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Serialism in the Works of Charles Ives Author(s): Nachum Schoffman and Charles Ives Source: Tempo, New Series,

No. 138 (Sep., 1981), pp. 21-32 Published by: Cambridge University Press Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/946249 . Accessed: 13/04/2011 13:59
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IT has become a commonplace of musical historiography to point out that Charles Ives's experiments antedate the currency of most of the innovations of 2othcentury compositional technique. But such a statement, when unsubstantiated by musical facts, understates the case, and leaves a vaguely derogatory impression of dilettantism. Ives accomplished more than merely experimenting with new techniques. He understood and assimilated the far-reaching implications of his innovations, saw their limitations and shortcomings, developed from them satisfactory and well-synthesized forms, and moulded them into a language to express his world view. Ives was convinced that the received tradition was insufficient for the representation of reality. In spite of the fact that he was either ignored or ridiculed, he insisted upon inventing what were, for his time, new musical materials: atonal melodic lines, non-tertial chords, rhythmic patterns devoid of meter. He saw that such materials required new methods of organization, and one of these was serialism. Krenek has defined serialism as follows:
Serialism is the compositional procedure by which an order of succession is established for the values appropriate to one or more parameters (components) of the musical process; these orders of succession or permutations of them are then repeated throughout the composition.1

The second part of this definition, stipulating repetition throughout the composition, represents a stricture unnecessary for the present purpose, which is merely to indicate the structuring of some of Ives's musical materials as series. Thus, several consecutive repetitions of a series, even if they occupy only a small section of a work, will suffice here. Single, unrepeated statements of an order of succession will be considered evidence of serialism if: I) there are 12 consecutive notes constituting all 12 pitch-classes, without repetitions or omissions. 2) the order of values represents a clear arithmetical progression. 3) the order of values is a palindrome. As we shall see, some of these arithmetical progressions or palindromes are not repeated, for the simple reason that they extend over the whole length of a piece.



Ives was the first 2oth-century composer to realize the possibility of serial organization. Examination of his works reveals a distinct consciousness of the serial idea, and many kinds of applications of it. The following discussion is necessarily limited to the serial aspects of several sections from Ives's works. Complete analyses, while of great interest, would inflate this essay out of all proportion. The intention is more modest: to demonstrate the presence of purposeful serialism, and to present some evidence of Ives's attitude towards it. Tone Rows TwelheOne of the earliest examples occurs in ToneRoadsNo. i (191 I). The section of m. 2 1-3 2 exhibits the consistent use of a dodecaphonic row, albeit only in the flute part. This is shown in Ex. i,2 in which the statements of the row have been indicated by brackets.




This example shows, at a surprisingly early date, the application of all the basic principles of dodecaphony: preservation of the order of the pitches through different rhythms and phrasings; octave equivalence; and abstention from repeating a pitch until all I 2 have been sounded-with one exception: in the fourth statement of the row, m. 27, the second note, Cg, is missing. This C# is reinstated, as it were, at the end of the section, in m. 32. Tone Roads No.3 (I 91 i) begins with the solo chimes playing a twelve-tone row. Other parts (not dodecaphonic) enter only after the chimes have completed the first statement of the row. As a final example, we may examine an excerpt from the song On the Antithe voice part of the closing verse, m. 28-34. This is shown podes (I 9 I -1923): in Example 2.' The notation here is explained in a footnote to the song:
The smaller notes in the voice part throughout are for lower voice, or voices, if there be a chorus.4 Ex.2 [28]Largo-maestoso

_0 130


we ask you!


Na - ture no-thing but

a - tom - ic

cos - mic cy

- cles-

a t wound r a-

t the

-i r - en per

ni - al ni


-ti ti

es? po - des?

The principal voice, written in large notes, constitutes a classic I 2-tone row, in in which no pitch-class is omitted, and none is repeated. The subsidiary voice, written in small notes, constitutes another such row: if we construe the F# in m. 30 as belonging to both rows, as if the two voices had converged here on a



unison, then the lower voice also contains all 12 pitch classes except A-and this A is supplied by the final note in the upper voice. Pitch Series In many works of Ives, the order of a series of pitches, often those of a musical quotation, is preserved through several developments and reworkings. In some cases, this may be construed as thematic consistency, but not necessarily as the operation of a pitch series. But in the song Aeschylusand Sophocles(1922), for voice, piano, and string quartet, there can be no doubt. The beginning of this song is shown in Example 35.


b /aio4
violias, viol,4_____

, L,j I,J~~~~--_
0 I^ - ---

t-- ? P PW3P~

^^" ---. _ .--


*/~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 14 ~

r Lj-^rf^ The pitch series can be seen in the first i i notes of the first violin part. The order of pitches is itself almost a complete palindrome, centered on the seventh note. (In the version in the piano part, the palindrome is actually complete.) The fugal entrances of the string parts, and the top notes of the piano part, in a different rhythm, all consist of repetitions of the pitch series. These five voices are in five different transpositions of the series, intended, in accordance with the subject of the song, to represent five different Greek modes:
It [the string quartet] is in four Greek Modes (diatonic genus) Dorian, Phrygian, Hypolydian, Mixolydian; the upper line of the piano part in the first seven measures is in the Hypophrygian.6

.. >


Throughout the song, the string quartet continues to adhere to this order of pitches, although the rhythms and phrasings are new and varied. (From m. 9 on, the voice and piano have different material.) ChordSeries Having abandoned, for the most part, traditional harmony, Ives occasionally predetermined a succession of chords-often, but not always, with its own internal symmetries-and employed this as a series in the construction of the work. An example is the organ part in the second movement of ThreeHarvestHome Chorales

898 ?- I912) entitled 'Lord of the Harvest'.

This is a continuous palindrome of

chords repeated throughout the piece, except for the coda, m. 52-6o. Over a pedal point C-sharp, the roots of the triads descend through the degrees of a whole-tone scale, and then ascend in reverse order: C$-B-A-G-F-E~-C#-ED-FG-A-B-CS. As each triad changes from major to minor, an inner voice is always moving through a descending chromatic scale. The piano part of the song TheCage (1 906) consists predominantly of fourthchords progressing in parallel motion. In his comments on this song, Ives mentions its lack of tonality:
Technically the principal thing in this movement is to show that a song does not necessarily have to be in any one key to make musical sense. To make music in no particular key has a nice name



What he does not mention is the fact that, failing tonality, the progressions are given coherence by the order of chords in a series. The piano part of the song is shown in Example 48. Statements of the series
Ex.4: The Cage, piaio

part. evenly and mechanically, no r itard., decresc.,accel. etc.

2 or3 times)


2 3 4 5 6 7

0 la 2a 3a 4a 5a



lb X 2b YI Yz 3b

PtIs ~~







are indicated by brackets, and each chord has been labeled for convenience of description. The song begins with a statement of the original chord series, chords 1-7, repeated two or three times. Chords 1-6 are fourth-chords in parallel motion, and the series culminates in chord 7 by expanding into a different and larger chord. (For a discussion of the rhythmic pattern here, see below.) The continuation, chords ia-7a (over which the voice part enters) is again a statement of the same series, transposed up a fourth. The next statement, beginning with chord ib, is exanded and developed. Chords ib, 2b, 3b, and gb are the appropriate chords of the series, now transposed up two fourths. The chords marked X, Y, and Z are interpolations of one, two, and four chords respectively, between the members of the series. The X- and Y-chords are simply additional fourth-chords, each moving up a semitone in parallel motion from its predecessor. The relationship between the chords marked Z and the series is more tenuous. Chord Zi repeats chord 2b; and chords Z2, Z3, and Z4 are fifth-chords in descending parallel motion. The whole Z-group may be seen as a paraphrase of the group 2b-3b-4b. Chord sb is the appropriate chord in the appropriate place, but it also happens to be identical with Chord Y2. This statement of the series concludes with chord (7), an exaggeration of the expansion and change of interval content of the original chord 7; chord (7) marks the climax of the piece. After this, a restatement of the series ia-2a-3a begins, but it is cut off, and left hanging in the air. In some cases, the interval content of the chords is arranged as a palindrome of expanding and contracting intervals. Ives described this as follows:
So-half-tone chords opening up [into] wider and wider chords, and back again:

This may not be a nice way to write music, but it's one way !-and way?9

who knows the only real nice

For example, in Psalm 90o (1896-190 ) verse 9: 'For all our days are passed away in thy wrath: we spend our years as a tale that is told', begins on a unison; expands through successively larger intervals until the middle of the verse; then contracts in reverse order, to end on a unison. This interval-palindrome, like



most in Ives's works, is also a duration-palindrome. Fully-developed chord palindromes, in which both interval content and duration constitute palindromic series, occur in the songs Soliloquy and On the Antipodes,described below. Duration Series Ives antedates other innovators in the construction of series on temporal as well as pitch elements. As he tells us:
And a wild idea came to me (it seemed wild then, but not now)-to make a piece that no permanent-wave conductor (of those days) could conduct. I stuck in some of my old piano cycle rhythm -7- 1i-7-5-3-2-etc. 10 studies-2-3-

An example of a duration series occurs in the first measure of The Cage (See Ex. 5.) When this series is repeated two or three times, according (I906). to the instructions, the last chord, a whole-note, takes its logical place at the beginning of the series, so that the pattern is perceived as that shown in Ex. g.
Ex.5:after The Cage, m.l.

IIo J,.J J..,l

In the Cadenza in Overthe Pavements (i906) m. 81-92, the clarinet, bassoon, and trumpet play chords, whose rhythmic pattern is shown in Ex. 6.1 If we ignore
EX.6: after Over the Pavements,m.81-92.

0 .JJJTj .14 J l3J JJ!JJJ;\JJi3J


the bar lines, and count the number of sixteenth-notes in each chord, the serial pattern emerges. The individual durations decrease as the number of repetitions of each duration increases. Using digits to represent the number of sixteenthnotes in the duration of each chord, the series may be schematically displayed as follows:

66666 g5g555
3333333333 222222222222

Another kind of duration series is found in the unfinished sketch of the song Vote for Names(191 2). The same chord is repeated over and over in the rhythmic pattern shown in Ex.7.12 The numerals g, 6 and 7 cause a certain ambiguity
Ex.7:after Vote for Names,m.2-3.

which, because of the unfinished state of the manuscript, can never be resolved. But the principle is clear: increasing subdivisions of a pulse. It is probable, but not certain, from the information in the sketch that this pattern was to be repeated throughout the piece.
Series in Other Elements

Serial organization is not always confined to pitch and duration. For exQuestion(i 906), tempo and dynamics together form a ample, in The Unanswered



coherent series. The strings and trumpet solo play throughout in a 'pedal point'. as it were, of ppp and Largomoltosempre. Against this, the interludes of the woodwind group are respectively as follows:
P mP mF F-FF F-FF-sF FF-FFF-FFFF Adagio Andante Allegretto Allegro Allegro molto Molto agitando, con fuoco

Even the use of musical quotations has served as an element for serial organization. As Henderson has pointed out,13 in the first movement of Three Placesin NewEngland(I 903-1914), entitled 'The St. Gauden's in Boston Common', the various quotations of popular American songs form a palindrome. at Once Serialismin SeveralElements The most interesting, and the most 'real', of Ives's structures, are those in which serial organization encompasses several elements together. The following quotation shows that he was conscious of the possible correlation between the numerical values of different musical elements.
If you can have a chord of three notes and [one of] four, alternating and following, why not measures of 3/4 then 4/4, alternating and following?14

Here is his description of one of his musical structures:

To get a composite sounding noise in some reasonable order was not hard to do. In this . . . the rhythms are used in a kind of chemical order: o (1) The deep bells give J Basses starting on C, up[by] half [tones] (2) d o d (3) Basses starting on CO J J J (4) Cellos starting on D J J J J J (5) Cellos starting on D

and so on, all the way through the orchestra (one piccolo playing is).15

An example occurs in the second movement of String Quartet No.2 (i90719 3). At m. 66-74, there is a canon, the melodic line of which is both a pitchand a duration-series. The beginning of this is shown in Ex. 8.16 The pitches constitute repetitions of an eleven-tone row, indicated in our example by brackets; the twelfth 'missing' pitch is in each case the first note. The row is presented in three different transpositions by the first violin, viola, and cello. (The second violin does not participate in this canon; it plays accompanying chords.)


2 !


There are several deviations from this series. Those of single notes may be misprints. The more lengthy deviations are further transpositions of the series: Violin I, m. 69, second quarter; Cello, m 72, second quarter ff. The rhythmic pattern is also serial: the quarter-note beats are divided into



successively larger numbers of subdivisions, and this duration series is also repeated over and over. Since the two series are of different lengths, and not multiples of each other, the simultaneous operation of both series continuously produces new combinations of pitch and duration. After each of the three voices has played the duration series four times, and the pitch series 71-times, the canon breaks down, in m. 72-74. The pitches no longer conform to the series; the first violin and viola conclude the canon by playing the duration series in reverse order; and the cello begins a new duration series which is cut off before it can run its full course. palindrome of chords, which is also a palindrome of intervals, number of notes in each chord, directions of arpeggiation, and durations. These symmetries are
A Ex.9: Soliloquy, m.2-19. A creso. e accel. p po

In the song Soliloquy (1907),17

most of the piano part, shown in Ex.9,18 is a

< Piano f


I ^ A


A i6

V ,_^ . ._



1 34K#




shown in schematic form in Ex. io, where the numbers represent the number of semitones between consecutive pitches in each chord. The minor deviations in the second chord in m. i i and the chord in m. i 8- I 9 are probably misprints, and so are not shown in our diagram. In the second and third chords, intervals which are octave transpositions are indicated by parentheses: the ii should, strictly
speaking, be -I ; and the 13 should be i.
Ex.10: after Soliloquy, m.2-19.

The brackets in the first two and last

111 4 3 5 7 10 l 11
7 7 7 7 7 11 1 10 "II 10,11 1011

A ^. I 5 51
'3 5 o 13 i13 13

'6] 13 $13 11 11 ,13 (ll) ,(13) 11 13 13


$11 II ,11 ,11 '

11 t 11

~I 4 10 7 5 3
10 10 10 10 1 7 7 7 7 7 5 5 5 5 5 4 3 4 3 4

2 1 21 2 1 2 2

1 1

2 4 5 23 5 2 4 5 3 15 23 2 4 5


13 13 13 13 13 $


6 11 11 11 11

3 ;5J 13 13 13


J D! J. J

rm!J rJ J

.. J




two chords indicate that the notes A and C in the first (and last) chord, and the note C: in the second (and penultimate) chord, whose presence is necessary for the symmetry of the duration series, do not preclude the appearance of the ap=i i, and 13, and E-F is a minor ninth; propriate intervals: -+3+d-+6G-F: is a major seventh). is entirely based on a monumental The song On the Antipodes(I91-1923)19 palindrome of chords, shown in Ex. I i,20 which is also a palindrome of intervals, number of notes in each chord, and rhythmic patterns. These symmetries are shown in schematic form in Ex. I 2, where the numbers represent the number of semitones between consecutive pitches in each chord. The palindrome is exact in all but a few details: the first and last chords are different, as are the ninth and thirteenth; the mid-point of the duration series does not quite correspond to that of the chord series. On the other hand, the absence of a low C# in the twentieth chord, to correspond to that in the third chord, is probably a misprint.
Ex.11: On the Antipodes,m.1-4.

Adagio maestoso




The series appears three times: at the beginning of the song, at the midpoint, and at the end. The statement of the series at the end of the song, m. 28- 34, is altered so that all 21 chords have the bass C, and corresponds to the last verse, sung on the twelve-tone rows described above. But, over and above this, the harmonic progressions of the entire song constitute one large-scale statement of this same chord series, so that the original palindrome serves as the beginning, mid-point, and ending of a huge statement of itself.

Ex.12: after On the Antipodes,ml-4. I l


1 l

3 8 3 3 2 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 2

1 I 1 1 1

3 2 2 3 3 3 4 3 4 123 3 2 22 4 123 3 222 123 4 5 222 345 45 1 23 3 4 222 1 2 3 2 4 5 1 22 63 4 2 2.2 3 10 4 5 2 3 2

7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7

7 6 7 6 7 6 7 6 7 6 7

6 5 6 5 6

6 5 6 5 6

4 3


54 43 5 4 43 5 4

2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 23 62 10 3

1 1 2 3I 1 2 3 I 1 2 3 1I 1 2 3 1 3 1

1 1

1 I 1
1 1

5 5 5 5 5 5

1 1 1

5 66 55 5 6 5 5 5 6 5

6 5 6

7 6 7 6 7 7 6 7 6 7

11 11i 11 11 11 11 11

Serialism as Representation Ives believed that the traditional structures of conventional music were not true enough to serve as representations of reality. Thus, he felt that his innovations were not arbitrary, but rather the necessary means for expressing his ideas with fidelity. Many of his serial structures are, according to his own testimony, meant to be representations of ideas, motions, or objects. He described the idea of a palindrome of intervals in these terms:
This was about the time the Subwaywas started, and 'blocks' were regularthings-getting out of the block and backinto it again. So-half-tone chords opening up [into] wider and wider chords, and back again.21

In the sixth verse of TheMasses(I 9 1 )22 the text is: As the tribes of the ages wanderedand followed the stars-whence come the manydwelling places of the world.23 The music to this is dodecaphonic, and Ives describes it as follows:
The plan of this, in the orchestraparts, is to have each . . . complete the 12 notes (each on a different system) . . . andhold the last of the 12 . . . as findingits star.24

The duration series in Votefor Names(see Ex. 7) is labeled: 'etc. same chord hit hard over & over Hot Air Election Slogan'.25 In The Unanswered Question,the imperturbable strings, playing softly and slowly throughout, represent 'the silence of the seers'. The trumpet solo asks, over and over, the 'Perennial Question of Existence', and the woodwinds, which play with increasing speed and volume, represent the 'Fighting Answerers'.26 The Cage contains, as shown above, several serial elements. These are representations, as can be seen by reference to the text:



A leopard went around his cage from one side back to the other side; he stopped only when the keeper came around with meat; A boy who had been there three hours began to wonder, 'Is life anything like that?'

The initial group of seven chords, which is both a pitch and a duration series, is 'caged' between the two repeat signs. When it is repeated 'evenly and mechanically' it represents the pacing of the caged animal. The back-and-forth motion of the voice part, and the constant reiteration of the series of chords, are further representations of the same thing. In the version for chamber orchestra,27 there is also a drum part, of which Ives says: 'A drum is supposed to be the leopard's feet going pro and con' .28 In the last phrase, both voice and piano begin a recapitulation, including a duration series similar to that in the first measure. But all these are cut off before they are completed: a musical counterpart to the question in the text. was an expression Ives apparently felt that the chord series in On the Antipodes of a cosmic idea. There is evidence that he had worked it out as early as 1904.29 He also used it in his unfinished UniverseSymphony,where it represents 'the eternities' or 'the relentless processes of nature, of all time, of the universe'.30 In On the Antipodes,it depicts a Nature full of contradictions (the 'antipodes' of the text) but containing an immanent (serial) logic. in the Series Inconsistencies In all the serial structures presented here-and, indeed, in all of Ives's serial structures-there are additional elements extraneous to the series, and deviations from the series. A serial pattern is never carried out completely and consistently. This is not due to carelessness, nor to caprice; it is purposeful, part of Ives's attempt to make his music reflect reality. In Essays Before a Sonata, Ives presents his own version of the aesthetic problem of content vs. form, which he calls 'substance' and 'manner'. He states:
At any rate we are going to be arbitrary enough to claim, with no definite qualification, that substance can be expressed in music, and that it is the only valuable thing in it.31

'Manner', i.e., form, he considers to be secondary.

This [the 'substance'] is appreciated by the intuition, and somehow translated into expression by 'manner' -a process always less important than it seems.32

Reality, he believed, should be represented, not mechanically or schematically, but as a not-quite-consistent process, with all its contradictions and inconsistencies: as Ives described it: ' . . . not something that happens, but the way something happens'.3 Ives proudly describes his serial patterns (here called 'cycles') as not being automatic repetitions:
Anyway, no mollycoddle mind . . . could like it, play it, or make any sense [out] of it-there's too much sense in it for that. The cycles grow, expand, ebb, but never literally repeat.34

His most definite statement on the subject follows directly upon his description of the dodecaphonic structure of the sixth verse in The Masses:
Occasionally something made in this calculated, diagram, design way may have a place in music, if it is used primarily to carry out an idea ... as in the above, but generally ... or alone . . . it is a weak substitute for inspiration or music. It's too easy-any high-school student (unmusical) with a pad, pencil, compass and logarithm table, and a mild knowledge of sounds and instruments (blown or hit) could do it. It's an artificial process without strength, though it may sound busy and noisy. This wall-paper design music is not as big as a natural, mushy ballad.35



The fact that Ives's employment of series antedates the supposed advent of serialism, while interesting in itself, is no more than a chronological fact. Ives not only discovered the possibility of pitch and duration series, and of serialism of several elements at once. He saw immediately that serialism, although it solves the problem of the organization of non-tonal musical materials, is dangerous if used too consistently-that it is too easy. Ives saw his serialism as one, and only one, of the invented resources at his disposal for the expression of reality. He believed that all such innovations were justified, even though they were rejected by his contemporaries, because no limits of convention should be allowed to stand in the way of the expression of unconditional truth, with all its attendant contradictions. He was wise enough to perceive that serialism itself might become such a convention.

4 S

Ernst Krenek, 'Serialism', in John Vinton, ed., Dictionary of Contemporary Music (N.Y.: Dutton, I97 ) p.670. Tone Roads No. i (Peer, c. 1949) On the Antipodes,in I9 Songs (New Music 9/I: October 1935) No. 8. The first edition of this was mistakenly entitled 'i8 Songs' although it contained nineteen. This was rectified in subsequent editions. Footnote to the song On the Antipodes, 19 Songs, p.44. Aeschylusand Sophocles,in 19 Songs, No.6. For a detailed analysis of this song, see Nachum Schoffman, The Songs of Charles Ives (Doctoral Dissertation. The Hebrew University, 1977),
pp. 185-208.

Explanatory notes, 19 Songs, p. 52. For a detailed explanation of the manner in which the polytonality of this passage conforms to Greek theory, see Schoffman, The Songsof CharlesIves,
pp. 186-189.

7 8

10 I 12

Charles Ives, Memos, ed. John Kirkpatrick (N.Y.: Norton, 1972) p. 56. The Cage, in i I4 Songs(Redding, Conn.: privately published, 1923) No. 64. I have corrected a misprint in 1I4 Songs: the sixth chord in m. I should be a sixteenth-note, and not an eighthnote. It appears correctly in the version for chamber orchestra: In the Cage, in Setfor Theatre or ChamberOrchestra(i906-191 I) New Music 5/2: January 1932. For a detailed analysis of this song, see Schoffman, The Songs of CharlesIves, pp. 28-35. Ives, Memos,p. 64.
Ives, Memos, p. 101.


14 15 16 17

18 I9


After Scherzo: Over the Pavements for ChamberOrchestra (Peer, c I954). After 'Vote for Names', Negative Q2636 in the Ives Collection, Yale University Library. For a detailed analysis see Nachum Schoffman, 'Charles Ives's Song "Vote for Names'", (Current Musicology 23/1977: 56-68). Clayton Wilson Henderson, Quotation as a Style Elementin the Music of Charles Ives (Doctoral Dissertation, Washington University, I969) pp. 60-64; 'Ives' Use of Quotation', (Music Educators Journal 61 / 2.: 24- 28). Ives, Memos,p. 140. Ives, Memos,p. 105. String Quartet No. 2 (Peer, c 1954). Soliloquy, or a Study in 7ths and Other Things, in 34 Songs (New Music 7/I: October 1933) No. 24. For detailed analyses of this song, see: Henry and Sidney Cowell, CharlesIves and his Music (London: Oxford University Press, 1955) pp. I 57-I 59; Schoffman, The Songs of Charles Ives, pp. 46-52. The voice part is barred differently from the piano part. The numbering of the measures here refers only to the bar lines in the piano part. For a detailed analysis of this song, see Schoffman, The Songs of CharlesIves, pp. 209-234. On the Antipodes,in I9 Songs, No. i 8. Ives, Memos,p. 64. This refers to the original version, for chorus and orchestra. In the later arrangement for voice and piano (I92 I) the sixth verse was deleted.

23 24 2S 26


Ives, Memos,p. 164. Ives, Memos,p. 164. Schoffman, 'Charles Ives's Song "Vote for Names"', p. S8. Cowell, CharlesIves and his Music, p. 177. 27 See note 8. 28 Ives, Memos,p. 56. 29 John Kirkpatrick, A TemporaryMimeographedCatelogue of The Music Manuscriptsand Related Materials of Charles Edward Ives, I874-1954 (New Haven: Yale University Library, I960) p. 210; Ives, Memos,pp. 265, 328. 30o Kirkpatrick, Catalogue, p. 27. 31 Charles Ives, EssaysBeforea Sonata and Other Writings, ed. Howard Boatwright (N.Y.: Norton,

p. 77.

32 33 34 35

Ives, Ives, Ives, Ives,

Essays, p. Memos,p. Memos,p. Memos,p.

75. 57.
101 . I64.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS On the Antipodes,Aeschylusand Sophocles, The Cage, and Soliloquy reproduced by permission of Theodore Presser Co. Tone Roads No.I, Over the Pavements,and String Quartet No.2 reproduced by permission of Peer International Corporation. Vote for Namesreproduced by permission of Yale University Library Publications Office.




The following works by Charles Ives are published by G. Schirmer Ltd. and are available -from all good music dealers. Fourth of July (score) ?8.20 Symphony No.3 (score) ?10.95
Symphony No.4 (score) ?19.25


Washington's Birthday (score) ?8.20

Concert Band
The Alcotts (Thurston) ?9.oo March Omega Lamda Chi (Brion) ?9.00 Variations on "Jerusalem the Golden" (Brion) ?9.00 Instrumental Sonata No.2 (Concord) (piano solo) ?6.55 Sonata No.2 (violin and piano) ?6.85 Sonata No.4 (Children's Day at the Camp Meeting) (violin and piano) Waltz-Rondo (Kirkpatrick & Cox) (piano solo) ?4.35 Choral and Crossing the Easter Carol Psalm No.67


Vocal Bar (SATB soli, SATB chorus plus organ) ?o.35 i (Kirkpatrick) (SATB soli, SATB chorus plus organ) ?2.15 (SSAATTBB) ?0.35
voice and piano) ?o.95; (unison) ?0.20


Seven Songs (medium voice and piano) ?3.25 Three Songs (medium voice and piano) ?3.25 For inspection copies please contact:

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