Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 81

THE RELEVANCE OF THE UNITED NATIONS IN THE POST-COLD WAR ERA: IRAQI INVASION AS A CASE STUDY

BY ALADENIYI, EMMANUEL ABIODUN APRIL 2005

CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION BACKGROUND 1. The basic concepts and assumptions that led to the

formation of the United Nations (UN) dates back to the beginning of statecraft and humanitys first efforts to foster international cooperation. The treaty of the peace of Westphalia of 1648 is regarded at humanitys first effort in statehood and fostering international cooperation. The formation of the UN is predicated on the evolution of diplomacy, alliances, conferences, rules of warfare, means of peaceful settlement of conflicts and the development of international law. The overriding purpose of the UN is war prevention. This purpose was earlier pursued by ancient Greek Philosophers, Plato and Aristotle, who wrote on the conditions necessary for peace.1 The church in the Middle Ages also enunciated a doctrine of Just War to limit violence and destruction by sanctioning only wars fought for justifiable courses. The

pacifists and internationalists, like Desiderius Erasmus, condemned war in its entirety as immoral and wasteful. 2. The need to institute mechanics for peaceful

settlement of disputes and prevent war encouraged the formation of various international organizations over time. These include the Congress of Vienna and Concert of Europe in 1815. The Hague System worked towards the codification of international law, formulated a set of procedures for pacific settlement, which included mediation, conciliation and inquiry in 2 conferences of 1899 and 1907. The third conference could not however hold in 1915 due to the outbreak of the First World War (WWI) 2. 3. The League of Nations emerged after WWI. It was an

international alliance for the preservation of peace. The League was incapable of preventing the Second World War (WWII) due to the inherent defects in the organizational structure. The League existed from 19201946. The League had 2 major flaws. First, several of the worlds most powerful countries were not members, most notably, the United States (US). This was despite the fact
3

that President Woodrow Wilson of the US was actively involved in its formation. In fact, he was a member of the covenant drafting committee. Secondly, League members proved unwilling to oppose aggression by Japan, Italy and Germany, collectively known as Axis power, in the 1930s. This aggression ultimately led to WWII. In the end, the League failed in its most basic mission, to prevent another WW. 4. The UN succeeded the League of Nations. The UN is

an international organization of nation-states created to promote world peace, develop good relations between countries, promote cooperation in solving the worlds problems, and encourage respect for human rights. Although its existence is based on the sovereign equality of its members, it nevertheless, in principles, elevated international organization above that of sovereign states. The UN was conceived as the answer to a world torn by license and anarchy and ravaged by excesses of aggressive, self-centred nation states. 5. UN membership is open to any country willing to

further the UN mission and abide by its rules. Each


4

country, no matter how large or small, has an equal voice and vote. The UN recognized it would not be successful in its promotion of global peace unless it had the ongoing support of the worlds most powerful countries. The organization took several steps to ensure that support. To reassure the worlds most powerful countries that it would not threaten their sovereignty, the UN gave them veto authority over its most important actions. Five countries benefited from this veto power, they include US, Britain, France, Soviet Union (SU) and China. Russia inherited the SUs veto after its break-up in 1991. 6. Another major strength of the UN, unlike the League

of Nations, is that virtually every nation in the world is a member. Switzerland is an exception, maintaining only an observer mission status, meaning it can participate in UN deliberations but cannot vote. Some non member political entities, such as the Vatican City and the Palestine Liberation Organisation (PLO), also have permanent observer mission status at the UN.5 Currently, the UN has 191 members, compared to the League which had 63 nations belonging to it at one time or another.6

7.

The UNs influence in promoting world peace has over the years. During the Cold War, the

varied

organisation exerted little influence over world affairs. Tensions between the US and the SU prevented UN members from reaching consensus on important issues. However, with the disintegration of the SU in 1991 signalling the end of the Cold War era, the UN began to have influence over international security issues. 8. Among the many successes of the UN was the

eviction of Iraq from Kuwait in 1991 in which collective security was invoked. The multinational coalition to effect the eviction was sanctioned by the UN and assembled on an ad-hoc basis, was dominated substantially by the US. The UN exercised only very general supervision. However, the invasion of Iraq by a US led coalition forces in March 2003 marked a new chapter in the history of the UN. It is one that contradicts the fundamental principle of maintenance of international peace and security on which the UN was established. The coalition forces launched an attack on the people and government of Iraq without the support of the UN. 7 Thus, the US engaged in a war that was internationally
6

adjudged unjust and illegal. Unjust, because it lacked international legitimacy, and illegal, because the UN Security Council (SC) resolution never authorized the ousting of the Saddam Husseins regime.8 9. The US led invasion of Iraq could therefore be

described as an expression of the emerging failure of post-Cold War Order. It is a conscious attempt to legitimize dictatorial domination of weaker member states of the UN and a direct affront on the principle of inalienable sovereignty. The capability of the UN to perform its role is in serious doubt owing to this US action. There is therefore the need to assess the capability of the UN in the present world order. STATEMENT OF THE RESEARCH PROBLEM 10. The coalition forces relied on Resolution 1441 of 8 Nov 02 to invade Iraq. The resolution gave Iraq 30 days within which to declare all aspects of its programmes to develop chemical, biological and nuclear weapons, The ballistic missiles and other delivery system.

resolution affirmed the imperative for personnel of the


7

United Nations Monitoring Verification and Inspection Commission, the replacement for UN Special Commission (UNSCOM) and those of the International Atomic Energy Agency to have unrestricted access to all sites. Despite its strong wording, Resolution 1441 failed to satisfy the demands of the US. The Bush administration tried to obtain subsequent resolution that would permit war but failed in this effort. This however, did not prevent the US from eventually declaring war on Iraq. 11. Therefore, the invasion and subsequent regime change executed in Iraq by the US may have created a credibility problem for the UN. It is in this light that this study seeks to answer the following vital questions on the relevance of the UN in the New World Order (NWO): a. Is the UN, in the present world order, purposeful

and well coordinated? b. Is the organisation achieving its objectives?

c.

Is the organization capable of exercising control

over its member states, including the US, in the present world order? d. Is the organization better able to confer

legitimacy than a coalition of liberal democracies? e. Was Saddam Hussein a threat to international

peace and security-the only reason, apart from self defence against an armed attack, that the UN Charter gives justification for War? f. Is it possible to reform the organization to

function effectively? OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY 12. The outline objectives that this study is designed to fulfil are: a. To identify the defects of the UN.

b.

To identify the legitimacy of the US invasion of

Iraq. c. To identify the relevance of the continued

existence of the UN. d. To identify the necessary reforms needed to

make the UN function effectively in the NWO.

SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY 13. It has often been said variously that the UN has become very effective in its handling of inter and intra state crises after the Cold War. Its role in the handling of the US invasion of Iraq however puts this assertion to test. It is therefore expected that this study will address the need for the UN to reassess its role in the handling of intra-state crises especially after the Cold War. The need to reform as some of its organs has become redundant in the new dispensation. In particular, the study should be relevant to international organization of nation-states. It

10

should also benefit policy makers and scholars of international relations. SCOPE 14. The study covers the concepts of conflict,

international peace and security, balance of power and collective security. It also examines the UN in the NWO and finally, US unilateralism and the UN.

METHODOLOGY 15. This study is descriptive and analytical in the method of collecting and evaluating the information and data obtained from secondary sources. Essentially, the study uses a content analysis approach. LIMITATIONS 16. The issues involved in the study are wide and complex. Consequently, it
11

has

attracted

lot

of

comments from different writers and commentators including politicians and bureaucrats. Many of these views were distorted and bias depending on which ideological or political divide the writer belongs. This distortion has affected accurate reporting of facts. Despite these limitations, the validity and reliability of the findings of this study will not be adversely affected. DEFINITION OF TERMS 17. This study involves 3 key terms: Cold War, bipolarity and unipolarity. a. Cold War. The Collins English Dictionary

defined Cold War as a state of political hostility and military tension between 2 countries or power blocs, involving propaganda, subversion, threats etc especially that between the American and Soviet blocs after WW II.9 The term Cold War was first used by George Orwell on 19 Oct 45, in an essay titled You and the Atom Bomb.10 The term was however popularized by Walter Lippman, a journalist, in a book titled Cold War written in 1947. 11 The
12

Cold War was fought by all means ideological/ political, and limited military action short of total war. Before the discovery of nuclear weapons, a conflict of such scope would have resulted in total war. But nuclear war, because it could erase the distinction between victors and vanquished by destroying all participants, was not considered to be a feasible instrument of policy. by Cold means Military policy means, therefore shifted to deterrence, and war was fought political-economic propaganda and limited violence.12 b. Bipolarity. A state of affairs characterized by 2 It refers to the conflict between the The

opposed opinions, natures etc from 2 different poles of blocs. communist nations of the eastern bloc led by the SU and the Western nations led by the US.13 concept of bipolarity emerged as a result of the Cold War. Similarly, the concept ceases to exist with the demise of SU. c. Unipolarity. In sharp contrast to bipolarity,

unipolarity is concerned with or having a single pole.


13

The concept originated from the disintegration of the SU and its subsequent demise as a super power leaving US as the only super power. The concept of unipolarism is the same as unilateralism. This period is also is also known as the NWO.

ENDNOTES 1. 2. 3. Encyclopedia Americana, 1987, p. 448. Ibid. p.449. http://www encarta.msn.com.

14

4. 5. 6. 7.

Ibid. Ibid. Microsoft Encarta Premium Suite 2004. Akinterinwa, Bola. Iraq war and New International

Order, ThisDay Newspaper, 24 Mar 2003, p.18. 8. 9. Ibid. Collins English Dictionary.

10. http://www/wikipedia.org/wiki/cold-war. 11. Ikpeme, E United States of America as a Unipolar Giant in the New World Order; effect on World Politics, Commandants paper for Senior Course 22, Armed Forces Command and Staff College, p.7. 12. Encyclopedia Americana, op.cit. p.222. 13. Ikpeme, E. op.cit. p.7.

15

16

CHAPTER TWO REVIEW OF LITERATURE 18. The UN was conceptualized on the need to stem conflicts which have resulted in wars with the attendant destruction of human lives on a wide scale. Alliances and international organizations on ground before the formation of the UN could not prevent conflicts especially WWII. The main reason for the formation of the UN was for the maintenance of international peace and security. This could be achieved through a collective effort rather than existing alliances based on the concept of balance of power. CONCEPT OF CONFLICT 19. The term conflict is subject to a variety of definitions. To most, it refers to groups or individuals competing over scarce resources or disparate goals. Lewis A Coser defines conflict as a resources in which the aims of the opponents are to neutralize, injure or eliminate their rival.1 Conflict therefore, involves the interaction of
17

people, with at least one party initiating a demand or forcing the other party to make less desirable choices than it would make when left alone. Conflict is inherent in humanity and its society. others. It is underlined by the impracticability of social units living in isolation from As Stedman rightly observed, conflict is inevitably inherent in human interaction, and more so because social unit would have to make decisions and choices which may vary from and even antagonize those of others.2 20. Operationally, conflict manifest at the micro levels of society, at the level of individuals, at the macro levels, between nation states and also at other points in between. Etham Mijah asserts that in its dynamics, conflict may produce positive or negative consequences, or get transformed to assume a different character. 3 Often where conflict is not effectively managed, it degenerates to levels of adverse consequence, for example war. 21. On another level, Haas defines conflict from an international perspective.
18

He

argued

that

when

nationals of 2 or more states engage in some sort of physically destructive activity such as piercing soldiers with bayonets, dropping napalm on villages, releasing missiles, etc.4 forms of This is often preceded by non-violent such as withdrawal of manifestations

ambassadors, the imposition of economic sanctions, propaganda etc (hostilities). 22. From time immemorial, human concern with conflict is informed by the need to understand its causes and how to manage (resolve) its outcome for the benefit of the society.5 The various alliances in Europe prior to the formation of the League of Nations, were essentially to balance power (balance of power) and avoid wars (conflict). However, wars were still inevitable. This led to the formation of the first global organisation based on the principles of collective security, the League of Nations. Due to inherent defects, the League of Nations could not also prevent the WWII. The formation of the UN was therefore thought to be the answer to a war torn world. No wonder the preamble to the Charter of the UN started thus: We the people of the UN determined: To unite

19

our

strength

to

maintain

international

peace

and

security. CONCEPT OF INTERNATIONAL PEACE AND SECURITY 23. International peace and security involves the security of nation-states and the international system. The concept of security encompasses the preservation of core values of the system as well as the protection of lives and property in the system. Therefore, discourse on international security must necessarily include the notion of peace, conflicts and war. from the scourge of war. 24. Security is a first concern for all systems. It is This is the cardinal foundation of the UN to save succeeding generations

especially so for nations and international organizations. Security is a sought-after value, and one that people will rather have more than less of at any particular time. The understanding of security cannot be done outside the context of the prevailing threat situation as observed by Ochoche. He asserts that what constitute threat is as much a function of values and interests and perceptions
20

are not only dynamic, they are subjective and relative. In a number of cases, the relevant situations are also highly politically determined.6 25. The premium placed on security, as well as the variety and complexities of the issues involved make security such a contested concept at all levels. Most states however tend to understand security only in terms of military security as observed by Robert McNamara as follows: There is among us an almost ineradicable tendency to think of our security problem as being exclusively a military problem, and to think of the military problem as being exclusively a weapons or manpower problem. We still tend to conceive national security almost solely as a state of armed readiness, a vast, awesome arsenal of weaponry. We still tend to assumed that it is primarily this purely military ingredient that creates security. We are haunted by this concept of military hardware.7

21

26. This global

interpretation was

dominated

the by the

approach

to

security for most of the 20th Century, a period in which peace characterized the East and the ideological This But conflicts between West.

subsequently resulted into the building of powerful military alliances like the NATO and Warsaw Pact. this has not provided security. Chris Garuba observed

that rather, the world has witnessed an escalation in the breach of international peace and security.8 27. There is therefore, a need to provide a mechanism for resolving international peace and security. solution. CONCEPT OF BALANCE OF POWER 28. The definitions of power and balance are more elusive. Rothgeb posits that, while power is a central concept within international relations, its usage has been subject to definitional confusion.9 Often power is utilized to portray a states resources or the capabilities of a state. This type of power is somewhat easy to measure
22

The UN

with its collegiate functions was thought to be the

as it consists of economic, military and manpower that is available to a state. Still, even with the measurement of these resources, it is difficult to make an accurate and realistic assignment of the relative importance of each asset. Rothgebs second conceptualization identifies power as a goal. He contended that it is not enough to just want power without really defining what the actor desires. 29. The last conceptualization of power by Rothgeb is that it is a means to control others or control the environment in which one is found.10 seems the most consistent with This definition other scholars.
11

Morgenthau and Thompson speak of power as mans control over the minds and actions of other men. is power. 30. Morgenthau and Thompson assert that the concept of balance of power or equilibrium has been around for thousands of years. As a term though, the balance of power has been used indiscriminately to convey a multitude of situations. Singer examines several lists of
23

In

order words, if a party can obtain what they desire, that

meanings concerning the balance of powers. 12 Examples of such alternative include the existing distribution of power. Conveying the balance in this way could essentially represent all variants of the distribution of power. This distribution can be at or near equilibrium or there can be an imbalance that would suggest that one state or alliance has a superior advantage. 31. For the avoidance of confusion however, the balance of power, as used in this study, is determined to be an equal distribution of power. This is also consistent with Morgenthaus definition as metaphor of two scales kept in balance by an equal distribution of weights on either side, and order on the international scene.
13

This the

definition was also corroborated by Organski who echoed that balance of power rests on the premise that various nations group themselves together in such a way that no single nation or group of nations is, strong enough to overwhelm the others, for its power is balanced by that of some opposing group.14 Spanner and Wendzel also agrees with this definition as they asserted that such a balance is seen as structural or a system where a shift away from equilibrium leads to
24

countershifts. 15 Such balancing then occurs much like the equilibrium is found in free markets where the quantity supplied will shift in response to the quantity demanded. 32. One of the earliest examples of the practice, if not the formulation of this doctrine, was the creation of the Peloponnesian League in ancient Greece. None of its members could restrain Athens without the others, but together they thought they might dissuade the Athenians from aggression, or if that failed, defeat them in battle. The various competing Chinese states of the Warring States (402-221 BC) also practiced balance of power tactics. 16 33. The expected outcome from any situation involving a balance of power, however, is far from consensus. While Organski provides an insight into the definition of power, he dissents concerning its usefulness and labelled the theory as having erroneous conclusion. 17 This view was equally supported by Singer when he posited equal. that, conflict is more likely when the powers are closer to being In both domestic and international affairs, as long as one group or state has the preponderance of
25

power, there may be peace, but it will be an imposed peace, with the terms defined by holders of power.18 34. Inversely, Morgenthau and others hold that balance of power does help to subdue conflict and prevents domination. He and Thompson used several examples of how the balance of power works and how definition from the equilibrium result in conflicts.19 Historical example that were cited, among others, include Belgium, Korea and Austria. examples Duetschs confrontation. It must however be noted that these competition empirically, more than a direct Base on these 2 contending views, vindicated Organski involve study

approach and countered Morgenthaus claim that the balance of power thwarts conflict. He posited that more retribution may be sought; resulting in conflict, when there is a balance of power.20 The mechanics of balancing is deemed to have resulted in several armed conflicts, most notably, the 2 cataclysmic World Wars. This quest for a strategic balance was the driving force behind the Cold War, as the 2 super powers engaged in a bitter struggle to prevent each other from becoming dominant.
26

CONCEPT OF COLLECTIVE SECURITY 35. The concept of collective security is a strategy

adopted by members of the UN to jointly or collectively restrain the use of force among its members. In fact, JWT Gbor tagged it as each for all, all for each stipulating that members would take effective collective measures to assist any member under aggression by another member.21 This view was equally supported by Gordenker and Weiss who stated that collective security is not used here in the conventional sense of specific joint effort by governments to maintain peace, prevent conflicts, and form alliances against an outlaw state. Rather, it is used in the ordinary sense of security that is shared by or involving every member of the group. It is used to mean security that is the result of a concerted effort. 22 36. The Charter of the UN recognizes the importance of collective security effort in the achievement of international security. Article 1 of the Charter states the purpose of the UN as the:

27

a. Maintenance of international peace and security, and to that end: to take effective collective measures for the prevention and removal of threats to the peace. b. Development of friendly relations among nations based on respect for the principle of equal rights and self determination of peoples; and c. Achievement of international cooperation in solving international problems of an economic, social, cultural or humanitarian character, and in promoting and encouraging human rights and for fundamental freedoms for all without destruction as to race, sex, language or religion.23 37. The meaning of international peace and security by the UN is implied in the preamble to the Charter Prevention of war, promotion of human rights, equality of persons and nations, maintenance of justice, and promotion of social progress and higher living standard. 38. Ochoche observed that the UN reasonable grasped the essence of international security from the beginning. It appreciated its broad meaning to be beyond just the military. Its application and coverage was fairly comprehensive, covering and linking the interests of all
28

members to one another.

Sadly, the cold war made it

virtually impossible for the objectives of the organisation to be realized. The collective approach to security was just impracticable, and the linkages were virtually broken. The demands and logic of the Cold War made consensus and cooperative handling of security problems almost impossible.24 39. This view was rightly echoed by Boutros BoutrosGhali, a former Secretary General of the organisation who noted in 1992 that: Since the creation of the UN in 1945, over 100 major conflicts around the world have left some 20 millions dead. The UN was rendered powerless to deal with many of these crises because of the vetoes-279 of them-cast in the SC, which were a vivid expression of the division of that period.25 40. However, contrary to expectation, the end of the Cold War unleashed a new order with its attendant shortcomings. Only one world power was remaining with no opposition to check its unilateral tendencies. There was therefore an increase in new forms of conflicts, which
29

includes

international

terrorism

and

right

of

self

determination. Similarly, the UN was incapacitated while she watched helplessly Afghanistan and Iraqi invaded by a US led coalition in 2001 and 2003 respectively. SUMMARY 41. The conceptual framework of this study was

discussed on the basis of conflict which is an enduring aspect of humans interaction; and international peace and security, the very essence of the formation of the UN. The balance of power was however not as effective as it is expected to be as more retribution may be sought when there is a balance of power. Collective security concept was then adopted by members of the UN to collectively restrain the use of force among its members. The invasion of Iraq by the US therefore was not a collective effort of the UN. This has put to test the workability of this concept and the relevance of the UN especially in the unipolar world. Thus the importance of the UN in handling global crises was once again put to test.

30

ENDNOTES 1. Coser, Lewis. The Functions of Social Conflict, (New

York: The free Press, 1956), p.187.


31

2.

Stedman, Stephen, Conflict and Conflict Resolution

in Africa: A Conceptual Framework in Adebayo Adedeji (Edited), Comprehending and Mastering African Conflicts, (London: Zeb Books), p. 14. 3. Mijah, Etham, Understanding Political Conflict:

Causes, Dynamics and Management. Lecture to students of Senior Course 27 of Armed Forces Command and Staff College on 26 Aug 04. 4. Haas, Michael. International Conflict, (New York: the

Free Press, 1974), p. 88. 5. 6. Mijah, Ethan, op.cit. Ochoche, SA, Changing Concepts of International Peace (Abuja, and Security: War The College, Nigerian Nigeria,

peace and Security, in Maj Gen Chris A. Garuba (Edited), International Contribution, 1997). p. 11. National

32

7.

McNamara, RS, The Essence of Security: Reflections

in Office, (New York: Harper and Row, 1968), p.142. 8. Garuba Maj Gen CA, International Peace and

Security: The Nigerian Contribution, (Abuja: National War College, Nigeria, 1997). p. 4. 9. Rothgeb, JM. Influence of Force in the Contemporary

International System, (New York: St Martin Press, 1993), p.19. 10. Ibid. p.23. 11. Morgenthau, HJ and Thompson, K. Politics Among Nations, (New York: Alfred A. Knoph 1985), p.32. 12. Singer, MR. Weak States in a World of Powers, (New York: The Free Press, 1972), p.16. 13. Morgenthau, HJ, op.cit, p. 223. 14. Organski, AFK. World Politics 2nd ed, (New York: Alfred Knoph, 1968), p. 274.
33

15. Spanner, J and Wendzel, RL. Games Nations Play, 9th ed (Washington DC: CQ Press, 1996), p.109. 16. Microsoft Encarta Premium Suite 2004. 17. Organski, AFK, op.cit, p. 288 18. Singer, MR, op.cit, p. 85. 19. Morgenthau, HJ, op.cit, p. 196-229. 20. Deutsch, M. The Malignant (Spiral) Process of Hostile Interaction in political Psychology Journal No 1 1983, p.4. 21. Gbor, Maj Gen, JWT, The Concept and Practice of Global Peace and Security in Maj Gen JWT Gbor (Edited) The Nigerian Army in Global Security, (Lagos: Megawons, West Africa, 2004). p. 6. 22. Gordenker, L and Weiss, TG. The Collective Security Idea and Changing World Politics, in Weiss, TG (Edited)

34

Collective Security in a Changing World, (Boulder & London: Lynne Rienner Publisher, 1993), p. 4. 23. United Nations, Charter of the United Nations and Statue of the International Court of Justice (New York: United Nations), p.3. 24. Ochoche, SA, op.cit. p. 24. 25. Boutros-Ghali, B. An Agenda for Peace: Preventive Diplomacy Peacemaking and Peace-Keeping, (New York: United Nations, 1992), p.7.

35

CHAPTER THREE RESEARCH METHODOLOGY INTRODUCTION 42. This chapter contains methods used in the collection of data. It presents the instruments employed, research population and sample size. The sampling procedure used was highlighted. Similarly the statistical techniques used in analyzing the data collected were also indicated. RESEARCH DESIGN 43. Detailed and accurate findings are crucial to any study. For this research it was necessary for me to use suitable research methods because of the relevance of the topic under study. The research utilized documentary content analysis in gathering data on the relevance of the UN in the unipolar world using the invasion of Iraq as a case study.

36

44. However exploratory research design was used to collect data on the relevance of the UN either in the Cold War era or the NWO. The researcher acknowledges that in international relations, nation-states tend to pursue their own unilateral interest which may run parallel to common goals and objectives. It thus follows that the same parameters may not necessarily offer same analogy or findings. In order to overcome such conditions an assumption ceteri paribus meaning all things being equal was made for this study. AREA OF STUDY 45. The relevance of the UN as an international

organization was the area covered by this study. The population interviewed were found within the Jaji Military Cantonment and ABU. Most of those interviewed had formal education. 46. Additionally, the information obtained from

secondary was analysed. The relevant areas included functions of the UN, impact of the UN in managing

37

international peace and security, areas where reforms are necessary. RESEARCH POPULATION AND SAMPLING PROCEDURE 47. The target population of this research covers the teaching staff and students of AFCSC, Infantry Corps Centre and School (ICCS) and ABU. A total of 70 questionnaires were distributed to the respondents. The teaching staff of both AFCSC AND ICCS consists of the officers cadre while that of ABU were mainly of the Department of International Relations. 48. The research requires a sampling process that will give a reasonable degree of accuracy. This method was considered satisfactory with the aim of increasing the level of accuracy in estimating parameters of various objectives of the study. INSTRUMENT OF DATA COLLECTION

38

49. Primary and secondary methods were used in collecting information for this research before they were analysed. A sample of the questionnaire which consists of both the unstructured and structured types is at Annex A. The researcher also employed the method of documentary content analysis. The documents were obtained from various libraries and from the internet. VALIDATION OF THE INSTRUMENT 50. The interview and questionnaire method allowed personal contact with the participants whereby their views, opinions and suggestions were obtained first hand. It also provided an opportunity to effectively communicate with the respondents and clear any doubts pertaining to the study. 51. Documentary content analysis method however

offered a wider reach of opinions that could not be accessed by the questionnaire method. It also offered detailed insight into issues with the benefit of hindsight. METHOD OF DATA COLLECTION

39

52. In the course of the study the researcher personally administered the questionnaire used to collect data from the sample of 70 respondents. Data was also collected from documentary sources on the achievements of the UN in the Cold War era comparing it with its achievement in the NWO. Data on its performances were obtained from the UN official website on the internet. METHOD OF DATA ANALYSIS 53. The data collected was analysed based on the answers from the respondents. The analysis of the answers resulted in deductions which led to the findings of this study. Similarly, data collected from documentary contents of the literature reviewed were analyzed. Inferences and projections based on available data resulted in more findings. WEAKNESSES OF THE METHODOLOGY 54. The influenced presence the of the of researcher the could have The

response

respondents.

secondary source of data could have its own weakness

40

which could affect their validity as writers opinion may be biased depending on which side of the divide he belongs. SUMMARY 55. This research work employed a research design based on documentary content analysis and exploratory research methods in the collection of data. The validation of the instrument, method of data collection and analysis were discussed. 56. Furthermore the population sample used for the study was identified. Similarly the weaknesses of the methodology were highlighted.

41

CHAPTER FOUR UNITED STATES UNILATERALISM AND THE UNITED NATIONS 57. This chapter is basically respondents view and other data obtained from secondary sources on reasons why the UN has performed its role below expectation in the NWO. The unilateralist tendency of the US was one the major highlights. The implications of the attack on the relevance of the UN would also be discussed. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN UNITED STATES AND THE UNITED NATIONS

42

58. A very important fact in world affairs seem to is that the US played a key role in the formation of the UN after WWII. The assumption was that the collective security mechanism would not only provide a framework for interstate relations, it would also provide a bulwark against the eruption of warfare between countries. Thus, the determination to save succeeding generations from the scourge of war is a part of the opening statement of the UN Charters preamble. 59. The US was one of the founding architects of the UN system and, for a long time, placed a lot of reliance on the system. On the other hand, the importance of the US to the UN system over the years has been reflected in the payment of annual assessed dues which is equivalent to about 25 percent of the total UN budget.1 60. Over the years, there has been substantial support for the UN among Americans, vocal opposition started to build up during the height of the Cold War among mainly conservative Americans.2 During the 1950s, such groups tried to portray the UN as a tool used by communist nations to propagate their interest, despite the fact that
43

the US usually succeeded in securing majority votes in the General Assembly. This was due to the predominance of Western aligned nations in the UN. 3 This was exemplified by the heavy use of veto by the SU at that time (114 times from 1945 to 1975).4 61. The decade of the 1960s, however witnessed an increase in the number of colonies that gained independence. This resulted in an explosion in UN

membership and a concomitant loss of the pre-existing Western majority. This new Third World majority (G77) often seemed to adopt positions that apparently were in dissonance to that of the West while supporting the erstwhile SU and its allies. This was also exemplified by the use of veto 60 times by the US between 1976 and 1990. 62. The perception by Americans that the UN is not adequately serving its foreign policy interests, led to its opposition. This is despite the fact that the US provides about a quarter of the UN budget. premised on 4 issues. This opposition is The first revolved around

American perception that UN had performed poorly in the


44

maintenance of peace and security, a position largely linked to the continuing Middle East crises. The second issue is the argument held by the groups and government that the UN system comprises an unnecessarily large and unwieldy bureaucracy. This they have argued, has led to plenty of waste in terms of financial resources. 5 63. The third issue was that the UN had become only a talk shop, hence it could not take appropriate steps to disarm Iraq of Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD) purported to be in her inventory. This has led to the The US decline in the relevancy of the world body. order to shore up the relevancy of the UN. 6

claimed, it led the coalition that invaded Iraq in Mar 03 in The fourth issue is related to the third and it directly stems from the criticism of the UN Secretary General, Kofi Annan, on the illegality of the invasion. It is the massive fraud amounting to about 10 billion USD discovered in the UN administered oil for food programme for Iraq.7 The programme is directly handled by the office of the Secretary General. Regardless of the factual worth of these arguments, they nevertheless constitute the basis

45

for the application of greater political and financial pressure by the US upon the UN. 64. The flip side of US-UN relations, however, display the fact that overtime, the US has seen the UN as a means of legitimizing her policies and furthering her interests. The Cuban missile crisis and the seizure of US diplomats in Iran were examples where the UN was put to effective policy use by garnering international support for the US. 8 The US has thus developed a flexible approach, using collective bodies such as coalition of allies and clients, discarding them when they do not suit her global design. The decision to invade General and Panama in 1983 and 1989 respectively were taken without reference to the UN or Organisation of American States.9 UNITED STATES UNILATERALISM AND THE IRAQ WAR 65. The first push towards unilateralism by the US was immediately after the disintegration of the SU. In the National Security strategy of the US published in Aug 91, George Herbert Bush, the President of the US observed as
46

follows: Despite the emergence of new power centres, the US remains the only state with truly global strength, reach and influence in every dimension-political, economic and military. In these circumstances, our

natural desire to share burdens more equitably with newly-strong friends does not relieve us of our own responsibilities. 10 66. Similarly, after the Gulf War, the US published its most systematic and explicit statement of global The dominance which was formulated in Feb 92.11 year 1994-1996-DPG.

document was the Defence Planning Guidance for fiscal The collapse of the SU, together with the military victory over Iraq was described in the DPG, as offering unique opportunities for resurgent global empire building. The DPG interventionist strategy was so broadly defined as to include every region of the world and a vast array of political, economic and military situations that could trigger of the deployment of US Armed Forces. It further encouraged the While House not to flinch from a willingness to dictate global, regional and internal power configuration and promote economic systems, which benefit US interests.
47

67. The constituent of Americas national interests and the various recommended means for pursuing them was also highlighted in the report of the commission on Americas National Interest in 1996. The report encouraged American policy makers to prevent the rise of any hegemonic power in any part of the world and proposed the un-bridged pursuit of Americas national interest. Thus the activities of Saddam Hussein in the Middle East were seen as the gradual rise of a hegemony which must be discouraged immediately.12 68. US unilateralism was manifested in the sidelining of the UN during the Bosnian Crisis, the US led air strikes, and the US brokered Dayton peace Accord. She also displayed in the open, American opposition to the continuation in office of Boutros Boutros-Ghalis second term bid as UN Secretary General. He was accused of presiding over a wasteful and bloated UN bureaucracy and pursuing a direction that was at variance with US interests.13

48

69. The most unambiguous exposition of unilateralism of the US with direct pertinence to the Gulf War was OPERATION DESERT FOX. After the defeat of Iraq, the Therefore, the authorization for the further use of force could only come from the SC, which never granted it. numerous bombing raids perpetrated by the US and Britain between 1998 and 2000 (OPERATION DESERT FOX) were not only illegal, but open display of a growing US unilateralism. 70. In the aftermath of the 11 Sep 01 terrorist attack on the US, President George Walker Bush came up with a policy statement which has come to be described as the Bush Doctrine. The essence of the doctrine, which was embodied in a Sep 02 presidential communication to the US Congress, holds that: As a matter of common sense and self defence, America will act against such emerging threats before they are fully formed. We cannot defend America and our friends by hoping for the best.14 Though the terrorist attacks provided an auspicious occasion for the adoption of a unilateralist policy of preemption, close observers claimed that the policy had

49

actually been formulated from the inception of the administration. 71. Regardless of the genesis of this policy however, its first target turned out to be Iraq. And it took the form of a strong push for regime change even though the rest of the world was in fundamental opposition to it. In pursuit of his unilateralist course, President George Walker Bush sent a draft resolution to the US congress on 19 Sep 02, seeking its authorization for the use of force against Iraq.15 President Bush had invoked the inherent right of the US as acknowledged in the UN Charter to use force in order to defend itself. 72. Article 51 of the UN Charter however, permits the use of force in self-defence if one state has been attacked by another, or is under the threat of attack. Indeed the right of self defence can only be upheld until the SC effectively intercedes to maintain security after which it ceases to have any effect. Thus, it should have been incumbent upon the Bush administration to furnish proof of imminent threat from Iraq, but the emphasis upon preemption by the Bush doctrine effectively precluded this
50

THE IMPLICATIONS OF THE ATTACK ON THE RELEVANCE OF THE UNITED NATIONS

73. The Mar 03 US led coalition attack on Iraq, no doubt, has cast a serious credibility question on the continued existence of the UN. The proponents of the attack have consistently argued that the UNSC need not have passed Resolution 1441, if it was not interested in genuine disarmament. The flaw in the invasion however was In this context, the UN is peaceful disarmament or forceful disarmament by the international community. regarded as the international community. In the context of the invasion, the international community did not approve of it as Russia, China and France, 3 nuclear powers and permanent members of the SC were against it. 74. Some other proponents of the attack still believed that the US is still very relevant in world affairs, this was the reason the US consulted with fit the first place. If not, the US would have invaded Iraq a year earlier without
51

bothering to consult the UN.

That it did not do so,

despite the temptations, but instead resorted to mouths of cajoling, threatening and bribing countries like Angola, Guinea and Colombia (all were present members of the SC then), was a testimony to the UNs usefulness. 16 SUMMARY 75. This chapter attempts to chronicle the failures of the

UN in exercising firm control over its member nations. The US was particularly singled out as having unilateralist ambitions and tends to pursue this ambition even when it sometimes runs contrary to international interest. The attack on Iraq by the US was thus seen as an hegemonic ambition.

ENDNOTES

52

1.

Oche, Ogaba, Multilateralism, the United Nations

and the Iraq War (Unpublished), 2003, p. 4. 2. 3. Ibid. p.5. Riggs, RE and Plano, JC, The United Nations:

International Organisation and World Politics, 2nd Ed, (Belmont, Califoria: Wadsworth, 1994), p.62. 4. Ziring, L. et al, The United Nations: International

Organisation and World Politics, (Orlando: Harcourt Brace and Company, 2000), p.1. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. http://www.rense.com Ibid. http://www.worldnetdaily.com Oche, Ogaba. op.cit. p.18. Ibid.

53

10. National Security Strategy of the United States, August 1991. 11. Gruyatt, Another American Century? The United States and the World After 2000, (London: Zeb Books, 2000), p.88. 12. Ibid. 13. Oche, Ogaba. op.cit. p.6. 14. http://www.cnn.com 15. Oche, Ogaba. op.cit. p.7. 16. Irrelevant, Illegitimate or indispensable Available on internet at http//:economist.com.

CHAPTER FIVE UNITED NATIONS AND THE NEW WORLD ORDER

54

76. The UN still has the potentials to fulfil the dreams of its founding fathers, that is, the maintenance of international peace and security among others. To achieve this aim, there would be the need for the UN to carry out some reforms. This chapter attempts to discuss some reforms that may be necessary to make the UN relevant in the unipolar world.

PURPOSE AND PROSPECTS OF THE UNITED NATIONS 77. A lot of factors have contributed to shaping the UN since its inception. It must however be understood that the UN is not a world government; it is an association of sovereign states who come together and to work towards the attainment of the goals and objectives enshrined in the Charter.1 their own goals. States often tend to pursue their own With no standing army or police and selfish goals when the goals of the UN run contrary to often with members refusing to pay their financial contributions, the UN is only as effective as members want it to be. Irrespective of the defects of the UN however, Keith Suter expressed the view that even
55

without WWII, some form of UN (or greatly revitalized League of Nations) would have been established.2 78. The UN today has the same basic purpose and structure as it did when it was founded in 1945. maintain world peace. Its primary purpose and greatest benefit to its members is to That, in turn, helps encourage In addition to that business and international trade.3 variety of other ways.

primary mission; the UN serves its member countries in a The UN provides a forum for countries to promote their views and settle conflicts without violence. It allows countries to cooperate to solve world problems such as poverty, disease and environmental degradation. It serves as a symbol of

international order and global identity. It promotes and coordinates economic and social progress in developing countries, with the idea that such problems create sources of conflict that can lead to war.4

56

UNITED NATIONS IN THE POST-COLD WAR ERA 79. The post cold war era began with the dissolution of the SU. This was accompanied by political and socioeconomic reforms and the democratization process in parts of Europe and Africa. These events gave impetus to economic and political integration. It further served to reduce tension in Europe, especially over the threat of nuclear war. The annexation of Kuwait by Iraq in Aug 90 however raised global tension again. UN Resolution of 678 sponsored by the US gave Iraq a deadline of 15 Jan 91 to withdraw her forces or face military action. Iraqs non compliance resulted in a US-led allied forces assault, OPERATION DESERT STORM, from 17 Jan - 3 Mar 91.5 80. The eviction of Iraq from Kuwait was significant for the UN because the function of collective responsibility was exercised. This was interpreted to mean the beginning of multilateral actions under the UNs direction, a testimony to its capability in the NWO. Unfortunately, the hopes were short-lived as US supranational policies were soon brought to the fore.

57

THE FUTURE OF THE UNITED NATIONS 81. The UN was the centrepiece of the international system created by the victors of WWII and, during the long decades of ideological conflict between the East and West, it served as a forum for international dialogue. Over the years, its activities have expanded to include not only international standard-setting and promotion of social and economic development but also Peace Support Operations (PSOs) on several continents.6 82. Over the same period, the political reality of the world has experienced a dramatic transformation. At the inception of the UN, there were some 50 nations that attended the initial conference at San Francisco. These 50 nations and Poland became the founding members of the UN.7 That number has grown to 191 as of early Today, the growing and Non2003.8 Also at the close of WWII, governments were the main actors on the global scene. influence of multinational corporations

Governmental Organizations has created a much more intricate political landscape.

58

83. Despite the growing complexity in its mission, the UN system has retained more or less the same structure that was designed for a new international organisation almost 60 years ago. It is therefore not surprising that recent events in the world have again stimulated discussions on the ability of the UN to meet the political realities of the 21st Century. The future of the UN lies in its continued existence and functioning as the global organ for peace and cooperation. To guarantee this future, the threat to UNs survivability must be identified and blotted out. Also, the necessary reforms required to enhance its functions must be instituted. It is along this line that some reforms necessary to make the UN relevant in the emerging international order have been proposed and are discussed subsequently.

THE GENERAL ASSEMBLY 84. The UN General Assembly is made up of all member countries, each with one vote. It undertakes all major discussions and decisions about UN actions. It is like a global town hall, providing a powerful medium for countries to put forward their ideas and debate issues. 9
59

The assembly can discuss and make recommendations on any issue covered by the UNs Charter. However, the recommendations are not binding because the assembly has no authority to enforce them. 85. The General Assembly has come under attack in recent times, due to its ineffectiveness. could be adduced to these shortcomings. current arrangement gives undue weight Two reasons Firstly, the to state

sovereignty, even when leaders are not democratically elected, resulting in a curious mix of anarchy and conservatism. In a reformed UN, the General assembly, which is the legislative branch and its voting structure, will need to represent more accurately the people of the world as well as nation-states.10 86. Secondly, General Assembly resolutions are not binding unless they are separately ratified as a treaty by each of member with state. provisions Resolutions for both of the general and assembly, within a limited boundary, can posses the force law enforcement sanctions. This is only possible, if the current system,

which places state sovereignty above all other concerns,


60

gives way to a system, which can address the interests of a single and interdependent humanity. It is when the UN is seen to be more representative that the people of the world willingly submit to it.

FUNDING 87. The effectiveness of the UN is dependent on prompt payment of assessment dues and levies for PSO by members. Most states have however been holding back in their payments. This withholding of payments compounded by the absence of authority to collect any interest accrued because of that delay, have further aggravated the bureaucratic inefficiencies in some parts of its operations. The annual budget shortfall is pressurizing the UN into a crisis management mentality. 88. In past years, some 25-member governments have at various times withheld portions of their assessments for political reasons.11 Some even refused to pay their levies for PSO because they opposed the use of UN peacekeeping forces in particular situations. The US remains the greatest contributor to the UN with dues that
61

is equivalent to 25 percent of UN income. 12 Ironically, the US is also the greatest debtor to the organisation. As at 1998, member states owed the UN a total of 2.5 billion USD. Out of this amount, the US alone owed 1.6 billion, equivalent of 64 percent of the debt profile .13 When compared to the US defence budget of 260 billion USD for same year, it indicates the insincerity of states at making a success of the UN. This budget amount of the US also seems ridiculous even after the Cold War, when there are no obvious threats. Introducing sanctions such as no payment of levies no vote in the General Assembly as prescribed in Article 19 of the Charter could help reduce the debt burden.

THE TRUSTEESHIP COUNCIL 89. The UN Charter designates the Trusteeship Council a principal organ, like the Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC); it is subordinate to the General Assembly. The council originally was responsible for supervising 11 territories placed under international trust at the end of WWII. It supervises non-strategic trust territories for the Assembly and strategic trusts for the SC.
62

The Charter

made trusteeship an option for territories detached from enemy states as a result of WWII, as well as any other colony a state might choose to place within the system.14 90. The last strategic trust territory, Palau Islands, became an independent republic in 1994. Since then, the Trusteeship Council ceased to exist. A Charter amendment is necessary to abolish the Trusteeship Council, or perhaps be redesigned, to change its role completely and become useful in other areas. APPLICATION OF COLLECTIVE SECURITY NOTION TO OTHER PROBLEMS

91. The concept of collective security was originally conceived within the context of a threat of military aggression. Considering the emerging threats in the Such threats that have been exhaustive, include terrorism, NWO, the concept may now be applied in expansive manner to other areas. noticed, though not

international drug trafficking, food security and intrastate wars.

63

92. If these threats were given the necessary attention by the UN, inalienable right of smaller states would be preserved. These threats are some of the reasons that have been adduced to the invasion of weaker states by the stronger ones. INTERNATIONAL COURT OF JUSTICE

93. Another

mechanism

of

the

UN,

in

promoting is brought

international peace and security, is adjudication, or a judicial settlement, in which a dispute before an international court. The International

Court of Justice (ICJ) sometimes referred to as the World Court is the judicial organ of the UN. Although the record is quite mixed, the ICJ has judged cases involving issues ranging from fisheries to frontier disputes to nuclear testing.15 A number of cases are submitted to the court but then removed from the ICJ by the parties. Some are settled out of court; the rest are removed because one party refuses to accept the ICJs jurisdiction in the dispute.

64

94. Indeed, distrust of the ICJ and unwillingness to let an outside party determine a states interests are the main reasons that many issues are not brought before the court. States use ICJ when they feel it would be a useful tool of their foreign policy.16 A good example was the US who went to the ICJ for justice after Iranian students seized American diplomats in 1979, but refused to accept the ICJs jurisdiction in the case brought by Nicaragua regarding the US covert mining of its harbour.

95. willing

Another

problem to

of

the

ICJs

jurisdiction enforcing

is the

enforceability of its judgement. Even when parties have submitted its jurisdiction, judgement has been difficult or impossible in some cases. With no standing army or police, the ICJ cannot enforce its own judgement. Failure by a party to abide by the courts judgement entitles the opposite party to have recourse to the SC of the UN which may decide on measures to be taken to give effect to the judgement.

96. These inherent defects in the structure of the UN have made it difficult to properly administer justice in a
65

seemingly

lawless

international

community.

The ICJ

therefore needs to be restructured as part of the proposed UN reforms to meet the challenges of the NWO. A reformed ICJ would help reinforce the relevance of the UN in the present world order.

PEACE SUPPORT OPERATIONS

97. The UN was built as an organization of sovereign states, constituted to deal with the problem of inter- state wars and other threats to peace and security. 17 The largest challenge facing the UN after 1990 was not inter state war, but violence within territorial states. Violence rooted in political controversies related to environmental deterioration and mass starvation. Dealing with these problems was a structural limitation, which the UN carried forward from foundation into the NWO.

98. Regional Organizations have shown capability to tackle these new forms of threat to peace that has become predominant. The intervention of NATO in
66

Bosnia and ECOWAS in Liberia and Sierra Leone were instances of regional alternatives to the UN. 18 This move is deemed to be supported by the principles and purposes of the UN. However, the Charter does not explicitly define the relationship between the regional and global organisation when intervening in such crises. 19 Indeed, the idea of collaboration in PSOs was not envisaged by the founding fathers at inception.

99. It is therefore necessary to create an organ or department under the UN that would be responsible for coordinating PSOs between the UN and regional organizations. This is in view of the fact that the regional organizations are becoming more interested in their own affairs. Also the paucity of funds and other politics have limited the capabilities of the UN in intervening in all crises. The proposed organ or department should be This may before it considered as one of the necessary reforms. the UN from intervening in local crises

help reduce the bureaucratic bottleneck, which hampers degenerates completely like the Rwanda/Burundi crises. This arrangement will then allow the SC to handle interstate crises.
67

SUMMARY 100.The necessary reforms that are imperative to the relevance of the UN in the unipolar world were discussed in this chapter. It includes restructuring of the UN, funding, the General Assembly and the Trusteeship Council. Others include applying the notion of collegiate action to other areas, the ICJ and PSO.

ENDNOTES 1. Gambari, Ibrahim, Relevance of the UN in the new

Millenium, The Guardian Newspaper, 18 Oct 99, p.19. 2. Suiter, Keith cited in Obiozor, George The UN

System: Objective, Structure and Reform. Lecture delivered at National Institute of International Affairs, Lagos on 25 Oct 95. 3. http://www.encarta.msn.com.

68

4. 5.

Ibid. Eji, Eugene, The Future of the United Nations in the

Post-Cold War era, Commandants Paper for Defence Intelligence Officers Course 3, Defence Intelligence School, 2003, p.9. 6. 7. 8. 9. Ibid. http://www.encarta. op.cit Encarta Premium Suite 2004. http://www.ibiblio.org/bahai.

10. Ibid. 11. Rigss, RE and Plano, JC, The United Nations:

International Organisation and World Politics, 2nd Ed, (Belmont, Califoria: Wadsworth, 1994), p.277. 12. Aladeniyi, Maj, EA, The Relevance of the United Nations in a Unipolar World, Commandants Paper for

69

Defence

Intelligence

Officers

Course

3,

Defence

Intelligence School, 2003, p.9. 13. Ibid. 14. Ibid. 15. Rigss, RE and Plano, JC, op.cit. p.278. 16. Ibid. 17. Cimbala, Stephen, Collective Insecurity, (Westport: Greenwood Press, 1995), p.2. 18. Adanogu, Resolution in Aliyu, United Nations and Conflict for

Africa,

Commandants

Paper

Intelligence Detachment Officers Course, Nigerian Army Intelligence School, 2000, p.7. 19. Aladeniyi, op.cit. p.10.

70

CHAPTER SIX

CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS

CONCLUSION

101.The UN was formed after WWII to replace the League of Nations in the management of global conflicts. The
71

League, formed after WWI, was unable to maintain international peace and security and therefore could not prevent the WWII. The formation of the UN in 1945 was based on the principles of collective security, was then thought to be the solution to the quest for global peace and security. Hence, the enduring preamble to the UN Charter was about the people of the world uniting to maintain international peace and security.

102.The UN was however incapacitated in performing this peace mediation role effectively after its formation. The evolution of the Cold War was greatly responsible for this incapacitation. The UN thus became a passive player in the maintenance of international peace and security as the 2 superpowers took the centre stage. The UNs activities then were limited by the extensive use of vetoes by these active players. The UN was only able to act in other limited areas, such as humanitarian services, in order to promote international peace.

103.The disintegration of the SU and the demise of the Cold War between 1989
72

and

1990

brought

new

challenges and opportunities for the UN. The post-Cold War era was then envisaged as a period where the UN will function effectively, without any undue intervention, in fulfilling its Charter roles. These hopes were brightened when the UN was able to give limited supervision to the US-led allied forces defeat of Iraq forces in Kuwait in 1991.

104.The quest for global hegemony by the US has gradually incapacitated the UN once again. This has taken the form of unnecessary meddling in the affairs of the UN, especially the reappointment of Boutros BoutrosGhali as the Secretary General. Others include the invasion of Afghanistan in 2001, default in the payment of assessed dues and levies etc. The high point of the US supranational policies however, was the invasion of Iraq in 2003 to effect a regime change. These actions have incapacitated the UN in carrying out its role in the NWO.

105.The observed threats in the NWO were largely different from to the prevailing threats that led to the formation of the UN and the Cold War era. Some of these
73

threats include international terrorism, intra-state crises and drug trafficking among others. Similarly, other non governmental organizations have emerged as major global players in addition to state sovereigns. Yet, the UN structure was not altered to accommodate these new factors in order to continue to be relevant in meeting the challenges of the NWO.

106.The UN as a global organization, responsible for the maintenance of international peace and security needs to be reformed to meet the challenges of the unipolar world. Areas identified to be defective and needs restructuring in the UN systems include the General Assembly, funding pattern and the Trusteeship Council. Others include the application of collective security notion to other problems, the ICJ and PSOs. RECOMMENDATIONS

107.In order to enhance the effectiveness of the UN in the unipolar world, it is recommended that:

74

a.

Membership and voting in the General Assembly

should be widened to include other global players representing other varied interests. b. Severe measures should be taken against debtor

member nations in order to overcome the problems of funding being experienced by the organization. c. The redundant Trusteeship Council should be preferably through a Charter

redesignated,

amendment, to make it relevant in the NWO. d. Concept of collective security should be applied

to other emerging threats of the NWO. e. ICJ should be restructured in order to administer

effective justice. f. An organ or department responsible for

coordinating PSOs between the UN and regional organizations should be created. BIBLIOGRAPHY BOOKS Adebayo Adedeji (Edited), Comprehending and Mastering African Conflicts, (London: Zeb Books).
75

Boutros-Ghali, B. An Agenda for Peace: Preventive Diplomacy Peacemaking and Peace-Keeping, (New York: United Nations, 1992). Coser, Lewis. The Functions of Social Conflict, (New York: The free Press, 1956. Cimbala, Stephen, Collective Insecurity, (Westport: Greenwood Press, 1995). Garuba Maj Gen CA, International Peace and Security: The Nigerian Contribution, (Abuja: National War College, Nigeria, 19970. Gbor, Maj Gen, JWT, The Nigerian Army in Global Security, (Lagos: Megawons, West Africa, 2004). Gordenker, L and Weiss, TG, (Edited) Collective Security in a Changing World, (Boulder & London: Lynne Rienner Publisher, 1993).

76

Gruyatt, Another American Century? The United States and the World After 2000, (London: Zeb Books, 2000). Haas, Michael. International Conflict, (New York: the Free Press, 1974). McNamara, RS, The Essence of Security: Reflections in Office, (New York: Harper and Row, 1968). Morgenthau, HJ and Thompson, K. Politics Among Nations, (New York: Alfred A. Knoph 1985). Organski, AFK. World Politics 2nd ed, (New York: Alfred Knoph, 1968). Riggs, RE and Plano, JC, The United Nations: International Organisation and World Politics, 2nd Ed, (Belmont, Califoria: Wadsworth, 1994). Rothgeb, JM. Influence of Force in the Contemporary International System, (New York: St Martin Press, 1993).

77

Spanner, J and Wendzel, RL. Games Nations Play, 9th ed (Washington DC: CQ Press, 1996). Singer, MR. Weak States in a World of Powers, (New York: The Free Press, 1972). Ziring, L. et al, The United Nations: International

Organisation and World Politics, (Orlando: Harcourt Brace and Company, 2000). PERIDICALS Deutsch, M. The Malignant (Spiral) Process of Hostile Interaction in political Psychology Journal No 1 1983.

OFFICIAL PUBLICATIONS Charter of the United Nations and Statue of the

International Court of Justice (New York: United Nations). National Security Strategy of the United States, August 1991.

78

DICTIONARY AND ENCYCLOPAEDIAS Collins English Dictionary Encyclopedia Americana, 1987. Microsoft Encarta Premium Suite 2004

UNPUBLISHED MATERIALS Adanogu, Aliyu, United Nations and Conflict Resolution in Africa, Commandants Paper for Intelligence Detachment Officers Course, Nigerian Army Intelligence School, 2000. Aladeniyi, Maj, EA, The Relevance of the United Nations in a Unipolar World, Commandants Paper for Defence Intelligence Officers Course 3, Defence Intelligence School, 2003. Eji, Eugene, The Future of the United Nations in the PostCold War era, Commandants Paper for Defence

79

Intelligence Officers Course 3, Defence Intelligence School, 2003. Ikpeme, E United States of America as a Unipolar Giant in the New World Order; effect on World Politics, Commandants paper for Senior Course 22, Armed Forces Command and Staff College. Mijah, Etham, Understanding Political Conflict: Causes, Dynamics and Management. Lecture to students of Senior Course 27 of Armed Forces Command and Staff College on 26 Aug 04. Obiozor, George The UN System: Objective, Structure and Reform. Lecture delivered at National Institute of International Affairs, Lagos on 25 Oct 95. Oche, Ogaba, Multilateralism, the United Nations and the Iraq War. Lecture delivered at National Institute of International Affairs on 27 Mar 03.

NEWSPAPERS AND MAGAZINES

80

The Guardian Newspaper, 18 Oct 99. ThisDay Newspaper, 24 Mar 2003. INTERNET SITES http://www.encarta.msn.com http://www.economist.com http://www.wikipedia.org http://www.rense.com http://www.worldnetdaily.com http://www.cnn.com http://www.ibiblio.org/bahai

81