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Current-traditional Rhetoric, The process Approach


LLA:

English for Academic Purpose

Contollled composition

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Controlled composition
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Current-traditional Rhetoric
Current-traditional Rhetoric

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ttlui#ua u w a i u r t n ~ i ~ ? " a a o u d ~ u d ~ % a a u ~ $ ~ u ~ ~ ~ ~ o ~ n ~ w n " ~ n ~ w


contrastive rhetoric YOJ Kaplan n l s a o u ~ d l l u ~ a k ~ u ~ $ f ~ u u d ~ ~ u L W a'7~o~ni~
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U W ? T I R L ~ O J < U ~ ~ J ? ~ N D U T Q ~ ~ O ~ ~ ~U~ RD L ~~ IU~ U L T UJ ~R M ~~ IJ K~ O J L / D


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conclusion argumentation, etc.
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The Process approach
The Process approach L U U ? ~ R O U C ( L ~ ' ~ ~ S : : U ? U ~ I ~ ~ ~ ~~~ Iu T? L~ SL~ ~a ~ ud~fin

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English for academic purpose
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English for academic purpose (EAP) no?nn~snouniwojn~dt~u~awi::ciiu

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~ ~ L ~ ~ Q ~ J ~ U L T ~ ~ D J ~ ~ ~ T L ~ ~

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Product-Oriented Approaches

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Product-Oriented Approaches
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nifl.a";d~YY~fld:Jl~L!~~ (Rhetorical Models Approach) uar

n i ~ H ~ u L ~ ~ U ~ d (The ? f J Grammar lnd Approach)

Rhetorical Models Approach


Rhetorical Models Approach

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syntactic level
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~ncjiiu ~ m u n i s l v l ' m o u A i n i u~f o~~~~?rruun~~u'a~nddiu U ~ ~ a a n u i ~ u s d u o

rh~iu&arni.r~'~ud (simplify) nr u"~Rouuitriiu8n i i aioorYIil$niw~ d&rrdaruimnaiunnm"oj J l YIil~"1aJi?~daftald' ~urdseruarnir~i simplify ~ u s i u a ~ u d Widdowson ' l h i i a l % . u 'Explorations in Applied linguistics"

(unit of communication) m'odlJl3

n u l d c r ~udozu~nroan (handle) ~ r n a i u ~ i u i ~ n n i r m u i d ~ ~ n ' o ~ ~ ~ 6

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1. ~rluuu~~d?rplnd (analysis)

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inductive

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~tnn'l?d1"5~niideductive

hadi~dovu"i~a~dd~fl~~d~uu~% deductive ~?in~i::~i~fim


Modem man, in spite of his superior scientific knowledge, often seems as superstitious as his ancestors. Astrology is a half-billion-dollar business. Intelligent persons still believe that lines on their palm or the arrangement of tea leaves in a cup predict the future. Airplanes do n d have a row of seats numbered 13, and buildings omit a thirteenth floor. Black cats, &ken mirror, and spilled salt create fear and
1

anxiety in many people. And ouija boards continue to be a popular pastime.


2. d ; LLlludJrrssnrwl (descrlptfon)

~nna~:uo~~iutQ~~w ~ ~d ~~ ~U~ U~ O :i L ~B~ L Iu Wu U~ T ~ U I O L ~ ( (person) L~~~~$~W

nw~nnuvdt~ ~ u o ~ o d i t ~ n(thing) o d i viarrniuhmnvut ~~d~ (place) ~ O D I Q O : L ~ ~ U


L ~ / ~ ? ~ ~ ~ ~ ? ~ ~ I ~ ~ I L(process) Q u ~ I ~

HIO~U(IO~I%~I~~X~I~JI~~JH L~ ~J U ~ M

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An octopus appears to be just a huge head with eight long, fearful arms. Its head is soft and rubber like. Its eyes stick out on stalks so that it can see in all directions. Its mouth is on the underside of its body and his powerful jaws shaped like a beak. The long arms, or tentacles, have double rows of sucker. 'These can fasten onto objects with such suction that they cannot be pulled off.
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3. ~ d u u u d ~ u d % ~ u (comparison ~n'u~ and contrast)

~nna~:uo~~iuiloudovri7uuuu ~i~odouo::~ani~~?ad3:~undu~n~~on~ia hniy via~on?iuv$nrioub e f i n i ~ ~ ~ l ~ s u ~ ~ o u ~ r v ~ i~ i tEd It ~ ~ o ~ ~ ~d ~ ~R O J C I ~ W


1

Richard C. Yorkey, Study Skill for Students of Engllsh as a Second Language (New York: McGraw

-Hilt Book Company, 1970), p. 101

Ibid., p. 102

~ n 1 r j m t 6 ~ ~ d a u fM i ~ O C ~ ~ U~ Fi~ ~o ~ ~ J ~~ ~ ~ ~ u ~ f i a u ~ u n i ~ ~ f ~ u ' i u ~ a ~ umnhtiYu ~ ~ ! a u a i o ~ ~ ~ ~ a d i ~ u i d . r t n o u ~ d o u o i u n ? i u d r l i ~ n n ' i ~ n " ~ ~ ~ a ~ r s ' ~ n~iulir7lo~i;;uuinY"u 2i~ii7odi~


There are two kinds of elephants-the African and the Indian. The African elephant is larger and darker; it also has larger ears and a more sloping forehead. Both can be tamed, but the Indian elephant is more easily trained to do work. When an African elephant sleeps, it usually stands up, but its Indian cousin usually sleeps lying down.
3

6iiYu nnirii!iw
Teaching is in some respects like farming. Just as the farmer must prepare his soil before he can plant seed, so the teacher must prepare the student minds for the reception of ideas before he can introduce them. As the farmer must water the seed to make it grow, the teacher must, similarly, encourage the tender shoots of student ideas to make them flourish. If the farmer has prepared his soil carefully and tendered his crop, he may reap a bountiful harvest. The teacher may also reap his harvest in well-

. stocked, logically functioning student minds if he has done his job well. But just as
drought and flood can destroy the farmer's efforts, so too can the frost of public apathy or fear destroy the teacher.
F

5.

J~LLUIIL~JG~IU (deflnltion)
R'nawt~o~~iu~~nudavu'i~~uuu ;nauo:~!ad~uii~n~~wui~~uni.r~#~u~a
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Ibid., p. 103-104

fil< ~ ~ n i a d i ~ d onl c d? un s u l h u ~ u ? u ~ ~ u u d i ~ u i u ~ n 'pupil" d u ~i n i '~~~ii


~ ~ 1 ~ ~ 3 1 ~ ~ 1 0 f ~ 3

2 A " d

A pupil is one who is under control the close supervision of a teacher, either because of his youth or because of specialization in some branch of study. In England
pupil is used to describe one in school, which means up through public schools such

as Eton or Harrow, or through the secondary schools, equivalent to American high schools. In America pupil is now usually restricted to one who is in an elementary school. Those called pupils regardless of age because of their specialization in some branch of study are designed by the subject they are studying, as art pupils, music pupils, etc.

~ d o ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ i i ~ n ~ n u i d n ~ i u ~ u ' i ~s ~ ~duuuwfouCuRiadi~ 4n~~::ni~~d~un"~


njndix~i~ ~~ ~f ~ i u n ~ n w i d i u ~ i ~ iW ~ u ~ O t l~ t~ / R ~ ~~U~~ i I i Jl I~U~~ ~ ~ ~ U ~ U
M ~ I L ~ U J I ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ U L L nJuiwmnffnm$t~~i.a'iiltb 'U'U~@ a model paragraph hn13L%rr~
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Practice Exercises Exercise 1. Read each of the following paragraphs. On the line after each
I

one, write

analysis, (2) description, the type of the paragraph whether it is (I)

(3) narration, (4) definition, (5) analog ,or (8) comparison and contrast.

A.

English is clearly an international language. It is spoken by pilots and

airport control operators on all the airways of the world. Over 70 percent of the world's mail is written in English, and more than 60 percent of the world's programs are in English.

6.

Most of the world is changing rapidly. However, some North American not want to up traditions, their old ways.

Indian leaders--called elders-do

Technology does not impress them. ~ r o g k s s is not always good. These native peob~e of Canada, the United States, and Mexico want to teach their children the old ways,

their history and culture, These respected leaders of tribes keep stories, the religion, and the traditions alive. They can teach young people.

C.

The human vocal apparatus is often compared 'to a wind instrument. The

lungs are the bellows, and the larynx is the reed. The pharynx, mouth, and nose form resonating chambers. The wind instrument is not fully formed at birth. The vocal cords; for example, are shorter than in later life. The "change of voice" that an adolescent boy undergoes is evidence of how long this instrument continues to develop after birth.

D. Boys and girls behave differently in school. Boys volunteer more than girls

do and stronger in their opinions. Girls do neater work in general and have larger vocabularies than boys.
-

E.

Photosynthesis, which occurs in all land plants and many water plants, is

a food manufacturing process upon which all living things'depend. The word is made up of two terms---photo-- , meaning light, and -synthesis-in chemistry meaning the

combination of the two or more ~ i m p l e elements into a complex chemical compound. More precisely, photosynthesis is the process by which plants use the energy of light to produce compounds, such as sugar and starch, from number substances including water and carbon dioxide. In addition to the organic compounds,

photosynthesis forms oxygen which is released into the air. In the conversation of light energy into chemical energy, photosynthesis is a primary energy producing process for all plant and animal life.

Exercise 2. Read the following paragraph, and answer the questions below. Families are social groups whose members are related to each other by birth
1

or marriage. They may be organized in various ways. An 'extended' family, for example, consists of at least grandparents, parents and children. A 'nuclear' family consists of only a mother, father and any unmarried children. However they are

organized, these social groups have two main functions: firstly, to produce and socialize children; and secondly, to provide physical and emotional security for their members.
1. What kind of statement does the writer make in the first sentence?

2. What kind of statement does he make in the second sentence?

3. What does the writer do in the third and fourth sentences?

4.

What is the purpose of the final sentence of the paragraph?

Riarh~~iul!nudaarii (A model paragraph)


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~ Q ~ ~ & ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ? O ~ I J U D J J I U L B U M

d m u i ~ n ~ ~ ~ n ~ ~ o ~ n a ~ = : ~~ ~? a~ a diagram ~anu ~dad3d${diu~i7ibdin i~~u~~~uw"d


uu ~ u ~ l u o ~ n n " ~ n ' u a i n M ' n ~ n ~ l ~ ~ d i a ~ ~ ~ ~ f i~ o~ l~ aa ~u a ' ilu diagram 'ilin~~~~w'~

M'nAnu.1 o r ~ d . a ' ~ 3 sJr$ i iL B U L L ~ ? ~ I J I U ~ ? T L ! L I U ~ ~ ~ ~


I

Example : Read the following passage and then study the diagram below. Trees There are two kinds of trees. Some have leaves that drop off during one particular season of each year. Others keep their leaves for much longer periods of time. The latter are called evergreens. Evergreens are of various types. Those with narrow leaves are pine, the cedar, the spruce, and the hemlock. Broadleaved evergreens are the palm and the live oak.

Trees

Some lose leaves

Some don't (evergreen)

Narrow leaves

Broad leaves

pine cedar spruce

palm live oak

hemlock

Read the following paragraphs and answer the questions at the end. Wind is simply moving air. Of course, at some times, the air moves much faster than at the other times. The wind may be only a gentle breeze; it may be a very strong breeze; it may be a gale. 1. What is the main idea of the paragraph?

Exercise 3.

2. What is a major supporting?

3. What islare (a) minor suppoklng(s)?


Read the following parqgraph and complete a tree diagram. Exercise 4. insects may be divided into two main groups. First, there are those that eat solid food. Grasshoppers and beetles belong to this group. Then, second, there are thase that suck liquid food. Butterflies and moths have long sucking tubes.

The two main insects groups

Imitative Writing Exercise 5.

Read this paragraph and then write a simjlar one. The necessary information is given for your own paragraph.
I

Francis Bray is a boy of nine, whose birthday is the first of February. On his last birthday he woke up early to see what presents he had got. At the foot of his bed were a number of parcels. ~agerlyhe opened them, one by one. There were three books, a dozen handkerchiefs, a chess

set, a kit for making model aeroplanes, a pack

of playing- cards, and a postal order for $10. And also, best of all, a wrist-watch. His very first watch, just what he had always wanted!

The given information is:


Frances Clay - girl - seven

- 31Y July - two books, a pair of shoes,

a game of draughts, a kit for sewing, crayons, $5-in cash, a doll's pram.

Exercise 6.
Read this paragraph and create yobr own paragraph by using the given words.

Stamp Collecting as a Hobby


Stamp collecting is an excelknt hobby for many reasons. First, everyone young and old can participate. Second, it is not expensive. Expensive equipment is not necessary. Third, because an interest in hiaory and geography is important in stamp collecting, it can promote international friendship. Stamps may be exchanged with friends in other countries. Finally, time, patience, and interest are the only requirements of this fascinating and educational hobby. It is the most widespread of all hobbies.

Now it is your turn to write a paragraph telling why a certain sport is interesting, popular, or educational. The hobby might be reading, fishing, photography, painting, gardening, or corresponding with friends in other countries. Use sequence expressions
\

and use the paragraph entitled Stamp Collectlng as a Hobby as a model. Begin your paragraph with these sentences: interests me for several reasons. First,

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