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Geothermal Energy

Sergio Capareda

BAEN, TAMU

Temperature Profile in Earth’s Core

Temperature Profile in Earth’s Core
World’s Geothermal Output (2009) = 8,200 MW (10.7 MW in 2010) US Geothermal Output (2009)

World’s Geothermal Output (2009) = 8,200 MW (10.7 MW in 2010) US Geothermal Output (2009) = 2,800 MW (34%) (3,000 MW in 2010)

Temperature Profile A : Normal conductive gradient B: High conductive gradient C&D: Possible temperature-depth

Temperature Profile

A : Normal conductive gradient

B: High conductive gradient

C&D: Possible

temperature-depth

relations from

convective flow

E: Boiling point of water vs depth

Texas Geothermal Potential
Texas Geothermal Potential

Potential Sites: Steaming Ground (Philippines)

Potential Sites: Steaming Ground (Philippines)
Texas Geothermal Areas for Direct Applications

Texas Geothermal Areas for Direct Applications

Hot water and steam reaching surface of earth (mud/hot springs)

Hot water and steam reaching surface of earth (mud/hot springs)

Volcanoes: Mt. Mayon (Philippines)

(Tiwi, Albay Geothermal Plant:330 MW)

Volcanoes: Mt. Mayon (Philippines) (Tiwi, Albay Geothermal Plant:330 MW)
(Philippines) (Tiwi, Albay Geothermal Plant:330 MW) World’s Geothermal Resource Base Region Resource

World’s Geothermal Resource Base

Region

Resource Base

North America

21%

Central America

1%

South America

14%

Western Europe

4%

Eastern Europe

17%

Asia

21%

Africa

13%

Pacific Islands

9%

Geothermal Exploration Surveys

Satellite imagery and aerial photography

Volcanological studies

Geologic and structural mapping

Geochemical surveys

Geophysical surveys

Temperature gradient hole drilling

Volcanoes are obvious indications of underground heat.
Volcanoes are obvious indications of underground heat.

Geothermal Resource Systems

Liquid Dominated Systems (common)

Thermal energy is transported by liquids (water or brine) from rocks from deep regions to near surface region with temperatures up to ~360 o C

Vapor Dominated Systems (rare)

Dry steam fields with temperature~150 220oC

Water may be present underneath

Hot Dry Rock Systems

Vast volumes available, not yet truly explored

Introduce cold water from surface and extract energy from heated water

Geo pressure Systems

Aquifers whose fluids are under pressure exceeding hydrostatic head and approaches that caused by weight of overlying rocks

Sediments lie on top of non porous surface

rocks – Sediments lie on top of non ‐ porous surface Steam Turbine Power Generation Imperial

Steam Turbine Power Generation

Steam Turbine Power Generation

Imperial Valley Geothermal Plant, CA

Imperial Valley Geothermal Plant, CA

Control Room in a Philippine Geothermal Plant

Control Room in a Philippine Geothermal Plant
National Power Corporation (NPC) - Philippine Geothermal Inc. (PGI) Philippine Facilities Characteristics Tiwi Mak‐
National Power Corporation (NPC) - Philippine
Geothermal Inc. (PGI) Philippine Facilities
Characteristics
Tiwi
Mak‐
Ban
Installed Capacity (MW)
330
330
First Plant Synchronized
1/79
4/79
1991 Capacity Factor
70.5
84.8
Steam delivery capacity (k‐lb/hr)
6,382
6,812
Annual Generation (MWh)
1.9M
2.4M
Oil Equivalent (barrels)
3.1M
4M
Turbine inlet pressure (psig)
84.67
85.38
Field size (ha)
1,800
570
Length of pipelines (km)
72
62
No. of production wells
79
58
No. of injection wells.
10
21
Average well depth (ft)
5,010
6,643
Average steam flow rate (k‐lb/hr)
80
118
Average brine flow rate (k‐lb/hr)
55
130
Total field work force (NPC ‐PGI)
491
435
brine flow rate (k‐lb/hr) 55 130 Total field work force (NPC ‐PGI) 491 435 Philippine Geothermal

Philippine Geothermal Power Plants

Philippine Geothermal Power Plants
Philippine Geothermal Power Plants
Philippine Geothermal Power Plants
Mammoth Lakes, CA Tiwi, Albay, Philippines Mojave Desert, CA Mt. Apo, Philippines
Mammoth Lakes, CA
Tiwi, Albay, Philippines
Mojave Desert, CA
Mt. Apo, Philippines

Mammoth Lakes, CA

Mammoth Lakes, CA

Largest Geothermal Plant, US

The Geysers Dry Steam Field, CA (1932)
The Geysers Dry
Steam Field, CA (1932)

Reykjavik, Iceland (1932)

Reykjavik, Iceland (1932)

Reykjavik, Iceland (Today)

95% of all buildings heated by Geothermal Energy
95% of all buildings
heated by
Geothermal Energy

Geothermal Power Cycles

Indirect condensing cycle

Noncondensing cycle

Straight condensing cycle

Single flash system

Double flash system

Binary fluid cycle

Applications

Electrical Power

Use of steam turbines, low efficiency, dry steam suitable

Space Heating and Cooling

Reykjavik Municipal Heating Project (Iceland) serving 97% of 113,000 population

Industrial Applications

Preheating, washing, cooking, blanching, peeling, evaporation and drying, refrigeration

ByProducts

Boron, calcium chloride, silica and zinc

Agriculture

Greenhouses, animal husbandry, aquaculture, soil warming, mushroom raising and biogas generation

Geothermal

Power

Generation

Cycles

Geothermal Power Generation Cycles

Environmental Effects

Land use

Water quality

Subsidence

Air pollution noxious sulfuric gases, arsenic, hydrogen sulfide, etc.

Heat rejection

Affect Hot springs

Salinity Gradient and Cold Fusion

References

Geothermal Education Office (US)

US Geological Society

NREL/DOE

Salinity Gradient

Salinity Gradient is a technology that takes advantage of the osmotic pressure differences between salt water and fresh water.

If a semipermeable membrane (like that in a reverse osmosis filter) is placed between sealed bodies of salt water and fresh water, the fresh water will gradually travel through the filter by osmosis.

By exploiting the pressure difference between these two bodies of water, energy can be extracted, in proportion to the difference in osmotic pressure.

Salinity Gradient Solar Pond (300 kW thermal 70 kWe, El Paso)

Salinity Gradient Solar Pond (300 kW thermal 70 kWe, El Paso)

Advantages and Disadvantages

Advantages:

No CO 2 or other significant effluents or any global environmental effects;

Completely renewable;

Nonperiodic (unlike wind or wave power);

Suitable for small or large scale plants (modular layout)

Drawbacks:

Some plant equipment has yet to be developed with the necessary efficiency;

High capital costs for plant construction mostly buildings and machinery;

Energy cost is very sensitive to membrane cost and efficiency;

Membranes used for plants are vulnerable to fouling.

Membranes used for plants are vulnerable to fouling. Conclusions • Salinity power is one of the

Conclusions

Salinity power is one of the largest sources of renewable energy that is still not exploited.

The exploitable potential world wide is estimated to be 2000 TWh annually.

Not readily evident to most people.

Considerable technological development is necessary to fully utilize this resource.

Lack of efficient and suitable plant components

The potential cost of energy from this source is higher than most traditional hydropower, but is comparable to other forms of renewable energy that are already produced in full scale plants.

Epilogue

Cold Fusion (nuclear fusion reactions)

Gravity Field Energy (gravity and electromagnetism)

FleischmannPons Experiment (23 March 1989)

Reported to have achieved fusion at room temperature.

Claimed to generate more than four times energy that was put in.

Numerous others were not able to replicate these claims.

The ability to reproduce an experiment is the gold standard in science for verifying a discovery.

The Department of Energy concluded there was no convincing evidence Pons and Fleischmann's experiment generated extra heat, or was a nuclear reaction, and the committee saw no reason to set up a special fund to investigate the claims.

Their reputations ruined, and their discovery disgraced, cold fusion became the third rail of science. Stanley Pons gave up his American citizenship and joined Martin Fleischmann in self imposed exile in France

Epilogue 1: Cold Fusion

Cold Fusion – two nuclei are forced to join together to form a heavier nucleus, and during that process, energy is released. Process occur near room temperature and pressure.

Also known as: Low Energy Nuclear Reactions (LENR), or Chemically Assisted Nuclear Reactions (CANR)

Use of heavy water with high deuterium content derived from sea.

Cold Fusion Reactors

Cold Fusion Reactors The electrolysis cell Cold fusion cell at the US Navy Space and Naval

The electrolysis cell

Cold Fusion Reactors The electrolysis cell Cold fusion cell at the US Navy Space and Naval

Cold fusion cell at the US Navy Space and Naval Warfare Systems Center, San Diego, CA (2005)

Conclusion: They are Back!

New cold fusion experiment (crystal fusion): insert a small pyroelectric crystal (lithium tantalite) inside a chamber filled with hydrogen. Warming the crystal by about 100 degrees (from 30 F to 45F) produced a huge electrical field of about 100,000 volts across the small crystal (UCLA).

Fleischmann was hired by D2Fusion (CAbased) in 2006 and plan to release solid state fusion reactors shortly.

Researchers in Boulder Colorado report 1.3 to 1.4 more energy out than was put into the system, replicating an experimental procedure described in a paper presented at the ICCF12 meeting in Japan last November.

The US Department of Energy has predicted that we'll have to wait another five decades, minimum, before fusion power becomes practical. Others believed it will be shorter than that.

The N Machine or Homopolar Generator

Bruce DePalma – EE at Harvard (1958) and taught 15 years at MIT, claimed that his N machine (Homopolar Generator), a device based on the Faraday disc, could produce five times the energy required to run it.

According to mainstream physics, no such device is physically possible.

P. Tewari (Project Director Indian Nuclear Power Corp.) – DePalma’s close ally who has designed a similar Space Power Generator, claimed to have 200% efficiency.

Epilogue 2: Gravitational Field Energy

Tachyon – a theoretical subatomic particle traveling faster than the speed of light. Also known as zero point energy.

In the summer of 1931, Tesla took his nephew to Buffalo, N.Y. to begin testing a new automobile into which he had installed a most remarkable device. At the age of 70, and using his own private funds, Tesla built what is now believed to be the first known "energy receiver" (gravitational energy converter) that actually operated a motor(less) vehicle. The car was a large, heavy Pierce Arrow, one of the luxury cars of that era. The engine was removed and replaced with an electric motor. Under the dashboard, Tesla installed his energy receiver. Tesla said the converter produced enough power to illuminate an entire house as well as run the car. The car was tested for a week and effortlessly reached top speeds of 90 mph.

It is believed by many that Tesla was the first to actually build a receiver that harnessed gravitational field energy, which is now understood to be a direct derivative of Tachyon energy.

Basic Principle: Faraday’s Disk

Basic Principle: Faraday’s Disk

The Sunburst N Machine

The Sunburst N ‐ Machine

Conclusion

DePalma died in 1998 just weeks before the test of their latest homopolar generator.

The test however was not very successful.

Hans A. Nieper. Author of the book entitled

"Conversion of Gravity Field Energy: Revolution in Technology, Medicine and Society", USA,

1985.

Nieper, A World Renowned Cancer Expert died in 1998.

Robert Kincheloe’s Conclusions (EE Prof Stanford)

We are faced with the apparent result that the output power obtained when the generator magnet is energized greatly exceeds the increase in drive power over that needed to supply losses with the magnet not energized. This is certainly anomalous in terms of conventional theory.

His possible explanations:

Error in measurements. But errors are too large

There may indeed be a situation whereby energy is being obtained from a previously unknown and unexplained source.

While DePalma's numbers were high, his basic premise has not been disproved.