Ray Optics
* Light 
• Lens 

" 
Reflection of Light 

• 
Spherical Mirrors 
Refraction Through a Prism ,. Dispersion 
" 
Refraction 
" Optical Instruments 
* Total Internal Reflection Refraction from a Spherical Surface 
~·Resolving Power of a Microscop~~ " Resolvi~g Power of Telescope 
,~.~ ·
t> light
The light is that form of energy which makes objects visible to our eyes. The branch of physics which deals with nature of light, its sources, properties, measurement, effects and vision is called "optics". For the sake of convenience, study of optics is generally divided into two parts namely (i) geometrical optics or ray optics, and (ii) wave optics. This chapter deals with the geometrical optics.
*> Reflection of Light
When a beam of light is incident on a polished interface, it is thrown back in same medium. This phenomenon is called reflection. In reflection the frequency, speed and wavelength do not change, but a phase change may occur depending on the nature of reflecting surface. Experimentally it is found that the rays corresponding to the incident and reflected waves make equal angles with the normal to the surface . Thus, the two laws of reflection can be summarized as under.
1.
Li =
Lr
2.
Incitlent ray, reflected ray and
normal lie on the same plane .
886 Chapter 23 •
J":
>bs0·t,
Ray Optics
Normal
.(\iil Note
· The above two laws of reflection can b.e appli.ed to the reflecting surfaces · wh}ch a(e not ev.en horizontal.
9rh r(g,.
1t811e·ction from Plane Mirror (Surface}
In case of reflection from plane surface such as plane mirror
(i) 
The image is always erect, virtual and of exactly the same size as the object. The image is formed as much behind the mirror as the object is in from of it. 

(ii) 
The image is laterally inverted. 

(iii) 
If keeping the incident ray fixed, the plane mirror is rotilted through an angle e, the reflected ray turns 

through double the angle ie , 28 
in that very direction. 

(iv) 
If the object is fixed and the mirror moves relative to the 
· ,object with a speed v, the image moves with a speed 2v
~elativeto the object.
(v) 
If the mirror is fixed and the object moves relative to the mirror with a speed v, the image also moves with the 

same speed 
y 
relative to the mirror. 

(vi) 
Deviation suffered by a light ray incident at an angle i is 

given by 8 = (180  2i) , 

(vii) 
If there are two mirrors inclined at an angle 8, the total number of images formed for an object kept between 
the two is equal to ^{2} 8 7t or ( ~7t 1 } which ever is odd.
(viii) The minimum size of a mirror required to see the full image of a person, is half the height of the person . (ix) If a plane mirror is rotated about an axis perpendicular to plane of mirror then reflected ray image do not rotate.
The minimum size of the mirror fixed on the wall of a
room in which an observer at the centre of room may see the full image
of the wall of heightJLbehind him is
Instance 1
(a) 
3 
(b) 
2 
(c) 
2h 
(d) 
h 
3 
lnterp.ret
From ~ 0' M _{1} M _{2} and O'AB
M 1M 2 =x
h 2x +y
h
,
Size of mirror, M M 
1
hx
z(2x+y)
If
Instance 2 Find velocity of image when object and mirror both are moving toward each other with velocity 2 ms ^{1} and 3 ms ^{1} respectively.
(a) 8ms ^{1}
(c) 5ms ^{1}
Interpret
Here
(b) Bms1
(d)
5ms ^{1}
=>
VoVM=(VlVM)
( +2ms  ^{1} ) (3ms ^{1} ) =~vi+(3)
Instance 3 Two plane mirrors are inclined at 30° as shown in figure. A light ray is incident at angle 45°. Find total deviation produced by combination of mirror after two successive reflection.
(a) 
60° i 
(b) 
58° i 
(c) 
50° i 
(d) 
68° i 
Interpret
Deviation at mirror M _{1} ,8 _{1} = 180°2 x 45°= 90° i
Deviation at mirror M _{2} ,8 _{2} = 180°2 x 15° = 150°t
Total deviation 8 = 8 _{2} 8 _{1} = 150° 90° = 60° i
• Spherical Mirrors
Mirrors having their reflecting surface spherical are called spherical mirrors. Spherical mirrors are of two types
If reflection takes place from the inner
surface, the mirror is called concave [Fig. (a)].
If reflection takes place from the outer
surface , the mirror is called convex [Fig. (b)] .
(i) Concave mirror
(ii) Convex mirror
Incident
light
+

+
A

=:
Incident
light
P +ve =p~

c
(a) Concave mirror
(b) Convex mirror
Definitions of Some Terms Related to Spherical Mirrors
of
curvature The centre of curvature and radius of curvature of a mirror
are the centre and radius of the sphere of which the mirror is apart.
In the given figure, _{A}_{C} is the radius
of curvature and C, the centre of curvature.
Pole Pole of the spherical mirror is mid point of its reflecting surface. In figure it is shown by _{P} _{.}
Centre
and
radius
c
Principal ,axis
The principal axis of a spherical mirror is
the line joining the pole and centre of curvature. In the figure PC
is principal axis.
Principal focus Principal focus is a point on the principal axis of the mirror at which the light rays coming parallel to principal axis actually meet after reflection or appear to meet.
(a) Concave mirror
c
(b) Convex mirror
0
For concave mirror focus is infront of the mirror, while for convex mirror focus is behind the mirror. Focus of concave mirror
is real, while focus of convex mirror is virtual.
Focal length
The distance between pole and focus of
a spherical mirror is called its focal length. It is represented
byf
_{i}_{e}_{,}
Table 23.1
f
= !!_
2
Image Formation by Concave Mirror
_{1}_{.}
At infinity
_{2}_{.}
Between infinity and C
Ray Tracing
Chapter 23 •
Ray Optics
887
In geometrical optics, to locate the image of an object.
Tracing of a ray as it reflects or refracts , is very important.
1. A ray going through centre of curvature is reflected back along the same direction.
~
Concave
·
_{C}_{o}_{n}_{v}_{e}_{x}
_{c}
2. A ray parallel to principal axis is reflected through the focus, and viceversa. Also, mutually parallel rays. !\{!]1t. reflection intersect on the focal plane.
F
.E)
3. The light corning through the focus of rriirror or coming towards focus, becomes parallel to principal axis.
Sign Convention for Mirrors
According to the sign convention
;)
F
(i) Origin should be placed at the pole (P).
(ii) All distances should be measured from the pole (P).
(iii) Object distance is denoted by u, image distance by v,
focal length byf and radius of curvature by R.
(iv) Distance measured in the direction of incident ray are taken as positive while in the direction opposite of incident ray are taken negative.
M'
p
p
Real inverted, very small [m < < 1], at F
t
Real, inverted, diminished (m < 1) between F and C
888 Chapter 23 •
Ray Optics
M
3. 
AtC 

M' 

M 

4. 
Between F and C 

M' 

5. 
Atf 

6 . 
Between 
F and P 
Table 23.2
Image Formation by Convex Mirror
1.
At infinity
)
_{2}_{.} In front of mirror
M'
M'
^{c}
\
c
Real, inverted, equal in size [m = 1 ] at C
Real, inverted and very large (m > 1)
between 2F and iiliini.ty
\
Real, inverted, very large [m ~ (oo)] at
infinity
Virtual, erect, large in size (m > + 1) behind the mirror
Virtual, erect, very small _{(}_{0} < _{m} < <
_{+} _{1}_{)} at _{F}
Virtual, erect, diminished (m < + 1) between PandF
/
I
I
Chapter 23 • · Ray Optics
889
\
Formula and Magnification for Spherical Mi rr ors
Mirror fonnula
1
1
1
=+
u
!
v
where symbol possess their usual meanings.
Lateral magnification
where I =
I
v
f
f  v
m====
0
u
fu
·f
size of image perpendicular to principal axis
0 = size of object perpendicular to principal ruds.
Axial magnification
m ax =  ~~ = :: = ( f ~J = ( f ~!r
2

"
we have,
Now,
1
1
1
1
1
1
+=or+=
_{u}
_{v}
1
_{F}
1
_{}_{l}_{.}_{S}_{f}
1
1
_{v}
_{f}
== 

v 
l.Sf 
f 
3f 
ni =~"" u 
l_[_ l.Sf 
=2 
h
or
£ =2 or h _{2} =2h _{1} =5 em.
hl The image is 5 em long. The minus sign shows that it is inverted.
Instance 5 · A concave mirror of focal length 10 em and a convex mirror of focal length 15 em are placed facing each other 40 em apart. A point object isplaced between the mirrors, on their common axis and
15 em from the concave mirror. Find the position of the image produced by the successive reflections, first at concave mirror and then at convex mirror.
Areal magnification
m
ar
= Ar =::.:_=(! )
Ao
u2
f u
2
=(f  v)
.
f
(a)
(c)
6 em
+ 15 em
(b) +10 em
(d)
+30 (.7n
2 · Interpret
According to given problem, for concave mirror.
f= 10
M
where, A _{1} = area of image
A _{0} = area of object.
Instance 4 An object of length 2 .5 em is placed at l.5f from a concave mirror; where f is the f ocal length of the mirror. The length of the object is perpendicular to the principal a·ds . Find the leng th of the image. Is the image erect or inverted ?
(a) 
5 em 
(b) 
5 em 
(c) 
6 em 
(d, 
6 em 
Interpret
and
The focal length F = f u = l.5f
1
0
1f
•
F
1 1.5 f ;~
So,
u =
~ 15 em andf =

10 em
.!.+
^{1} = ^{1} 
v
15
10
ie, v = 30em
ie, concave mirror will form real, inverted and enlarged image 1 _{1} of object 0 at a distanci! 30 em from it, ie, at a distance 4030 = 10 em from convex mirror. For convex mirror the image 1 _{1} will act as an object and so for it
_{u} = 10 em andf =
+ 15 em.
.!.+
10
^{1} =
!
15
ie,v= +6Cin
v So, final image 1 _{2} is formed at a distance 6 em behind the convex mirror and is virtual as shown in figure.
lntext Que,~!lo~ ,.2a.l 
M~'""
,
(i); Does the mirror fommla hold g?od for a plane mirrgr? .· ,
(iit
An object :is'placed between two · plane
······
, parallel mirrors. Why do tpe
.
·
, t images ;~t fainter . · ·
:,:
(iii)' Why are inir:rors used in searchlights parabolic and not concave spherical?
,
;
·)>
If yo~were driving a car, what typ~ofmirtoi would .you prefer to use (9_r;ob~~~il:affic.at ""''"''"•Adr?
qy~
w> Refraction
When light passes from one medium, say air, to another medium, say glass, a part is reflected back into the first medium ·n''.': _, ·: ;\;) as sesin tu the second medium, it either bends towards the normal or away from the normal. This phenomenon is known as refraction.
andt he restpa~,;, ·., . :
;.
laws of Refraction (Snell's law)
(i) If meditim 1 is a vacuum (or in practice air) we refer _{1} J.l _{2} as th e abs ol ute r E>fra i'! h •" ir><f • ·: •)f m edi um 2 and denote it by J.l/ or simply J.l (if no other medium is there).
(ii) Now, we can write Snell's law as, J.l sin i = constant
For two media, 11 _{1} sin i _{1} =
J.lz sin i _{2}
(i)
(ii)
890 Chapter 23 • Ray Optics
(iii)
Snell's can be written as.
_{s}_{i}_{n} i _{1}
v _{1}
A. _{1}
l12
_{1}_{1}_{1}_{2} =..===
Sllll2
v _{2}
A. _{2}
11 _{1}
Here, v _{1} is the
medium 2. Similarly 1 _{1} and A _{2} are the corresponding
wavelengths.
speed of light in medium 1 and v _{2} in
Rarer
2 Denser
_{2}
Denser
Rarer
(iv)
;1 > ;2
V2
l12
<
VI
> l11
"2 < "1
ll :> <
"2 >
u l
"1
If 11 _{2} ::> 11 _{1} then v _{1} > v _{2} and A _{1} > 1 _{2} _{,} ie, in a rarer m~dium, speed and hence , wavelength of light is more .
In general, speed of light in any medium is less than its speed in vacuum. It is convenient to define refractive index 11 of a medium as.
Speed of light in vacuum 
c 
^{1}^{1} = Speed of light in medium 
v 
Instance 6 Light is incident from air on oil at an angle of30°. After moving through oil1, oil2, and glass it enters water. If the refractive indices of glass and water are 1.5 and 1.3, respectively, find the angle which the ray makes with normal in water.
Air
Oil1
Oil2
(a)
(c)
_{s}_{m}_{0}
1 ( _{} 1
2.6
sin ^{1} (
3.6
1
J
J
(b) 
sin ^{1} (_] 2.6 
J 
(d) 
sin ^{1} (2 .6) 
Interpret
=>
As we know 1l sin i = (constant)
!lair sin ~air) = 1lglass sin r (glass)
sm~glass) =Sin !lair lair
0
0
0
0
1lglass
Again,
From Eqs. (i) and (ii) sin 30 = 1.3 sin r
ll·glass sin iglass = llwater sin rwater
0
1
1
^{s}^{m}^{r}^{=}^{}^{}^{=}^{}^{,}
,
2xl.3
2.6
1
r=.sin ^{1} (
2.6
J
(i)
(ii)
Instance 7 A ray of light is incident on a transparent glass slab of
refractive index 1.62. If the reflected and refracted rays are mutually perpendicular, what is the angle of incidence?
(a) 
58.3° 
(b) 
85 .3° 
(c) 
60° 
(d) 65° 
Interpret
Let the angle of incidence, angle of reflection and an,le
of refraction be i , rand r', respectively. Now, as per the question 90° r + 90° r' = 90°
=> 
r' = 90° i 
(because i = r) 

In 
case of reflection according to Snell's law, 1 sin i = 1l sin r ' 
or sin i = 
1l sin (90°  
i) 
=> 
tan i = 1l 

or 
i =tan ^{1} [!1] = tan ^{1} (1.62) = 58 .3° 
Instance 8 Refractive index of glass with respect to water is 1 .125. If the absolute refractive index of glass is 1.5, find ,the absolute index of water.
(a) 
1.33 
(b) 2.33 
(c) 
0.33 
(d) 0.44 
Interpret
Here, the refractive index of glass with respect to water
ie, wllg = 1.125 and absolute refractive index of glass llg = 1.5 . We know that
Apparent Shift of an Object due to Refraction
Due to bending of light at the interface of two different media, the image formation due to refraction creates an illusion of shifting of the object position. Consider an object 0 in medium. After refraction, the ray at the interface bends. The bent ray when it falls on our eyes, is perceived as corning from I. For nearly normal incident rays, 8 _{1} and 8 _{2} will be very small.
Rarer
J.lz
tan8 _{1} =sm8 . _{1} = =':::': ·
:::.=:"':'':: AB
Object distance from the refracting surface
Similarly,
^{s}^{m}^{8} ^{2} ^{=}
.
AB
^{}^{}^{}^{}^{}^{}^{}^{}^{}^{}^{}^{}^{}^{,}^{}^{}^{}^{}^{}^{}^{}
Image distance from the refracting surface
sin 8 _{1} _{_} sin8 _{2}

^{1}
11
^{2}
_

11 _{2}
11
_{1}
:::} AB
OB
1
AB _ 11 _{2}
BI

11 _{1}
BI
=
OB
Apparent depth
Real depth
J
lz
·=
J
L
1
So, Shift = Real depth Apparent depth = Real depth ( 1  ~~ J
Case I
If ).ll
<
).lz
Shift becomes negative, image distance > object distance, ieJ image is farther from the refracting surface.
Case II
If ).ll
>
).lz.
Shift becomes positive, image distance < object distance,
ie image is closer to the refracting surface .
Case _{I}_{I}_{I}
If ).lz 
= 
1 or ).! _{1} 
).l 

Shift 
= 
Real depth ( 1  ~J 
Instance 9 A fish in an aquarium, approaches the left wall at
a rate of 3 ms1, and observes a fly approaching it at 8 m.~ ^{1} . If the
refractive index of water is (4/ 3), find the actual velodty of the fly.
~X
).lX
(a) 
3.75 
ms ^{1} 
(b) 2.75ms ^{1} 

(c) 
0.75 
ms ^{1} 
(d) 
4.75 ms ^{1} 
Interpret
For the fish, appa.rent distance of the fly from the wall
of the aquarium is ).lX. If x is actual distance, then apparent
velocity will be d(J.!X)
dt
Now, the
(v.pp)fly = !l vfly
fish observes the velocity of the fly to be 8
ms ^{1} _{•}
Therefore, apparent relative velocity = 8 ms ^{1}
Vfish +
Cvapp)fly = 8 ms ^{1} ~ 3
+ ).l vfly = 8
vf!y = 5 x ~= 3.75ms ^{1}
4
Instance 10 A layer of oil 3 em thick is flowing on a layer of coloured water 5 em thick. Refractive index of coloured water is 5/3 and the apparent depth of the two liquids appears to be 36/7 em. What
is the refractive index of oil? (a) 1.4
(b) 2.4
(c)
3
(d)
2
Interpret
Apparent depth (AD) = .EL+ 2_
Ill
'
112
36
5
3
=+
J lz
5/3
7
or
or
,
.2_= 36 3= 15 lz
J
7
7
J
lz
7
= = 1.4
5
Chapter 23 • Ray Optics
891
v~ Total Internal Reflection
Whenever a ray of light goes from a denser medium to a rarer medium it bends away from the normal. As angle of incidence in denser medium increases, angle of refraction also increases in rarer medium. The angle of incidence in denser medium for whi.ch the angle of refraction in rarer medium is 90° is called the critical angle (C) .
sin C = ~Lrarer =~
sin 90°
J
ldenser
J
ld
=>
=>
sinC=~
J ld
c =sin ^{1} (~:J
Now, if the angle of incidence in the rarer medium is greater than the critical angle (C), then the ray instead of suffering refraction is reflected back in the same (denser) medium. This phenomenon is called total internal reflection. For total internal reflection to take place following set of conditions must be obeyed.
rarer
medium. (ii) The angle of incidence i must be greater than critical angle C.
(i) The
ray must travel from denser medium to
Instance 11 An isotropic point source (bulb) is placed at a depth h below the water surface. A floating opaque disc is placed on the surface of water, so that the bulb is not visible from the surface. What is the minimum radius of the disc? Take refractive index ofwater=).l.
Interpret
As shown in figure, light from bulb will not emerge out ·
1
of the water if at the edge of disc.
i>C
sin i >sin C
(i)
Now, if R is the radius of disc and h is the depth of bulb from it
and
.
.
R
smt=,===
Jiz +hz
. c
sm
1
=
J l
So, Eq. (i) becomes
or
R
1
===>
~R2+hz J
l
h
R>
~J l1
892 Chapter 23 • Ray Optics
• Refraction from aSpherical Surface
Spherical surfaces are of two types (i) Convex (ii) Concave
1
()
•
······;;,··· ··· ·········· ··· ···:···· ············
~
I
2
· ·· ·· ····· 1E' p· ·   • ······· ·
0
I
2
For both surfaces refraction formula is given by
~~= Jllz1
R
v _{1} 11 _{2} is refractive index of second medium with respect to first.
u
If 11 _{1} and 1lz are refractive indices of first and second medium with respect to air, then,
llz _ J11 = 1lz ·· 111
v
u
R
instance 12 A linear object of length 4 em is placed at 30 em from the plane surface of hemispherical glass of radius 10 em. The hemispherical glass is surrounded by water. Find the final position and size of the image:
(a) 
5.3 em 
(b) 
4.3 em 
(c) 
5 em 
(d) 
2.3 em 
;nterpret _{a}_{n}_{d} 
4 3 2 For 1" surface 11 _{1} = ,J1 _{2} = ,u =20cm, 3 R = +lOcm, 

8" 

5.3cm 

A" 

1 v' ~ 

_{U}_{s}_{i}_{n}_{g} 
1lz _ J11 = (J.lz 111) 

v 
u 
R 

_{=}_{=}_{>} 
(3/ 2)  
(4/ 3) 
= (3/ 2 4/ 3) 

v 
(20) 
10 

==> 
v = 30 em 

Using 
A' B' = ~ => 
A' B ' ( 4cm) = (4 / 3) 
( 30) 

AB 
JlzU 
(3/ 2) 
(20) 

==> 
A'B' = 5.3 em 
A'B' behaves as the object for plane surface
Jl _{1} = _{2} 3 ,Jlz=j 4 and R=oo,u=40 '
_{=}_{=}_{>}
_{=}_{=}_{>}
llz_= llz
v'
u'
(4/ 3) = (3/ 2)
v'
(40)
Solving it we will get, v' = 35 .4cm
N ow usmg .
=>
,
A'B''
(Jl
1
v')
 =
A'B'
(Jl _{2} u')
A"B" = (3/ 2)(35.4) => A"B" = 5.3cm
(5 .3)
(4/ 3)(40)
The final images in all the above cases are shown in figure .
~'~ Lens
Le ns is a transparent medium bounded by two curved surfaces. Lenses are of two types
1. Convex or convergent lens
2. Concave or divergent lens
1. Convex or Convergent Lens
The traqsparent medium bounded by two bulging surfaces is called convex lens . It is ofthree types (as shown) .
(a) Doubleconvex
lens
(b) Planoconvex
lens
(c) Concavoconvex
lens
2. Concave or Divergent Lens
The transparent medium bounded by two hollow surfaces is called concave lens. It is of three types (as shown).
(a) Doubleconcave
lens
(b) Planoconcave (c) Concavoconcave
lens
lens
Some Definitions Relating Lenses
Optical centre The optical centre is a point within or outside the lens, at which incident rays refract without deviation in its path.
s
Chapter 23 •
Ray Optics
8~~
Principal axis
The straight line passing through the optical
centre of lens is called principal axis of lens.
^{1} Principal focus
Lens has two principal foci.
(i) First principal focus It is a point on the principal axis of lens, the rays starting from which (convex lens) or appear to converge at which (concave lens) become parallel to principal axis after refraction.
··. ·
::·
F1
(ii) Second principal ,focus It is the point on the principal axis at which the rays coming parallel to the principal axis converge (convex lens) or appear to diverge (concave lens) after refraction from the lens.
Both the foci of convex lens are real while that of concave lens are virtual.
and optical
centre of lens is called focal length of lens.
Focal
length
The
distance
between
focus
Table 23.3
Formation of Image by a Convex Lens
l,i
Laws of Formation of Images by Lens
'
·'
(i) The rays corning parallel to principal axis of lens pas~ ···
(ii) The rays corning from the focus ofltilS go parallel tot~ principal a~isof lens after refraction. (iii) The rays of light passing through optical centre go straight after refraction without changing their path.
':
through the focus after refraction.
Lens Maker's Formula
If R _{1} and R _{2} are the radii of curvature of first and seconq refracting surfaces of a thin lens with optical centre C of foc~l
Maker'$
length/ and refractive index _{1} ~ _{2} then according to Lens formula
c
respect to surrounding medium.
Thin lens formula is
1
1
1
=  
u
!
v
.
_{1}_{.} 
At infinity 
At the principal focus (F _{2} _{)} or in the focal plane 
Real, inverted and extremely diminished 
2 . 
Beyond 2F _{1} 
Between _{F} _{2} and _{2}_{F} _{2} 
Real, inverted and diminished 
894 Chapter 23 •
Ray Optics
Real, inverted and of same size as the object
· 
4. 
Between 
F _{1} and 
Beyond 2F _{2} 
Real, inverted and magnified 
2Fl 

5. 
At F _{1} 
At infinity 
Real, inverted and highly magnified . 

6. 
Between 
F _{1} and 
On the same side as the 
Virtual, erect and magnified 

optical centre 
object 
Formation of Image by Concave Lens
The image formed is always virtual, erect and diminished and lies between the lens and F _{2} for all positions of the · object.
Instance 13
The focal length of convex lens is 10 em in ai r. Find its
focal length in water. (Given, llg.= 3/ 2 and llw = 4 / 3)
(a)
(c)
10 em
30 em
Interpret
 ^{1} =CI!g 1)(2
fair
Rl
(b) 20 em (d) 40 em
2_J
Rz
and
1
f f' ater =
(llg
ll w 
1
X1
Rl 
1 J
Ri
•
(i)
(ii)
Dividing Eq. (i) by (ii), we get
fwater 
( 
llg 1 
J 

"fair 
= 
llg f ll w 1 
Substituting the values,
fwater = (
(3/ 21)
 312 1
4/ 3
= 4 fair
= 4 X
10
= 40cm
)fair
An object is placed at a distance of 10 em to the left
on the axis of a convex lens L _{1} of fo cal length 20 em. A second convex
lens L _{2} offocal length 10 em is placed co axially to the rig ht of the lens
L _{1} at a distance of 5 em from its magnification.
it. Find the position of the final image and
Instance 14
(a) 
163. 
em 
on 
the 
right 
of the second lens, 
3 .33 
3 
. 

(b) 
163. 
em on the right of the second lens, 
1.33 

3 

(c) 
163. 
em on the right of the first lens, 1.33 

3 

(d) None of the above 
Interpret
=>
=>
Here, for 1" lens,
~
o·
u _{1} = 10 em
f _{1} = 
20 em 

1 
1 
1 
=
vl
u _{1}
1
!1
1
1
=
L1
_{v}_{l}
20
v _{1} =20cm
10
L2
, o;:;;
\
'!
';.:
\!
,1,.
Scm
· 0 _{2} '!
!
\ i
v
·1'2
o
ie, the image is virtual and hence lies on the same side of the object. This will behave as an object for the second lens.
1
1
1
For 2nd lens, =
Vz
u _{2}
fz
Here, u _{2} = (20 + S),J _{2} = 10cm
1
1
1
+=
10
25
v _{2}
=>
^{v} _{2}
50
2
==16cm
3
3
ie, final image is at a distance o; 163_ second lens.
_{3}
em on the right of the
, T)le magnification of the image is given by;
m = 2:1_ Vz = 20 _29_ = _± = 1.33
^{u} _{1}
^{u} _{2}
10 3x25
3
Magnification of Lens
The lateral, transverse or linear magnificauon produced by a lens is defined by
Height of image Height of object A real image II' of an object 00' formed by a convex lens is shown in figure.
I
=
0
m=
Height of image = _!£
Height of object
00'
=
~
u
·:
'
'
''
Substituting v and u with proper sign, ) ,; .
or
Thus,
.
'.
,
If
00'
I
_{0}
v
_{}_{u}
v
=m=
I
0
v
m=
u
u
Chapter 23 •
Ray Optics
895
Important Features
1.
Power of lens P =  ^{1}  f(inm)
2.
3.
P=
100
_{=}_{>}
j(incm) Power of convex lens is positive and of concave lens is negative.
If distance of an object from first focus of lens is a _{1} and distance of image from second focus is a _{2} , then its focal length.
f = ~ala2.
This is Newton's formula.
If two or more lenses are placed in contact, then equivalent focal length of the combination.
1
1
1
=++
f
!1
fz
1
·= L.
n
i=l h
Power of combination
p =Pl +Pz +
n
= L,P;
i=1
Magnification of combination
M
= m _{1} xm _{2} x
n
=11m
i=l
4. If two lenses offocallengthsf _{1} andf _{2} are separated by a distance x, then its equivalent focal length
1
1
1
X
=+  
F
!1
fz
fdz
Power of combination,
P =
P1 + Pz x P1P2
Total magnification remains unchanged ie, m=m _{1} xm _{2}
5. If a lens is made of a number of layers of different refractive indices, then number of images of an object formed by the lens is equal to number of different media.
6. Cutting of a lens (i) If a symmetrical convex lens of focal length f is cut into two parts along its optic axis, then focal length of each part (a plano convex lens) is 2f. However, if the two parts are joined as shown in figure, the focal length of combination is again f.
(a)
2(,
(b)
2f
f
(c)
f
(d)
896 Chapter 23 • Ray Optics
(ii) If a symmetrical convex lens of focal length f is cut into two parts along the principal axis, then focal length of each part remains changed atf . If these two parts are joined with curved ends on one side focal
But on joining two
2
length of the combination is
parts in opposite sense the net focal length becomes ~ (or net power = 0).
Table 23.4
_{(}_{a}_{)}
(b)
(c)
Difference between Lens and Mirror
(d)
7. Silvering of a lens
(i) Let a planoconvex lens is having a curved surface of radius of curvature R and has refractive index J.l· if its plane surface is silvered, it behaves as a concave mirror of focal length.
R
f = 2(~t 1)
(ii) If the curved surface of planoconvex lens is silvered then it behaves as a concave mirror of focal length.
R
f = 2!l
(iii) If one surface of a symmetrical double convex lens
(R _{1} =R _{2} = R) is silvered, then the lens behaves concave mirror of focal length
as a
8 .
f =
R
2(2J.ll)
The tabular difference between lens and mirror is given in table.
_{1}_{.} 
Convex lens 
_{+} _{v}_{e} 
+ ve 
converging 

2. 
Concave mirror 
 
ve 
+ ve 
converging 
3. 
Concave lens 
 ve 
ve 
diverging 

4. 
Convex mirror 
_{+} _{v}_{e} 
ve 
diverging 
,
I
Chapter 23 •
Ray Optics
897
with
a diverging lens of 2 D. Find the power and focal length of the
combination.
Instance
15
A
convergent
lens
(b)
(d)
of 6
D
is
co mbined
Instance 16
A convex lens of 10 em focollength is combined with a
concave lens of 6 em focollength. Find the focollength of the combination .
= 6 em, F =?
(a) 
15 em 
(b) 
15 em 

20 em 
(c) 
10 em 
(d) 10 em 
25 em
Interpret
Here,f _{1} = 10 cm,f _{2}
(a) 26 em (c) 30 em
Interpret
Here, P _{1} = 6 D, P _{2} = 2 D
Using the formula, P = P _{1} +
f = liP= 1/4 m = 25 em.
P _{2} =
6 2 = 4 D
Use the formula 
.!. = 

' 
F 
!
! _{1}
+
!
! _{2}
=
F = 15 em
!
10
!_
6
=
!_
15
<Jl
T
Is the ratio of frequencies Can convergent
Why
o_f ultraviolet rays and
,,a""'
!I) Refraction Through a Prism
A prism is a homogeneous,
p
transparent medium bounded by two plane surfaces inclined at an angle A with each other. These surfaces are called as refracting surfaces and the angle between them is called angle ofprismA.
the
refraction of monochromatic light through a prism. Here' i and e represent the angle of incidence and angle of emergence respectively, r _{1} and r _{2} are two angles of refraction. If J.l is the refractive index of the material of the prism, then
A
Figure
shows
0
R
sini
sine
J.l==
sinrl
sinr _{2}
The angle between the incident ray and the emergent ray is lmown as the angle of deviation o. For refraction through a · prism it is found that
i + e =A + oand r _{1} + r _{2} = A
Minimum Deviation
It is found that the angle
of deviation o varies with the angle of incidence i of the ray incident on the first refracting face of the prism.
The
figure and for one angle of
incidence it has a minimum value omm. At this value
variation
is
shown
in
i = e
It therefore, follows that
Om
L~:i="e.i1
r1
= r2
A
r=
2
Further at o _{1}
= om;= (i + 0 A
or
.
A+om
!=
2
smt
J.!=. or J.l= smr
For thin prism, om" {ll
l)A.
· [A+om)
sm 
2
A
sin 
2
The angle of minimum deviation for a glass prism
with J.l = .J3 equals the refracting angle of the prism. What is the angle of the prism?
Instance 17
Interpret
Using,
we have
or
sinA
.J3==
2
.
A
A
2
Slll · COS 
2
A
sin(1)
.J3
COS=
2
A

2
2
= 30°
.
or
sin(1)
A = 60°
ut
~~ .Dispersion
Dispersion of light is the phenomenon of splitting of white light into its constituent wavelengths on passing through a dispersive medium, eg, prism. Cause of dispersion is the variation of refractive index of prism with wavelengJ:h. As A.v < A.R, hence, J.lv > llR and consequently Ov > Ow
898 Chapter 23 •
Ray Optics
Angular Dispersion
It is the angular separation between
the fwo extreme rays. Angular dispersion 8 = 8v  8R
=
C11v 
11R )A
Dispersive Power The dispersive power of a prism material is measured by the ratio of angular dispersion to the mean deviation suffered by light beam. :. Dispersive power
ro Ov oR _ 1lv 1lR
0~,
where 11 is the mean value of refractive index of prism. The dispersive power of a prism depends only on its material and is independent of angle of prism, angle of incidence or size of the prism. Dispersive power is a unitless and dimensionless term. Dispersive power of a flint glass prism is more than that of a crown glass.
Dispersion without Deviation (Direct Vision Prism)
1. To produce dispersion witho~t mean deviation we use a combination of two prisms of different materials such that
A'=(ll. ^{1} JA
!l1
2. Net dispersion caused
=
C11v 11R) A
+ C11'v  11'R)A'
= (11 1)A (m 
m')
= 8 (m 
m')
Deviation without Dispersion (Achromatic Prism)
1. To produce deviation without dispersion we use a combination
Find the dispersion produced by a thin prism of 18°
having refracting index for red light = 1.56 and refractive index for violet light = 1.68.
Instance 18
(a) 
2.16° 
(b) 
1.16° 
(c) 
3.16° 
(d) 
2.10° 
Interpret
Here,
We know that dispersion produced by a thin prism
e= C!lv 11R)A
1lv = 1.68,~tR =1.56 and A = 18°
e.=(1.68 1.56) x 18° =2.16°
Instance 19 Calculate the dispersive power for crown glass from the given data
1lv =1.523
and 1LR =1.5145
(a) 
0.01639 
(b) 
1.05639 
(c) 
0.05639 
(d) 
2.05639 
Interpret
M
ean re
Here,
1lv = 1.523
fr
actlve . m .
d
ex,
11 =
and
1lR = 1.14S.
l.S23+1.S145
2
l.S187S
Dispersive power ro is given by,
ro = !l v llR = l.S23 l.S14S
(!l1)
(l.S187S1)
_{0} _ _{0}_{1}_{6}_{3}_{9}
Instance 20
A prism of crown glass with refracting angle of so
and mean refractive index = 1.51 is combined with a fiint glass prism of refractive index = 1.6S to produce no deviation. Find the angle of fiint glass .
(a) 
3.92° 
(b) 4.68° 
(c) 
5.32° 
(d) 7.28° 
Interpret
Let A' be the angle of flint glass prism.
Here, A = so and Jl = 1.51 for crown glass prism.
8 =
(!l1)A= (l.S11)xS = 2.SS ^{0}
Deviation produced by flint glass
o' = (!!'  1)A' = (1.6S 1)A' = 0.6SA '
For no deviation, 8' = 8 or 0.65A' = 2.55
A'= 2.S5 = 3.92o
0.65
> Optical Instruments
Optical instrument is a device which is made from proper
combination of mirrors, prisms and lenses. The principle of working of optical instruments depends on laws of reflection and refraction of light.
Microscope
It is an optical instrument which forms a magnified image of a small nearby object and thus, increases the visual angle subtended by the image at the eye so that the object is seen to be bigger and distinct.
)
l
~
A simple microscope is a convex
lens of short focal length which is fixed in a frame provided with
(i) Simple microscope
of two 
prisms of 
handle 
. 
.·c··j 
', 
different 
materiaPs 

such that 
A'= [!lv 1l R] · A
[!l~!l~]
2.
Resultant ~eviationproduced =·O[ 1:]
Magnification of simple microscope
(a)
When final image is formed at least distance of distinct vision,
D
M=1+
f
(b)
For relaxed eye, M = D
f
where D = least distance of distinct vision.
(ii) Compound microscope Figure shows a simplified version of a compound microscope. It consists of two converging lenses arranged coaxially. The one facing the object is called objective and the one close to eye is called eye piece. The objective has a smaller aperture and smaller focal length than those of the eye piece.
h
Magnification of compound microscope
(a) For relaxed eye
M~= _ vo(EJ
Uo
fe
In this position, length of microscope
(b)
L~ = Vo + fe
When final image is formed at least distance of distinct
VlSlOn.
MD =~(1+DJ
Uo
f e
Length of microscope, L _{0} =v _{0} +Ue
v _{0} = distance of first image from object lens.
U _{0} = distance of object from objective lens.
f. = focal length of eye piece.
Telescope
Telescope is an optical instrument which increases, the visual angle at the eye by forming the image of a distant object at the least distance of distinct vision, so that the object is seen distinct and bigger.
(i) Astronomical telescope It consists of two converging lenses placed coaxially. The one facing the distant object is called the objective and has a large aperture and large focal length. The other is called the eyepiece, as the eye is placed closed to it. The eyepiece tube can slide within the objective tube, so that the separation between the objective and the eyepiece may be varied.
'
Object
Chapter 23 •
Ray Optics
899
Magnification of astronomical telescope
(a)
(b)
For relaxed eye, M
~
In this position, length of telescope
= _ fo fe
L~ =fo +fe
When final image is formed at least distance of distinct vision
= _ fo( _{1} + fe J
D
M
fe Length of telescope
D
LD =fo +u e f o = focal length of objective lens
f e = focal length of eye piece
(ii) Terrestrial telescope In an astronomical telescope, the final image is inverted with respect to the object . To re move this difficulty, a convex lens of focallengthf is included between the objective and the eyepiece in such a way that the focal plane of the objective is a distance 2f away from this lens.
B
1~~~~~
A
~r _{0} ~2r er~
Magnification of terrestrial telescope
(a) For relaxed eye,
M~= 1
In this position, length of telescope
(b)
L~ = f o + 4f + f e
When final image is formed at least distance of distinct vision,
M
D
=
Length of telescope,
fo(1+ fe J
fe
D .
n
LD = f o + 4 f + de
f o = focal length of objective lens
f e = focal length of eye peice
A simple model of Galilean telescope
is shown in figure. A convergent lens is used as the objective and
a divergent lens as the eyepiece.
Galilean telescope
900 Chapter 23 * Ray Optics
~ fo
8
1
A
,
Magnification of Galilean telescope
(a) 
For relaxed eye, 
_{M}_{~} _{=} fo 
fe In this position, length of telescope L, = fo fe 

(b) 
When final image is formed at least distance of distinct 
vision
'
M
D
= fa (1 fe J
fe
D
Length of telescope 

Lv 
= fo u , 
An object is seen through a simple microscope offocal
length 20 em. Find the angular magnification produced if the image is formed at 30 em from the lens .
Instance 21
(a) 2.08 
(b) 
2.05 
(c) 3.08 
(d) 
1.5 
Interpret
Given,f = + 20 em v =  30 em
!.=.!.
u
f
and
Using thefonnula, .!
v
,
wehave,
1
30
1
U _{0}
u _{0}
=
'{<The >angular magnification,
1
20
12 em
M =.!!_ = ^{2}^{5} =2.08
uo
12
Instance 22
A galilean telescope is 27 em long when focussed to
form an image at infinity. If the objective has a focal length of 30 em, what is the focal length of the eye piece?
(a) 
3 em 
(b) 
3 em 
(c) 
2 em 
(d) 2 em 
Interpret
Given,fo = + 30 em.
Objective
Length of telescope is given
Eyepiece
27cm.
Therefore , u, = + 3 em. For the final image at infinity, the intermediate image should lie
at first focus of eye piece of the I
Galilean telescope.
27 em l~
1~ 30 em
•I
fe=3cm
Resolving Power of a Microscope
Resol vi ng p ;Jwer of e. microscope is defined as the reciprocal of the leas t separation between two close objects, so that they appear just separated, when seen through the rnicroscope.
so that they
appear just separated is given by
The
least separation between two objects,
d="'
2J.1sin8
where fl is che refractive index of the medium between the objective of the microscope and the object. This distance is called limit of resoh~tion of the microscope.
Resolving power of a micro5mpe = .!_ = ^{2} J.1sine
d
lc
half angle of the cone of light from the point object, fl sin 8 = numerical aperture
8 =
de
0
1. Resolving power of microscope increases with increase in the value of the refractive index of the meaium between objective and object that's why oil immersion objective microscopes are used to achieve high resolving power.
2. The resolving power of microscope increases, with decrease in the value of the wavelength of the light used to illuminate the object, so microscopes using ult~aviolet light for illu(Tlinating the objects are used to achieve high resolving power. These are called ultra microscopes. Higher resolving powe r is obtained in electron microscope.
> Resolving Power of Telescope
Resolving power of telescope is defined as the reciprocal of the smallest angular separation between two distant objects, so that they appear just separated, when seen through the telescope. The smallest angular separation between two objects, so that they appear just separated is found to be
de= 1. ^{2} 21c
D
where D is the diameter of objective
D
Resolving power of telescope 1.22/c
lntext Questions 23.3
en does a ray fucid~nf on _a prism deviate away from the base? "ngs) observed sometimes round the sun or moon? f gla.~s for lights ?f yellow, green and red colours are f!y. llg and flr respectively. Rearrange 'thes~ fv~l~71: _; e position of a object relative to a biconvex lens so that it beha v es like magnifying lens? erted, ~illit serve as a microscope?
Chapter 23 •
Ray Optics
Chapter Compendium
are o\:1eyed at every reflectin,g surface.
ofsy:mmetrical spherical surfaces, are
two
(i) convex, and (ii) concave.
which the reflection takes place at the bulged
a convex mirror and the mirror in which place at the depressed surface _{i}_{s} called a
10. 
Refraction at Sphe,rical Surfaces, 

(i) 
For a spheric1il surface, f.Lz 
, 
f.LI = Hz  f.L1 

(ii) 
Magnification, m = ^{1}^{1}^{1} ::_ 

flzU 

(iii) 
When the object is relation can be obtainted vv<<.:muL)(.UI relation becomes 

_ f.L2 +~t1 = !11 J.Lz R u v 

11 . 
Thin Lens 
.Ll~'"wouL rays, the refracted ray and the normal surface separating the two mediaall lies in one
law For any two media the ratio of the sine of the of incidence to the sine of the angle of refraction constant for a light beam of a particular frequency, ie
901
L
~
,
T
t
~~
^{,}^{,} '·
1
1
1
12. Thin lens fonnula ., =
v
u
f
13. Linear magnification of a lens
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