, be sure you have read all the assignments and made notes on what you don't understand. If the study period is after the lecture class, review the notes you took during class while the information is still fresh. Studying for recitation courses. For classes that require recitation, such as foreign language, be sure to schedule a study period just before the class. Use the time to practice. Sometimes, practice with others can help sharpen your skills in a before-class study period. Making and revising a schedule . Dont be afraid to revise your schedule. Schedules are really plans for how you intend to use your time. If your schedule doesn't work, revise it. You must understand that your schedule is to help you develop good study habits. Once you have developed them, schedule building becomes easier. Strategies Thinking skills. Everybody has thinking skills, but few use them effectively. Effective thinking skills cannot be studied, but must be built up over a period of time. Good thinkers see possibilities where others see only dead-ends. If you're not a good thinker, start now by developing habits that make you ask yourself questions as you read. Talk to other students who you feel are good thinkers. Ask them what it is they do when they think critically or creatively. Often times, you can pick up valuable insights to help you become a better thinker. The SQ3R method.The SQ3R method has been a proven way to sharpen study skills. SQ3R stands for Survey, Question, Read, Recite, Review. Take a moment now and write SQ3R down. It is a good slogan to commit to memory to carry out an effective study strategy.

Survey - get the best overall picture of what you're going to study BEFORE you study it in any detail. It's like looking at a road map before going on a trip. If you don't know the territory, studying a map is the best way to begin. Question - ask questions for learning. The important things to learn are usually answers to questions. Questions should lead to emphasis on the what, why, how, when, who and where of study content. Ask yourself questions as you read or study. As you answer them, you will help to make sense of the material and remember it more easily because the process will make an impression on you. Those things that make impressions are more meaningful, and therefore more easily remembered. Don't be afraid to write your questions in the margins of textbooks, on lecture notes, or wherever it makes sense. Read - Reading is NOT running your eyes over a textbook. When you read, read actively. Read to answer questions you have asked yourself or questions the instructor or author has asked. Always be alert to bold or italicized print. The authors intend that this material receive special emphasis. Also, when you read, be sure to read everything, including tables, graphs and illustrations. Often times tables, graphs and illustrations can convey an idea more powerfully than written text. Recite - When you recite, you stop reading periodically to recall what you have read. Try to recall main headings, important ideas of concepts presented in bold or italicized type, and what graphs, charts or illustrations indicate. Try to develop an overall concept of what you have read in your own words and thoughts. Try to connect things you have just read to things you already know. When you do this periodically, the chances are you will remember much more and be able to recall material for papers, essays and objective tests.

Review - A review is a survey of what you have covered. It is a review of what you are supposed to accomplish, not what you are going to do. Rereading is an important part of the review process. Reread with the idea that you are measuring what you have gained from the process. During review, it's a good time to go over notes you have taken to help clarify points you may have missed or don't understand. The best time to review is when you have just finished studying something. Don't wait until just before an examination to begin the review process. Before an examination, do a final review. If you manage your time, the final review can be thought of as a "fine-tuning" of your knowledge of the material. Thousands of high school and college students have followed the SQ3R steps to achieve higher grades with less stress. Reading. A primary means by which you acquire information is through reading. In college you're expected to do much more reading than in high school. Don't assume just because you've "read" the assignments that is the end of it. You must learn to read with a purpose. In studying, you may read the same assignment three or four times, each time with a different purpose. You must know before you begin reading what your purpose is, and read accordingly. Getting the Main Idea. Getting the main idea in reading is central to effective studying. You must learn what the author's central idea is, and understand it in your own way. Every paragraph contains a main idea. Main ideas are perfect for outlining textbooks. Make it a habit to find the main idea in each paragraph you read. Extracting Important Details. Extracting important details means that you locate in your reading the basis for main ideas. There is usually one important detail associated with every main idea. The more important details you can identify, the easier it will be to review for examinations because you have made a link between an idea and information that supports it. The more links

you can make between details and ideas, as well as ideas themselves, the more powerful will be the efforts of your study. Don't Read Aloud to Yourself. Generally, reading aloud to yourself does not help you study more effectively. If you move your lips while you read, you're not reading efficiently. If you read aloud or move your lips while you're reading, you are reading slowly, so stop moving your lips. Try putting a finger over your lips. Your finger will remind you not to move your lips. Make an effort to read faster and retain more - after a while, you'll be surprised how little effort it will take. Taking Notes. Like reading, note-taking is a skill which must be learned and refined. Almost invariably, note taking, or the lack of it, is a constant deficiency in the study methods of many high school and college students. Learning the ingredients of good note taking is rather easy; applying them to your own situation depends on how serious you are in becoming a successful student. Where to Keep Notes. You must learn to keep notes logically and legibly. Remember, if you can't read your own writing a few days after taking notes, they are of little use. By all accounts, the best place to keep notes is in a loose-leaf notebook. Use dividers to separate the different classes you take. Make it a habit of using your notebook to record ALL your notes. If you're caught without your notebook and need to take notes, always have a supply of loose-leaf paper with you. Insert your note papers into the notebook as soon as you can. Be sure to buy a good notebook, as it will get a lot of wear and tear.

Outlining Textbooks. First of all, don't underline. Use a highlighter. Experience has shown that text passages highlighted are more easily remembered than the same passages underlined. In outlining a text, don't just read along and highlight what seem to important words. That technique rarely works. The act of outlining works much better. Dimension of Learning Styles (Richard Felder, 1993) A student's learning style may be defined in part by the answers to five questions: 1. What type of information does the student preferentially perceive: sensory---sights, sounds, physical sensations, or intuitive---memories, ideas, insights? 2. Through which modality is sensory information most effectively perceived: visual--pictures, diagrams, graphs, demonstrations, or verbal---sounds, written and spoken words and formulas? 3. With which organization of information is the student most comfortable: inductive---facts and observations are given, underlying principles are inferred, or deductive---principles are given, consequences and applications are deduced? 4. How does the student prefer to process information: actively---through engagement in physical activity or discussion, or reflectively---through introspection? 5. How does the student progress toward understanding: sequentially---in a logical progression of small incremental steps, or globally---in large jumps, holistically?

The dichotomous learning style dimensions of this model (sensing/intuitive, visual/verbal, inductive/deductive, active/reflective, and sequential/global) are continua and not either/or categories. A student's preference on a given scale (e.g. for inductive or deductive presentation) may be strong, moderate, or almost nonexistent, may change with time, and may vary from one subject or learning environment to another. Sensing and Intuitive Perception.People are constantly being bombarded with information, both through their senses and from their subconscious minds. The volume of this information is much greater than they can consciously attend to; they therefore select a minute fraction of it to admit to their "working memory" and the rest of it is effectively lost. In making this selection, sensing learners (sensors) favor information that comes in through their senses and intuitive learners (intuitors) favor information that arises internally through memory, reflection, and imagination. (These categories derive from Carl Jung's theory of psychological types. The strength of an individual's preference for sensation or intuition can be assessed with the MyersBriggs Type Indicator). Sensors tend to be practical; intuitors tend to be imaginative . Sensors like facts and observations; intuitors prefer concepts and interpretations. A student who complains about courses having nothing to do with the real world is almost certainly a sensor. Sensors like to solve problems using well-established procedures, don't mind detail work, and don't like unexpected twists or complications; intuitors like variety in their work, don't mind complexity, and get bored with too much detail and repetition. Sensors are careful but may be slow; intuitors are quick but may be careless .

Sensing learners learn best when given facts and procedures, but most science courses (particularly physics and chemistry) focus on abstract concepts, theories, and formulas, putting sensors at a distinct disadvantage. Moreover, sensors are less comfortable than intuitors with symbols; since words and algebraic variables---the stuff of examinations---are symbolic, sensors must translate them into concrete mental images in order to understand them. This process can be a lengthy one, and many sensors who know the material typically run out of time on tests. The net result is that sensors tend to get lower grades than intuitors in lecture courses, in effect, they are selectively weeded out, even though they are as likely as intuitors to succeed in scientific careers. Visual and Verbal Input.Visual learners get more information from visual images (pictures, diagrams, graphs, schematics, demonstrations) than from verbal material (written and spoken words and mathematical formulas), and vice versa for verbal learners. If something is simply said and not shown to visual learners (e.g. in a lecture) there is a good chance they will not retain it. Most people (at least in western cultures) and presumably most students in science classes are visual learners while the information presented in almost every lecture course is overwhelmingly verbal---written words and formulas in texts and on the chalkboard, spoken words in lectures, with only an occasional diagram, chart, or demonstration breaking the pattern. Professors should not be surprised when many of their students cannot reproduce information that was presented to them not long before; it may have been expressed but it was never heard. Inductive and Deductive Organization. Inductive learners prefer to learn a body of material by seeing specific cases first (observations, experimental results, numerical examples) and working

up to governing principles and theories by inference; deductive learners prefer to begin with general principles and to deduce consequences and applications. Since deduction tends to be more concise and orderly than induction, students who prefer a highly structured presentation are likely to prefer a deductive approach while those who prefer less structure are more likely to favor induction. Research shows that of these two approaches to education, induction promotes deeper learning and longer retention of information and gives students greater confidence in their problemsolving abilities.The research notwithstanding, most college science instruction is exclusively deductive---probably because deductive presentations are easier to prepare and control and allow more rapid coverage of material. In the words of a student evaluating his introductory physics course, "The students are given premasticated information simply to mimic and apply to problems. Let them, rather, be exposed to conceptual problems, try to find solutions to them on their own, and then help them to understand the mistakes they make along the way".The approach suggested by this student is inductive teaching. Active and Reflective Processing.Active learners tend to learn while doing something active--trying things out, bouncing ideas off others; reflective learners do much more of their processing introspectively, thinking things through before trying them out .Active learners work well in groups; reflective learners prefer to work alone or in pairs. Unfortunately, most lecture classes do very little for either group: the active learners never get to do anything and the reflective learners never have time to reflect. Instead, both groups are kept busy trying to keep up with a constant barrage of verbiage, or else they are lulled into inattention by their enforced passivity.

The research is quite clear on the question of active and reflective versus passive learning. In a number of studies comparing instructor-centered classes (lecture/demonstration) with studentcentered classes (problem-solving/discussion), lectures were found to be marginally more effective when students were tested on short-term recall of facts but active classroom environments were superior when the criteria involved comprehension, long-term recall, general problem-solving ability, scientific attitude, and subsequent interest in the subject .Substantial benefits are also cited for teaching methods that provide opportunities for reflection, such as giving students time in class to write brief sumaries and formulate written questions about the material just covered. Sequential and Global Understanding.Sequential learners absorb information and acquire understanding of material in small connected chunks; global learners take in information in seemingly unconnected fragments and achieve understanding in large holistic leaps. Sequential learners can solve problems with incomplete understanding of the material and their solutions are generally orderly and easy to follow, but they may lack a grasp of the big picture---the broad context of a body of knowledge and its interrelationships with other subjects and disciplines. Global learners work in a more all-or-nothing fashion and may appear slow and do poorly on homework and tests until they grasp the total picture, but once they have it they can often see connections to other subjects that escape sequential learners. Before global learners can master the details of a subject they need to understand how the material being presented relates to their prior knowledge and experience, but only exceptional teachers routinely provide such broad perspectives on their subjects. In consequence, many global learners who have the potential to become outstanding creative researchers fall by the

wayside because their mental processes do not allow them to keep up with the sequential pace of their science courses.

Academic Procrastination In psychology, procrastination refers to the act of replacing high-priority actions with tasks of lower priority, or doing something from which one derives enjoyment, and thus putting off important tasks to a later time. In accordance with Freud, the Pleasure principle may be responsible for procrastination; humans do not prefer negative emotions, and handing off a stressful task until a further date is enjoyable. The concept that humans work best under pressure provides additional enjoyment and motivation to postponing a task. Some psychologists cite such behavior as a mechanism for coping with the anxiety associated with starting or completing any task or decision. Other psychologists indicate that anxiety is just as likely to get people to start working early as late and the focus should be impulsiveness. That is, anxiety will cause people to delay only if they are impulsive.

Ellis and Knaus (1977) estimate that 95% of college students engage in procrastination. There is evidence that procrastination results in detrimental academic performance, including poor grades and course withdrawal (Semb, Glick, & Spencer, 1979), and that the tendency for students to procrastinate increases the longer they are in college: freshmen procrastinate least; seniors, the most (Semb et al., 1979).

Assessment of academic procrastination has focused almost entirely on the measurement of the study habits, such as minutes spent studying and attitudes towards studying (e.g.,Ziesat, Rosenthal & White, 19978), and lessons completed in self-paced instruction courses (e.g., Miller, Weaver,& Semb, 1974). Yet procrastination involves far more than deficient time management and study skills. Anecdotal data from procrastinators and from clinical observations of procrastinators (Burka & Yuen, 1982) suggest numerous other possible reasons for the behavior pattern. Some of these possible reasons for procrastinations are evaluation anxiety, difficulty in making decisions, rebellion against control, lack of assertion, fear of the consequences of success, perceive aversiveness of the task, and overly perfectionistic standards about competency. There has been no systematic attempt to investigate the reason for procrastination. Furthermore, despite the objective nature of procrastination (i.e, one either meets a deadline or fails to meet it; a student hands in a m paper either late or on time), only three studies have incorporated behavioral measures in the assessment of procrastination (Blatt & Quinlan, 1967; Dossett, Latham, & Saari, 1980; Green, 1982). The behavioral measures used in these studies were prompt versus delayed completion of course requirements or speed with which survey questionnaires were returned in relation to specific deadline. None of the studies related the self-report of procrastination to the behavioral measures. One study (Rothblum, 1984) investigated the frequency of college students procrastination on academic tasks and the reason for procrastination behavior. The study showed high percentage of srtudents repord problems with procrastination on several specific academic tasks. Self-reported procrastination was positively correlated with the number of self-paced quizzes students took late in the semester and with participation in a experimental offered late in the semester. A factor analysis of the reasons for procrastination indicated that the factors Fear of Failure and

Aversiveness of the task accounted for most of the variance. A small but very homogenous group of subjects endorsed items on the Fear of Failure factor that correlated significantly with selfreport measures of depression, irrational cognitions, low self-esteem, delayed study behavior, anxiety, and lack of assertion. A larger and relatively heterogeneous of subjects reported procrastinating as a result of aversiveness of the task. The Aversiveness of the Task factor did not correlate significantly with anxiety or assertion, but it did correlate with depression, irrational cognitions, low self-esteem and delayed study behavior. This result indicate that procrastination is not solely a deficit in study habits or time management, but involves a complex interaction of behavioral, cognitive, and affective components Felder, Richard, "Reaching the Second Tier: Learning and Teaching Styles in College Science Education." J. College Science Teaching, 23(5), 286-290 (1993).