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Ray Optics

* Light

• Lens

"

Reflection of Light

Spherical Mirrors

Refraction Through a Prism ,. Dispersion

"

Refraction

" Optical Instruments

* Total Internal Reflection Refraction from a Spherical Surface

Resolving Power of a Microscop~~ " Resolvi~g Power of Telescope

------------------,~.~ ------------------·

t> light

The light is that form of energy which makes objects visible to our eyes. The branch of physics which deals with nature of light, its sources, properties, measurement, effects and vision is called "optics". For the sake of convenience, study of optics is generally divided into two parts namely (i) geometrical optics or ray optics, and (ii) wave optics. This chapter deals with the geometrical optics.

*> Reflection of Light

When a beam of light is incident on a polished interface, it is thrown back in same medium. This phenomenon is called reflection. In reflection the frequency, speed and wavelength do not change, but a phase change may occur depending on the nature of reflecting surface. Experimentally it is found that the rays corresponding to the incident and reflected waves make equal angles with the normal to the surface . Thus, the two laws of reflection can be summarized as under.

1.

Li =

Lr

886 Chapter 23

J":

>bs0·t-,

Ray Optics

Normal

.(\iil Note

· The above two laws of reflection can b.e appli.ed to the reflecting surfaces · wh}ch a(e not ev.en horizontal.

9rh r(g,.

1t811e·ction from Plane Mirror (Surface}

In case of reflection from plane surface such as plane mirror

(i)

The image is always erect, virtual and of exactly the same size as the object. The image is formed as much behind the mirror as the object is in from of it.

(ii)

The image is laterally inverted.

(iii)

If keeping the incident ray fixed, the plane mirror is rotilted through an angle e, the reflected ray turns

through double the angle ie , 28

in that very direction.

(iv)

If the object is fixed

and the mirror moves relative to the

· ,object with a speed v, the image moves with a speed 2v

~elativeto the object.

(v)

If the mirror is fixed and the object moves relative to the mirror with a speed v, the image also moves with the

same speed

y

relative to the mirror.

(vi)

Deviation suffered by a light ray incident at an angle i is

given by 8 = (180 - 2i) ,

(vii)

If there are two mirrors inclined at an angle 8, the total number of images formed for an object kept between

the two is equal to 2 8 7t or ( ~7t- 1 } which ever is odd.

(viii) The minimum size of a mirror required to see the full image of a person, is half the height of the person . (ix) If a plane mirror is rotated about an axis perpendicular to plane of mirror then reflected ray image do not rotate.

The minimum size of the mirror fixed on the wall of a

room in which an observer at the centre of room may see the full image

of the wall of heightJLbehind him is

Instance 1

(a)

3

(b)

2

(c)

2h

(d)

h

3

lnterp.ret

From ~ 0' M 1 M 2 and O'AB

M 1M 2 =-x-

h 2x +y

h

,

Size of mirror, M M -

1

hx

z-(2x+y)

If

Instance 2 Find velocity of image when object and mirror both are moving toward each other with velocity 2 ms- 1 and 3 ms- 1 respectively.

(a) 8ms- 1

(c) -5ms- 1

Interpret

Here

(b) --Bms-1

(d)

5ms- 1

=>

Vo-VM=-(Vl-VM)

( +2ms - 1 )- (-3ms- 1 ) =~vi+(-3)

Instance 3 Two plane mirrors are inclined at 30° as shown in figure. A light ray is incident at angle 45°. Find total deviation produced by combination of mirror after two successive reflection.

(a)

60° i

(b)

58° i

(c)

50° i

(d)

68° i

Interpret

Deviation at mirror M 1 ,8 1 = 180°-2 x 45°= 90° i

Deviation at mirror M 2 ,8 2 = 180°-2 x 15° = 150°t

Total deviation 8 = 8 2 -8 1 = 150°- 90° = 60° i

Spherical Mirrors

Mirrors having their reflecting surface spherical are called spherical mirrors. Spherical mirrors are of two types

If reflection takes place from the inner

surface, the mirror is called concave [Fig. (a)].

If reflection takes place from the outer

surface , the mirror is called convex [Fig. (b)] .

(i) Concave mirror

(ii) Convex mirror

Incident

light

---+

-----

---+

A

--

-=:

Incident

light

P---- +ve --=p~------

-

c

(a) Concave mirror

(b) Convex mirror

Definitions of Some Terms Related to Spherical Mirrors

of

curvature The centre of curvature and radius of curvature of a mirror

are the centre and radius of the sphere of which the mirror is apart.

In the given figure, AC is the radius

of curvature and C, the centre of curvature.

Pole Pole of the spherical mirror is mid point of its reflecting surface. In figure it is shown by P .

Centre

and

radius

c

Principal ,axis

The principal axis of a spherical mirror is

the line joining the pole and centre of curvature. In the figure PC

is principal axis.

Principal focus Principal focus is a point on the principal axis of the mirror at which the light rays coming parallel to principal axis actually meet after reflection or appear to meet.

(a) Concave mirror

c

(b) Convex mirror

0

For concave mirror focus is infront of the mirror, while for convex mirror focus is behind the mirror. Focus of concave mirror

is real, while focus of convex mirror is virtual.

Focal length

The distance between pole and focus of

a spherical mirror is called its focal length. It is represented

byf

ie,

Table 23.1

f

= !!_

2

Image Formation by Concave Mirror

1.

At infinity

2.

Between infinity and C

Ray Tracing

Chapter 23 •

Ray Optics

887

In geometrical optics, to locate the image of an object.

Tracing of a ray as it reflects or refracts , is very important.

1. A ray going through centre of curvature is reflected back along the same direction.

~

Concave

·

Convex

c

2. A ray parallel to principal axis is reflected through the focus, and vice-versa. Also, mutually parallel rays. !\{!]1t. reflection intersect on the focal plane.

F

.E)

3. The light corning through the focus of rriirror or coming towards focus, becomes parallel to principal axis.

Sign Convention for Mirrors

According to the sign convention

;)

F

(i) Origin should be placed at the pole (P).

(ii) All distances should be measured from the pole (P).

(iii) Object distance is denoted by u, image distance by v,

focal length byf and radius of curvature by R.

(iv) Distance measured in the direction of incident ray are taken as positive while in the direction opposite of incident ray are taken negative.

M'

p

p

Real inverted, very small [m < < -1], at F

t-

Real, inverted, diminished (m < -1) between F and C

888 Chapter 23 •

Ray Optics

M

3.

AtC

 

M'

M

4.

Between F and C

 

M'

5.

Atf

6 .

Between

F and P

Table 23.2

Image Formation by Convex Mirror

1.

At infinity

)

2. In front of mirror

M'

M'

c

\

c

Real, inverted, equal in size [m = -1 ] at C

Real, inverted and very large (m > -1)

between 2F and iiliini.ty

\

Real, inverted, very large [m ~ (-oo)] at

infinity

Virtual, erect, large in size (m > + 1) behind the mirror

Virtual, erect, very small (0 < m < <

+ 1) at F

Virtual, erect, diminished (m < + 1) between PandF

/

I

I

Chapter 23 • · Ray Optics

889

\

Formula and Magnification for Spherical Mi rr ors

Mirror fonnula

1

1

1

-=-+-

u

!

v

where symbol possess their usual meanings.

Lateral magnification

where I =

I

v

f

f - v

m=-=-=--=--

0

u

f-u

·f

size of image perpendicular to principal axis

0 = size of object perpendicular to principal ruds.

Axial magnification

m ax = - ~~ = :: = ( f ~J = ( f ~!r

2

-

"

we have,

Now,

1

1

1

1

1

1

-+-=-or--+-=--

u

v

1

F

1

-l.Sf

1

1

v

f

-=----=--

v

l.Sf

f

3f

ni =-~""

u

l_[_

l.Sf

=-2

h

or

£ =-2 or h 2 =-2h 1 =-5 em.

hl The image is 5 em long. The minus sign shows that it is inverted.

Instance 5 · A concave mirror of focal length 10 em and a convex mirror of focal length 15 em are placed facing each other 40 em apart. A point object isplaced between the mirrors, on their common axis and

15 em from the concave mirror. Find the position of the image produced by the successive reflections, first at concave mirror and then at convex mirror.

Areal magnification

m

ar

= Ar =::.:_=(-! )

Ao

u2

f- u

2

=(f - v)

.

f

(a)

(c)

6 em

+ 15 em

(b) +10 em

(d)

+30 (.7n

2 · Interpret

According to given problem, for concave mirror.

f= -10

M

where, A 1 = area of image

A 0 = area of object.

Instance 4 An object of length 2 .5 em is placed at l.5f from a concave mirror; where f is the f ocal length of the mirror. The length of the object is perpendicular to the principal a·ds . Find the leng th of the image. Is the image erect or inverted ?

(a)

-5 em

(b)

5 em

(c)

6 em

(d,

--6 em

Interpret

and

The focal length F = -f u = -l.5f

1

0

1--f

F

1----- 1.5 f ------;~

So,

u =

~ 15 em andf =

-

10 em

.!.+-

1 -=- 1 -

v

-15

-10

ie, v = -30em

ie, concave mirror will form real, inverted and enlarged image 1 1 of object 0 at a distanci! 30 em from it, ie, at a distance 40-30 = 10 em from convex mirror. For convex mirror the image 1 1 will act as an object and so for it

u = -10 em andf =

+ 15 em.

.!.+-

-10

1 -=

!

15

ie,v= +6Cin

v So, final image 1 2 is formed at a distance 6 em behind the convex mirror and is virtual as shown in figure.

lntext Que,~!lo~ ,.-2a.l -

M~'""

,

(i); Does the mirror fommla hold g?od for a plane mirrgr? .· ,

(iit

An object :is'placed between two · plane

······

, parallel mirrors. Why do tpe

.

·

, t images ;~t fainter . · ·

:,:

(iii)' Why are inir:rors used in search-lights parabolic and not concave spherical?

,

;

·)>

If yo~were driving a car, what typ~ofmirtoi would .you prefer to use (9_r;ob~~~il:affic.at ""''"''"•Adr?

qy~

w> Refraction

When light passes from one medium, say air, to another medium, say glass, a part is reflected back into the first medium ·n-''.': _, ·: ;\;) as sesin tu the second medium, it either bends towards the normal or away from the normal. This phenomenon is known as refraction.

andt he restpa~,;, ·., . :

;.

laws of Refraction (Snell's law)

(i) If meditim 1 is a vacuum (or in practice air) we refer 1 J.l 2 as th e abs ol ute r E>fra i'! h •" ir><f • ·: •)f m edi um 2 and denote it by J.l/ or simply J.l (if no other medium is there).

(ii) Now, we can write Snell's law as, J.l sin i = constant

For two media, 11 1 sin i 1 =

J.lz sin i 2

(i)

(ii)

890 Chapter 23 • Ray Optics

(iii)

Snell's can be written as.

sin i 1

v 1

A. 1

l-12

1112 =-.-.-=-=-=-

Sllll2

v 2

A. 2

11 1

Here, v 1 is the

medium 2. Similarly 1 1 and A- 2 are the corresponding

wavelengths.

speed of light in medium 1 and v 2 in

Rarer

2 Denser

2

Denser

Rarer

(iv)

;1 > ;2

V2

l-12

<

VI

> l-11

"-2 < "-1

ll :> <

"-2 >

u l

"-1

If 1-1- 2 ::> 1-1- 1 then v 1 > v 2 and A- 1 > 1 2 , ie, in a rarer m~dium, speed and hence , wavelength of light is more .

In general, speed of light in any medium is less than its speed in vacuum. It is convenient to define refractive index 11- of a medium as.

Speed of light in vacuum

c

11 = Speed of light in medium

v

Instance 6 Light is incident from air on oil at an angle of30°. After moving through oil-1, oil-2, and glass it enters water. If the refractive indices of glass and water are 1.5 and 1.3, respectively, find the angle which the ray makes with normal in water.

Air

Oil-1

Oil-2

(a)

(c)

sm0

-1 ( - 1

2.6

sin- 1 (-

3.6

1

J

J

(b)

sin- 1 (_]

2.6

J

(d)

sin- 1 (2 .6)

Interpret

=>

As we know 1-l sin i = (constant)

!l-air sin ~air) = 1-l-glass sin r (glass)

sm~glass) =--Sin !l-air lair

0

0

0

0

1-l-glass

Again,

From Eqs. (i) and (ii) sin 30 = 1.3 sin r

ll·glass sin iglass = llwater sin rwater

0

1

1

smr=--=-,

,

2xl.3

2.6

1

r=.sin- 1 (-

2.6

J

(i)

(ii)

Instance 7 A ray of light is incident on a transparent glass slab of

refractive index 1.62. If the reflected and refracted rays are mutually perpendicular, what is the angle of incidence?

(a)

58.3°

(b)

85 .3°

(c)

60°

(d) 65°

Interpret

Let the angle of incidence, angle of reflection and an,le

of refraction be i , rand r', respectively. Now, as per the question 90° -r + 90°- r' = 90°

=>

r' = 90°- i

(because i = r)

In

case

of reflection according to Snell's law, 1 sin i = 1-l sin r '

or sin i =

1-l sin (90° -

i)

=>

tan i = 1-l

or

i =tan- 1 [!1-] = tan- 1 (1.62) = 58 .3°

Instance 8 Refractive index of glass with respect to water is 1 .125. If the absolute refractive index of glass is 1.5, find ,the absolute index of water.

(a)

1.33

(b) 2.33

(c)

0.33

(d) 0.44

Interpret

Here, the refractive index of glass with respect to water

ie, wll-g = 1.125 and absolute refractive index of glass llg = 1.5 . We know that

Apparent Shift of an Object due to Refraction

Due to bending of light at the interface of two different media, the image formation due to refraction creates an illusion of shifting of the object position. Consider an object 0 in medium. After refraction, the ray at the interface bends. The bent ray when it falls on our eyes, is perceived as corning from I. For nearly normal incident rays, 8 1 and 8 2 will be very small.

Rarer

J.lz

tan8 1 =sm8 . 1 = -=-':-:-:-': ·

-:-:----:---.-=-:-----"':'--'---:----:-- AB

Object distance from the refracting surface

Similarly,

sm8 2 =

.

AB

-------------,-------

Image distance from the refracting surface

sin 8 1 _ sin8 2

-

1

11

2

_

-

11 2

11

1

:::} AB

OB

1

AB _ 11 2

BI

-

11 1

BI

-=

OB

Apparent depth

Real depth

J

lz

·=-

J

L

1

So, Shift = Real depth- Apparent depth = Real depth ( 1 - ~~ J

Case I

If ).ll

<

).lz

Shift becomes negative, image distance > object distance, ieJ image is farther from the refracting surface.

Case II

If ).ll

>

).lz.

Shift becomes positive, image distance < object distance,

ie image is closer to the refracting surface .

Case III

If ).lz

=

1 or ).! 1

).l

Shift

=

Real depth ( 1 - ~J

Instance 9 A fish in an aquarium, approaches the left wall at

a rate of 3 ms-1, and observes a fly approaching it at 8 m.~- 1 . If the

refractive index of water is (4/ 3), find the actual velodty of the fly.

~X

).lX

(a)

3.75

ms- 1

(b) 2.75ms- 1

(c)

0.75

ms- 1

(d)

4.75 ms- 1

Interpret

For the fish, appa.rent distance of the fly from the wall

of the aquarium is ).lX. If x is actual distance, then apparent

velocity will be d(J.!X)

dt

Now, the

(v.pp)fly = !l vfly

fish observes the velocity of the fly to be 8

ms- 1

Therefore, apparent relative velocity = 8 ms- 1

Vfish +

Cvapp)fly = 8 ms- 1 ~ 3

+ ).l vfly = 8

vf!y = 5 x ~= 3.75ms- 1

4

Instance 10 A layer of oil 3 em thick is flowing on a layer of coloured water 5 em thick. Refractive index of coloured water is 5/3 and the apparent depth of the two liquids appears to be 36/7 em. What

is the refractive index of oil? (a) 1.4

(b) 2.4

(c)

3

(d)

2

Interpret

Apparent depth (AD) = .EL+ 2_

Ill

'

112

36

5

3

-=--+-

J lz

5/3

7

or

or

,

.2_= 36 -3= 15 lz

J

7

7

J

lz

7

=- = 1.4

5

Chapter 23 • Ray Optics

891

v~ Total Internal Reflection

Whenever a ray of light goes from a denser medium to a rarer medium it bends away from the normal. As angle of incidence in denser medium increases, angle of refraction also increases in rarer medium. The angle of incidence in denser medium for whi.ch the angle of refraction in rarer medium is 90° is called the critical angle (C) .

sin C = ~Lrarer =~

sin 90°

J

ldenser

J

ld

=>

=>

sinC=~

J ld

c =sin- 1 (~:J

Now, if the angle of incidence in the rarer medium is greater than the critical angle (C), then the ray instead of suffering refraction is reflected back in the same (denser) medium. This phenomenon is called total internal reflection. For total internal reflection to take place following set of conditions must be obeyed.

rarer

medium. (ii) The angle of incidence i must be greater than critical angle C.

(i) The

ray must travel from denser medium to

Instance 11 An isotropic point source (bulb) is placed at a depth h below the water surface. A floating opaque disc is placed on the surface of water, so that the bulb is not visible from the surface. What is the minimum radius of the disc? Take refractive index ofwater=).l.

Interpret

As shown in figure, light from bulb will not emerge out ·

1

of the water if at the edge of disc.

i>C

sin i >sin C

(i)

Now, if R is the radius of disc and h is the depth of bulb from it

and

.

.

R

smt=-,===

Jiz +hz

. c

sm

1

=-

J l

So, Eq. (i) becomes

or

R

1

--===>-

~R2+hz J

l

h

R>--

~J l-1

892 Chapter 23 • Ray Optics

Refraction from aSpherical Surface

Spherical surfaces are of two types (i) Convex (ii) Concave

1

()

······;;,··· ··· ·········· ··· ···:···· ············

~

I

2

·- -·· ·· ····· 1E' -p· · ---------- ------ -----•- -·-······ ·

0

I

2

For both surfaces refraction formula is given by

~-~= Jllz-1

R

v 1 1-1 2 is refractive index of second medium with respect to first.

u

If 1-1 1 and 1-lz are refractive indices of first and second medium with respect to air, then,

llz _ J-11 = 1-lz ·· 1-11

v

u

R

instance 12 A linear object of length 4 em is placed at 30 em from the plane surface of hemispherical glass of radius 10 em. The hemispherical glass is surrounded by water. Find the final position and size of the image:

(a)

5.3 em

(b)

4.3 em

(c)

5 em

(d)

2.3 em

;nterpret

and

4

3

2

For 1" surface 1-1 1 = -,J-1 2 =- ,u =-20cm,

3

R = +lOcm,

 

8"

 

5.3cm

 

A"

1----- v' ----~

 

Using

1-lz _ J-11 = (J.lz -1-11)

 

v

u

R

==>

(3/ 2) -

(4/ 3)

= (3/ 2- 4/ 3)

 

v

(-20)

10

==>

v =

-30 em

 

Using

A' B' = ~

=>

A' B '

( 4cm)

= (4 / 3)

(- 30)

AB

JlzU

(3/ 2)

(-20)

==>

A'B' = 5.3 em

 

A'B' behaves as the object for plane surface

Jl 1 = 2 3 ,Jlz=j 4 and R=oo,u=-40 '

==>

==>

llz_= llz

v'

u'

(4/ 3) = (3/ 2)

v'

(-40)

Solving it we will get, v' = -35 .4cm

N ow usmg .

=>

,

A'B''

(Jl

1

v')

-- =--

A'B'

(Jl 2 u')

A"B" = (3/ 2)(-35.4) => A"B" = 5.3cm

(5 .3)

(4/ 3)(-40)

The final images in all the above cases are shown in figure .

~'~ Lens

Le ns is a transparent medium bounded by two curved surfaces. Lenses are of two types

1. Convex or convergent lens

2. Concave or divergent lens

1. Convex or Convergent Lens

The traqsparent medium bounded by two bulging surfaces is called convex lens . It is ofthree types (as shown) .

(a) Double-convex

lens

(b) Plano-convex

lens

(c) Concavo-convex

lens

2. Concave or Divergent Lens

The transparent medium bounded by two hollow surfaces is called concave lens. It is of three types (as shown).

(a) Double-concave

lens

(b) Plano-concave (c) Concavo-concave

lens

lens

Some Definitions Relating Lenses

Optical centre The optical centre is a point within or outside the lens, at which incident rays refract without deviation in its path.

s

Chapter 23 •

Ray Optics

8~~

Principal axis

The straight line passing through the optical

centre of lens is called principal axis of lens.

1 Principal focus

Lens has two principal foci.

(i) First principal focus It is a point on the principal axis of lens, the rays starting from which (convex lens) or appear to converge at which (concave lens) become parallel to principal axis after refraction.

··. ·

-::·

F1

(ii) Second principal ,focus It is the point on the principal axis at which the rays coming parallel to the principal axis converge (convex lens) or appear to diverge (concave lens) after refraction from the lens.

Both the foci of convex lens are real while that of concave lens are virtual.

and optical

centre of lens is called focal length of lens.

Focal

length

The

distance

between

focus

Table 23.3

Formation of Image by a Convex Lens

l,i

Laws of Formation of Images by Lens

'

·'

(i) The rays corning parallel to principal axis of lens pas~ ···

(ii) The rays corning from the focus ofltilS go parallel tot~ principal a~isof lens after refraction. (iii) The rays of light passing through optical centre go straight after refraction without changing their path.

':

through the focus after refraction.

Lens Maker's Formula

If R 1 and R 2 are the radii of curvature of first and seconq refracting surfaces of a thin lens with optical centre C of foc~l

Maker'$

length/ and refractive index 1 ~ 2 then according to Lens formula

c

u-----1 --v ! =(1~2-1)( ! ] ! f Rl R2 ~ ! =(!l-l)( ! !
u-----1
--v
!
=(1~2-1)(
!
] !
f
Rl
R2
~
!
=(!l-l)(
! !
J
f
R1
R2
where,
is
refractive index of material of lens with'
1
~
2
=
~

respect to surrounding medium.

Thin lens formula is

1

1

1

-= - --

u

!

v

.

1.

At infinity

At the principal focus (F 2 ) or in the focal plane

Real, inverted and extremely diminished

2 .

Beyond 2F 1

Between F 2 and 2F 2

Real, inverted and diminished

894 Chapter 23 •

Ray Optics

Real, inverted and of same size as the object

·

4.

Between

F 1 and

Beyond 2F 2

Real, inverted and magnified

 

2Fl

 

5.

At F 1

At infinity

Real, inverted and highly magnified .

6.

Between

F 1 and

On the same side as the

Virtual, erect and magnified

 

optical centre

object

Formation of Image by Concave Lens

The image formed is always virtual, erect and diminished and lies between the lens and F 2 for all positions of the · object.

Instance 13

The focal length of convex lens is 10 em in ai r. Find its

focal length in water. (Given, llg.= 3/ 2 and llw = 4 / 3)

(a)

(c)

10 em

30 em

Interpret

- 1 -=CI!g -1)(2

fair

Rl

(b) 20 em (d) 40 em

2_J

Rz

and

1

f f' ater =

(llg

ll w -

1

X1

Rl -

1 J

Ri

(i)

(ii)

Dividing Eq. (i) by (ii), we get

fwater

(

llg -1

J

"fair

=

llg f ll w -1

Substituting the values,

fwater = (

(3/ 2-1)

-- 312 -1

4/ 3

= 4 fair

= 4 X

10

= 40cm

)fair

An object is placed at a distance of 10 em to the left

on the axis of a convex lens L 1 of fo cal length 20 em. A second convex

lens L 2 offocal length 10 em is placed co -axially to the rig ht of the lens

L 1 at a distance of 5 em from its magnification.

it. Find the position of the final image and

Instance 14

(a)

163.

em

on

the

right

of the second lens,

3 .33

3

.

(b)

163.

em on the right of the second lens,

1.33

3

(c)

163.

em on the right of the first lens, 1.33

3

(d)

None of the above

 

Interpret

=>

=>

Here, for 1" lens,

~

u 1 = -10 em

 

f 1 =

20 em

1

1

1

---=-

vl

u 1

1

!1

1

1

-=---

L1

vl

20

v 1 =-20cm

10

L2

, o;:;;

\

'!

';.:

\!

,1,.

Scm

· 0 2 '!

!

\ i

v

·1'2

o

ie, the image is virtual and hence lies on the same side of the object. This will behave as an object for the second lens.

1

1

1

For 2nd lens, ---=-

Vz

u 2

fz

Here, u 2 = -(20 + S),J 2 = 10cm

1

1

1

-+-=-

10

25

v 2

=>

v 2

50

2

=-=16-cm

3

3

ie, final image is at a distance o; 163_ second lens.

3

em on the right of the

, T)le magnification of the image is given by;

m = 2:1_ Vz = 20 _29_ = = 1.33

u 1

u 2

10 3x25

3

Magnification of Lens

The lateral, transverse or linear magnificauon produced by a lens is defined by

Height of image Height of object A real image II' of an object 00' formed by a convex lens is shown in figure.

I

=-

0

m=

Height of image = _!£

Height of object

00'

=

~

u

·:

'

'

''

Substituting v and u with proper sign, ) ,; .

or

Thus,

.

'.

,

If

00'

-I

0

v

-u

v

-=m=-

I

0

v

m=-

u

u

Chapter 23

Ray Optics

895

Important Features

1.

Power of lens P = -- 1 - f(inm)

2.

3.

P=

100

=>

j(incm) Power of convex lens is positive and of concave lens is negative.

If distance of an object from first focus of lens is a 1 and distance of image from second focus is a 2 , then its focal length.

f = ~ala2.

This is Newton's formula.

If two or more lenses are placed in contact, then equivalent focal length of the combination.

1

1

1

-=-+-+

f

!1

fz

1

·= L.-

n

i=l h

Power of combination

p =Pl +Pz +

n

= L,P;

i=1

Magnification of combination

M

= m 1 xm 2 x

n

=11m

i=l

4. If two lenses offocallengthsf 1 andf 2 are separated by a distance x, then its equivalent focal length

1

1

1

X

-=-+ - --

F

!1

fz

fdz

Power of combination,

P =

P1 + Pz- x P1P2

Total magnification remains unchanged ie, m=m 1 xm 2

5. If a lens is made of a number of layers of different refractive indices, then number of images of an object formed by the lens is equal to number of different media.

6. Cutting of a lens (i) If a symmetrical convex lens of focal length f is cut into two parts along its optic axis, then focal length of each part (a plano convex lens) is 2f. However, if the two parts are joined as shown in figure, the focal length of combination is again f.

(a)

2(,

(b)

2f

f

(c)

f

(d)

896 Chapter 23 Ray Optics

(ii) If a symmetrical convex lens of focal length f is cut into two parts along the principal axis, then focal length of each part remains changed atf . If these two parts are joined with curved ends on one side focal

But on joining two
2

length of the combination is

parts in opposite sense the net focal length becomes ~ (or net power = 0).

Table 23.4

(a)

(b)

(c)

Difference between Lens and Mirror

(d)

7. Silvering of a lens

(i) Let a plano-convex lens is having a curved surface of radius of curvature R and has refractive index J.l· if its plane surface is silvered, it behaves as a concave mirror of focal length.

R

f =- 2(~-t- 1)

(ii) If the curved surface of plano-convex lens is silvered then it behaves as a concave mirror of focal length.

R

f =- 2!l

(iii) If one surface of a symmetrical double convex lens

(R 1 =R 2 = R) is silvered, then the lens behaves concave mirror of focal length

as a

8 .

f =

R

2(2J.l-l)

The tabular difference between lens and mirror is given in table.

1.

Convex lens

+ ve

+ ve

converging

2.

Concave mirror

-

ve

+ ve

converging

3.

Concave lens

- ve

-ve

diverging

4.

Convex mirror

+ ve

-ve

diverging

,

Chapter 23

Ray Optics

897

with

a diverging lens of -2 D. Find the power and focal length of the

combination.

Instance

15

A

convergent

lens

(b)

(d)

of 6

D

is

co mbined

Instance 16

A convex lens of 10 em focollength is combined with a

concave lens of 6 em focollength. Find the focollength of the combination .

= -6 em, F =?

 

(a)

-15 em

(b)

15 em

20 em

(c)

10 em

(d) -10 em

25 em

Interpret

Here,f 1 = 10 cm,f 2

(a) 26 em (c) 30 em

Interpret

Here, P 1 = 6 D, P 2 = -2 D

Using the formula, P = P 1 +

f = liP= 1/4 m = 25 em.

P 2 =

6- 2 = 4 D

Use the formula

.!. =

 

'

F

!

! 1

+

!

! 2

=

F = -15 em

!

10

!_

6

=

!_

15

<Jl

T

Is the ratio of frequencies Can convergent

Why

o_f ultraviolet rays and

,,a""'

!I) Refraction Through a Prism

A prism is a homogeneous,

p

transparent medium bounded by two plane surfaces inclined at an angle A with each other. These surfaces are called as refracting surfaces and the angle between them is called angle ofprismA.

the

refraction of monochromatic light through a prism. Here' i and e represent the angle of incidence and angle of emergence respectively, r 1 and r 2 are two angles of refraction. If J.l is the refractive index of the material of the prism, then

A

Figure

shows

0

R

sini

sine

J.l=--=--

sinrl

sinr 2

The angle between the incident ray and the emergent ray is lmown as the angle of deviation o. For refraction through a · prism it is found that

i + e =A + oand r 1 + r 2 = A

Minimum Deviation

It is found that the angle

of deviation o varies with the angle of incidence i of the ray incident on the first refracting face of the prism.

The

figure and for one angle of

incidence it has a minimum value omm. At this value

variation

is

shown

in

i = e

It therefore, follows that

Om

L---~---:i-="-e----.i1

r1

= r2

A

r=-

2

Further at o 1

= om;= (i + 0 -A

or

.

A+om

!=--

2

smt

J.!=-.- or J.l= smr

For thin prism, om" {ll

l)A.

· [A+om)

sm --

2

A

sin -

2

The angle of minimum deviation for a glass prism

with J.l = .J3 equals the refracting angle of the prism. What is the angle of the prism?

Instance 17

Interpret

Using,

we have

or

sinA

.J3=--=

2

.

A

A

2

Slll -· COS -

2

A

sin(1)

.J3

COS-=-

2

A

-

2

2

= 30°

.

or

sin(1)

A = 60°

ut

~~ .Dispersion

Dispersion of light is the phenomenon of splitting of white light into its constituent wavelengths on passing through a dispersive medium, eg, prism. Cause of dispersion is the variation of refractive index of prism with wavelengJ:h. As A.v < A.R, hence, J.lv > llR and consequently Ov > Ow

898 Chapter 23

Ray Optics

Angular Dispersion

It is the angular separation between

the fwo extreme rays. Angular dispersion 8 = 8v - 8R

=

C11v -

11R )A

Dispersive Power The dispersive power of a prism material is measured by the ratio of angular dispersion to the mean deviation suffered by light beam. :. Dispersive power

ro- Ov -oR _ 1-lv -1-lR

--0--~,

where 11 is the mean value of refractive index of prism. The dispersive power of a prism depends only on its material and is independent of angle of prism, angle of incidence or size of the prism. Dispersive power is a unitless and dimensionless term. Dispersive power of a flint glass prism is more than that of a crown glass.

Dispersion without Deviation (Direct Vision Prism)

1. To produce dispersion witho~t mean deviation we use a combination of two prisms of different materials such that

A'=-(l-l.- 1 JA

!-l-1

2. Net dispersion caused

=

C11v- 11R) A

+ C11'v - 11'R)A'

= (11- 1)A (m -

m')

= 8 (m -

m')

Deviation without Dispersion (Achromatic Prism)

1. To produce deviation without dispersion we use a combination

Find the dispersion produced by a thin prism of 18°

having refracting index for red light = 1.56 and refractive index for violet light = 1.68.

Instance 18

(a)

2.16°

(b)

1.16°-

(c)

3.16°

(d)

2.10°

Interpret

Here,

We know that dispersion produced by a thin prism

e= C!-lv -11R)A

1-lv = 1.68,~-tR =1.56 and A = 18°

e.=(1.68 -1.56) x 18° =2.16°

Instance 19 Calculate the dispersive power for crown glass from the given data

1-lv =1.523

and 1-LR =1.5145

(a)

0.01639

(b)

1.05639

(c)

0.05639

(d)

2.05639

Interpret

M

ean re

Here,

1-lv = 1.523

fr

actlve . m .

d

ex,

11 =

and

1-lR = 1.14S.

l.S23+1.S145

2

l.S187S

Dispersive power ro is given by,

ro = !l v -llR = l.S23 -l.S14S

(!l-1)

(l.S187S-1)

0 _ 01639

Instance 20

A prism of crown glass with refracting angle of so

and mean refractive index = 1.51 is combined with a fiint glass prism of refractive index = 1.6S to produce no deviation. Find the angle of fiint glass .

(a)

3.92°

(b) 4.68°

(c)

5.32°

(d) 7.28°

Interpret

Let A' be the angle of flint glass prism.

Here, A = so and J-l = 1.51 for crown glass prism.

8 =

(!l-1)A= (l.S1-1)xS = 2.SS 0

Deviation produced by flint glass

o' = (!!' - 1)A' = (1.6S -1)A' = 0.6SA '

For no deviation, 8' = 8 or 0.65A' = 2.55

A'= 2.S5 = 3.92o

0.65

> Optical Instruments

Optical instrument is a device which is made from proper

combination of mirrors, prisms and lenses. The principle of working of optical instruments depends on laws of reflection and refraction of light.

Microscope

It is an optical instrument which forms a magnified image of a small nearby object and thus, increases the visual angle subtended by the image at the eye so that the object is seen to be bigger and distinct.

)

l

~

A simple microscope is a convex

lens of short focal length which is fixed in a frame provided with

(i) Simple microscope

of two

prisms of

handle

.

.·c··j

',

different

materiaPs

such that

A'=- [!-lv -1-l R] · A

[!-l~-!-l~]

Magnification of simple microscope

(a)

When final image is formed at least distance of distinct vision,

D

M=1+-

f

(b)

For relaxed eye, M = D

f

where D = least distance of distinct vision.

(ii) Compound microscope Figure shows a simplified version of a compound microscope. It consists of two converging lenses arranged coaxially. The one facing the object is called objective and the one close to eye is called eye piece. The objective has a smaller aperture and smaller focal length than those of the eye piece.

h

Magnification of compound microscope

(a) For relaxed eye

M~= _ vo(E-J

Uo

fe

In this position, length of microscope

(b)

L~ = Vo + fe

When final image is formed at least distance of distinct

VlSlOn.

MD =~(1+DJ

Uo

f e

Length of microscope, L 0 =v 0 +Ue

v 0 = distance of first image from object lens.

U 0 = distance of object from objective lens.

f. = focal length of eye piece.

Telescope

Telescope is an optical instrument which increases, the visual angle at the eye by forming the image of a distant object at the least distance of distinct vision, so that the object is seen distinct and bigger.

(i) Astronomical telescope It consists of two converging lenses placed coaxially. The one facing the distant object is called the objective and has a large aperture and large focal length. The other is called the eye-piece, as the eye is placed closed to it. The eye-piece tube can slide within the objective tube, so that the separation between the objective and the eye-piece may be varied.

'

Object

Chapter 23

Ray Optics

899

Magnification of astronomical telescope

(a)

(b)

For relaxed eye, M

~

In this position, length of telescope

= _ fo fe

L~ =fo +fe

When final image is formed at least distance of distinct vision

= _ fo( 1 + fe J

D

M

fe Length of telescope

D

LD =fo +u e f o = focal length of objective lens

f e = focal length of eye piece

(ii) Terrestrial telescope In an astronomical telescope, the final image is inverted with respect to the object . To re move this difficulty, a convex lens of focallengthf is included between the objective and the eye-piece in such a way that the focal plane of the objective is a distance 2f away from this lens.

B

1~~~~~

A

~-r 0 ~2r--- er-~

Magnification of terrestrial telescope

(a) For relaxed eye,

M~= 1

In this position, length of telescope

(b)

L~ = f o + 4f + f e

When final image is formed at least distance of distinct vision,

M

D

=

Length of telescope,

fo(1+ fe J

fe

D .

n

LD = f o + 4 f + de

f o = focal length of objective lens

f e = focal length of eye peice

A simple model of Galilean telescope

is shown in figure. A convergent lens is used as the objective and

a divergent lens as the eye-piece.

Galilean telescope

900 Chapter 23 * Ray Optics

~-------- fo

8

1

A

,

Magnification of Galilean telescope

(a)

For relaxed eye,

M~ = fo

fe

In this position, length of telescope L, = fo- fe

(b)

When final image is formed at least distance of distinct

vision

'

M

D

= fa (1- fe J

fe

D

Length of telescope

Lv

= fo -u ,

An object is seen through a simple microscope offocal

length 20 em. Find the angular magnification produced if the image is formed at 30 em from the lens .

Instance 21

(a) 2.08

(b)

2.05

(c) 3.08

(d)

1.5

Interpret

Given,f = + 20 em v = - 30 em

!.=.!.

u

f

and

Using thefonnula, .!

v

,

wehave,

1

-30

1

-U 0

u 0

=

'{<The >angular magnification,

1

20

12 em

M =.!!_ = 25 =2.08

uo

12

Instance 22

A galilean telescope is 27 em long when focussed to

form an image at infinity. If the objective has a focal length of 30 em, what is the focal length of the eye piece?

(a)

3 em

(b)

-3 em

(c)

2 em

(d) -2 em

Interpret

Given,fo = + 30 em.

Objective

Length of telescope is given

Eye-piece

27cm.

Therefore , u, = + 3 em. For the final image at infinity, the intermediate image should lie

at first focus of eye piece of the I--

Galilean telescope.

27 em --l~

1---~- 30 em

•I

fe=-3cm

Resolving Power of a Microscope

Resol vi ng p ;Jwer of e. microscope is defined as the reciprocal of the leas t separation between two close objects, so that they appear just separated, when seen through the rnicroscope.

so that they

appear just separated is given by

The

least separation between two objects,

d=--"'-

2J.1sin8

where fl is che refractive index of the medium between the objective of the microscope and the object. This distance is called limit of resoh~tion of the microscope.

Resolving power of a micro5mpe = .!_ = 2 J.1sine

d

lc

half angle of the cone of light from the point object, fl sin 8 = numerical aperture

8 =

de

0

1. Resolving power of microscope increases with increase in the value of the refractive index of the meaium between objective and object that's why oil immersion objective microscopes are used to achieve high resolving power.

2. The resolving power of microscope increases, with decrease in the value of the wavelength of the light used to illuminate the object, so microscopes using ult~aviolet light for illu(Tlinating the objects are used to achieve high resolving power. These are called ultra microscopes. Higher resolving powe r is obtained in electron microscope.

> Resolving Power of Telescope

Resolving power of telescope is defined as the reciprocal of the smallest angular separation between two distant objects, so that they appear just separated, when seen through the telescope. The smallest angular separation between two objects, so that they appear just separated is found to be

de= 1. 2 21c

D

where D is the diameter of objective

D

Resolving power of telescope 1.22/c

lntext Questions 23.3

en does a ray fucid~nf on _a prism deviate away from the base? "ngs) observed sometimes round the sun or moon? f gla.~s for lights ?f yellow, green and red colours are f!y. llg and flr respectively. Rearrange 'thes~ fv~l~71: _; e position of a object relative to a biconvex lens so that it beha v es like magnifying lens? erted, ~illit serve as a microscope?

Chapter 23

Ray Optics

Chapter Compendium

are o\:1eyed at every reflectin,g surface.

ofsy:mmetrical spherical surfaces, are

two

(i) convex, and (ii) concave.

which the reflection takes place at the bulged

a convex mirror and the mirror in which place at the depressed surface is called a

10.

Refraction at Sphe,rical Surfaces,

 

(i)

For a spheric1il surface, f.Lz

,

f.LI = Hz - f.L1

(ii)

Magnification, m = 111 ::_

 
 

flzU

 

(iii)

When the object is relation can be obtainted vv<<.:muL)(.UI relation becomes

 

_ f.L2 +~t1 = !11 -J.Lz R

u

v

 

11 .

Thin Lens

 

.Ll~'"wouL rays, the refracted ray and the normal surface separating the two media-all lies in one

law For any two media the ratio of the sine of the of incidence to the sine of the angle of refraction constant for a light beam of a particular frequency, ie

901

L--

-~

,

T

t

--~~

,,

1

1

1

12. Thin lens fonnula .,--- =-

v

u

f

13. Linear magnification of a lens