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Preface Don Quixote begins with a preface by Cervantes.

The author claims to be the "stepfather of Don Quixote" (as opposed to the father) because he is sharing an old story that was told to him long ago. At first, Cervantes decided that his book would have few allusions to classical or medieval storiesas was the custom of the day. In the end, however, his friend convinced him that these allusions will make the book larger and will convince the readers that Cervantes is a well-educated man. Chapter 1 There is an older gentleman (named Quixana or perhaps Quesada) and he lives in a Spanish village called La Mancha. As the story begins, this man has lost his wits. "His imagination was full of all that he read in his books"stories of medieval knights, chivalry, and bloody battles. As a result, he changes his name to Don Quixote and decides to become a knight-errant. Neither his niece nor his housekeeper can persuade him from dressing his old horse and setting off to battle giants. Chapter 2 On the road, Don Quixote stumbles upon a very ordinary peasant woman. Quixote sees her as a beautiful noble lady and so he calls her Dulcinea and vows to fight for her honor and glory. Chapter 3 Upon reaching an inn, Quixote envisions that the inn is a castle, that two lingering prostitutes are beautiful damsels, and that a dwarf opens the drawbridge to the castle. Quixote is crudely dressed as a warrior (with a helmet made of pasteboard). The innkeeper and guests are frightened by Quixote, but they soon become amused. The innkeeper plays along with Quixote's imaginations and agrees to knight Don Quixote in the morning. But when Quixote violently attacks one of the guests, the innkeeper hurriedly knights Don Quixote and sends him off. The innkeeper advises Don Quixote that knights must travel with a few sets of clothing as well as a good amount of money. Chapter 4 Don Quixote returns to La Mancha to get the necessary supplies, and on the way, he hears crying sounds from a bush. Don Quixote discovers a young laborer (Andres) being ruthlessly whipped by his master, John Haldudo the Rich. The boy claims that the master owes him unpaid wages, but the master claims that the boy is dishonest. Quixote sides with the boy against his master, but then believes the master when he assures Quixote that the boy will be promptly recompensed. Don Quixote perceives that justice has been done, and so he

continues on his path. Once Don Quixote is safely gone, the master continues to whip his servant. Chapter 5 Don Quixote also suffers a beating soon after, when he forces an altercation with a group of thirteen men. His body is bruised though his life is not endangered. A peasant from La Mancha discovers Don Quixote and leads the gentleman back to his home, where his anxious niece and housekeeper are waiting. Chapter 6 While Don Quixote sleeps, the niece and housekeeper conspire with two of Don Quixote's friends (the priest and the barber). In the end, they decide to burn almost all of the gentleman's sin-provoking booksthose books that aren't burned in the hellish fire are removed from the house altogether. Chapter 7 Don Quixote has been brought back to his home in La Mancha, but he has not let go of his imaginations. Quixote still believes that he is a knight-errant and he will not be convinced otherwise. Quixote's niece, his housekeeper, the barber and the priest are discussing which books need to be burned when Quixote interrupts them. Specifically, Quixote is upset because they have blocked his entrance to the library. After the gentleman is put to bed, the housekeeper burns the books. Don Quixote is looking for his books a few days later, but of course, he cannot find them. The housekeeper sees Quixote searching for his library and she tells him that there is no point in looking for the booksbecause "the devil himself has carried all away." The niece explains that it wasn't the devil, but a sage named Muaton. The niece and the housekeeper have already decided what they would tell Quixote. Don Quixote explains to his niece that the sage was named Friston, not Muaton. Friston has taken Quixote's books because of a rivalry between Quixote and one of Friston's powerful knights. Quixote's niece perceives that her plan has backfired: her uncle is determined to leave home again and he will not be persuaded to do otherwise. Traveling into town, Don Quixote meets Sancho Panza, a commoner, and convinces Sancho to serve as his squire. Sancho Panza is hesitant to leave his wife, Teresa, but Quixote convinces Panza that there are treasures to be won. At the very least, Panza will likely become the Governor of an island. Chapter 8 On this, his second journey, Quixote is no less plagued by absurd imaginations. Traveling the countryside, Quixote soon stumbles into "the dreadful and never-before-

imagined adventure of the windmills." Quixote prepares for "lawful war" against an army of giants, despite Sancho Panza's urgent warnings. Sancho realizes that Quixote's "giants" are merely windmills. Quixote insists upon charging at the windmills and he falls to the ground, when his lance jams into the sails of the windmill. Quixote is not badly hurt, though his horse, Rocinante, is more seriously wounded. When it becomes clear to Quixote that this is a field of windmills, he argues that an evil enchanter has transformed the giants into windmills in order to rob Quixote of a dashing victory. Chapter 9 Armed with a tree branch (to replace the broken lance), Quixote continues on his quest. On a side road, Quixote attacks two monks who are accompanying a lady. Quixote argues that the lady has been kidnapped and is imprisoned in her carriage. Sancho tries to dissuade the knight, but he is unsuccessful. Sancho then joins in the battle and attempts to steal the monks' clothes. At this point, the monks' servants intervene and give Sancho a rather serious beating. Quixote is wounded in the ear, but he nearly kills one of the lady's attendants, a man called "the valiant Biscainer." Staying true to the code of chivalry, Quixote says that he will spare the attendant's life if the man agrees to "present himself before the peerless Dulcinea, that she may dispose of him as she shall think fit." The company of the lady, her attendants, the monks and their servants are all bewildered by Quixote's request. Nonetheless, they enthusiastically agree to Quixote's demands because they can see that he is dangerous. Chapter 10 After the two groups part ways, Sancho asks to become governor of his island. Quixote cannot yet make good on this promise, but he assures Sancho that their rewards and treasures will come soon. Chapter 11 Looking for a place to sleep, Don Quixote and Sancho Panza stumble upon a group of goatherds. The goatherds are immediately friendlyand curious about Don Quixote. The goatherds invite Quixote and Panza to sit around the fire and eat with them. Sancho declines the offer because he thinks it is inappropriate to sit and eat alongside his master. After Quixote's insists, Panza agrees to join the group. While Sancho indulges in the wine, his master begins a very long lecture on the "jargon of squires and knights-errant." The goatherds do not understand Quixote's speech, but having sensed that the gentleman means well, they appreciate his good will. Quixote ends his speech by calling them his "brother goatherds."

Chapter 12 After the speech, the goatherds offer Don Quixote "some diversion and amusement" when Antonio arrives on scene. Antonio is a goatherd who composes ballads and love songs. Antonio sings a few of his songs to the group. After Antonio's song, another goatherd, Peter, arrives with sad news: A young shepherd named Chrysostom has died, heartbroken because of his unrequited love for Marcela. Marcela is a shepherdess who comes from a wealthy family. Despite her fortune, she has refused to marry or be courted. This is very frustrating for the men of the town because Marcela's beauty is unparalleled. Chrystostom's death outrages the goatherds against Marcela. When Don Quixote expresses his sadness and sympathy for Chrysostom, the goatherds invite Quixote to attend the next day's burial service. Just as he did the previous night, Quixote spends the night wide-awake while others sleep. He spends these hours thinking about his lady, Dulcinea. Chapters 13 and 14 Early the next morning, Don Quixote is full of alacrity: one would never guess that he had not had any sleep. On the road, the group encounters Seor Vivaldo, who is traveling in the same direction. When Vivaldo sees Don Quixote he asks him why he wears armor though he travels though a safe and peaceful country. Quixote explains the order of chivalry and refers to the English histories of King Arthur. Vivaldo seems impressed with the discipline and strictures of Quixote's service, likening the knight to a monk. Quixote argues that "we soldiers and knights really execute what [monks and priests] pray for, defending it with the strength of our arms and the edge of our swords." As the company nears the funeral site, Vivaldo and Quixote continue their discussion of the religious and spiritual aspects of knighterrantry. Chrysostom has given instructions to burn his writings after his burial; Vivaldo pleads for Chrysostom's friend Ambrosio not to do this. At Ambrosio's request, Vivaldo recites one of Chrysostom's poems, "The Song of Despair." The poet mourns that Marcela never loved him. He also writes, "No common language can express" his pain. The gathered mourners approve Chrysostom's song, disparaging Marcela as a cold cruel torturer. When Marcela appears on scene, she flatly rejects the mourners' argument. First, Marcela holds that not she, but God, is the accountable creator of her beauty. Second, though Marcela's beauty may win the love of others, the fact of being loved does not oblige Marcela to love her suitors, in return. Marcela says "I was born free" and she intentionally secludes herself "that [she] might live free." Marcela has never led any suitor to believe that she loved him and, for her chastity, Marcela offers no apology. Marcela leaves abruptly, and Don Quixote defends the

shepherdess, promising to slay any man who follows her. Quixote then persists after Marcela, offering her the sturdy services of a knight-errant. (She declines.) Chapter 15 Knight and squire retire to a grassy field to enjoy their lunch. Don Quixote's horse, Rocinante, sees a small herd of fillies and he trots towards them. The Yangesian horsebreeders violently chase off Rocinante, and they attack Don Quixote and Sancho Panza as well. Don Quixote is seriously wounded and the knight asks Sancho to carry him to "some castle where [he] may be cured of [his] wounds." Sancho becomes disillusioned but Quixote reiterates his promises: the knight and squire will soon be "filling the sails of [their] desires" and Sancho will soon have the "islands" that Quixote has promised. Don Quixote reflects on his previous adventures and gains confidence by recalling the literary examples of valiant knightsheroes who were similarly met with obstacles. Self-assured, Don Quixote decides that he and Sancho Panza will continue along their path. But Quixote cannot walk; indeed he can barely sit upon his horse. Rocinante has suffered such a beating; the horse can barely drag itself down the road, let alone support Quixote's weight. Quixote sits upon Sancho's donkey, and Rocinante, unable to lead, is tied (by the head) to the donkey's tail. Fortunately, Sancho does not have to struggle for long as there is lodging nearby. The two men arrive at an inn, which Don Quixote perceives as a castle. Sancho argues with his master and refuses to capitulate. Chapter 16 The innkeeper sees Don Quixote's wounds and he asks Sancho what has happened. Sancho says that Quixote has fallen and injured his ribs. The innkeeper's wife, his beautiful daughter, and his half-blind servant girl, Maritornes, all tend to Quixote's wounds. They suspect the wounds are on account of a beating, as opposed to a mere "fall." Quixote is a marvel for the innkeeper and company: they have never heard of a knight-errant and they surely do not consider the inn to be an enchanted castle. Chapter 17 Quixote imagines that the innkeeper's daughter has promised to come to his bed during the knight. Quixote is titillated by the prospect though, of course, he will not be disloyal to his Dulcinea. The innkeeper's daughter never enters the room where Quixote sleeps (along with Sancho, and a mule carrier). The mule carrier is Maritornes' lover but when Maritornes enters the room, looking for the carrierQuixote apprehends her, perceiving the servant to be the daughter. Maritornes is bewildered; her lover is enraged, especially when he realizes that Quixote's solicitude is unwelcome, indeed. The carrier attacks Quixote, crushes his jaw and

trampling his ribs. Maritornes is tossed from the bed-pallet, landing on Sancho. These two then begin to fight with vigor. The innkeeper has heard the commotion and he enters the room, bearing a light. He immediately chastises Maritornes and they begin exchanging blows. An officer of the Holy Brotherhood, lodging at the inn, enters the room on account of the violent noises. Quixote is an unconscious sprawl, the other four combatants doing well enough on their own. Thinking that Quixote is dead, the officer leaves the room to seek assistance, shouting: "Shut the inn door, see that nobody gets out; for they have killed a man here." This immediately ends the fight: the innkeeper leaves with his candle; the carrier and servant retreat to their separate sleeping spaces; Sancho retreats to his master's side. Chapter 18 Revived, Quixote believes that he has suffered the evil of an "enchanted Moor." Sancho does not interpret their calamity as an enchantment, however. The officer returns, astonished to see that Quixote is alive. Quixote explains that he is in need of a healing tonic called "the true balsam of Fierabras." He prepares the balsam, according to recipe, drinks the solution and then vomits. Quixote then suffers convulsions, sleeps for three hours and then wakes up, feeling perfectly healthy. When Quixote gives the balsam to Sancho, Sancho suffers so terribly that those present fear that the squire is going to die. Several hours later, Sancho has not fully recovered but Quixote insists on leaving. The innkeeper wants Quixote to pay for lodging, but Quixote is insulted that the lord of a castle (an enchanted one, no less) would ask a knight for compensation. Don Quixote and Sancho leave but the innkeeper sends a gang of rogues after them, to collect his payment. Quixote escapes but Sancho is captured, tied inside of a blanket, and tossed into the air repeatedly. The rogues also steal Sancho's bagsthough Sancho does not realize this, at first. Chapter 19 Sancho is angry because he has suffered and yet, Don Quixote neither defended nor avenged him. The two travelers continue along their road and Sancho sees "two great flocks of sheep" in the distance. Quixote, on the other hand, sees two opposing armies preparing for battleand he aims to intervene and assist the weaker side. Sancho begs Don Quixote to abandon his plan and refrain from attacking the harmless sheep. The knight sees two armies and, in fact, he is able to name the various warriors who are marching into battle, Alifanfaron, "a furious pagan," chief among them. Sancho cannot help but marvel at Quixote's ability to provide such an extensive history of the knights, considering that the knights were sheep.

Quixote intervenes and manages to slay about seven sheep with his lance before the shepherds and herdsmen pelt him with stones. His ribs are bruised and his teeth are knocked out. The shepherds leave with their flocks and Sancho rushes to Quixote's side. Quixote says that his enemy has transformed the soldiers into sheep. Quixote tells Sancho to be courageous because they have many more adventures ahead. They continue riding, though Quixote is quite sore. Chapter 20 Later in the night, the two travelers see a procession of "walking lights" heading towards them. It is a funeral procession of over twenty people in white robes, and six more in black mourning clothes. They are wearing funeral masks and they hum a sad plaintive song. Quixote is outraged, believing them to be devils. Quixote demands that one of them give an account of their business after he has already wounded one of the mourners. One of the mourners is named Alonso Lopez and he explains that the group is traveling to bury the bones of a man who has died of pestilential fever. Quixote allows them to continue without further harm. In conversation with Sancho, Quixote expresses his concern that he has wounded a holy man and so, he might be excommunicated from the church. This does not prevent the knight and squire from enjoying the food that they stole from the holy travelers, upon apprehending the group. It is late in the night, but there is no inn close by. Knight and squire decide to settle in the grass and sleep outside, but their repose is disturbed by a loud sound, as if it were rushing water. Quixote insists upon investigating but Sancho urges him to wait until morning. Sancho offers to tell Quixote a story, but Quixote keeps interrupting Sanchowho follows the storytelling custom of his town by repeating everything that he says twice. Sancho does not like the questions that Quixote asks, and he soon gives up. Chapter 21 In the morning, Quixote stalks his new adventure, creeping closer and closer to the source of the noise only to discover that the noise emanates from a set of fulling-hammers (large mills that beat wool into a refined material). Sancho cannot suppress his laughter but he pays dearly when Quixote gives him two whacks with the lance. Quixote commands Sancho to show more respect. It starts to rain and so Don Quixote and Sancho try to move quickly, though their destination is unclear. Quixote sees a man ahead who is wearing a gold and glittering helmet: the famed helmet of Mambrino. The "helmet" is simply a brass basinthe man is a barber on his way to work. The barber is unprepared for Quixote's advance. He is knocked off his

donkey but he soon scrambles to his feet and flees, leaving his basin behind. Quixote concludes that the helmet must have fallen into the hands of a man who clearly did not know its value. Sancho claims that the helmet is a barber's basin and Quixote does admit that the helmet does resemble a basin. Chapter 22 Quixote only creates more trouble when he comes across a chain of galley-slaves, criminals who are chained together and are being led to their punishment. Sympathizing with the criminals as victims of love, Quixote attacks the armed guard and in the chaos that ensues, the criminals are able to escape. Sancho is worried that Don Quixote will surely be apprehended by the officers of the Holy Brotherhood and arrested. Quixote asks that freed men present themselves to Dulcinea and pay homage but the criminals refuse, fearing that they will be caught. They throw stones at Quixote, slightly injuring him, before they escape. The knight is baffled to find himself so mistreated by the very people he has assisted. Chapter 23 Don Quixote agrees with Sancho Panza's warning to leave the area, and they travel into a nearby forest called Sierra Morena. This decision turns out to be ill fated, however, when one of the freed prisoners steals Sancho's donkey. At this point, Don Quixote and Sancho Panza must walk on foot. Along this route, Don Quixote discovers the belongings of a traveler who has deserted the area. Sancho Panza is happy to take the traveler's money and Don Quixote reads the traveler's notebook. Don Quixote opens the man's notebook and discovers a love letter. The traveler has suffered from unrequited loveand because he has been rejected, he has gone mad. Soon after reading the letter, Don Quixote sees a half-naked man running in the distant hills. Of course, the knight intends to seek the man out, though Sancho Panza disagrees with this plan. Sancho Panza's obvious concern is that he suspects that the half-naked man is the traveler who has left his saddlebag on the side of the road; Sancho is worried that the man will ask for his money back. A goatherd then explains to Don Quixote and Sancho Panza that the half-naked man is a stranger to the region. He appeared one day, asking directions, because he intended to go to the most craggy and thorny part of the wilderness. The Sierra Morena goatherds became concerned because this wild man began hijacking villagers on the road and stealing their food. After this occurred, they offered to leave food for the man.

A man called "The Ragged Knight of the Sorry Countenance" advances towards Don Quixote, and the two men embrace "as if they were old friends." They are not old friends, however, and Don Quixote has the man tell his story. Chapter 24 The Ragged Knight of the Sorry Countenance agrees to tell his story but he warns that he will immediately end the story if anyone interrupts him. The Ragged Knight is an aristocrat, named Cardenio, and he intended to marry a woman named Lucinda. Unfortunately, Cardenio is called away from home to work for the Duke and he is separated from Lucinda. Cardenio begins a very complicated explanation of how the Duke's son, Don Fernando, becomes infatuated with Lucinda. Don Quixote interrupts (and ends) the story, when he comments on Lucinda's interest in the same books that he enjoys. Cardenio and Don Quixote begin arguing about chivalry. Cardenio then attacks the group and runs back into the mountains. Chapter 25 Don Quixote decides that he will emulate Cardenio's example by going mad because Dulcinea has been unfaithful to him. When Sancho Panza points out that Don Quixote does not know this to be true, Don Quixote argues that what he imagines is more important than what has actually happened. Don Quixote gives Sancho a letter to deliver to Dulcinea and Sancho is repulsed: Sancho has just realized that "Dulcinea" is a common woman, not a princess. Don Quixote argues that Dulcinea is a princess because he has decided that she is a princess. Don Quixote wants Sancho to go home and tell Dulcinea that he has gone mad because of his love for her. "Mad I am and mad I must be," Don Quixote says and Don Quixote proves his madness by taking off most of his clothes, rolling around on the ground, jumping up and down, and attempted a rather feeble headstand. Quixote thinks about the stories that he has read, so that he can be sure to go mad in the proper way. The knight wanders through the trees, saying prayers and carving love songs into the tree trunks. Chapter 26 Sancho encounters the priest and the barber and they ask about Don Quixote. Sancho Panza explains Quixote's condition but Sancho still believes that Don Quixote will keep his promise to make him governor of an island. The priest and barber see that Sancho has been following Don Quixote but they do not realize that Sancho is gullible. Instead, the priest and the barber decide that Sancho Panza has gone insane!

The priest and the barber are worried about Don Quixote but they do not take Sancho very seriously, telling him jokes to make him think that his island is in jeopardy. At the end of Chapter 26, the priest and barber begin planning a disguise that will help them trick Don Quixote into coming back home. Sancho Panza, however, is not included in these plans. Chapter 27 Sancho Panza gives the barber and the priest more information about Don Quixote's madness and the three men travel towards Sierra Morena. The priest and barber hope that they will not have to resort to trickery in order to bring Don Quixote back home. Sancho Panza is to lie to Don Quixote, claiming that he has delivered the letter to Dulcinea and as a result, Dulcinea demands that Quixote present himself to her. Sancho goes ahead of the barber and the priest, and the latter end up meeting Cardenio, the madman of Sierra Morena. Cardenio is singing a song that beings "What causes all my grief and pain?" referring, of course, to his failed relationship with Lucinda. We now get the full story from Cardenio because Don Quixote is not present to interrupt the storytelling. When Cardenio served the Duke, he befriended the Duke's son, Don Fernando. On one occasion, Don Fernando visited Cardenio's house and within the leaves of Cardenio's copy of the book Amadis de Gaul (a classic tale of chivalry), Don Fernando found a letter that Lucinda had sent to Cardenio. The letter expressed Lucinda's love with such clarity and energy that Don Fernando found himself in love with Lucinda, and he resolved to have her. Don Fernando sends Cardenio back to the Duke's palace and, in Cardenio's absence, befriends Lucinda's parentsultimately forcing her hand in marriage. Cardenio has gone mad because he feels that both Don Fernando and Lucinda betrayed him. Chapter 28 In the next part of the story, Cardenio joins the barber and the priest and after walking a short distance, they encounter Doroteaa woman dressed up as a man. They ask Dorotea if she is in some sort of trouble, and her answer exceeds their expectations. Dorotea is the daughter of a farmer who has been hired to do work for a wealthier man. Complications arose when this manager's son became fond of Dorotea and ultimately coerced her into having sex with him. This debacle ruined Dorotea's reputation and she was run out of town in disgrace. The man had promised to marry Dorotea but in fact, he was already married and after having sex with Dorotea, he returned to the town where his wife lived. As it turns out, Don Fernando is the man who has deceived Dorotea. When Cardenio and Dorotea compare stories, Cardenio learns that Lucinda continued to love him even when

she was forced to marry Don Fernando. Cardenio and Dorotea join forces, hoping to punish Don Fernando and reunite the true lovers, Cardenio and Lucinda. Chapter 29 Sancho Panza hurries back to the scene, informing the (significantly larger) group that Don Quixote feels that he has been dishonored. Don Quixote requires of himself some arduous task in which he can redeem himself and regain his honor. Ultimately, Don Quixote refuses to present himself to Dulcinea until he has appropriately regained his honor. The group begins plotting a way to bring Don Quixote home, but Sancho Panza is kept in the dark because he is too loyal to Don Quixote to agree to deception. Hence, even Sancho Panza is fooled into believing that Dorotea is actually a Princess who goes by the name of Micomicona. Her official title is "the mighty Princess Micomicona, queen of the great kingdom of Micomicon in Ethiopia." Coincidentally, Princess Micomicona is need of the services of just such a knight as Don Quixote, to "kill a great lubberly giant." The giant has chased the Princess away, but with Don Quixote's help, she might be restored to her kingdom. Two promises are extracted from the knight: first, that he will agree to assist the Princess and second, that he will decline to accept any other missions until he has fulfilled this one. Sancho Panza is worried that he will become governor of a territory in Micomicon and this displeases him because his subjects will be black Africans. After the Princess has won Don Quixote's assent, the priest approaches Don Quixote but Quixote does not seem recognize his good friend. The priest complains that he has been robbed by an escaped convict. This worries Sancho Panza because he is aware of Don Quixote's guilt in this matter. Chapter 30 In the course of leading Don Quixote to "the great kingdom of Micomicon," Dorotea and the others intend to lead Don Quixote back to his home in La Mancha. At several points, the priest has to intervene and help "Princess Micomicona," as she is telling her story to Don Quixote. Though Princess Micomicona offers her hand in marriage, Don Quixote is entirely devoted to his lady, Dulcinea. Quixote demands that Sancho give him the details of the trip to deliver the letter to Dulcinea. This request puts Sancho in a situation much like Dorotea's, for he is forced to create a hopefully plausible story without extensive preparation. Quixote asks whether Dulcinea was stringing pearls or embroidering something for him, but Sancho replies that Dulcinea was merely "winnowing two bushels of wheat in a backyard of her house." Quixote keeps demanding fanciful and romantic details, but Sancho denies Quixote his pleasure. In the end,

Sancho Panza explains that not only is Dulcinea illiterate, but she is also far too busy to pause in the middle of the day to read a love letter. Chapter 31 In Chapter 4, a young man named Andres was severely beaten by his master, John Haldudo the Rich. Don Quixote threatened to kill Haldudo for severely beating Andres and also for refusing to pay Andres for his labors. Haldudo promised to repay Andres, but when Quixote continued down the road, Haldudo beat Andres even more severely and then fired the boy, as opposed to paying Andres for his labor. At the end of Chapter 30, Andres crosses paths with Don Quixote and he does not have pleasant words. Indeed, Andres mocks Quixote as an incompetent knight. For his part, Don Quixote vows to kill Haldudo once he has learned what has happened. Andres assures Quixote that he need not waste his time because he will only "cause more harm than good." Don Quixote chases Andres down the road, intending to chastise the young man for his insolence. Andres easily escapes and Quixote is sorely embarrassed because his reputation has been tarnished. Chapter 32 In Chapter 32, the group of six travelers (Cardenio, Princess Micomicona, Sancho Panza, Don Quixote, the barber, and the priest) arrive at the same inn that Don Quixote and Sancho Panza hurriedly exited at the close of Chapter 17. Don Quixote is removed to sleep in a quiet room, for the innkeeper remembers Don Quixote's madness. Don Quixote is the topic of conversation and nearly every one participates (including the innkeeper, his wife, his daughter, and Maritornes the half-blind hunchbacked laborer). Sancho Panza does not offer much of a defense of his master's behavior and the group is generally disapproving of Quixote's frivolity. Most of the individuals do believe that Quixote's madness is the result of reading too muchand specifically, too much chivalry. The chapter ends when the innkeeper discloses that a guest has left an antique trunk of books and papers. The priest is intrigued and he begins to read a story from the collection. Chapter 33 Chapters 33, 34, and 35 consist of the story that the priest reads to the group: "The Novel of the Curious Impertinent." The story takes place in Florence, Italy and largely involves two friends named Lothario and Anselmo. Anselmo is married to Camilla and, for no good reason, Anselmo decides to test Camilla's fidelity. When Anselmo insists that Lothario help him, Lothario says that "the enterprise itself is downright madness." Anselmo wants Lothario to attempt to seduce Camilla, to see whether or not she will succumb to the advances

of another man. Lothario finally agrees, and he soon returns to Anselmo, telling him that Camilla has remained faithful. Not much later, Anselmo finds out that Lothario has been lying: Lothario never attempted to seduce Camilla. Anselmo then makes Lothario pledge to make good on his promise to seduce Camilla. Anselmo leaves town to make the seduction easier, and Camilla soon writes letters urging him to return. Lothario has truly fallen in love with Camilla; in her letters, Camilla warns Anselmo that Lothario is trying to seduce her. Camilla does not realize that Anselmo is aware of Lothario's advances. Anselmo does not realize that Lothario is truly in love with Camilla. Because Anselmo does not return, Camilla grows weary under pressure and she falls in love with Lothario. The two continue their affair when Anselmo returns home. In part, this is easier because Camilla's servant, Leonela, keeps Camilla's secret. Chapter 34 Complications arise because Leonela has a secret lover of her own. One day, Lothario sees Leonela's lover exiting Camilla's house just as he is arriving. Lothario concludes that Camilla has found yet another lover. Lothario then tells Camilla's husband, Anselmo, that he has finally seduced Camilla. Lothario gives Anselmo a time and place where Anselmo will see Lothario seduce Camilla; then, Anselmo can judge the situation on his own. Anselmo is now distraught. Later in the day, when Lothario and Camilla meet, Camilla discloses Leonela's secret lover. Lothario then realizes his jealous error and he confesses everything to Camilla. Camilla and Lothario then create a plan to be rid of Anselmo, once and for all. When Camilla and Lothario meet, Camilla pretends that she does not know that Anselmo is watching. When the time comes for her to kiss Lothario, Camilla states that she would rather die than commit infidelity, though she does love Lothario. Camilla eloquently states "since fortune denies a complete satisfaction to my just desires, it shall not, however, be in its power to defeat that satisfaction entirely." Camilla then struggles to keep her dagger away from Lothario and ultimately, she stabs herself in the chest and falls to the ground. Lothario is immediately shocked because Camilla was only to pretend to stab herself, but when he looks closely he sees that Camilla has only wounded herself slightly. Lothario then begins to grieve loudly and with Leonela's help, he carries Camilla's body away. Anselmo is now convinced of Camilla's honesty. As a result, Camilla is able to continue her affair once she recovers from her minor stab wound.

Chapter 35 Sancho Panza interrupts the story to announce that Don Quixote has just killed the giant. This is madness and the group fears the worst, when they enter Quixote's room. Quixote is thrashing in his sleep and what Sancho thought to be the giant's head is actually a set of valuable wineskins owned by the innkeeper. Don Quixote's has destroyed them while thrashing because of his violent dream. The characters return to the common room, where the priest concludes 'The Novel of the Curious Impertinent.' In the last section of the story, Anselmo suffers for his excessive curiosity. Leonela's lover accidentally reveals himself and Anselmo confronts Leonela. Leonela fears that Anselmo is going to kill her and so she says that she has a valuable secret to disclose to him the next day. Anselmo recounts the incident to Camillaand Camilla fears that Leonela will disclose her (Camilla's) affair with Lothario. With few options before them, Lothario and Camilla run away that very night. Unsurprisingly, Leonela runs away the next day. Anselmo searches for all three of them in vain, and accidentally discovers (from a stranger) that Camilla and Lothario have been deceiving him for some time. Anselmo begins writing an account of his own sad story, but Anselmo's sadness is so profound that he actually dies before he finishes writing his account. The 'Novel of the Curious Impertinent' starts a discussion on the merits of the story. The priest is very well read and everyone listens to his critique of the story. In the end, he decides that he likes "the manner" in which the story was written, though he sees Anselmo as an implausibly, unrealistically nave and idiotic character. Chapter 36 It is late at night, but the inn is still receiving more guests. Old friends and lovers are reunited in the process. Lucinda and her husband, Don Fernando, are disguised when they arrive on scene. They have traveled with men wearing black masks on their faces. This provokes Dorotea to veil her face. Cardenio and Lucinda are reunited and Don Fernando apologizes to Dorotea for deserting her. Don Fernando promises to marry Dorotea and she is satisfied with his promise. Sancho is upset because he has just realized that Dorotea is not the Princess Micomiconaand so he will not become a governor of her territory. Chapter 37 Sancho awakens Don Quixote and confronts him with this news, but Quixote does not believe Sancho. Don Quixote argues that Sancho has been deluded by one of the castle's enchantments. Sancho's words backfire because Dorotea continues with the plan to bring Don

Quixote home. When Dorotea confirms to Don Quixote that she is, in fact, the Princess Micomicona, Quixote becomes angry with Sancho. Chapters 38-39 Another set of travelers arrives at the inn, including a man referred to as "the captive" and a beautiful Moorish noblewoman named Lela Zoraida. She wants to become baptized into the Catholic faith with the name Maria. After Don Quixote gives a speech praising the glories of knighthood, the captive tells his story. The captive grew up "in the mountains of Leon," one of several sons born to a gentleman with a penchant for squandering his money. Worried that he would leave his sons penniless, the father summoned the young men and told them that he would soon give them their inheritance, lest he spend it and leave them with nothing. He advises them to pursue a career in one of three fields: "the church, the sea, or the court." The captive chose the latter of these three options, serving in the king's army. The captive fought in a number of wars that took him to Genoa, Milan, Flanders, Algiers, Malta, and Constantinople. In Constantinople, one of the captive's comrades, a man named Don Pedro de Aguilar, escaped from prison and presumably "recovered his liberty." Indeed, Don Fernando explains that he is Don Pedro de Aguilar's brother. Chapters 40-41 The captive was imprisoned in Algiers, which is where Lela Zoraida fell in love with him. She had never met the captive, but she saw him and fell in love with him nonetheless. One day, Zoraida goes to the prison window and slips a small bundled package to the captive. She has given him money to escape and a letter. She professes her love for him, her conversion to Christianity, and her desire for him to marry her and help her escape to Spain. The captive frees himself and also frees some of his fellow captives. After the captive makes preparations for the passage to Spain, he "kidnaps" Lela Zoraida. Unfortunately, Lela's father wakes up in the middle of the kidnapping and the captive and his friends have no alternative but to carry Lela's father onto the ship. Realizing the extent of his daughter's willing betrayal (conversion, escape) Zoraida tries to jump off the ship and drown himself. The Spaniards on deck are Christians and they will not allow Zoraida to commit suicide. Instead, the Spaniards deposit Zoraida on shore once their ship is a safe distance away from Algiers. Safely in Spain, the captive hopes for Lela to be baptized so that they can be wed. The captive also says that he would like to find his father.

Chapter 42 The captive finishes his story as the inn receives another group of guests. A judge named Licentiate Juan Perez de Viedma arrives with his daughter, Doa Clara, and their attendants. Not long after Viedma explains that he is from Leon, the captive realizes that he is Viedma's brother. The priest intervenes and speaks to Viedma to determine whether or not the captive should confront Viedma with the truth. The priest learns that the judge loves his missing brother very much; furthermore, Viedma's father is still alivebut ailing. The aging father offers "incessant prayers," hoping to live long enough to see his missing son (the captive) again. When the brothers are reunited, there is great jubilation. Chapter 43 Don Quixote exits the inn and stands outside as a "sentinel at the castle gate"just as he promises to do. In the middle of the night, a young man approaches the inn and sings love songs. Cardenio sneaks into the room where the women are sleeping and he wakes Dorotea. Once Dorotea hears the song, she wakes Doa Clara because the singer has a beautiful voice. Doa Clara recognizes the voice as soon as she hears it. The young man is in love with Doa Clara, and he has followed her in disguised pursuit. Clara has never had a conversation with the young man, and they have maintained their courtship at a distance and without any form of communication. Nonetheless, Clara wishes to marry this young man, who once lived next door to her. Dorotea and Maritornes decide to intervene on Doa Clara's behalf: perhaps tonight, the two lovers might speak to each other for the first time. Chapter 44 Maritornes securely fastens Don Quixote's wrist to a doorpostjust to insure that the knight will not cause trouble. Quixote's posture is uncomfortable and awkward. Quixote is still on Rocinante's back, but his arm his tied so high upon the post that the knight is forced to stand-up in his stirrups. When four horsemen approach the inn, they deride Quixote because he looks ridiculous. Vulnerable and out-numbered, Quixote is in a worse situation when Rocinante moves: Quixote's feet slip out of the stirrups and the knight remains suspended by his tied arm. Quixote's feet almost reach the ground; stretching towards the ground, however, only tightens the pain in Quixote's choking wrist. The knight lets out a terrible roar that rouses the innkeeper to investigate the scene. Chapter 45 The young man who would be Doa Clara's lover is Don Louis. The four horsemen, in the service of Don Louis' father, bid Don Louis to return home. Doa Clara's father, the judge, now sees through the disguise and recognizes his neighbor's son. The judge listens to Don

Louis tell of his love for Doa Clara and he considers the marriage proposal. Two guests attempt to leave the inn without paying and, despite the innkeeper's insistence, Quixote abstains from intervening. The knight has sworn to abstain from "new" adventures until he has completed the terms of his service to Princess Micomicona. Nonetheless, when the two guests begin beating the innkeeper, Quixote successfully reasons with the rogues and bids them pause. Towards the end of these chapters, justice finally catches up with Don Quixote. First, the barber from whom Quixote has stolen a basin now returns to the inn. Quixote stands by his original premise that the basin is actually "Mambrino's helmet." The barber defies Quixote, accusing the knight of blatant theft. The crowd of guests enjoys the bickering between the barber and the knight, mockingly defending Quixote's claim that the basin is truly Mambrino's helmet. When the barber and his friends become violent, both the judge and Quixote's friend, the priest, call for peace and calm the crowd. As could be expected, a few members of the Holy Brotherhood make themselves visible, having been attracted to the commotion. Surveying the scene, one officer realizes that they have a warrant for Quixote's arrest: the "knight-errant" stands accused of "setting at liberty" a group of "galley-slaves." Chapter 46 The officer intends to take Quixote into custody but the knight rebuffs the officer. Quixote launches into a hilarious speech, arguing that it is illogical and inane to subdue a knight with a warrant. Referring to the author of the warrant, Quixote asks: "Who was he that knew not that knights-errant are exempt from all judicial authority, that their sword is their law, their bravery their privileges, and their will their edicts?" The priest intercedes on Quixote's behalf, explaining that Quixote is merely a deranged gentleman: the gentleman's insanity fairly exempts the knight from punishment. After the priest guarantees that Quixote will behave, the Holy Brotherhood agrees not to arrest the knight. Sancho tells Don Quixote that the Princess Micomicona is not a princess; Sancho has seen her kiss Don Fernando. Quixote is enraged, believing that Sancho is lying. Dorotea insists that she is the Princess Micomicona but, sympathizing with Sancho, she suggests that Sancho has been enchantedduped into believing that she kissed Don Fernando. The barber and the priest decide to convey Quixote home immediately. The knight is captured and bound; his friends then put him inside of a cage that is fastened to an ox-cart. The barber dresses up as a sage, issuing prophesy that Quixote will win great honors at home. And so, Quixote believes that he is traveling inside of some enchantmentnot a cage.

Chapter 47 Cooped up in the cart, Don Quixote says that he has never read of enchanted knights being transported in this form, and so it must be a new form of enchantment. Sancho argues with the knight and tries to explain, logically, that there is no enchantment. The barber threatens to throw Sancho inside the cart and so, the squire is quiet. Chapter 48 Meanwhile, the priest is interested in reading a manuscript that he had obtained from the innkeeper, just before leaving. Chapter 49 While traveling, the group encounters a "canon" who serves a religious function. The canon is not a fan of the books of chivalry, though he once attempted to pen such a story himself. Chapters 50-51 Later, the group has lunch and the priest opens the cage and permits Don Quixote to exit. Quixote discusses chivalry with the canon and he manages to be both brilliant and ridiculous in his arguments. Besides recounting his own adventures to the canon, Quixote also tells the tale of the Knight of the Lake. During lunch, a goatherd named Eugenio approaches the group. Chapter 52 Eugenio, the goatherd, ends up fighting with Quixote, much to the amusement of the group. Don Quixote causes more trouble by attacking a group of holy pilgrims. They are carrying an icon of the Blessed Virgin Mary within a cart: Quixote believes that they are criminals who have kidnapped and imprisoned a good lady. Holy or not, the group defends itself and Sancho is convinced that Don Quixote has received his last beating. Panza offers a very moving elegy for his dead master, but Quixote is not dead, of course. Quixote has been beaten so severely that he now goes home willingly. Sancho returns home to his wife, Juana (at other points, her name is "Teresa"). "Juana" wants to know what Sancho has brought home as justification for his long time away from home. The squire says that he has won a governorship. Cervantes, as narrator, tells us in the final pages of Book I that even though Don Quixote is quietly taken in at home, his housekeeper and niece are right to fear that the "knight-errant" will soon grow restless. Finally, Cervantes discusses the manuscripts of Quixote's adventures, telling us that he has found additional texts that he will prepare for translation and subsequent publication. We have more of Don Quixote's stories to look forward to, then: a third expedition.

Preface In the "Preface to the Reader," Cervantes mentions "the author of the second Don Quixote," a writer who published a false sequel to Cervantes' original work. Cervantes takes the high ground and stresses the fact that the imposter's "sin will be his punishment." Cervantes dedicates the book to the great Conde de Lemos (Count of Lemos), and Cervantes also has kind words for the Archbishop of Toledo, Bernardo de Sandoval. Cervantes reminds us that Cid Hamet Ben Engeli is the original composer of the story. Chapter I For the month after Don Quixote has been returned to his home, the priest and barber avoid him because they do not want to remind Quixote of his unfortunate days as a knighterrant. When they see Don Quixote, it is clear to them that the gentleman intends to find another quest in the near future. Although Don Quixote's books have been removed, the exknight-errant still has a keen memory of the details of the chivalric tales. Chapter II Sancho Panza attempts to visit his former master. When the housekeeper blocks the entrance, Sancho Panza insists that Don Quixote has promised him an island - and Sancho Panza intends to have his island! This talk does not make any sense to the housekeeper, and she and Don Quixote's niece begin a fierce argument with Sancho. Don Quixote hears the squabble and he commands the housekeeper to permit Sancho Panza entry. This is not so much because Don Quixote wants to see Sancho Panza; rather, Don Quixote is dismayed by Sancho's loose tongue: Don Quixote is afraid that Sancho may reveal some embarrassing details. In their private conversation, Sancho Panza tells his master that he has learned of a book in which Don Quixote's own adventures are recounted. This book is called The Ingenious Gentleman Don Quixote de la Mancha. Sancho Panza is flattered that although he is a mere squire, the novel mentions him by name. Quixote wants to learn more about this book and Sancho states that the "history" was written by a Moor named Cid Hamet Berengena. Sancho Panza has learned of the book from a scholarly young man named Sampson Carrasco. Sancho agrees to get Sampson so that Don Quixote can talk to him. Chapter III While he is waiting for Sampson Carrasco arrive, Don Quixote wonders how a book about his exploits could already be published. His conclusion is that the author is a Moorish sage. Don Quixote, Sancho Panza, and Sampson Carrasco have a pleasant conversation and

Sampson Carrasco greatly admires the knight. Sampson also corrects Sancho's mispronunciation, indicating that the author's name is Cid Hamet Ben Engeli. Sancho argues that the book is wrong because it refers to Dulcinea as Doa, even though she is a common woman. Chapter III For his part, Don Quixote thinks that the book - as Sampson has described it, has too many discursive ramblings and digressions that involve the minor characters. In particular, Sampson Carrasco discusses the discrepancy regarding the disappearance and reappearance of Dapple, Sancho's mule. Sancho gives an explanation for Dapple's "disappearance" but Sampson says that Sancho's account does not make any sense. Sampson mentions a jousting tournament in Zaragosa, and suggests that Don Quixote should attend the competition, in the hopes of gaining honor. Chapter V At the beginning of Chapter V, Cervantes adds an editorial note, indicating that the "translator" does not believe the following episode is true. This is because Sancho's dialogue is rendered in a poetic style that is not appropriate for Sancho's social class. Sancho confronts his wife, Teresa, and announces that he is resuming his travels with Don Quixote. Teresa urges her husband to be satisfied with what he already has. Sancho Panza insists that he pursues his island so that the Panza's daughter can marry a nobleman. Chapter VI While Sancho Panza talks to his wife, Don Quixote has a similar conversation with his housekeeper and niece. It seems to them that Don Quixote is embarking upon his third adventure, regardless of what they say to stop him. The housekeeper suggests that Quixote serve as a knight at the king's court, but Quixote responds that his particular calling is to be a knight-errant. Don Quixote's niece suggest that he should become a preacher, but Don Quixote says that he "would not mix things divine with human." Don Quixote concludes his argument with the supposition that: "There are two roadsby which men may arrive at riches and honors; the one by the way of letters, the other by that of arms." Don Quixote admits that he is heavily influences by the planet Mars and so, he must choose "arms." Chapter VII When the housekeeper becomes convinced that Don Quixote and Sancho Panza are definitely preparing for their "third sally," she summons Sampson Carrasco and asks him to intercede. Don Quixote and Sancho Panza are locked together in a room, making preparations for their adventure. When Sampson Carrasco joins them, he is supposed to dissuade Don

Quixote from setting out on his third adventure. Perhaps because he has so enjoyed reading of Don Quixote's exploits, Sampson actually does the opposite, encouraging knight and squire to travel the high and difficult road of fortunate, glory, and fame. Don Quixote and Sancho Panza head towards the town of Toboso, so that Don Quixote can visit Dulcinea del Toboso. Chapter VIII When Don Quixote and Sancho Panza set out towards Toboso, they notice that Rosinante begins to neigh and Dapple begins to sigh. The knight and squire interpret this as a good omen. Don Quixote is eager to receive Dulcinea's blessing, but he fears that nightfall will arrive before he and Sancho reach Toboso. Sancho Panza suddenly becomes concerned, realizing that he has never met Dulcinea and Don Quixote is relying upon Sancho to seek her out. In Chapter XXXI of Book One, Sancho Panza invented an account of meeting Dulcinea but now, Sancho stresses that he has a "shallow memory" and does not recall these details. Don Quixote continues his discussion of fame, rejecting Sancho Panza's idea that they might instead become saints of the church. Don Quixote reasons that there is an abundance' of saints, but precious "few, who deserve the name of knights." Increasing their pace, Don Quixote and Sancho Panza are able to reach Toboso just as night is falling. Chapter IX Toboso is a small and quite town, and Don Quixote interrupts this sleepy repose with his command to Sancho: "lead on before to Dulcinea's palace." Sancho's argument is that Dulcinea lives in a small house, not a castle, and that if Don Quixote would like to see castle in these parts, it would be easier for the knight to lead the way himself. At this point, Don Quixote admits that he has never seen "the peerless Dulcinea" and has fallen in love with her based solely upon the stories of her famous beauty. When Don Quixote stops a stranger and asks the man to direct him to the princess' castle, the confused stranger admits that the has not heard of any princesses living in the region. Chapter X Sancho Panza realizes that he cannot avoid the inevitable: Don Quixote compels him to lead the way to Dulcinea. Ultimately, Sancho conceives of a plan that might cause him the least harm. Sancho cannot "search the town for a woman" without inciting a mob, because the people of the region are known for their excessive choleric anger. Sancho's plan is only slightly more intelligent than this. Seeing three young women riding on a mule, Sancho announces that he sees Dulcinea advancing with two ladies-in-waiting.

When Don Quixote argues that he merely sees three peasant girls riding old mules, Sancho counters that an enchantment has altered Dulcinea. When the girls pass by, Sancho seizes the nearest one, calling her Dulcinea. Don Quixote worships the girl, though she is hideously ugly and Quixote is greatly saddened by her transformation. Chapter XI Don Quixote really believes himself to be "the most unfortunate of men." Though it is dark and late, the two travelers continue on the road. They pass by a troupe of masked and disguised actors who are riding in a wagon labeled as the "cart of the Parliament of Death." Don Quixote stops the cart and in the ensuing exchange, Dapple disappears. Sancho has been spooked by the ominous image of "Death" painted on the Cart's side. Believing the actors to be evil enchanters, Sancho exclaims that "the devil has run away with Dapple." The actors have merely played a joke, however, and they return Dapple unharmed. Don Quixote and Sancho Panza part ways with the actors and a potentially violent event is pre-empted when Sancho successfully dissuades his master from enacting revenge. Don Quixote and Sancho Panza settle under a tree to eat their "supper" and Don Quixote insists that it would have been better for him to have attacked the wagon and secured some small treasure for Sancho. Chapter XII Sancho Panza and Don Quixote discuss philosophy and Don Quixote comments on Sancho's growing wisdom. Sancho claims that he grows wiser the longer he associates with Quixote. The two fall asleep under a pair of trees, but they are soon awakened by the noise of two men approaching on horseback. Don Quixote is excited because he senses a new adventure. The two men are The Knight of the Wood and his squire, The Squire of the Wood. The Knight of the Wood plays the lute and sings a mournful sonnet, expressing his love for his cruel mistress, Casildea de Vandalia. The two knights have a conversation together, while Sancho and the Squire of the Wood have their own conversation. Chapter XIII While the two knights have a very "grave" conversation, the two squires exchange pleasantries. Each squire admits that he follows his respective knight because he has been promised "some island, or some pretty earldom." The two squires discuss some of the anticipated difficulties of island governance. The Squire of the Wood has three children and Sancho has two: both squires anticipate that the politics of island acquisition will benefit their children in the long run.

The conversation between the squires also reveals that the Knight of the Wood, unlike Don Quixote, is hardly an idealist. He is more of a criminal than anything else. Both squires agree that their masters are "crack-brained," though Sancho thinks that Don Quixote, unlike the Knight of the Wood, has a good heart. Sancho Panza admits that he does not know how long he will continue to follow Don Quixote, but at the very least, he will follow his master to Zaragosa. Chapter XIV Cervantes initially introduced The Knight of the Wood as "the brawn Knight of the Looking-Glasses," though it is not immediately clear why this is the case. In Chapter XIV, this mystery is casually revealed with the break of daylight. When Don Quixote sees the Knight of the Wood's shiny glittering armor, he renames the knight on account of the armor's mirror-like appearance. It is decided that the two knights will duel and that the two squires will also duel. True to character, Sancho Panza is not especially pleased with the arrangement, but he grudgingly assents. In the morning, Sancho Panza refuses to battle the Squire of the Wood because he (Sancho) is frightened by the gigantic size of the Squire's nose. Sancho does not believe the Squire to be human, concluding that to battle this "hobgoblin" would invite disaster. The Squire of the Wood insists upon fighting and so, Sancho must escape somehow. While the Knight of the Looking-Glasses prepares to charge Don Quixote, Quixote is busy hoisting Sancho Panza into a tree. When the Knight of the Looking-Glasses sees this, he slows his advance towards Don Quixote and heads for the tree to lend assistance. Don Quixote thinks that the Knight of the Looking-Glasses is charging him, however. Accordingly, Don Quixote rushes towards the knight at full speed, catching him the knight off guard and knocking him off his horse. Chapter XV Don Quixote compels the knight to confess Dulcinea's beauty. Removing the knight's visor, Don Quixote reveals the knight to be Sampson Carrasco. Carrasco confesses that he has been plotting with the priest and barber to defeat Don Quixote. If the Knight of the Looking-Glasses had defeated Don Quixote, the Knight would have compelled Don Quixote to return home to La Mancha. Don Quixote does not believe his eyes (or ears). Rather, he interprets Sampson as an enchantment, strategically placed to derail Quixote's progress. Sancho Panza reveals the Squire's nose to be made of mulberry-colored pasteboard - obviously fake, not monstrous. In fact, the Squire is one of Sancho's neighbors, Tom Cecial.

Chapter XVI After the adventure with the Knight of the Looking-Glasses, Sancho Panza and Don Quixote have two very different emotional responses. Don Quixote continues with "pleasure, satisfaction, and self-conceit." Sancho Panza is very confused about Tom Cecial and his pasteboard nose. Don Quixote suggests that both Tom Cecial and Sampson Carrasco were enchantments. But Sancho recalls his conversation with the Squire, and the details that were discussed. How could the Squire have been an enchantment when, in retrospect, the details of the Squire's family life so resemble Tom Cecial's? Don Quixote sees a man on the road who is dressed all in green and armed with "a Moorish scimitar." Quixote introduces himself as the Knight of the Sorrowful Figure. The traveler is named Don Diego de Miranda. Don Diego counts himself among those who believe that the stories of knights-errant are not "fictitious." In meeting Don Quixote, Don Diego is overjoyed on two counts: First, Don Diego is pleased to know that Spain has not abandoned the tradition of knight-errantry. The security that knights provide is all too necessary, in Don Diego's opinion. Second, Don Diego is pleased to hear Don Quixote's discussions of the newly published novel, The Ingenious Gentleman Don Quixote de la Mancha. Don Diego has not yet read the book, but he suspects that the book will enlighten its audience about the finer points of chivalry. Don Diego's son has decided to become a poet rather than a scientist. Don Diego seems somewhat displeased at this, but Don Quixote extols the virtues of poetry as a source of good and purity in the world. Quixote appears very learned in his discourse, mentioning the classical writers Homer, Virgil, and Horace. Don Quixote pauses in his commentary, as he perceives a carriage with royal banners. The carriage is advancing towards the same side-road that Quixote intends to take. Chapter XVII Meanwhile, Sancho Panza has found some shepherds nearby, from whom he purchases curds and milk. Don Quixote sees the royal cart and prepares for a new adventure. Quixote summons Sancho, telling him that "Preparation is half the battle, and nothing is lost by being upon one's guard." Sancho needs a container for his curds and milk, and he chooses Don Quixote's helmet. When Don Quixote dons the helmet, he fears that his skull is softening or else, his brain must be melting. Sancho gives his master a cloth to clean his head and face. Don Quixote then accuses Sancho Panza of being a "vile traitor" for placing the curds in his helmet. Sancho insists that this accident must be the work of an enchanter.

The royal cart contains "two fierce lions" which are a gift to the King, from the general of Oran. Don Quixote demands that the carter open the cages so that he (Quixote) can battle the lions. After significant objection, the carter obliges Quixote. The lions are lazy and sluggish, however, and they refuse to stir. Don Quixote gives up on the idea of battling the lions and Don Diego and Sancho Panza both praise Quixote for his bravery. In honor of this victory-bydefault, Don Quixote renames himself "Knight of the Lions." After accepting Don Diego's invitation for a visit, Quixote renames Don Diego de Miranda as "The Knight of the Green Riding-Coat." Chapter XVIII Don Diego lives in a spacious country home and when he arrives at the house, Don Quixote perceives the building to be a castle. Don Diego introduces Don Quixote and Sancho Panza to his wife, Doa Christina, and his poet son, Don Lorenzo. Don Lorenzo spends much time considering whether or not Don Quixote is mad. At the end of Quixote's four day visit, Don Lorenzo does conclude that Don Quixote is insane. While visiting with Don Diego's family, Quixote manages to be both insane and intelligent. Quixote enjoys Don Lorenzo's poetry and offers a valuable critique. For his part, Don Lorenzo tells his father that Quixote's insanity "is a medley full of lucid intervals." Much like Don Quixote's audience in Book One, Chapters XXXVII and XXXVIII, Don Lorenzo is floored by the knight's ability to shuttle back and forth between pure madness and sound reason. Chapter XIX Don Quixote and Sancho Panza leave Don Diego's house and, on the road, they encounter a group of four men: two ecclesiastics and two country fellows. Don Quixote introduces himself both as Don Quixote and as "The Knight of the Lions." The two ecclesiastical scholars quickly see that Quixote is crazy. The four men are on their way to a wedding. The beautiful Quiteria the Fair will soon marry Camacho the Rich, whose wealthy "solders up an abundance of flaws." A man named Basilius truly loves Quiteria. Although, Basilius is not wealthy, he is extremely handsome. Quiteria's parents have decided that she will marry Camacho, however. Don Quixote and Sancho Panza accompany the four men to the village where the wedding will take place. Chapter XX Just as the travelers predicted, Basilius makes a scene at Quiteria's wedding. After giving a short and eloquent speech, Basilius stabs himself with a dagger. This suicidal act places Basilius' soul in danger of eternal damnation. Despite the hasty suggestions of the

officiating priest, Basilius refuses to make a confession. Basilius then relents, and agrees to confess if Quiteria will marry him. Then, she can wed Camacho as the "widow of the brave Basilius." Chapter XXI Those attending the wedding urge Quiteria to quickly wed Basilius before he dies. Quiteria truly loves Basilius and so she freely agrees. After vows are exchanged, Basilius reveals that his wound is slight and his injury intentional: it is "a stratagem." Camacho decides to kill Basilius but Don Quixote intervenes, arguing that "it is not fit to take revenge for the injuries done us by love." Quixote adds that Basilius' strategy was to be expected by Camacho, for in love, as in war, "it is lawful and customary to employ cunning and stratagems to defeat the enemy." Camacho relents and Basilius and Quiteria are happy with the turn of events. Chapter XXII As a knight-errant, Don Quixote is pleased that he was able to advocate for Basilius and Quiteria. He sees the wedding as a triumph of love over baser interests. Sancho is disgusted at this foolishness, and he begins muttering that Don Quixote should take the pulpit. When Don Quixote challenges Sancho, the squire reminds Don Quixote that just as a knight knows more about knight-errantry, a husband knows more about marriage. When Don Quixote asks Sancho about his wife, Sancho replies that "She is not very bad, but she is not very good neither, at least not quite so good as I would have her." Don Quixote thinks that is a dishonorable thing for a man to say about his own wife. Don Quixote and Sancho Panza stay with Basilius and Quiteria for three days, at which point they travel to the Cave of Montesinos with Basilio's cousin. Basilio's cousin (whose name we never learn) is a famous scholar, "much addicted to reading books of chivalry."At Montesinos' Cave, Sancho and Basilio's cousin tie a rope around Don Quixote's waist and lower him into the cave, which is a deep hole. Quixote's task is to explore what is below, but after an half-hour, it is clear that Quixote has fallen asleep "in the deep cave of Montesinos." Don Quixote is pulled out of the cave. Chapter XXIII When asked about what he has seen, Quixote replies with a lucid description of a dream-vision. Quixote claims that he was transported to a crystal palace, wherein an old man greeted him by name. The old man was Montesinos. Montesinos told Quixote a grisly story about the death of his "great friend," Durandarte. When Durandarte died, Montesinos made good on a promise to cut out Durandarte's heart and deliver it to Belerma, Durandarte's wife.

Don Quixote learns that Merlin, the magician of King Arthur's court, has cast a spell that prevents Montesinos from leaving. However, Merlin foresaw that Don Quixote would undo this curse and free Montesinos and his company. Because Sancho Panza constructed the "enchantment" of Dulcinea, Sancho does not believe Sancho' claim to have seen Dulcinea in her transformed state. Indeed, this leads Sancho Panza to discount the entire episode. Don Quixote does not get angry, however. After some consideration, Don Quixote calmly concludes: "It is your love of me, Sancho, that makes you talk at this rate but the time will come when I shall tell you some other of the things I have seen below, which will make you give credit to what I have now told you." Chapter XXIV Cervantes interrupts the narrative thread to tell us that the translator of Cid Hamet Ben Engeli's work found a note in Engeli's handwriting, recorded in the margins of the original text. Engeli does not believe that Don Quixote tells the truth, arguing that Quixote actually recounted the story on his deathbed. Cid Hamet Ben Engeli also added that because Sancho Panza was so impertinent and disrespectful to Don Quixote, the account seems all the more likely to be apocryphal. Continuing, the story, Cervantes tells us that Basilio's cousin loves Don Quixote's account of his time in the cave. The scholar vows to record the story and Quixote is clearly pleased with this. Quixote and company then encounter a man who is heavily armed. Quixote decides to follow the man to a nearby inn, so that he can hear the man's story. Chapter XXII As a knight-errant, Don Quixote is pleased that he was able to advocate for Basilius and Quiteria. He sees the wedding as a triumph of love over baser interests. Sancho is disgusted at this foolishness, and he begins muttering that Don Quixote should take the pulpit. When Don Quixote challenges Sancho, the squire reminds Don Quixote that just as a knight knows more about knight-errantry, a husband knows more about marriage. When Don Quixote asks Sancho about his wife, Sancho replies that "She is not very bad, but she is not very good neither, at least not quite so good as I would have her." Don Quixote thinks that is a dishonorable thing for a man to say about his own wife. Don Quixote and Sancho Panza stay with Basilius and Quiteria for three days, at which point they travel to the Cave of Montesinos with Basilio's cousin. Basilio's cousin (whose name we never learn) is a famous scholar, "much addicted to reading books of chivalry."

At Montesinos' Cave, Sancho and Basilio's cousin tie a rope around Don Quixote's waist and lower him into the cave, which is a deep hole. Quixote's task is to explore what is below, but after an half-hour, it is clear that Quixote has fallen asleep "in the deep cave of Montesinos." Don Quixote is pulled out of the cave. Chapter XXIII When asked about what he has seen, Quixote replies with a lucid description of a dream-vision. Quixote claims that he was transported to a crystal palace, wherein an old man greeted him by name. The old man was Montesinos. Montesinos told Quixote a grisly story about the death of his "great friend," Durandarte. When Durandarte died, Montesinos made good on a promise to cut out Durandarte's heart and deliver it to Belerma, Durandarte's wife. Don Quixote learns that Merlin, the magician of King Arthur's court, has cast a spell that prevents Montesinos from leaving. However, Merlin foresaw that Don Quixote would undo this curse and free Montesinos and his company. Because Sancho Panza constructed the "enchantment" of Dulcinea, Sancho does not believe Sancho' claim to have seen Dulcinea in her transformed state. Indeed, this leads Sancho Panza to discount the entire episode. Don Quixote does not get angry, however. After some consideration, Don Quixote calmly concludes: "It is your love of me, Sancho, that makes you talk at this rate but the time will come when I shall tell you some other of the things I have seen below, which will make you give credit to what I have now told you." Chapter XXIV Cervantes interrupts the narrative thread to tell us that the translator of Cid Hamet Ben Engeli's work found a note in Engeli's handwriting, recorded in the margins of the original text. Engeli does not believe that Don Quixote tells the truth, arguing that Quixote actually recounted the story on his deathbed. Cid Hamet Ben Engeli also added that because Sancho Panza was so impertinent and disrespectful to Don Quixote, the account seems all the more likely to be apocryphal. Continuing, the story, Cervantes tells us that Basilio's cousin loves Don Quixote's account of his time in the cave. The scholar vows to record the story and Quixote is clearly pleased with this. Quixote and company then encounter a man who is heavily armed. Quixote decides to follow the man to a nearby inn, so that he can hear the man's story. Chapter XXIX Don Quixote and Sancho Panza travel towards the River Ebro, passing through a grove of poplar trees along the way. The beauty of the riverbanks reminds Quixote of the

beauty that he'd seen in The Cave of Montesinos. At the riverbank, Don Quixote spies a small oar-less boat tied to a tree trunk. Don Quixote tells Sancho "that this vessel lies here for no other reason in the world but to invite me to embark in it." Don Quixote has read of such things in his books of chivalry, though Sancho is particularly upset by the idea. In fact, he begins to weep bitterly. The small boat is swept in an eddy. Fortunately, there are millers nearby who fish Don Quixote and Sancho out of the water. Don Quixote rails against the millers, claiming that they hold a knight prisoner in their mill, but the millers disregard Quixote. Don Quixote does compensate the fisherman who owns the "enchanted" though now sunken boat. Sancho is upset about the considerable expense of paying the fisherman for his destroyed boat. Chapter XXIX Don Quixote and Sancho Panza are suffering from melancholy at this point, heading away from the River Ebro. Sancho Panza is steadily becoming convinced that he is being led by an imbecilic master who is seeks bad fortune wherever he goes. After riding for hours, Don Quixote and Sancho Panza approach a green pasture in which a refined and noble lady is sitting with her attendants. Don Quixote sends Sancho Panza to introduce "the knight of the Lions" into the Lady's presence. As it turns out, the lady is a duchess and she is a great fan of Don Quixote, having read The Ingenious Gentleman Don Quixote de la Mancha. The duchess summons the duke and they both greet Don Quixote with all of the honor befitting a knight-errant. Don Quixote offers his services and the duke and duchess are happy to have Don Quixote and Sancho in their company. As it turns out, the duke and duchess will pretend that Don Quixote's delusion is reality, reconstructing a world suitable for knightserrant. Chapter XXIX Don Quixote tries to impress Sancho with his superior knowledge of astronomy and geography but this excess verbiage and vocabulary makes no sense to Sancho and only frightens the squire even more. Sancho hears the word computation' and calls it amputation' which becomes a pun: Don Quixote is discussing the computation of 360 degrees and "the equinoctial line, which divides and cuts [amputates] the opposite poles at equal distances." Don Quixote can understand the concepts of geography but when applying these principles to his own "enchanted" context, the knight concludes that he has traveled 2000 miles though it has not been even five yards - and Rocinante and Dapple are still in sight!

Don Quixote's assertion that this vessel has been left specifically "to invite me to embark in it" is recidivistic: Don Quixote is falling back into his old patterns of thinking. Much earlier in the novel (Part I, Chapter XV), while Don Quixote is wounded in a ditch, he exclaims that "Fortune always leaves some door open in disasters, whereby to come at a remedy." Then, as now, the same irony lies in Don Quixote's words. Don Quixote takes the open door' to disaster,' and Fortune' supplies a remedy' that Quixote is too blind to recognize. Don Quixote believes the boat will "succor [support, comfort] some knight, or other person of high degree, who is in extreme distress." Instead, Don Quixote takes the boat and seeks out extreme distress' - only to curse and vilify the patient millers who save his life. As for extreme distress, the duchess proves to be one of the most dominating characters in Book II. It is important for the reader to be immediately forewarned that the duchess' intentions are not pure. Our initial response is to be endeared to the duchess because she has read the novel recounting Don Quixote's earlier adventures. Like Sampson Carrasco, the duchess uses this information to deceive Don Quixote. Here again we find a re-creation of the real world: characters have read a book that was actually published. Even though the duke and duchess function as outside characters (they are not included in The Ingenious Gentleman), they are capable of direct contact with characters from The Ingenious Gentleman. With productions as vast and intricate as these, it is difficult to define Don Quixote's perception as delusion because what he perceives is what is actually occurring. This is particularly ironic because this intentionally elaborate deception thoroughly convinces Don Quixote that he is "a true knight-errant." Up to that point, Don Quixote feared that he was merely an "imaginary" knight. Chapter XXXI Sancho Panza is pleased with the sudden turn of events, as the castle of the duke and duchess proves more than hospitable. Don Quixote is sprinkled with sweet-scented waters and celebrated to such an extent that "this was the first day that he was thoroughly convinced of his being a true knight-errant, and not an imaginary one, finding himself treated just as he had read knights-errant were in former times." Sancho approaches one of the duchess' attendants, Doa Rodriguez de Grijalva, and asks her to attend to Dapple and see that he is properly cared for in the stable. Doa Rodriguez is humiliated by the request and she and Sancho sling a number of foul insults at each other. Much like an embarrassed parent, Don Quixote chides Sancho Panza, asking the squire whether he might behave more appropriately and hold his request. But the duke and

duchess are eager to please Don Quixote and Sancho Panza and they happily direct the attendants to take care of Dapple. Chapter XXXII At lunch ("dinner"), Don Quixote and Sancho Panza accompany the duke, duchess, and an ecclesiastic who is a guest of the castle. This guest is unaware of the duchess' tricks. Don Quixote gives an account of his life as a knight, but the priest sees knight-errantry as a pernicious hold-over from heathen days. When Sancho mentions that Don Quixote still owes him an island, the Duke announces that he happens to have an island "of no inconsiderable value" that Sancho can rule as governor. The priest believes the duke and he leaves the castle, enraged. Sancho continues telling stories of Quixote's exploits and these tales (namely of Don Quixote's failings) amuse the duchess to no end. After dinner, Don Quixote has his head washed by the servants - but they desert him with most of the soap residue deliberately left soaking on his head. The duke and duchess re-affirm their order and warn the servants not to ruin the rues with impertinence. Don Quixote talks about the many invisible enchanters that persecute him. Uninterested in this, the duchess changes the topic to Dulcinea. Specifically, the duchess recalls reading that Don Quixote "never saw the lady Dulcinea, and there is no such lady in the world, she being only an imaginary lady, begotten and born of your own [Quixote's] brain." Don Quixote admits that only God knows whether or not Dulcinea is real. However, Don Quixote feels that he can vouch for Dulcinea's noble lineage, all the same. Chapter XXXIII After lunch, Sancho Panza spends the afternoon with the Duchess and Sancho Panza is eager to please her. The duchess makes sure that she is alone with Sancho Panza and then she says that she has "some doubts arising from the printed history of the great Don Quixote." The duchess hopes that Sancho Panza will clarify some of her questions and explain a few of the discrepancies in the recorded ale. Particularly, the duchess is concerned about the story of Dulcinea - which he believes to be a sham. Of course, this places Sancho Panza in an awkward position as he has been dishonest. Sancho told Don Quixote that he delivered a letter to Dulcinea, though he did not. Sancho Panza prefaces his remarks by telling the duchess: "I am firmly persuaded he [Don Quixote] is mad." The duchess then asks Sancho how it is that he can dutifully serve a man he believes to be mad. Sancho admits that he loves Don Quixote and serves him out of loyalty. Moreover, Sancho has already given up on winning an island from Don Quixote - though he still expects that the duke will make good on his promise. On this subject, Sancho Panza assures the

duchess that he will govern the island well, though he admits that he does not have very much of the relevant experience. Sancho Panza mentions Montesinos' cave - a new story for the duchess, for this episode was not included in Book I. On the subject of Dulcinea, Sancho Panza explains that he disbelieves Don Quixote because he (Sancho) knows that the "enchanted" Dulcinea is really just a common girl that Sancho claimed to be Dulcinea. The duchess then argues, rather persuasively, that the enchantment is true and that it is Sancho who has been deceived. Sancho Panza eventually comes to believe the duchess when she says that she "knows from a good authority" that the country wench who jumped onto the donkey "was and is Dulcinea." Chapter XXXIV The duke and duchess enjoy the stories that Don Quixote and Sancho Panza share with them. The two nobles decide to go on a boar hunt and the knight and squire come along. Sancho is terribly frightened by the boards and he climbs into a tree. The duke makes the argument that Sancho will be a better governor if he learns how to hunt and use weapons. As the duke explains: "Hunting is an image of war." The boar-hunt is interrupted by the loud sounds of drum-beats, trumpets and Arabic battle cries. The duke pretends to be astonished and the duchess pretends to b frightened. A "postboy" dressed up like the devil rides up to the group, announces that he is the devil and claims to be looking for Don Quixote. Montesinos has sent the devil to Don Quixote, so that the devil can tell Don Quixote how Dulcinea might be disenchanted. Chapter XXXV A number of wagons continue behind the devil, amidst the din of Moorish war cries (called Lelilies). The performance is as follows: each wagon passes before Don Quixote, then pauses. A "sage" exists, introduces himself by name, gets back into the cart, then leaves. The sages are "Lirgandeo," "Alquife, the great friend to Urganda the Unknown;" and "Arcalaus the Enchanter, mortal enemy of Amadis de Gaul and all his kindred." A large carriage follows the enchanters. A woman is wearing many veils and next to her is an old man wearing a death mask. This man is Merlin and he gives a speech addressed to Don Quixote. The speech consists of 38 lines of verse in which Merlin announces that the woman inside the carriage is the enchanted Dulcinea in her "metamorphos'd form." In order for Dulcinea to be enchanted, Sancho has to be whipped upon his bare buttocks 3300 times. Hearing this, Sancho says that Dulcinea will die in her ugly and enchanted form, because he will not be whipped. Don Quixote then says that he will tie Sancho Panza to a tree and whip Sancho himself. At this, Merlin interjects that the 3300 lashes must be voluntarily self-

inflicted. Sancho Panza reiterates his refusal, at which point, Dulcinea herself pleads for Sancho's mercy. Sancho Panza ultimately capitulates but he says that he will dot he whipping a little bit at a time and only when he feels like it. Both the duke and duchess commend Sancho Panza for his brave self-sacrifice. Chapter XXXVI Later in the day, the duchess speaks with Sancho to see whether he has begun his lashes. Instead, Sancho has spent the time writing a letter to his wife, Teresa. (Sancho is illiterate and so, the letter has been transcribed by someone else). In the letter, Sancho explains the nature of the injuries he is to suffer and Sancho also announces to his wife that he is being made Governor of an isle. The letter is dated the 20th of July, 1614, which is the first instance in which Cervantes tells us "when" the story takes place. Sancho's letter is surprisingly lyrical and Don Quixote is particularly enthralled by the letter's "confused, martial, and doleful harmony." While Sancho is not particularly excited about governing, he is heartened by the knowledge that government service will make him "rich and happy." The castle receives a visitor named Trifaldin of the White Beard, the squire to the Countess Trifaldi (who is known in more recent times as The Afflicted Matron). The Countess Trifaldi has heard that "the valorous and invincible Don Quixote de la Mancha" is at the duke's castle. Accordingly, the Countess has sent Trifaldin because she is in desperate need of the knight-errant's assistance. Chapter XXXVII Sancho Panza is concerned at the sudden change of events. Particularly, he has had poor luck and tense relations with matrons and duennas. Sancho Panza fears that somehow, Don Quixote's involvement with the Countess Trifaldi will cause Sancho to lose his governor's seat. Don Quixote disregards Sancho's comments on Trifaldi and encourages the squire not to meddle in knight's affairs. Trifaldi is a name that means "3 skirts" (faldas) referring to the Countess' habit of dress. The Afflicted Matron arrives at the duke's castle escorted by twelve of her own duennas. She immediately finds Don Quixote and pays him homage by falling to her knees. Only when Don Quixote pledges to assist her does she get up from the floor. The Countess Trifaldi makes sure to procure Don Quixote's promise of assistance before she actually tells him the nature of her misfortune.

Chapter XXXVIII The Countess' story rambles: She served as a duenna for a princess. The princess loved a knight and the Countess facilitated their relationship - a relationship that culminated in pregnancy and a hasty wedding to the knight, Don Clavijo. Chapter XXXIX The princess' mother was mortified by the course of events and she went to court to oppose the marriage. When this failed, she went home, mourned, and died of grief within three days. The mother's cousin is the evil enchanter-giant named Malambruno. Malumbruno avenged his cousin's death by turning the princess and knight into statuesque ornaments to decorate the mother's sepulcher. The princess is now a brass monkey and the knight is now a crocodile made of "an unknown metal." The giant has left a metal plate at the grave site indicating that the monkey and crocodile will remain as they are until the brave hero of La Mancha battles the giant. The countess and her duennas have also been cursed with hideous and permanent beards, to punish them for assisting the princess. Chapter XL Sancho has great sympathy for the bearded duennas, who have been cursed by Malambruno. Malambruno's prophecy indicates that a wooden horse, motored by a pin in its forehead, will arrive on scene when the "true knight" of deliverance has been found. As the knight is blindfolded and then transported by this magical flying horse, the beards will trimmed. Chapter XLI The horse, Clavileo the Winged, is built for two people to ride and when the horse does indeed arrive, escorted by four "savages," there is great celebration. Sancho refuses to ride, as he is neither courageous nor a knight. Don Quixote is embarrassed by Don Quixote's resistance, and the Duke reiterates his promises of island governance, coaxing the squire to join his master on the horse. Sancho pities the bearded women too much to refuse them, and so he submits to being blindfolded and rides behind Don Quixote. Quixote turns the foreheadpin and after a few rickety minutes (and the copious laughter of onlookers), the horse's tail is lit, and firecrackers explode from Clavileo's belly. Knight and squire are tossed into the garden. Chapter XLII Sancho claims that the enchantment transported him to a pasture where he played with seven little she-goats for about forty-five minutes. Quixote says that they passed the region of air and brushed up against the region of fire, but as they were not burnt, they must have gone

through the fiery region towards heaven - where Sancho's she-goats are. Quixote privately says to Sancho: "since you would have us believe all you have seen in heaven, I expect you should believe what I saw in Montesinos' cave." The duke and duchess decide that it is time to send Sancho to his island, and before Sancho leaves, Quixote gives him advice. Quixote mainly speaks of luck and birth, and stresses that Sancho should remain true to his peasant roots. He then recites a long list of proverbs but when Sancho says that he cannot remember all of them, Quixote mourns the fact that the squire cannot read or write. Chapter XLIII - XLIV Preparing to leave, Sancho sees the Duke's steward and perceives that this man has played the role of Countess Trifaldi. Quixote sees a resemblance and does not grasp the implications. Sancho is highly suspicious as he heads for his "island." Chapter XLV Sancho and his attendants arrive at one of the Duke's towns, Barataria, and many of the town's one thousand residents are aware of the Duke's game. A series of villagers beseech the new Lord Governor to listen to their arguments and complaints. Sancho proves to be very wise and clever in the role of judge and this astonishes the people. A "historiographer" keeps notes of Sancho's performance to submit to the Duke. Chapter XLVI Meanwhile, Don Quixote is getting entangled in complications at the Duke's castle. The damsel, Altisidora, sings praises of the knight-errant and it appears that she is enamored with him. The damsel pretends to faint when she sees Quixote: Duchess has orchestrated this episode as a means of testing and probing the relationship between Quixote and his Dulcinea. The Duchess also arranges for the delivery of the letter and package that Sancho has left for his wife, Teresa. Late in the night, Quixote sings a ballad as a means of comforting Altisidora. A bucket of cats is conveyed by means of a rope and delivered to Quixote's window. The cats screech in and cause panic. Quixote perceives them to be devils and begins swinging his sword. The cats, fighting for their lives, terribly wound Quixote. "His face [is] like a sieve" and he is bed-ridden for five days. Chapter XLVII Sancho receives a letter from the Duke indicating that the island will be attacked by enemies. The Duke suggests that spies plan to assassinate Sancho because they fear his abilities. Sancho is also warned not to eat anything presented to him (as he may be poisoned).

A man arrives from the country and tries to swindle Sancho into granting him six hundred ducats, but this is a failed bid. Chapter XLVIII Meanwhile, Quixote remains bed-ridden and on one of these nights he perceives someone entering his room. Fearing that it is Altisidora, Quixote loudly reaffirms his love for Dulcinea and begs to be left alone. A woman in a white floor-length veil enters the room, bearing a candle, advancing towards Quixote, spooking him with her witch-like demeanor. Doa Rodriguez reveals herself and begs Quixote for his assistance. Quixote suggests that he is not interested in assistance if it is even slightly amatory. The duenna has dropped her candle and she beseeches Quixote to wait for her to return with light because she can explain herself. Left alone, Quixote is the prey of "a thousand thoughts crowd[ing] into his mind" - chief among them, the suspicion that the duenna is the devil's own temptation. After making sufficient promises and oaths, the duenna gains Quixote's trust. The old knight returns to bed, the duenna pulls a chair up to Quixote's bedside, and she begins her story. A young girl from a high-born family struck with recent poverty, Rodriguez was sent to the court of Madrid. She returned home to find herself an orphan and soon after, an orphan working for low wages. She worked for a family, and in this service, the duenna met the gentleman who became her husband. The joy of giving birth to a daughter is cut short when her husband dies soon after. The duenna worked sewing garments to raise money to support her daughter. The daughter was beautiful and she unfortunately attracted the attention of the son of a very rich farmer The young man promised to marry Doa Rodriguez's daughter, but having fooled her, he now refuses. The duenna has pleaded that the Duke force the young man's hand but the Duke and the rich farmer are friendly partners in business. The duenna hopes that Quixote will help her. Just as the duenna is about to comment on the duchess' untrustworthiness, she is interrupted by "phantoms." "Silent executioners" - likely castle staff - rush into the room and begin beating the duenna. In the darkness, Quixote cannot see who these figures are, though they give him a few pinches as well. Chapter XLIX Sancho is displeased by the late hours and meager meals of his Governor post. Moreover, there are plots on his life. He disregards the advice of the physician and demands a hearty meal. Sancho goes on rounds, investigating the town for himself. He finds gamblers sword-fighting in the street, a smart-aleck kid, a teenaged girl who is dressed like a man and armed with a dagger. She has been imprisoned by her father for the last ten years and has escaped so that she might see the world. She has escaped with her brother's assistance but

when he saw the round coming, he urged her to run home. Falling, she was apprehended by the authorities. Sancho and his men escort the young people home. Chapter L Returning to the castle scene, Cid Hamet postulates that one of the other duennas heard Doa Rodriguez walking towards Quixote's room, and so she followed her. A gossip, the duenna then told the duchess who told the duke. The duchess and Altisidora went to investigate and, upon hearing Doa Rodriguez's words, they flogged her. The castle page delivers Teresa Panza's letter and reads it aloud. Teresa is happy to hear that her husband has become a Governor. The Priest and Sampson Carrasco arrive and they hear the news as well. Both men can detect that the page is mocking in his tone; still, the gifts of the string of coral and Sancho's hunting suit are hard to dismiss. Sancho's daughter, Sanchica, is proudest of her father. Sampson intervenes and suggests that the page is lying. The page asserts that he is a true messenger and the duke and duchess have given Sancho a government. The priest and page leave together, as the priest wants more information. Sampson offers to write letters for Teresa but she does not trust him. Instead, she finds a young friar who will record her letters, replying to the duchess and to Sancho. Chapter LI Sancho continues to hear the cases of the people and make judicious decisions. His steward continues to starve Sancho and deny him food, in accordance with the Duke's instructions. Don Quixote sends a letter commending Sancho and also worrying that he (Quixote) may fall out of the Duke's favor because of what is required of him as a knight. Quixote does not explain any further. Sancho sends a reply and then proceeds to establish laws for the people. These take the form of The Constitutions of the Great Governor Sancho Panza and they are still "observed in that town to this day." Chapter LII Quixote has recovered from his wounds and he begins to think that knight-errantry requires of him a life other than that which he is currently living in the Duke's castle. Doa Rodriguez's worries are also heavy on Don Quixote's heart. Quixote says he will find the farmer's son and challenge him to a duel if the young man refuses to be wed. The Duke says that he will find the young man himself and arrange the tournament with the usual ceremonies. The duchess receives the letter from Teresa Panza and she also keeps Teresa's letter to Sancho. Teresa expresses some doubts in her letter, admitting that most of the town disbelieves that Sancho is a governor and that her own doubt is only somewhat abated by the

string of coral and the hunting-suit. Don Quixote opens Teresa's letter and reads it, and after this, Sancho's letter to Quixote is read aloud. The letters garner both laughter and respect. Chapter LIII Sancho does not keep his government for much longer and Cid Hamet comments on "the swiftness with which Sancho's government ended, perished, dissolved, and vanished into smoke and a shadow." The enemies have arrived to attack the island and Sancho is told to arm himself. The stewards tie Sancho in cumbersome armor and he stumbles and falls. The actors create an assault and Sancho is downed several times. Then someone cries "Victory" and announces that Sancho has been victorious and the enemies have been routed. Sancho is bruised and some of the men feel compassion and guilt. Sancho is taken to bed and he has a little wine. He then rouses himself, gets dressed and prepares to leave, saying "I was not born to be a governor." When the steward and doctor try to convince Sancho to stay, he replies "These are not tricks to be played twice." Sancho takes Dapple and heads for the Duke's castle. Chapter LIV The young man who is to do battle with Quixote has fled to Flanders. In his place, a lackey named Tosilos, will fight instead. On the road to the Duke's castle, Sancho passes some pilgrims who beg for alms and so Panza gives them the bread and cheese he has with him. One of the pilgrims recognizes Sancho and Sancho discovers that the man is an old neighbor, Ricote the Morisco shopkeeper. Ricote has been expelled from Spain along with all of the other Moors, and Sancho is alarmed to see him. Ricote is in disguise and he tells Sancho that he (Ricote) will be safe so long as Sancho does not blow his cover. Sancho enjoys a fabulous picnic with the pilgrims, who have wine, caviar, olives, and other foods. Ricote talks about his banishment with Sancho (after the pilgrims have fallen asleep). Ricote says that he understands why the crown has made the edict. Still, it was "the most terrible [sentence] that can be inflicted." He speaks of Spain and says "here were we born, and this is our nave country Sweet is the love of one's country." Ricote says that he has buried treasure in a town nearby his old home; he would like Sancho to help him recover it. Sancho declines and says he has learned a valuable lesson already, having just exited the government of a nearby island. Ricote exclaims that islands are out to sea, and so Sancho good not have ruled an island nearby. The two men part ways and wish each other luck. Chapter LV Traveling on in the night, Sancho falls into a pit but he is not harmed, though Dapple seems to be. The walls of the pit are smooth and Sancho cannot think how to climb out of the

pit. He discovers a hole in one side that he widens so that he and Dapple might pass through. There is a glimmering light in the distance, perhaps the entrance to the other world. Chapter LVI Don Quixote is out in the morning practicing his riding and jousting when he nearly falls into the same pit. Sancho and Quixote are astonished by the nature of their reunion. Don Quixote intends to rescue Sancho but he wants to be sure that this is not an enchantment or that Sancho is already dead. Quixote finally believes the voice of Sancho and he goes to the castle to seek help. Sancho is rescued and when he arrives at the castle, he formally renounces his title to the island. The duke instructs Tosilos that he is not to kill or wound Quixote, though he is to overcome him. The duke tells Quixote that the iron heads should be removed from the lances since Christianity would not permit or justify this bloodshed. Tosilos sees the young daughter of the duenna and he is in love with her, immediately. He cedes the battle to Quixote, but the duenna is enraged when she sees that Tosilos is not the farmer's son. Quixote insists that this is the work of the enchanters. The duke is upset with Tosilos, and Tosilos is confined for a period of days, so that it might be known whether or not he has been transformed by enchanters. Tosilos still hopes to marry Doa Rodriguez's daughter. Chapter LVII - LVIII Despite the protests of Altisidora, Don Quixote is persistent in his attempt to leave the castle. Quixote and Sancho Panza set out with two hundred gold crowns to cover expenses. The knight and squire spend a little time with a group of shepherds and shepherdesses, some of whom have read of Quixote. Chapter LIX Continuing on the road, Quixote refuses to eat though Sancho encourages him to do otherwise. Quixote has been humiliated and he is resolved "to suffer myself to die with hunger, the cruelest of all deaths." Sancho insists that the knight's argument is nonsense. Changing the subject, Quixote reminds Sancho of Dulcinea's condition and he asks the squire to give himself a few hundred lashes. Sancho puts Quixote off and the two arrive at an inn (which Quixote does not mistake as a castle). Sancho is hungry but he ends up eating a bowl of calves' hooves. Don Quixote is invited to dine with two gentlemen, Seor Don Jernimo and Seor Don Juan. Both men have read the first part of the History of Don Quixote de la Mancha. They are now discussing the Second Part of Don Quixote de la Mancha. Don Jernimo expresses his disapproval with the Second Part, which is full of lies.

The gentlemen are excited to meet Don Quixote and Sancho Panza in the flesh because the knight and squire can answer the gentlemen's questions. Quixote is enraged because the Second Part argues that the knight is no longer in love with Dulcinea. Quixote looks at the first few pages and says that the new book is wrong and false. It is written in a poor dialect, the Preface is base, and the book alleges that Sancho is married to a woman called Mari Gutierrez. Because the Second Part says that Quixote will go to Saragossa, which is where he was headed, Quixote decides to go to Barcelona instead. Quixote wants to "expose to the world, the falsity of this modern historiographer." Don Juan and Don Jernimo are impressed by Quixote's unique combination of wit and madness. Chapter LX Don Quixote and Sancho head for Barcelona. Quixote remains anxious about Dulcinea's enchantment and because Sancho has not begun to whip himself, Quixote decides that he will do the whipping - even though the prophecy required that Sancho whip himself. When Sancho is asleep, Quixote tries to undo Sancho's pants, intending to whip him with Rosinante's reins. Sancho defends himself and pins Quixote to the ground. He releases Quixote only when the knight agrees to behave peaceably. Soon after, Sancho is frightened by legs and feet that are dangling from the trees. In the morning, it is clear that a band of robbers had been apprehended and hanged. Quixote and Sancho are corralled by a band of thieves soon after. These thieves are under the direction of Roque Guinart, who turns out to be a dignified man with a well-intentioned, albeit warped, ethical sense. Quixote and Sancho travel with Guinart and his men. A young woman named Claudia approaches Guinart, on horseback. She is dressed in men's clothes having escaped town. She heard that her fianc, Don Vicente, was planning to marry another woman and so she has shot him with the full rounds of two pistols, perhaps fatally. She worries that his family will take revenge against her father. Heading to town, Claudia discovers that that Don Vicente has been true and that she has killed him because of a false and vicious rumor. Don Vicente marries Claudia in his dying minutes, and Claudia joins a convent. Continuing on, Guinart escorts Quixote and Panza to the outer boundaries of the city of Barcelona. Roque Guinart has sent word of Don Quixote and Sancho Panza's arrival; the knight and squire are greeted in a friendly manner, though two boys play a prank causing Quixote and Panza to be thrown to the ground. Chapter LXI Quixote lodges with a wealthy gentleman named Don Antonio Moreno, who intends to play jokes on Quixote with care not to harm the knight. Don Antonio and his friends enjoy

Sancho's witty remarks, as well. Later that night, Don Antonio speaks to Quixote privately, swearing him to secrecy. Don Antonio tells Quixote that he has a bronze head that was created by a Polish man who was "one of the greatest enchanters and wizards the world ever had," having been taught by the famous Escotillo. The head is mute on Fridays, but on all other days, it answers every question asked to its ear. Quixote is dressed and taken for a walk around town, but Don Antonio's men have pinned a parchment to Quixote's back reading: "This is Don Quixote de la Mancha." Quixote marvels at how everyone who walks past him says out loud "This is Don Quixote de la Mancha." Returning to Don Antonio's home, Don Quixote is the main amusement at a ball that is thrown by Don Antonio's wife. Don Quixote dances for a time, but then he sits down on the floor in the center of the dance hall. Sancho puts Quixote to bed. Chapter LXII The next morning, Don Antonio decides to experiment with the talking enchanted head. Don Antonio has told two of his friends about the ruse and they join him, along with Don Antonio's wife, two of her friends, Quixote and Sancho Panza. The group is marveled by the head's ability to answer various questions. The talking head is a machine of course, hollowed with an inner pipe, through which a man in another room answers the questions he has heard. Don Antonio keeps the head for a little more than a week, destroying it before he comes under the suspicions of the Inquisition. Walking around the town, Quixote sees a sign that says "Here books are printed," and so he enters. Quixote spends some time with a translator. The printers are correcting a version of the Second Part of the Ingenious Gentleman Don Quixote de la Mancha, written by an inhabitant of Tordesillas. Quixote says that he is surprised that the book has not already been burned for its impertinence. Chapter LXIII The talking head has promised the disenchantment of Dulcinea and Quixote looks forward to seeing it. Don Antonio brings Sancho and Don Quixote to the pier, where they board a boat. Sancho is quite frightened by the slaves who row the boat and by the mechanics of the oars and sails. A Turkish boat apprehends this boat, as they row out to sea. There is a scuffle and two men are shot dead. A young boy from the Turkish boat is seized, his hands are tied and a rope is drawn around his neck. He turns out to be a young Christian woman and begs permission to tell her sad story. The general consents. She was born of Moorish parents but was a true Christian. This did not save her from forcible exile, however, and she was carried by her uncles to the Barbary Coast. A young gentleman called Don Gaspar Gregorio

loved the young Moor and vowed to follow her. She accompanies her uncles to Algiers where the King heard of her beauty and also heard of the beauty of Don Gaspar Gregorio, who has accompanied her. To protect Don Gregorio, the young woman says that he is a woman and when "she" (Don Gregorio in a Morisca's attire) is presented to the king, the king is so mesmerized that he decides to send "her" as a gift to one of his friends. In the meantime, she (Don Gregorio) is locked in a house. Meanwhile, she has been sent home accompanied by the king's soldiers, so that she might unbury a treasure that her father has left at her house. She is untied and the noose is removed. A pilgrim who is on the boat then speaks to the girl calling her "Anna Felix;" he is her father, Ricote, who has sneaked into Spain to seek her. Sancho is astonished and he vouches for both Ricote and his daughter, Anna Felix Ricota. They decide to send a small boat to rescue Don Gaspar Gregorio. Chapter LXIV A man from the Turkish boat is going to Algiers with a crew of six men to rescue Don Gaspar Gregorio. When Don Quixote insists that he can do this job himself and Don Antonio consoles the knight, telling him that he can make an attempt is the crew is unsuccessful. One morning, Don Quixote perceives a knight riding towards him. This knight is called the Knight of the White Moon. He tells Quixote to admit that the lady of the Knight of the White Moon is more beautiful than Dulcinea; He challenges Quixote to combat saying that if Quixote loses he must go home for one full year of peace without using his sword. The knight tells Quixote to quickly determine what he will do because "this business must be dispatched this very day." Don Quixote agrees to the battle and the viceroy and Don Antonio come to the scene. Don Antonio states that this is not a joke he is aware of and the viceroy hesitates to allow the battle to proceed. The viceroy considers that the battle must be somebody's joke, if not Don Antonio's. The knight of the White Moon knocks Don Quixote down easily. Quixote says he would rather die than discredit the truth of Dulcinea's beauty. The Knight of the White Moon says that he will not kill Quixote, but the knight must return home or one year. Quixote agrees. Quixote and Rocinante are both wounded and out of sorts. Sancho does not know what to say, for he has seen a host of future glories go up in smoke. Chapter LXV The viceroy instructs Don Antonio to follow the Knight of the White Moon and discover this knight's identity. It turns out to be Sampson Carassco who has performed this service as a means of getting Quixote to return home where he may recover of his

imagination. He asks Don Antonio not to reveal this to Quixote as this would only give the old man more worries. Don Gaspar Gregorio has been rescued and Don Quixote is depressed that he is not the one who has won victory. Sancho tries to make Quixote feel better. Chapter LXVI They leave some days later, Quixote in traveling clothes, and Sancho on foot because Dapple is loaded with Quixote's armor. On the road, Quixote and Sancho see Tosilos, the lackey who sought to marry Doa Rodriguez's daughter. He invites the two men to the castle, but the offer is not accepted. Tosilos did not marry the duenna's daughter, as he was beaten as a punishment, and the daughter joined a convent. Doa Rodriguez ended up in Castile. Chapter LXVII On the road home, Quixote has many things to think about. He is angry that Sancho has yet to begin whipping himself. Passing a familiar spot in the road, Quixote thinks that he might become a shepherd for a year. He remains convinced that Tosilos was an enchantment, much as the Knight of the Looking-Glasses was transformed into Sampson Carrasco. Chapter LXVIII Sancho is able to sleep easy but Quixote is troubled. The knight wakes the squire in the middle of the night and tells him that squires are supposed to share the pain of their masters. He tells Sancho to give himself "three or four hundred lashes," but Sancho refuses. They are trampled by a pack of six hundred hogs, being led by some hog-sellers. Chapter LXIX In the morning, Don Quixote and Sancho are kidnapped by armed horsemen and led to the duke's castle. They are taken to a theatre where Sancho is dressed in a black robe and a pointy cap, as if he were condemned by the Inquisition. Chapter LXX A corpse, presumably Altisidora's, lies on a tomb in the center of the room. The duke and duchess are surrounded by figures who resemble kings. Altisidora is not dead but dying, and she will be resurrected if Sancho's face is sealed with twenty-four stitches. Sancho resists but one of the kings warns him to be silent or die. Sancho is pricked and pinched by the duennas and when Altisidora shifts her weight, Sancho notices. The crowd proclaims that Altisidora lives and Sancho is congratulated. Cid Hamet tells us that Sampson Carrasco has been to the castle, where he asked about Don Quixote's whereabouts. He also learned of the tricks that had been played on the knight and squire. After defeating Quixote, Sampson returned to the duke and gave him word of all

that had happened, as he had promised. Altisidora tells Don Quixote and Sancho that she nearly died and was brought to the very gates of hell. She saw devils playing tennis but using books instead of balls. In particular, the devils enjoyed beating a book called the Second Part of the History of Don Quixote de la Mancha. One of the devils asks if the book is really so bad, for all of the other devils seem to abhor it. Another devil replies that the book is "so bad, that, had I myself undertaken to make it worse, it had been past my skill." Chapter LXXI On the road home, Sancho and Panza discuss the lashes Sancho is to give himself. Quixote offers payment and Sancho agrees to begin whipping himself that very night. Quixote tells Sancho not to whip himself too hard, as the miracle requires that he live long enough to administer the three thousand odd lashes. Sancho actually whips a tree instead of whipping himself. But he groans with such misery that Don Quixote begs him not to whip himself any longer for Sancho has given himself so many lashes he must be close to death. Chapter LXXII Closer to home, Quixote stops at an inn where he crosses paths with Seor Don Alvaro Tarfe - a name he recognizes from when he glanced at the Second Part. Don Alvaro introduces himself to Quixote and tells him that he is a "very great friend" of Quixote. Don Alvaro looks at Don Quixote and says that his Don Quixote does not resemble the man standing before him, nor does Sancho resemble the Sancho he knows. Sancho says that "any other Don Quixote whatever, and any other Sancho Panza, is all mockery, and a mere dream." After a few minutes of conversation with the true Don Quixote and Sancho Panza, Tarfe is convinced that those which he knew previously must have been impostors. A notary takes Tarfe's "deposition," attesting that Tarfe has never before met the true Don Quixote and Sancho Panza who are now present with him. Chapter LXXIII Entering his home town, Quixote becomes convinced that he will never again see Dulcinea in her transformed state. He tries to ease his mind by thinking about the pastoral life and a plan to live the shepherd's life. Chapter LXXIV As soon as Quixote returns home, he is greeted by his niece and housekeeper, and his friends: the priest, the barber, and Sampson Carrasco. Quixote suffers a fever and he is near death. Everyone worries that Quixote is dying of melancholy. God restores Quixote's sanity and the former knight now realizes his folly. As death approaches, Quixote is saddened that he has wasted time and endangered others. Still, he is thankful for being delivered from his

illness before he dies. With a lucid mind, Quixote prepares his will, lives for three more days, and then dies.