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2nd International Conference on GROUND IMPROVEMENT TECHNIQUES: 8 - 9 October 1998, Singapore

1. Introduction
Studies on Soil Disturbance Caused
by Grouting in Treating Marine Clay
JG Wang, BBR Ground Engineering Pte Ltd, Singapore
B Oh, BBR Ground Engineering Pte Ltd, Singapore
S W Lim, BBR Ground Engineering Pte Ltd, Singapore
GS Kumar, Kajima Overseas Asia Pte Ltd, Singapore
Jet grouting is a method to construct in underground a column shaped solid substance by
cutting and mixing in-situ soil material with a cement grout injected at a very high velocity and
pressure. It is generally used to strengthen and stabilize very soft soils like Marine clay and
Alluvial soils for development purpose. This jet-grouting layer can be used for several purposes
depending on the particular construction requirements. Thus it is widely used in Singapore and
all over the world [I].
Over the years, jet grouting technology has made great development. From early invention of
single tube to double tube and triple tube system. These improvements have created bigger
soilcrete column size as big as 2.0m diameter. However, in Japan, there is a new successful
breakthrough on jet grouting research which can achieve up to 5.0m diameter, they called it
"Super Jet". This paper shall not give the mechanical details of jet grouting, instead it will focus
on the displacement of soil due to jet grouting.
The amount of pressure required to facilitate the cutting and mixing of the grout with soil is at
range of 300 -- 400 bars depending on the required radius of the grouted column. Because the
injected grout replaces the cut soil, the soil comes out to the ground through the release holes as
spoil. If the number of release holes are not enough or choked, upheaval will be a natural side-
product. If the area is confined with in, say Diaphragm Wall (D/W) or sheet-piles, the pressure
built up due to the introduction of the additional mass in to the soil causes the ground to heave
and at the same time causes deflection in the D/W or sheet piles [2]. There is a possibility that if
the deflection is great it may cause significant damage to the neighboring structures especially
old structures. So this should be studied carefully while doing the jet grouting work in a densely
built up area. Thus, the displacement control during jet grouting should be studied carefully.
This paper studies the jet grouting effects on the Diaphragm Wall and the surrounding soil for a
project in Singapore with two basements in Marine clay. Effects of the Jet grouting, direct
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loading on the Diaphragm wall due to the jet pressure and surcharge due to upheaval, are
studied by Finite Element Method (FEM). The numerical results are compared with the
readings from the Inclinometers installed in the Diaphragm wall and surrounding soils out side
the D/W. It is found that jet grouting pressure will cause the deflection to a limited extent. The
magnitude of the displacement depends upon the soil surrounding the wall, jet grouting type
and overburden pressure. The upheaval effect varies with construction sequence. Based on the
analysis results a displacement-control method is proposed to reduce the deflection of D/W and
the surrounding soils out side the D/W during jet grouting work. This proposed displacement
practice is effective in controlling the movement of the Diaphragm Wall.
2. Project Works
Existing MRT Tunnels
U Rl
11 Higbrising Building
Food Center
Highway
Fig. 1 Site Location and Photo
Fig.I shows the job site in consideration. Prior to the jet grouting work a Diaphragm Wall of
800mm thick was constructed. This D/W has an average depth of 51m and penetrated 4 meters
in to the hard soil. The jet grouting was carried out at -1 lm -- -14m into the ground to form a
3m layer. A total of 1368 numbers of l.6m in diameter jet grout columns were formed within a
short tight schedule of two months. The columns are spaced at l .4m centre to centre with an
overlap of 200mm. The triple tube method was adopted in this project where water is used to
cut soil at high pressure of 400bar and cement grout is ejected with annulus film of air to mix
with the soil.
.The main purpose of this layer of the grout is to act like a strut and also as an upheaval block
during the excavation. The jet-grouting layer against the diaphragm wall can be modelled as a
supporting strut to resist horizontal force during excavation. It is tightly formed together as in
Fig 1 to prevent upheaval of soft soil during basement construction. The layer of grout mass
provides a dry and stable platform at the final level of excavation. The stiff soilcrete layer also
holds the proposed bored pile in position. Without it, the bored pile can be easily moved in soft
marine clay and even uplift during the excavation of its overburden soil.
As indicated in Fig. 1, Inclinometers are installed all around the site and also in the D/W to
monitor the soil and Diaphragm Wall movements respectively. The location of the project is in
downtown Singapore and the site is surrounded by many high-rising buildings also there is an
existing MRT tunnel 20m below the ground level at distance of 60m from the Diaphragm Wall.
The Inclinometers and settlement markers are monitored on regular basis during jet grouting.
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Jet grouting has two fundamental effects, Surcharge by upheaval and Jet grouting pressure. To
control the soil movement surrounding the D/W several methods have been considered, like
altering the sequence of the jet grouting columns and reducing the pressure of the grout near the
DF/W so that the impact on the wall due to the jet is lessened. In order to understand these
individual effects following three cases are simulated using Finite Element Analysis:
1) Surcharge and jet grouting
2) Only jet grouting. The clearance of the Diaphragm Wall from nozzles is emphasized.
3) Pre-excavation and jet grouting
3. Soil Conditions and Parameters
Soil conditions and parameters are also given in Fig. 2. Marine clay is divided into upper layer
clay and lower layer clay depending
on the consolidation. Water table is Machine Upheaval Surcharge
assumed to be at l .5m from ground
level. And also the soils under the
adjoining road and the MRT zone
are improved during their
construction time. An embankment
with wet soil is used to simulate
upheaval effect. Working machines
are replaced by direct loading and
are acting on the surface of the
embankment. Jet grouted zone is
considered to be an improved soil
zone. Because of low permeability of
very soft Marine Clay, undrained
analysis is carried out. All materials
are assumed to follow Mohr-
er .,-1 s kN'm3
E-2025kPa
Marine cJavv1m.ver)
y-lSkN/ml
E-8.lE3kPa
cp-23
Diaphragm Wall
JGP y-16 k:Nlm1
E 2.6E5 kPa =0.30
cp-18 c-125 kPa
Cover
Fill
y-16kNJml
E-4050kPa -0.35
cp-220 c=S kPa
MRT Zone
y=16 kN'm3
E-=27000 kPa -0. 35
cp-25 c-5 kPa
Mud stone (completely weathered)
Mud stone
.,..=20 kN'ni

E-7.2E4kPa =-0.20
E-1. 2E6 kPa =-0. 20 cp-300 c=S kPa
q> 3 5 c=S kPa
Surdarge y-20 kN'm1
E l.3E3 kPa =0.30
q>-30 c-5 kPa
Coulomb model. Fig.2 Soil Profile and Soil Parameters
3.1 Jet-Grouting Pressure on Diaphragm Wall
Jet-grout pressure acting on diaphragm wall in
jet-grouting zone is estimated to be equal to the
overburden pressure, P
0
, in this paper. This can
keep soil above balance if the cutting soil does
not sink down. Furthermore, because of
cutting, the soil is of fluid status and soil
pressure should be isotropic. Fluid dynamic
calculation [3] has shown jet-pressure
distribution for different nozzle distances as
shown in Fig. 3. The farther the distance, the
less the pressure.
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200
..
cl: 150
..
e
:::l
v.i
Vl
u
-
0..
co
c:
= 100
0
=
0
I
-u


20 30 40 50 60
Nozzle Distance (cm)
Fig.3 Pressure Distribution with Nozzle Distance
3 .2 Embankment Height
I I H
I I
po JGP
Upheaval
!;'jl'
No Friction
1
---
>--'-""'!""" , .... -
....
6
.... A 11
,,, , ctua 1ne
'/ ;'"' with friction
Fig.4 Surcharge Height and Jet-grouting Pressure
The height of the embankment is determined by many factors. The key factors are jet grouting
pressure, withdrawing time and overburden pressure. In principle, heaving will occur only if the
jet grouting pressure is greater than the overburden pressure. The process of heaving will
continue until equilibrium between jet-grout pressure and overburden pressure of soil is
reached. Fig.4 represents the loading equilibrium diagram.
where H
1
is the soil thickness below water table to the top level of jet-grout column
H
2
is the depth of ground level to the water table
H
3
is the height of the surcharge upheaval or wet soil embankment
Fis the friction contributed by the side surface of the upheaval column
Pv is the overburden pressure before jet grouting
Po is the jet grouting pressure
y
1
(1=1,2,3) is the average density of soil each layer
Fig.4 also shows the frictional effect on the upheaval height. For the soils below the water table,
effective stress is used. For illustration, when Po= 110 k.Pa, Pv = 66kPa and )'3 = 18 kN/m
3
then
H
3
= 2.4m for no friction case.
4. Results and Discussion
4.1 Comparison with Inclinometer Readings
First of all, the deflection comparison between site observation data and FEM results is made to
identify the suitability of the computational model. Fig. 5 shows the comparisons of FEM
analysis to actual readings of I-6 which is located approximately Im away from the D/W. The
inclinometer readings show a deflection of lOOmm. Generally, numerical results are in
agreement with the observations. This implies that soil profile and loading conditions are
correctly assumed.
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The deflection of the soil at the top layer is
mainly affected by superimposed loading, i.e.
vehicular traffic. Soil movement at the lower
depths is caused due to the jet grout pressure
and the surcharge. All the deflections are going
outwards. It correlates with previous back-
analysis [4]. Readings from the Inclinometers
in the Diaphragm Wall is generally consistent
to the readings of Inclinometers in the
surrounding soils. But careful comparison
reveals that they are different within I Om from
ground. Ground activity such as traffic loading
out side the diaphragm wall causes the
difference.
Based on this numerical model, loading path
calculations have been carried out:
1. Jet grouting and upheaval combination:
-
E
-
-
0
>
0
-
"O
8
::s
"'O
~
100
90
80
Measured deflection in-situ
Exdwl8i (Ver B)
I Exdwl8ja(60&10kPa)
60
Exdwl 8jb(70&10kPa)
50-----............ ---------------------...._ ............
-20 0 20 40 60 80 100 120
Deflection (mm)
Fig. 5 Comparison of FEM Results
to In-situ Observation of 1-6
This study focuses on the interaction between the upheaval and the jet grouting to reval
the upheaval effect.
2. Jet grouting effect: If we mobilize enough excavators to remove all the upheaval soil or
remove the spoil continuously, i.e. by removing the spoil at regular intervals we keep
the upheaval to a minimum so that the limit deflection is revealed.
3. Pre-excavation: Before the commencement of the jet grouting work, the whole site is
excavated to a depth of say 0.5m Im.
4.2 Upheaval and Jet Grouting
Fig.6 is the deflection of the diaphragm wall versus loading history. In this analysis, jet grouting
100
-E
-
A Jet+Surcharge+Machine
. t.. ~ , ' ~
' ) I .
. >
... ~ : . I
+ Jet+Surcharge
.-*: .
1.. I
. : ~ .
60
Jet Grouting
-100 0 100 200
Deflection of Diaphragm Wall (mm)
Fig. 6 The Contribution of Jet-Grouting, Surcharge and Macinery to Deflections
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pressure equivalent to 110 kPa is applied first. Then, upheaval applies the surcharge by terms of
the increase in the height of the embankment to H
3
=1.8m. The considering the third stage of the
loading cycle, i.e. the machinery like the excavators and the jet grouting machines working on
the top of the embankment (q = 22.5 kPa).
If jet grouting alone is acting on the diaphragm wall the deflection in the wall is negligible or
limited. From the analysis, the deflection of the diaphragm wall is sensitive to the swface
loading, surcharge and machinery, which cause most of the deflection. The deflection in
diaphragm wall is determined by the constraints provided by the outside soil, the stiffness of the
diaphragm wall and position of jet-grouting pressure to the diaphragm wall. The total
displacement shows that the displacement is localized to a limited zone. But the deformation
range is much larger than the plastic flow zone, which was computed by Mr. Akira Wada of
AGA[3]. Soil movement in the MRT zone, which is 60m away from the diaphragm wall, is
insignificant and hence can be ignored.
4.3 Jet-grouting pressure
As mentioned previously if the spoil is removed immediately as it comes out from the ground
the upheaval is minimum, then the soil displacement and the deflection of the diaphragm wall
should be different from the upheaval - Jet grouting combination. As shown in the Fig. 6 the
direct contribution to the deflection from jet grouting pressure on the diaphragm wall is limited
compared to the overall deflection due to other factors. Fig. 7 shows the deflection of
diaphragm wall for different jet-grouting pressures only.
Fig. 8 shows the fading speed of soil displacement with distance. Elastic analysis indicated that
the fading speed should be of the order rk (where ke [0,2] depends on soil conditions, structure
of diaphragm wall and so on, r is the distance from force source).
110
,.-... 25
E 100
...._,,
-
-
-
ro E
:::
E
-
20
E 90
-
-(\S
e.o
~ ro
"""'
~
..c
- 0.. 00
ro
(\S
15
- '""'
0
80
..c
c.
<.-..
~
- 0
0
- '-
(1)
0
>

Jet pressure P=50 kPa
c 10
(1)
70
-J
0
-

-
-0
Jet pressure P=80 kPa
u
(])
CL>
c::
0

Jet pressure P= 110 kPa
cu
::3
0
-0
5
CL>
60
I
Jet pressure P= 150 kPa
~
~
s o - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - ~ - - - - - - - _ _ , , __ _,
-10 0 10 20 30
Deflection of Diaphragm Wall (mm)
0 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - ~
40 60 80 100 120 140 160
Jet Grouting Pressure (kPa)
Fig.7 Deflection of Diaphragm wall due to Jet Grouting Pressures
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Unloading effect is also a very interesting
topic in displacement control during jet
grouting. Modem soil mechanics has
shown that elastic deformation and
plastic deformation of soils almost occur
at the same time even how small the
deformation is [5]. Elastic deformation in
total deformation decreases gradually
with larger deformations. A rough
estimation of elastic deformation is
around 10%. Fig.9 extends the simulation
up to after the completion of the jet
grouting or the unloading process.
Because soil is assumed to be elasto-
plastic material, most of the deformations
are residual. As a conclusion, if the wall
and soils move, it is difficult to recover
them.
-
E
E
-.....
c
cu
E
cu
>
0
E
100
I
80
I
60
I
40
20
\
\ Diaphragm wall
\
J ...
I \ \
' \ Jct grouting (P= 110 kPa)
\
\ \ - - - Add surcharge (H=l.8m)
' \ - - Add machine (q=22.5 kPa)
\ \
\
\ \
\ \
\
\ \
' \
'
''-
-
-
-
-
- --- .:::....

0 20 40 60 80 100
X Coordinates ( m)
Fig. 8 Fading of Soil Displacement with Distance
110
-E 100
-
-
I

E 90
00
I
....
.r::.
c..
.!!
80
0

0

>
v
70

Jct pressure P=SO L:Pu
....J
"'O

Jct pn:ssurc L:Pa
u
(,)
::3

Jct P= l I 0 kP:.i
"O
v
60
+
0::: Jct pn:ssurc P= 150 L:P:i

-5 0 5 10 15
Residual Deflection (mm)
Protection "blanket". As shown in the
Fig. 3, jet-grouting pressure depends
on the nozzle distance from the
diaphragm wall. Also considering
another scenario where light jet
grouting is applied all along the
diaphragm wall with low pressure to
form a protection 'blanket'.
Subsequently when/standard grouting
is carried out near to the diaphragm
wall, the light jet grouting would act
like a barrier, thus reducing the soil
displacement and deflection . of the
diaphragm wall. Fig. 9 Residual Deformation after Jet-grouting
4.4 Pre-excavation before Jet-grouting
As we have seen from the above analysis, soil and diaphragm wall will move outward during
jet grouting and most of these movements are permanent or non-recoverable. In order to prevent
the significant movement in the diaphragm wall, it is advisable to excavate 0.5m-- Im depth of
soil so as to reduce the surcharge due to heaving. Also by excavating the diaphragm wall will
slightly move inward, this inward deflection can reduce the magnitude of outward deflection. In
this paper, the effects of pre-excavation of varying depth i.e. 0.5m, I .Om and 1.5m on the
deflection of the diaphragm wall are computed. Loading process is assumed as follows:
Pre-excavation 9 Jet grouting o Completion ofjet grouting.
The pre-excavation method is effective to reduce the magnitude of deflection of diaphragm
wall. Fig. 10 shows the deflection history for the three cases. The pre-excavation has two
527
effects: 1. Passive soil pressure. The diaphragm wall moves inward during excavation due to
the active soil pressure. When the jet grouting is carried out, the deflection is pushed back and
soil is into passive soil pressure zone. This pushing requires much bigger force. 2. Less
upheaval height. Upheaval or discharge volume is roughly determined for a site and jet-
grouting parameters. Pre-excavation 110
will reduce a little overburden pressure
and produce a little more upheaval
volume, but pre-excavation reduces the
upheaval height above ground. That is,
the additional height of the
embankment is reduced a lot. Thus, the
less deflection is obtained.
5. Conclusions
Based on above studies, following
understandings can be drawn:
I) Jet grouting pressure will cause a
limited deflection of the diaphragm
wall. The deflection depends on
many factors such as wall
properties, soil profile, position of
~
0
-
0
>
0
-l
-0
0
0
='
-0
0
~
100
90
80
70

Pre-excavation of 0.5m

Pre-excavation of I . Om
60

Pre-excavation of I .Sm
so----------------------------
0 20 40
Deflection (mm)
60 80
Fig. 10 Pre-excavation Effect on Diaphragm Wall
jet grouting and nozzle distance. A feasible method of reducing the deflection is to increase
nozzle distance from diaphragm wall. The risk for this method is that the joint of JGP
column with diaphragm wall may be not good as a strut wal.er. The JGP layer will lose some
functions as a strut. Light jet grouting can be used as a protection blanket.
2) Most of the soil displacement and deflections of the diaphragm wall comes from upheaval.
The contribution from working machinery during jet grouting contributes ranks the second.
Thus, control or removal of upheaval can reduce most of the deflection. A voiding heavy
machinery during jet grouting can further reduce the soil displacement. It should be noted
that if the displacement or deflection occurs, it is difficult to recover them.
3) Pre-excavation can reduce the soil movement. Pre-excavation of 0.5m--1.0m is advisable.
6. References
[I] J.P. Welsh (1996), "State of the Art of Grouting in North America", Grouting and Deep Mixing, Proc. OfIS-
Tokyo'96, Vol. 2, pp.825-831
[2] K. Jayatharan and K.K. Soh( 1997), "Excessive Movement of Retaining Structures in Singapore Soft Marine
Clay", Proc. Of the Int. Conf. Foundation Failure, pp.217-228
[3] AGA(1998), Effect Range of Jet Grouting by Limit State Method, Personal Communication
[4] Wang, J.G.(1998), Evaluation of Bending Moment Directly From Inclinometer Readings, Technical Report in
BBR Ground Engineering Pte Ltd
[5] Ng, C.W.W., Bolton, M.D. and Dasari, G.R.(1994), The Small Strain Stiffness of A Carbonate Stiff Clay,
Technical Report of Engineering Department of Cambridge University
.
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Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on
incorporating
Pre-Conference Symposium on JET GROUTING and
Post-Conference Seminar on GEOSYNTHETICS
7 - 10 October 1998, Singapore
[ISBN: 981-04-0234-1]
Gold Co-sponsor:
Geotechnics Holland b.v.
Organiser:
Cl-Premier Conference Organisation