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BULLETIN OF THE METROPOLITAN MUSEUM OF ART nearly three miles, line the five sculptured galleries, or pilgrims' procession paths, surrounding the different stories of the shrine. Iconographically, these sculptures This codicil to Mr. Hoge's will was re- are of the greatest interest to the student fused probate by the court of first jurisdic- of Buddhism; their artistic merit warrants tion, but on appeal it was admitted to their being classed among the greatest probate and the Museum is now in posses- expressions of Asiatic culture. sion of Mr. Hoge's generous gift. Indo-Javanese art continued to flourish R. W. DE F. even after the decay of Buddhism as the state religion. The traditions of Buddhist A BUDDHA HEAD FROM JAVA art were carried on by the orthodox Hindus, and, although the sculptured decoration CONSPICUOUS among the master- of the Hindu temples at Prambanam, the pieces of Indian art of the classic period ancient capital of Java, lack the dignified (600-850 A.D.) are the sculptures of the simplicity and restraint of Borobodur, they great Buddhist temple at Borobodur on represent, nevertheless, a development the island of Java. Early in the seventh characterized by many admirable qualities. century, Indian colonists emigrated' to Indian art in Java was brought to an end Java, and there established a prosperous by the Mussulman conquests of the kingdom. Indian art, after many cen- fifteenth century. turies of evolution, during which a thorThe Museum has lately purchased a head oughly national style had been originated, of Buddha, which comes, in all probability, was entering at this time upon an era of from the temple at Borobodur. It may high perfection. The Indian colonists be assigned in date, approximately, to the brought this art to Java, where, flourishing ninth century. The head is somewhat no less brilliantly than in India itself, it larger than life size, and is carved from continued to preserve largely its Indian black volcanic stone or lava, the material character. commonly used by Javanese sculptors. The principal monument of this Indo- It was formerly owned by the well-known Javanese art is unquestionably the temple collector, M. Alphonse Kann, and was at Borobodur. This celebrated shrine, exhibited by him at the Exhibition of which has been called the Parthenon of Buddhist Art held in 1913 at the Cernuschi Buddhism and the most magnificent monu- Museum, Paris. Since Indian sculpture, ment of Buddhist art in the whole of Asia, particularly of the great period, comes but was built approximately between 750 and rarely on the market, the Museum may 800, but its decoration must have extended be congratulated upon the acquisition of so over a much longer period. In fact, it was fine an example as this head of Buddha. not entirely completed at the time, about Comparison of our new accession with the tenth century, when Buddhism was the images of Buddha in the small collection superseded as the state religion in Java, as of Gandharan or Graeco-Buddhist sculpit had been several centuries earlier in tures acquired some years ago by the India, by orthodox Brahmanism. Not Museum, will prove instructive. The sculptures of Borobodur, which have infrequently it is asserted that we owe the been remarkably well preserved, include familiar Buddha type to the sculptors of not only statues in the round, but also, and this school; that is, to those Hellenistic of even greater importance, a series of bas- sculptors, or rather workmen, whose inreliefs representing scenes from the life of ferior talents found employ, under the Buddha and from the jatakas or legends direction of Buddhist monks, in the of his previous births. These reliefs, which Indo-Scythian kingdom of Gandhara, on extend in the aggregate for a length of the northwest frontier of India, during the but of less first three centuries of our era. It is 1Therehadbeenearliermigrations, probably true that the Gandharan sculpimportance.
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at which at least three-fourths of the entire Board then in office shall vote in favor of such sale or disposition.

BULLETIN

OF THE METROPOLITAN

MUSEUM OF ART

tors were the first to represent the person embroidered, peasant woman's cap. They of Buddha. The Gandharan Buddha is a passed it from hand to hand as they disdebased Apollo upon whom the Buddhist cussed the originality of its designs, the monks have grafted the laksbanas or marks historic relations of its motifs, and the skill of divinity attributed to the person of of its workmanship. The peasant woman's cap was one of the Buddha, such as the short hair, the long arms, the pendent ear lobes, etc. But the articles shown in the Czecho-Slovak Exhitype thus created was an incomplete bition, and the three to whom it served symbol, which might satisfy the devout as text were representative Bohemianwith a representation of the physical ap- American artists. The Metropolitan pearance of Buddha, Museum is not only but which failed to metropolitan; it is express-did not, percosmopolitan. It prehaps, even attempt serves and explicates to express those beginnings in the qualities of mind and light of continuings, heart in which lay the as well as of declintrue greatness of that LA STONE Hence the Prince Siddhartha, i4, ings. who renounced his Czecho-Slovak Exhirank and worldly posbition, to which one descends from the sessions to seek the more pretentious, but "truth that should avail to liberate all perhaps not more men from the bondsignificant exhibitions . of the old Egyptians. ~:~~ age of mortality." The expression of Almost 400 Bohem~ ii~:~; ians came on that spiritual character, the completion of the Sunday afternoon to was the hear Mr. Vondrous, symbol, in English, and Mr. achievement, not of Pavel Sochan, in Boforeigners working under the dictation hemian, tell of the old ...;;' of monks, but of that Slovak arts, and the long abeyance of their purely Indian art . . which succeeded the flowering and fruitI HEAD OF BUDDHA VOLCANIC STONE ing, and of the naGraeco-Buddhist c_ENTURY tional Renaissance. school of Gandhara. JAVA, IX ( It is to native Indian Then a representagenius that we owe the familiar type of tive of the Museum pointed out the duty Buddha, the Enlightened One, the type of immigrant Americans whose heritage which is so superbly illustrated in the is beautiful to foster in their new home recent addition to our collections of Asi- art, in its two aspects of appreciation and atic art. J. B. production, and such skill as they possess, not only, or chiefly, in old applications, but in the incorporation of beauty into EXHIBITION OF CZECHOall the constructive tasks to which they SLOVAK ART set their hands. ON December 9 were seen in the baseThe Czecho-Slovak Exhibition consisted ment of the Metropolitan Museum, in one of embroideries, laces, hand-woven and of the class rooms, three artists--a painter, hand-spun textiles, ribbons, caps, aprons, an engraver, an etcher-all men of reputa- vests, shirts, bodices, nets, kerchiefs, tion, standing entranced over a white, decorated pottery, glassware, decorated
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