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The Acidic Environment


1. Indicators were identified with the observation that the colour of some flowers depends on soil composition

Classify common substances as acidic, basic or neutral

Common substances have varying pH, being classed as either acidic, basic or neutral Acids, bases and neutral substances are usually classed based on their properties

Properties:
Type of Substance Acidic Properties - Tastes sour - Changes indicator colours (e.g. blue litmus to red) - Conducts electricity - Reacts with metals to produce hydrogen gas - Reacts with carbonates to form carbon dioxide and water - Reacts with metal oxides and hydroxides to produce salt and water - Tastes bitter - Changes indicator colours (e.g. red litmus to blue) - Conducts electricity - Reacts with amphoteric metals such as aluminium to produce hydrogen gas - Dissolves amphoteric metal hydroxides such as Al(OH)3 - Almost none of the properties of acids or bases - Does not react with most metals - Does not conduct electricity

Basic

Neutral (water)

Common Substances:
Acidic Lemon Juice Vinegar Gastric Juice Soft Drink Basic Cloudy Ammonia Detergents Antacid Tablet Caustic Soda Neutral Water Salt Water Ethanol Glucose Solution

Solve problems by applying information about the colour changes of indicators to classify some household substances and acidic, neutral or basic

The acidity, basicity or neutrality of a substance can be determined by observing the colour change that it imposes on an indicator Multiple indicators are used if a single one is not enough to classify the substances pH The range of colour change of each indicator is noted, and if a substance is within this range of colour change, the colour will be a mixture of the two extremities and it narrows down the pH greatly

Identify that indicators such as litmus, phenolphthalein, methyl orange and bromothymol blue can be used to determine the acidic or basic nature of a material over a range, and that the range is identified by the change in indicator colour

Indicators such as litmus, phenolphthalein, methyl orange and bromothymol blue can be used to measure the pH of a substance They are dyes and they do this by changing colours depending on the pH solution This change in colour can be used to determine the pH of a solution Colour Change Red Blue pH Range 4.8 8.1

Indicator Litmus

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Phenolphthalein Bromothymol Blue Methyl Orange Colourless Red/Magenta Yellow Blue Red Yellow 8.3 10 6.0 7.6 3.1 4.4

Identify data and choose resources to gather information about the colour changes of a range of indicators

Summary of Investigation:
An investigation was performed to gather information about the colour change of a range of indicators and the results were compared to second hand sources The investigation involved preparing many batches of pH solutions ranging from 0-14 using serial dilutions, adding a different indicator to each The results varied slightly from the actual ranges of these indicators due to factors such as errors made during the serial dilution

Results:
pH/Test Tube 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 Phenolphthalein Colourless Colourless Colourless Colourless Colourless Colourless Colourless Colourless Colourless Colourless Colourless Colourless Pale Magenta Magenta Magenta Methyl Orange Red Red Red Peach Yellow Yellow Yellow Yellow Yellow Yellow Yellow Yellow Yellow Yellow Yellow Colour of the Indicator Litmus Solution Bromothymol Blue Red Yellow Orange Red Yellow Orange Red Yellow Orange Red Lime Green Purple Teal Purple Blue Purple Teal Purple Blue Purple Teal Purple Blue Purple Blue Purple Blue Purple Blue Blue Blue Blue Blue Universal indicator Red Red Red Red Orange Light Green Light Green Light Green Green Green Teal Purple Purple Purple Purple

Actual Values:
Indicator Litmus Phenolphthalein Bromothymol Blue Methyl Orange Colour Change Red Blue Colourless Red/Magenta Yellow Blue Red Yellow pH Range 4.8 8.1 8.3 10 6.0 7.6 3.2 4.4

Aim:
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Perform a first-hand investigation to prepare and test a natural indicator

To prepare and test a natural indicator found in red cabbage

Method:
Part 1 Making the Indicator: 1. A small handful of shredded red cabbage was placed into a pestle

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2. A large pinch of sand and 5-10mL of ethanol was also added into the pestle 3. The mixture was carefully ground with a mortar until the ethanol had become intensely coloured 4. The solution was decanted into a small beaker and covered with plastic wrap for use in part 2, noting the initial colour of the indicator Part 2 Testing the Indicator: 15 test tubes were set up on a test tube rack and numbered 0-14 20mL of 1M HCl was added into the test tube number 0, and 20 mL of 1M NaOH added to the test tube numbered 14, and 18mL of distilled water was added to the test tube numbered 7 The 1M solutions were diluted inwards by a serial dilution of a factor of 10 using a pipette until all the test tubes from 0-14 were filled with a solution 5 drops of the indicator was added to each test tube and shaken and the colour change was recorded

1. 2. 3. 4.

Results:
Part 1 Making the Indicator: The ethanol turned form a clear, colourless liquid to a cloudy deep purple liquid, which was the initial colour of the indicator Part 2 Testing the Indicator:

Analysis:
Red cabbage contains two pigments that are responsible for its indicator properties (anthocyanin and flavonol) The wide range of colours displayed when this dye was tested was due to its two pigments interacting with each other in different pH ranges Acidic Colour Red Colourless Neutral Colour Blue/mauve Colourless Basic Colour Blue Yellow

Pigment Anthocyanin Flavonol

Discussion:
Justification of Method: The sand was added into the mixture as it is an abrasive material that can break the cell walls and membranes of the cabbage in order to release the dye The ethanol was added as it acts as a solvent to dissolve the indicator once it was released from the cabbage The serial dilution was done to ensure that there was a solution for every pH range, providing a full range to show the full extent of the indicator and the extent of its colour change

Conclusion:

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The natural indicator in red cabbage was prepared and tested over a range of pH

Soil:
-

Identify and describe some everyday uses of indicators including the testing of soil acidity/basicity

Soil is very dark in colour, and will most likely absorb any indicator added to it, making viewing the colour change impossible In order to test the pH of soil, an insoluble, white neutral salt such as barium sulfate which can absorb moisture is sprinkled over the soil This provides a white background to view the colour change of the indicator, whilst not altering the pH in any way as the salt is neutral

Pool Water:
Pool water must be maintained in a constant and narrow range of around 7.4 to not irritate skin or eyes This is done by adding a few drops of phenol red into a sample of pool water, with a peachy colour indicating a pH of around 7.4

Aquarium Water:
Fish can only survive in a very limited pH range so the pH must be maintained in order for the fish to survive Different fish can survive on different pHs, so different indicators would be used depending on the fish living in the aquarium water

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2. While we usually think of the air around us a neutral, the atmosphere naturally contains acidic oxides of carbon, nitrogen and sulfur. The concentrations of these acidic oxides have been increasing since the Industrial Revolution

Identify oxides of non-metals which act as acids and describe the conditions under which they act as acids

Oxides of non-metals which act as acids include carbon dioxide, sulfur and oxides of nitrogen These oxides only act as acids when they are dissolved with water, and then hydrolysing (reacting to create a change in pH) to form carbonic, sulfurous/sulfuric and nitrous/nitric acids respectively

Equations:
Oxides of Carbon: Oxides of Sulfur: Oxides of Nitrogen: -

Analyse the position of these non-metals in the Periodic Table and outline the relationship between position of elements in the Periodic Table and acidity/basicity of oxides

Many acidic oxides are non-metal oxides located on the right hand side of the periodic table The left hand side consists of metals, which usually either form basic oxides or neutral insoluble oxides There are a few elements in between in the semi-metals that form amphoteric oxides, oxides which can act as both an acid or a base

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Neutral oxides are those that do not react with either acids or bases and include oxides of hydrogen, carbon and nitrogen. The noble gases are stable and hence do not react to form oxides

Define Le Chateliers principle

Le Chateliers principle states that If a system is at equilibrium and a change is made that disturbs the equilibrium, then the system responds in such a way as to counteract the change and eventually a new equilibrium is established

Identify factors which can affect the equilibrium in a reversible reaction

Factors which can affect the equilibrium in a reversible reaction include temperature, concentration and total gas pressure

Temperature:
In a reversible reaction, normally one of the reactions will be exothermic, making the reaction that occurs in the opposite direction endothermic If the temperature is increased, the reaction shifts to favour the endothermic reaction in order to counteract the increase in temperature, absorbing the temperature through the endothermic reaction

Concentration:
In a reversible reaction, when the concentration of one of the reactants or products is increased or decreased, the equilibrium is disturbed The system shifts in a fashion in order to counteract this concentration change, such as favouring the forward reaction if the concentration of the reactants is increased This shift will counteract the increase in the concentration of the reactants, decreasing the concentration until a new equilibrium is formed

Total Gas Pressure:

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In a reversible reaction where gases are involved, gas pressure plays a part in the equilibrium Since the same number of molecules of gas will occupy the same volume, if the total gas pressure is increased, to counteract this change the reaction will shift to the side which produces the least molecules of gas, as to decrease the pressure Conversely, if the pressure is decreased, the reaction will shift to the side which produces the most molecules of gas, as to maintain the pressure

Catalyst:
When a catalyst is added, it does not shift the equilibrium of the system Instead, it speeds up both the forward and reverse reactions, so the equilibrium is reached faster

Describe the solubility of carbon dioxide in water under various conditions as an equilibrium process and explain in terms of Le Chateliers principle

Carbon Dioxide:
Carbon dioxide is a covalent molecular molecule that is non-polar due to its symmetrical structure and no unbonded electron pairs Due to its non-polar nature, it is only slightly soluble in water, and thus can be shown as an equilibrium reaction when it is being dissolved in water,

Reactions:
- These reactions show the process of carbon dioxide dissolving in water and forming carbonic acid 1. 2. 3. 4.

Changing Solubility:
Temperature Change: It can be seen from the first equation that the dissolution of carbon dioxide into water is an exothermic reaction This means that as the water is heated up, the reaction will shift in favour to the endothermic reaction in accordance to Le Chateliers principle, so the solubility of carbon dioxide will decrease Pressure Change: If the pressure of the system was increased, the reaction will shift to the side with the least moles of gas, which is to the right Therefore the solubility of carbon dioxide will increase if the pressure is increased Adding Acid: If an acid is added to the solution, the hydronium ion concentration will increase, disturbing the equilibrium

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This will shift reactions 3 and 4 to the left in order to remove the introduced ions, which will subsequently shift reaction 1 to the left, and therefore decrease the solubility of carbon dioxide Adding Base: If a base is added into the solution, the hydroxide ions will react with the hydronium ions to form water in a neutralisation reaction This removes the hydronium ions, as well as increasing the number of water molecules, causing reactions 2, 3 and 4 to all shift to the right, causing reaction 1 to also shift to the right, increasing the solubility of carbon dioxide Adding Carbonate: If a carbonate is added into the water, the increase in carbonate ions will shift reaction 4 to the left to counteract the increase This will subsequently shift equations 3, 2 and 1 to the left, and thus causing the solubility of carbon dioxide to decrease

Identify data, plan and perform a first-hand investigation to decarbonate soft drink and gather data to measure the mass changes involved and calculate the volume of gas released at 25 oC and 100kPa

Aim:
To find the mass of carbon dioxide in a can of soft drink and calculate the volume of carbon dioxide at 25oC and 100kPa

Method:
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. The mass of an empty bottle was weighed using a triple beam balance and recorded The mass of a full can of lemonade was weighed using a triple beam balance and recorded The lemonade was poured from the can into the empty bottle The mass of the empty can was weighed and recorded The bottle was shaken to release the carbon dioxide, uncapping the lid often to release the gas Measured amounts of salt were added to the bottle and shaken When the salt became saturated and no more carbon dioxide was being released, the bottle containing the decarbonated lemonade and salt solution was weighed and recorded

Results:
Object Empty Bottle Full Can Filter Paper Empty Can Salt Bottle with Final Solution Mass (g) 51.2 417.2 0.95 16.2 141.895 590.5

Analysis:

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The mass of the carbon dioxide that was liberated from the solution was first calculated, being 3.55g This value was then used to calculate the number of moles that was released, being 0.080663485 mol The number of moles was then used to calculate the volume it would occupy at 25oC and 100kPa, being 1.9996L

Discussion:
Justification of Method: Many of the steps conducted in the method ensure the validity of the method as it ensured only the variable that was intended to be measures was measured Weighing the can before and after removing the soft drink allowed for an accurate measurement on exactly how much soft drink was transferred into the bottle Weighing the empty bottle allowed for the mass of the contents to be known at all times The weighing of the salt added ensures that it doesnt alter the result in any way, and it also does not invalidate the experiment as it does not alter how much carbon dioxide was originally in the solution Why Salt was Added: The salt can help liberate the carbon dioxide quicker as carbon dioxide is a non-polar molecule so it is not very soluble in water Salt however, is an ionic substance and is therefore highly soluble in water The water molecules will interact with the sodium and chloride ions rather than the carbon dioxide molecules which displaces the molecules from the solution, turning it into a gas

Conclusion:
The mass of carbon dioxide found in a can of soft drink was 3.55g, and this was calculated to be 1.9996L of gas at 25oC and 100kPa

Identify natural and industrial sources of sulfur dioxide and oxides of nitrogen

Sulfur Dioxide:
Natural: About of total sulfur dioxide emissions can be accounted for from natural sources These include volcanoes, hot springs, burning organic matter, oxidation of hydrogen sulfide and the decay of organic matter Industrial: Industrial sources make up the remainder of the sulfur dioxide emissions These include combustion of fossil fuels as they contain sulfur impurities, smelting of sulfide ores, manufacture of sulfuric acid, petroleum refining and making coke from coal

Oxides of Nitrogen:
The three main oxides of nitrogen released are Dinitrogen Monoxide (N2O, Nitrous Oxide), Nitrogen Monoxide (NO, nitric oxide) and Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2)

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Natural: Natural sources of oxides of nitrogen include lightning strikes causing oxygen and nitrogen in the air to react, creating nitric oxide, and nitrous oxide formed by soil bacteria Industrial Sources: Industrial sources of oxides of nitrogen include combustion reactions that reach high enough temperatures like 1300oC causing a similar reaction to lighting, and agricultural practices that add nitrogenous fertiliser increases the rate at which the bacteria produce nitric oxide to release

Describe, using equations, examples of chemical reactions which release sulfur dioxide and chemical reactions which release oxides of nitrogen

Sulfur Dioxide:
Hydrogen Sulfide is oxidised in the decaying of natural matter, Combustion of fuels with sulfur impurities, Smelting zinc sulfide ores,

Oxides of Nitrogen:
Reaction from lighting or combustion reactions, Nitric oxide reacting with oxygen to form nitrogen dioxide,

Assess the evidence which indicates increases in atmospheric concentrations of oxides of sulfur and nitrogen

There is much evidence to support the increase in atmospheric concentration of oxides of sulfur and nitrogen

Oxides of Nitrogen:
Antarctic Ice Cores: Air bubbles trapped in Antarctic ice contain samples of air from many years ago Through the analysis of these air bubbles, it can be seen that oxides of nitrogen remained steady until the industrial revolution, where they have begun to grow at a rate of about 0.2 to 0.3% per year Photochemical Smog: Oxides of nitrogen also contribute to a photochemical smog that can cover industrialised areas This smog is caused by a reaction between oxides of nitrogen and ozone, creating an aerosol layer Therefore the amount of photochemical smog in the air can provide information about the amount of the oxides of nitrogen in the atmosphere, and can also be used as evidence

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Oxides of Sulfur:
Sulfur dioxide levels are harder to measure as it readily decomposes into other materials and is removed from the air rather quickly, but there is still some evidence of its increase in the atmosphere Acidity of Rain: Evidence for increasing amounts of sulfur dioxide in the atmosphere is the increasing acidity of rain This is especially evident in more industrialised areas, where many of the forest and aquatic systems have suffered greatly from the acid rain This is caused by the oxides of sulfur dissolving and reacting with water to form sulfurous and sulfuric acid, and can be used as evidence for the increasing atmospheric concentration Increased Acidity of Aquatic Systems: As a consequence of the increase in the amount of acid rain, many lakes and rivers will also have an increased acidity This can also be used as evidence for the increase of acidic oxides in the atmosphere, as the acid rain causing this is formed by the increasing concentration of acidic oxides

Analyse information from secondary sources to summarise the industrial origins of sulfur dioxide and oxides of nitrogen and evaluate reasons for concern about their release into the environment

Summary of Origins:
Industrial origins of sulfur dioxide and the oxides of nitrogen are the burning of fossil fuels, smelting of ores, petroleum refining, industrial combustion reactions and agricultural practices that release nitrogen into soil

Concern about their Release:


Sulfur Dioxide: The release of sulfur dioxide creates concerns as it can irritate the respiratory system, causing breathing problems in people Also, even at low concentrations in the atmosphere, it can form acid rain, with many environmental impacts

Oxides of Nitrogen: There are many concerns with the release of oxides of nitrogen into the atmosphere, with nitrous oxide being a potent greenhouse gas Nitric oxide and nitrogen dioxide can lead to photochemical smog and acid rain, as well as nitrogen dioxide being able to irritate respiratory tracts, leading to breathing discomfort

Explain the formation and effects of acid rain

Formation:
Acid rain forms when gases in the atmosphere such as carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide, amongst other acidic oxides, dissolve in the water through ionisation to form weak acids This causes the water to be slightly acidic when it precipitates Although this removes these gases from the atmosphere, acid rain can cause damaging effects on the ground, especially in areas where there is a high concentration of these acidic oxides Sulfur dioxide forms weak sulfurous acid (H2SO3) whereas sulfur trioxide forms strong sulfuric acid (H2SO4)

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Sulfurous acid can also be oxidised with a catalyst in order to produce sulfuric acid Nitrogen dioxide produces weak nitrous acid (HNO2) and also strong nitric acid (HNO3) when it dissolves in water Nitrous acid can also be oxidised with a catalyst to produce the stronger nitric acid

Effects:
The acidity from the acid rain can change soil acidity, making it difficult for plant roots to take up essential minerals such as calcium and potassium, inhibit their growth Many micro-organisms in the soil that are essential for recycling of nutrients (decomposition) are also killed as they can only survive in a specific pH range The waxy cuticle of leaves can be removed, causing leaf damage and damage to the plant Many buildings made of limestone, marble or concrete can be damaged as the acid reacts with the stone and dissolves it Photochemical smog and acid rain can combine to become a health hazard to people Acid rain will increase the acidity of aquatic ecosystems, reducing the pH and killing the organisms, with most fish and shellfish dying at a pH of 4.5 to 5.0, and killing fish eggs at a pH of below 5.5 Increased acidity can also release high levels of normally insoluble, toxic elements such as aluminium and mercury in runoff, contributing to heavy metal poisoning in aquatic life

Calculate volumes of gases given masses of some substances in reactions, and calculate masses of substances given gaseous volumes in reactions involving gases at 0oC and 100kPa or 25oC and 100kPa
or

In each case, the number of moles of gas must first be calculated using either

When the number of moles is determined, this can then be used to calculate the value the question asks

3. Acids occur in many foods, drinks and even with our stomachs
Acids:
Acids are substances which donate a hydrogen ion, which consists of only a proton, so therefore acids are proton donors Usually this donated proton does not exist alone and reacts with other substances In the ionisation of acids in water, the donated hydrogen ion reacts with water molecules to form hydronium ions

Define acids as proton donors and describe the ionisation of acids in water

Equations:

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-

Gather and process information from secondary sources to write ionic equations to represent ionisation of acids

Equations:
General Equation: Ionic Equation: Net Ionic Equation:

Identify acids including acetic (ethanoic), citric (2-hydroxypropane-1, 2, 3-tricarboxylic), hydrochloric and sulfuric acid

Some common acids include acetic or ethanoic acid, citric acid, hydrochloric acid and sulfuric acid

Acetic Acid:
Summary: Acetic acid, also known as ethanoic acid, is the acid that is commonly found in vinegar It is naturally occurring in the decomposition of organic material, but is most commonly made industrially Ethanoic acid is a weak and monoprotic acid Structural Formula:

Hydrochloric Acid:
Hydrochloric acid is produced industrially on a large scale and is a strong, monoprotic acid

Sulfuric Acid:
Sulfuric acid is also produced industrially on a large scale as well as being produced naturally in the atmosphere through the formation of acid rain Sulfuric is a strong and diprotic acid

Citric Acid:
Summary: Citric acid, also known as 2 hydroxypropane 1, 2, 3 tricarboxylic acid, is a naturally occurring acid in all citrus fruits and is used as a preservative in many foods Citric acid is a weak and triprotic acid Structural Formula:

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Describe the uses of the pH scale in comparing acids and bases

The pH (potential of hydrogen) scale measures the concentration of hydrogen ions in a solution Water self ionises to produce H+ and OH- naturally, with pure water producing these ions in equal amounts of 110-7 mol/L It has also been found that when the concentrations of H+ and OH- in water are multiplied together at 25oC, a constant value is given, known as the water constant of 110-14 mol2/L2 Since the hydrogen ions and the hydroxide ions will always multiply to give this constant, KW, therefore the pH scale, which measure the concentration of hydrogen ions in a solution, can be used to compare the acidity and basicity of solution [H+] 10-0 10-1 10-2 10-3 10-4 10-5 10-6 10-7 10-8 10-9 10-10 10-11 10-12 10-13 10-14 [OH-] 10-14 10-13 10-12 10-11 10-10 10-9 10-8 10-7 10-6 10-5 10-4 10-3 10-2 10-1 10-0 [H+][OH-] 10-14 10-14 10-14 10-14 10-14 10-14 10-14 10-14 10-14 10-14 10-14 10-14 10-14 10-14 10-14 Example 1M Hydrochloric Acid 0.1M Hydrochloric Acid 0.01M Hydrochloric Acid Soda water, wine Tomato juice, beer Acid rain Urine Pure water without any dissolved gas Sea water Detergent solution Concentrated detergent Household ammonia 0.01M sodium hydroxide 0.1M sodium hydroxide 1M sodium hydroxide

pH 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14

Describe acids and their solutions with the appropriate use of the terms strong, weak, concentrated and dilute

Strong and Weak Acids:


Strong Acids: Strong acids are acids that completely ionise when it is in a solution with water These reaction of the ionisation of strong acids in water can hence be written using a unidirectional arrow, as the reaction only occurs in one direction

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Weak Acids: Weak acids, however, do not completely ionise, with only some of the acid donating a proton leaving the reaming acid as an unchanged molecule in aqueous form The reaction of the ionisation of weak acids in water can hence be written using an equilibrium arrow, as since they do not ionise completely, the reaction can occur in both directions

Concentrated and Dilute Acids:


Whether or not an acid is concentrated or dilute is independent of the strength of the acid The degree of ionisation is irrelevant, as only the total number of molecules of the acid within the unit volume is counted for concentration Concentrated Acids: A concentrated acid is when there are a large number of molecules of acid per unit volume of the solution Dilute Acid: A dilute acid is when there are only a few molecules of acid per unit volume of the solution

Use available evidence to model the molecular nature of acids and simulate the ionisation of strong and weak acids

Identify pH as

and explain that a change in pH of 1 means a ten-fold change in [H+]

The pH scale runs on a log to the base ten scale, which can also be written as 10-pH = [H+] Since there is a base of ten, when the pH of a solution changes by a value of one, the hydrogen ion concentration of the solution changes by a multiple of ten

Process information from secondary sources to calculate pH of strong acids given appropriate hydrogen ion concentrations

The pH of strong acids will always assume 100% ionisation of hydrogen ions into solution The only difference between the concentration of the acid and the concentration of the hydrogen ion sis whether or not the acid is polyprotic The pH of an acid can be calculated by the formula

Compare the relative strengths of equal concentrations of citric, acetic and hydrochloric acids and explain in terms of the degree of ionisation of their molecules
Concentration (mol/L) 0.1 0.1 pH 2.1 2.9 Strength Weak Weak Degree of Ionisation (%) 8 1.3

Acid Citric Acetic

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Hydrochloric 0.1 1.0 Strong 100

Summary:
Hydrochloric is the strongest acid out of the three, ionising completely, followed by citric acid and finally acetic acid being the weakest, with the degrees of ionisation being 8% and 1.3% respectively

Explanation:
Hydrochloric acid completely ionises so the concentration of hydrogen ions is the same as the concentration of the acid Citric acid only partially ionises, so the concentration of the hydrogen ions is less than the concentration of the acid, with the lower concentration of hydrogen ions creating a higher pH Acetic acid is the weakest acid, with only a very small amount of the acid ionising Complete Ionisation of Citric Acid: -

Plan and perform a first-hand investigation to measure the pH of identical concentrations of strong and weak acids

Aim:
To measure the pH of identical concentrations of hydrochloric, acetic and citric acids

Method:
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. The pH probe was calibrated using buffer solutions The pH probe was placed into 0.1 mol/L hydrochloric acid and was left until the pH stabilised The pH was recorded Steps 2 and 3 were repeated using 0.1 mol/L citric acid and 0.1 mol/L acetic acid The results were collected from two other groups

Results:
pH Groups 1 2 3 Average Hydrochloric Acid 1 1.07 1.1 1.06 Acetic Acid 2.72 2.89 2.77 2.79 Citric Acid 1.99 2.09 1.99 2.02

Analysis:
Although each of the acids has the same concentration, there is a different pH

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This indicates that there are different concentrations of hydrogen ions in each solution, so there is a varying level of ionisation between the acids It can be seen that hydrochloric acid ionised the most, being the lowest pH and therefore having the highest hydrogen ion concentration After that comes citric acid, and then acetic, with acetic being the weakest acid out of the three

Discussion:
Calibration of the pH Probe: The pH meter was calibrated to ensure that it was measuring the correct value of pH, This was done by first cleaning the probe with distilled water The data logger was then set to calibrate, and placed into a buffer solution of known pH When the voltage value on the screen stopped fluctuating, the pH was typed in and this was repeated with different pH solutions This validates the results as it ensures for correct measurements

Conclusion:
The pH of the same concentrations of hydrochloric, acetic and citric acids were measured and compared

Describe the difference between a strong and a weak acid in terms of an equilibrium between the intact molecule and its ions

When an acid ionises, an equilibrium reaction is formed between the intact molecule and the ionised forms

Strong Acids:
In a strong acid, the molecules in the acid ionise completely, and are unlikely to recombine to reform the intact molecule The reaction is therefore unidirectional, as the equilibrium is almost completely shifted to the right, and can be represented by the unidirectional arrow in the ionisation reaction,

Weak Acids:
In a weak acid, only very small amounts of the intact molecules ionise to form ions These ions can also recombine to reform the complete molecule fairly often, and thus forms a dynamic equilibrium This reaction is therefore reversible, occurring in both directions and is therefore represented using an equilibrium arrow in the ionisation reaction,

Solve problems and perform a first-hand investigation to use pH meters/probes and indicators to distinguish between acidic, basic and neutral chemicals

Aim:
To use a pH probe and indicator to determine the acidity, basicity or neutrality of common household chemicals

Method:
1. Beakers of each solution were prepared (for shared use) 2. The pH probe was placed into each beaker and the value of the pH was recorded once it stopped fluctuating 3. Some of the solution from each beaker was extracted into separate test tubes and universal indicator added, noting colour change and determining the pH using an indicator chart

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Results:
Sample Ammonia Solution Lemon Juice Apple Juice Vinegar Lemonade Dishwashing Liquid Solution NaOH Antacid Tablet Washing Powder Sea Water Carb Soda HCl pH Meter Reading 9.70 2.45 3.61 2.51 2.92 7.76 13.58 9.30 10.20 8.10 8.48 1.01 Universal Indicator Colour/pH Green/7.5 Red/<4 Light Orange/5 Red/<4 Red/<4 Green/7.5 Purple/11 Green/7.5 Purple/11 Green/7.5 Aqua/8.5 Red/<4 Acidic/Basic/Neutral Basic Acidic Acidic Acidic Acidic Basic Basic Basic Basic Basic Basic Acidic

Analysis:
It can be seen that the pH probe generally gave a similar but more accurate reading compared to the indicator, with some variation occurring

Discussion:
Variation between Probe and Indicator: Differences in the pH probe reading and the universal indicator can be accounted for as the pH value on the data logger was not allowed to completely settle due to time constraints Also the pH probe measures pH by the conductivity of a solution, with other ions affecting this value, creating furthers inconsistencies Neutral Substances: It can be seen that none of these substances are purely neutral, as only very few substances are actually neutral, being completely distilled, pure water All of these substances have impurities in them that can alter pH, such as trace amounts of basic elements altering the pH of sea water, and food acid in juices

Conclusion:
A pH probe and indicator were used to determine the acidity, basicity or neutrality of common household substances

Gather and process information from secondary sources to explain the use of acids as food additives

Acids can be used as food additives for many purposes such as a leavening or raising agent, preservative, or a flavour enhancer

Leavening Agent:
These are used when baking cakes or bread to create a light fluffy texture in the food This is done by the acid reacting with the sodium hydrogen carbonate in baking powder, which is a weak base and a metal carbonate This reaction creates carbon dioxide gas which is trapped in the cake or bread mixture, causing it to rise and become fluffy Examples of this are lactic acid in milk and yoghurt, citric acid in lemon or orange juice, and potassium hydrogen tartate, which is a weak acid

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Preservatives: Acids can be used as a preservative as they lower the pH of foods This is significant as many micro-organisms and bacteria can only survive in a specific pH range, and if the solution is too acidic or basic they may die, which makes adding acid an effective preservative

Flavour Enhancer: Acids are generally described to have a sour taste, as can be observed form the acetic acid in vinegar and sitric acid in citrus fruits making them sour These acids can be added to food as additives to enhance flavour, such as acetic acid used to make sweet and sour sources to create an overall pleasing combination of flavours

Identify data, gather and process information from secondary sources to identify examples of naturally occurring acids and bases and their chemical composition

Acids:
Citric Acid (C3H5O(COOH)3) occurs naturally in citrus fruits such as oranges, lemons and limes Hydrochloric Acid (HCl) occurs naturally in the stomachs as stomach acid to break down food Carbonic Acid (H2CO3) occurs naturally as carbon dioxide in the atmosphere dissolves into rain Ethanoic Acid (CH3COOH) occurs naturally in the oxidation of ethanol

Bases:
Calcium carbonate (CaCO3) occurs naturally in rock such as limestone and marble, and in shells of shellfish Ammonia (NH3) occurs naturally in volcanoes and the decomposition of plant matter

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4. Because of the prevalence and importance of acids, they have been used and studied for hundreds of years. Over time, the definitions of acid and base have been refined
Outline the historical development of ideas about acids including those of: - Lavoisier - Davy - Arrhenius

Early Definitions:
Grouping by Properties: The earliest definition of an acid was based on their properties and the effect they had on an indicator They were deemed to have a sour taste and to turn red litmus blue This was an early attempt to group acids, however there was little explanation about composition or how the acids worked

Antoine Lavoisier (1779):


Grouping by Composition (Acids Contain Oxygen): Lavoisier discovered that some non-metal oxides that dissolved in water could form acids He also noted that acids such as nitric, sulfuric, carbonic and acetic acids also contained oxygen From these observations he concluded that acids were substances which contained oxygen Thus he attempted to group acids by composition rather than properties Problems: However, there were many problems with his theory, as not all oxides produce an acidic solution when dissolved, with metal oxides producing basic solutions instead It also limited acids to only substances containing oxygen, not accounting for later discovered acids that did not contain oxygen such as hydrochloric acid

Sir Humphrey Davy (1810):


Grouping by Composition (Acids Contain Hydrogen): Davy first noticed that some metals can react with acids to displace hydrogen Davy demonstrated that hydrochloric acid did not have oxygen, and thus disproving Lavoisiers theory He stated that instead of oxygen, acidic substances contained hydrogen This lasted for a long time, as even more acids were discovered that didnt contain oxygen (HF, HBr, HCN and H2S) Problems: However his theory still did not provide an explanation on the behaviour of acids, and it also did not explain why some compounds that contained hydrogen were not acidic, such as ammonia

Svante Arrhenius (1887):

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Grouping by Atomic Behaviour (Acids Ionise to Create Hydrogen, Bases Ionise to Create Hydroxide): Both Davy and Lavoisiers theories were based on observable properties, but Arrhenius proposed a definition based on concepts about particles that were too small to be observed He proposed that acids were substances that ionise to produce hydrogen ions in water, He also proposed that bases were substances that ionised in water to produce hydroxide ions, This definition was beginning to explain the behaviour of acids and bases Problems: However his definition only applied to aqueous solutions, and also did not address the relative strengths of different acids and bases It does not account for insoluble metal hydroxide compound which react with acids, as they are not in solution It also provides no explanation on the varying strengths of acids and bases, and cannot explain the acidity or basicity of some salts when they dissolve in water

Outline the Brnsted-Lowry theory of acids and bases

The Brnsted-Lowry theory of acids and bases states that acids are proton or hydrogen ion donors, and bases are proton or hydrogen ion acceptors In each reaction between an acid and a base, the proton is directly transferred from the acid to the base When an acid dissolves in water, the water molecule acts as a base and accepts the proton to form hydronium When a base dissolves in water, the water molecule acts as an acid and donates a proton to form hydroxide This theory, unlike others, is not based on composition and works regardless of the solvent, with the acids and bases not having to be in an aqueous state

Gather and process information from secondary sources to trace developments in understanding and describing acid/base reactions

Classification by Properties:
At first, when acids and bases were grouped only by properties, little was known about their behaviour and what happened during acid base reactions Acids were just classified as a substance that reacted with a base, and a base was a substance that reacted with an acid and these reactions produced a salt and water, but how this reaction occurred was not understood

Arrhenius Definition:
The first attempts to classify acids and bases by behaviour were by Arrhenius, who stated that an acid produced a hydrogen ion in solution and a base produced a hydroxide ion This began to lead to an understanding of how acid base reactions worked, where the hydrogen ion from the acid and the hydroxide ion in the base combined to form water, with the remaining ions forming the salt However, this definition for acids and bases was very limited

Brnsted-Lowry Definition:
A greater understanding of acid base reactions only arose with the Brnsted-Lowry theory of acids and bases, in which an acid was a proton donor and the base a proton acceptor This describes that in an acid base reaction, the proton is donated directly from the acid onto the base, allowing for the reaction to occur This has allowed for an understanding of acid and base reactions

Describe the relationship between an acid and its conjugate base and a base and its conjugate acid

Acid and its Conjugate Base:

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When an acid donates its proton, it forms the acids conjugate base, forming a conjugate pair

Base and its Conjugate Acid:


Conversely, when a base accepts a proton, it forms its conjugate acid and so forms another conjugate pair

Identify a range of salts which form acidic, basic or neutral solutions and explain their acidic, neutral or basic nature

Salts:
When an acid reacts with a base in a neutralisation reaction, it forms a salt and water However, depending on the strengths of the acid and base, the salt is not necessarily neutral Some salts will hydralise (react with water to create a change in pH) in water, to either lower the pH to make the solution acidic, or raise the pH to make the solution basic These are known as acidic and basic salts respectively, with neutral salts not altering the pH in any way

Acidic Salts:
Acidic salts are formed when a strong acid reacts with a weak base to form a salt The ions that make up this salt will usually be comprised of a weak conjugate base, and a strong conjugate acid The strong conjugate acid will then donate its proton to produce hydronium ion sin water, and thus creating an acidic solution, thereby making the salt acidic Examples of acidic salts include ammonium chloride and ammonium nitrate Reactions: -

Basic Salts:
Basic salts are formed when a weak acid reacts with a strong base to form a salt The ions in this salt will usually be comprised of a strong conjugate base, and a weak conjugate acid The strong conjugate base will then accept a proton from water to produce hydroxide ions in water, and thus creating a basic solution, thereby making the salt basic Examples of basic salts include sodium ethanoate, sodium carbonate and potassium nitrate Reactions: -

Choose equipment and perform a first-hand investigation to identify the pH of a range of salt solutions

Aim:
To determine the pH of a range of salt solutions

Equipment:

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pH probe Data logger 0.1M salt solutions Test tube rack Test tubes Universal indicator

Method:
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 2-3cm of 0.1M solution was poured into a test tube 4 drops of indicator was added to the test tube and the colour change was recorded The pH probe was placed into the beaker of 0.1M salt solution The reading of the pH was allowed to settle and was then recorded This was repeated with all of the solutions

Results:
Salt Solution Ammonium Nitrate (NH4NO3) Sodium Phosphate (Na3PO4) Potassium Iodide (KI) Sodium Acetate (CH3COONa) Barium Chloride (BaCl2) Sodium Nitrate (NaNO3) Magnesium Oxide (MgO) Sodium Sulfate (Na2SO2) Sodium Hydrogen Carbonate (NaHCO3) Ammonium Chloride (NH4Cl) Universal Indicator (pH) Light Green 7.0 Dark Green 7.5 Turquoise 8.5 Turquoise 8.5 Turquoise 8.5 Dark Green 7.5 Purple 10.0 Dark Green 7.5 Turquoise 8.5 Light Green 7.0 pH Probe Reading 7.04 6.40 8.50 8.74 9.61 7.05 10.46 6.40 9.07 7.19

Analysis:
The salt solution varied in pH which is seen in the results, which indicates that not all salts are neutral A hydrolysis reaction between the water and the ions that make up the salt result in the change in pH that is seen in the results

Discussion:
pH of Salts: From the results it can be seen that salts can be acidic, basic or neutral An acidic salt is formed between a strong acid and a weak base, a basic salt can be formed from a weak acid and a strong base and neutral salts are formed from strong acids and strong bases Salts formed from weak acids and bases vary in pH as the strengths of the acids and bases vary, which alters the pH of the salt

Conclusion:
The pH of a range of salt solutions was determined to show that they can be acidic, basic or neutral

Acid HCl HNO3 H2SO4 NH4+ H2O

Identify conjugate acid/base pairs


Conjugate Base ClNO3HSO4NH3 OHBase OHNH3 CNCO32H2O Conjugate Acid H2O NH4+ HCN HCO3H3O+

Identify amphiprotic substances and construct equations to describe their behaviour in acidic and basic solutions

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Amphiprotic substances can act as both an acid and a base, in other words, can either donate or accept a proton Acting as a Base (Proton Acceptor) Acting as an Acid (Proton Donator)

Amphiprotic Substances Hydrogen Carbonate (HCO3-) Water

Other Examples:
Hydrogen sulfate (HSO4-) Dihydrogen phosphate (H2PO4-) Hydrogen phosphate (HPO42-)

Identify neutralisation as a proton transfer reaction which is exothermic

According to the Brnsted-Lowry definition of acids and bases, a neutralisation reaction is a reaction between an acid and a base, where the acid donates a proton and the base accepts Therefore this can be classified as a proton transfer reaction, as the proton is transferred from the acid to the base This is an exothermic reaction, in that it releases energy in the form of heat, as the amount of energy released when the bonds form is much greater than the amount of energy required to break the bonds The amount of heat released is approximately -56kJ/mol, with this value varying slightly depending on the strengths and concentrations of the acids and bases

Analyse information from secondary sources to assess the use of neutralisation reactions as a safety measure or to minimise damage in accidents or chemical spills

Assessment:
Neutralisation reactions are an effective method as a safety measure or to minimise the damage caused by chemical spills, especially acids and bases These can turn spills of potentially deadly corrosive or caustic chemicals into harmless water, salt and in some cases, carbon dioxide

Reasons for Use:


Neutralisation is used as a safety measure in both large and small scale acid and base spills, both indoor and outdoor, as well as for dumping industrial acidic and basic chemical wastes This is done to reduce the damage to the surrounding environment, as a change in pH of soil or aquatic systems can be devastating to wildlife The chemicals that need to be neutralised are also often highly dangerous to people as it can cause chemical burns, and neutralisation is used as a safety measure

Substance Used:
Substances that are used to neutralise chemical spills are usually a weak amphiprotic substance in a powdered form, such as sodium hydrogen carbonate This is to reduce the heat released from the neutralisation as it is an exothermic reaction, as well as to reduce the spread of the chemical caused by adding a liquid to neutralise it An amphiprotic substance is useful as only a single substance is required for all situations, and can be used to neutralise solutions were acidity or basicity is unknown

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Sand can also be used to first soak up any liquid in the spill to prevent it spreading, and then the sand can be neutralised

Describe the correct technique for conducting titrations and preparation of standard solutions

Titrations:
Titrations and the preparation of standard solutions are used in the quantitative analysis of a substance and any errors in the analysis can lead to an incorrect and invalid result Therefore the method used to conduct these analyses are vitally important to ensure that the results are accurate and valid Titrations involve first cleaning the equipment, preparation of standard solutions and then the titration itself

Cleaning:
Initial Rinsing: To ensure that there are no impurities that will alter the results in any way, all the equipment used must first be thoroughly cleaned, including burettes, pipettes, conical flasks, volumetric flasks, funnels and beakers All of the components must be first thoroughly rinsed with distilled water They should, but do not have to be dried as this will not alter the results of the titration The ette Rule: Finally, any piece of equipment ending in ette must be given a final rinse with the solution that it will contain, as they are used to measure volume of a substances where concentration is important Any water that is leftover in the equipment will alter this concentration and invalidate the result, so therefore it must first be rinsed with the solution it will hold, as any residue will not alter the concentration

Preparation of a Standard Solution:


Summary: A standard solution is a solution of known concentration that can be used to determine the concentration of another solution by titration The easiest way to prepare a standard solution is by using a primary standard which can be directly dissolved into a known volume with the concentration being determined by a simple calculation Properties of a Primary Standard: A high level of purity (must not be reactive or have reacted with other substances) Accurately known composition (must not vary in composition such as holding crystals of water) Free of moisture Stable and unaffected by air during weighing Readily soluble in distilled water High molecular weight solid to reduce the percentage error in weighing React instantly and completely Procedure:

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The solution is prepared by first zeroing a set of electronic scales with a piece of filter paper placed on it, the more precise the better Small amounts of the primary standard are added onto the filter paper, ensuring it is all on the paper, until the desired mass is measured This is then carefully transferred into a beaker with the paper, ensuring none of the solid is lost, and is then dissolved with minimum distilled water The solution is transferred into the volumetric flask of a desired volume via a funnel to ensure none is lost A distilled water squirt bottle is used to rinse the sides of the beaker, and the washings were then transferred into the volumetric flask This was repeated a few times to ensure that all of the primary standard was transferred into the flask The funnel is then rinsed thoroughly, allowing the washings to run into the flask, and is then removed The volumetric flask is then filled to the neck by pouring distilled water into the flask At the neck, an eye dropper is used to add water into the flask to prevent accidental overfilling, running the water down the side of the neck to prevent any loss from splashing The flask is filled until the bottom of the meniscus reaches the etched mark, placing a rubber stopper on the volumetric flask and inverting multiple times to ensure the concentration is uniform throughout the solution The concentration is then calculated from the measured mass and the volume of the solution, and written on the flask for future reference and use Using a Secondary Standard: If a primary standard is not used, the mass of the substance added does not need to be measured These do not possess the properties required to be classified as a primary standard, whether it be impure or hygroscopic In order to make these into a standard solution, they must first be dissolved and titrated with a different standard solution in order to determine its concentration Once the concentration is known, it can then be used as a standard solution and is termed a secondary standard

Choosing and Indicator:


An indicator must first be chosen appropriate to the titration, making sure the end point of the indicator where it just begins to change colour is very close to the equivalence point of the reaction so there is very little volume difference between the endpoint and the equivalence point If the titration is between a strong acid and a strong base, the equivalence point will be close to neutral, so methyl orange, bromothymol blue and phenolphthalein are all suitable If it is a strong acid weak base titration, the equivalence point will be slightly acidic and hence phenolphthalein is unsuitable for this titration, with only bromothymol blue and methyl orange being suitable If it is a weak acid and strong base titration, the equivalence point will be slightly basic, and only phenolphthalein is suitable Weak acid and weak base titrations are generally not performed due to the difficulty in determining the equivalence point Phenolphthalein is generally the most preferred indicator as it has the most distinct colour change

Titration:
Summary: After the standard solutions have been prepared, the titration is ready to be performed The titration being performed is an acid base titration, where and acid will react with a base until they have both completely reacted

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This point is known as the equivalence point, where all the acid and all of the base have stoichiometrically reacted Terms that are often used in titrations are aliquot, which is the known volume in the conical flask, and titre, which is the variable volume being added via the burette It is generally not important which of the substances is the aliquot or the titre, but sodium hydroxide is generally not use as the titre as it is able to dissolve glass, which can change the diameter of the burette, making the measurements inaccurate Preparing for the Titration: Firstly, a known volume of one of the substances is added to the conical flask via a volumetric pipette, leaving a drop at the end of the pipette after dispensing the solution as the pipette is calibrated for this A few drops of the selected indicator is then added into the solution in the conical flask, and a burette is set up using a retort stand and clamps The burette is filled with the second solution after it is rinsed with it, ensuring that the tap is closed The tap is then opened for a short time to allow the solution to completely fill the end of the burette and is then closed again The burette does not have to be filled to the zero mark, as long as the initial volume in the burette is recorded Finally the conical flask is placed underneath the tip of the burette, and the initial value of the burette is read, ensuring to read off the bottom of the meniscus

Performing the Titration: The tap is opened to allow the solution to flow into the conical flask, ensuring that the flask is constantly being swirled Any solution that is splashed onto the side of the flask can be washed down with distilled water as this does not change the number of moles of substance in the flask This process continues until a colour change occurs in the conical flask, to indicate that the reaction has finished The tap is then closed and the final value in the burette is recorded, with this first recording being known as a rough run The process is then repeated as many times as desired to establish reliability, slowing the speed of the burette when it is about 5mL away from the value obtained in the rough run The adding solution is then slowed until it is drop by drop, and if there is a drop hanging off the end of the burette it can be washed off using distilled water, as this drop has already been counted as dispensed Ensuring that the flask is being swirled constantly, the solution is added from the burette until the instant the solution changes colour, and then the amount is recorded Finally, if the values of the results are consistent, they are averaged and used in calculations to determine the concentration of the unknown substance, thus completing the titration Rough Run: The first titration is known as a rough run, as only a close value to the equivalence point is achieved due to not having an idea of how much solution must be added to reach the equivalence point, making it very easy to overshoot this point This value is generally not used in any calculations, and will usually be a larger volume to the amount required to reach the equivalence point Alternate Method using Technology:

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An alternate method instead of using indicator alone is by using a data logger and a pH probe The data logger can be used to generate a pH graph, and there will be a steep portion of the graph where the pH changes rapidly The midpoint of this steep section will be the equivalence point, and can then be used to see how much volume was added at this equivalence point which can then be used for calculations

Perform a first-hand investigation and solve problems using titrations and including the preparation of standard solutions, and use available evidence to quantitatively and qualitatively describe the reaction between selected acids and bases

Aim:
To prepare a standard solution to use in a titration to determine the concentration of Diggers HCl Concentrate

Method:
The method above was used to prepare the standard solution and the titration, with the primary standard used being sodium carbonate The sodium carbonate was the aliquot, and the HCl was diluted 1 in 25 using a volumetric flask, and was the titre When diluting the acid, it was ensured that the acid was added to excess water The indicator chosen was methyl orange as the result was an acidic salt, and the colour of the endpoint of the titration was peach

Results:
The concentration of the standard solution was 0.150202849mol/L On average, 23.267mL of HCl was required to react with 25mL of 0.150202849mol/L sodium carbonate

Analysis:
HCl reacts with sodium carbonate in a 2:1 ratio, so twice as many moles of hydrochloric acid would be consumed than sodium carbonate First the number of moles of sodium carbonate in 25mL of the standard solution was calculated This was then multiplied by 2 to give the moles of HCl This was divided by the average volume of the titre to provide the concentration for the diluted HCl Finally this value was multiplied by 25 to give the value for the concentration of the concentrated HCl

Discussion:
Selection of Indicator: The salt formed in the titration is between a strong acid and a weak base, which makes an acidic salt Thus the selection of methyl orange as an indicator was appropriate as the equivalence point would have been acidic, being in the same range as the end point of methyl orange Adding Acid to Water: When concentrated acid like the concentrated HCl dissolved with water, the reaction is highly exothermic If small amounts of water were to be added to the acid, the resulting reaction would vaporise the water and the acid, being highly dangerous Adding the acid to excess water ensures that there is enough water to absorb this heat, to ensure no harmful gases are released

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Conclusion:
A standard solution was successfully prepared to be used in a titration which determined the concentration of Diggers HCl concentrate to be 294.2927369g/L

Perform a first-hand investigation to determine the concentration of a domestic acidic substance using computer-based technologies

Aim:
To determine the concentration of a domestic acidic substance using computer based technologies

Method:
The method above for the titration with the data logger was used This time, NaOH was used as the standard solution, being the titre, with the unknown concentration of HCl being aliquot Phenolphthalein was used as the indicator

Results:
The volume added add and the pH of the solution was recorded many times using the data logger in the experiment, and was graphed in a pH vs volume of NaOH added graph The midpoint of the steep portion was used to be the equivalence point, with 54.7mL of 0.2489mol/L NaOH needed to completely react with the 50mL of diluted HCl

Analysis:
The same calculation as used as before except the acid base ration was 1:1

Discussion:
Use of Data Logger: Using the data logger and pH probe allowed for much more accurate and precise results as it is purely quantitative analysis, rather than a portion of it being qualitative like the traditional titration method, where bias can occur in determining if the colour had changed or not This method eliminates this bias, which can further validate the results

Conclusion:
The concentration of the Diggers HCl concentrate was determined to be 294.0812829g/L using computer based technologies

Qualitatively describe the effect of buffers with reference to a specific example in a natural system

Buffers:
Buffers are substances which prevent a change in pH in a solution They usually consist of a weak acid and its conjugate base, or a weak base and its conjugate acid These form equilibrium reactions which due to Le Chateliers principle will counteract an addition of an acid or base to maintain a stable pH level

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Example (Carbonic Acid and Hydrogen Carbonate Ions):
An example of a buffer would be the buffer formed between carbonic acid, a weak acid, and its conjugate base, hydrogen carbonate ions, which are usually present in equal amounts Equations: 1. 2. Nature of the Buffer: In the first equation, the hydrogen carbonate ion is a stronger base than water, as well as the hydronium ion being a stronger acid than the carbonic acid Likewise in the second reaction, the carbonic acid is a stronger acid than water, and the hydroxide ion is a stronger base than the hydrogen carbonate ion Whilst the system is at equilibrium, due to the nature of the conjugate acid and base pairs, both the reactions will tend to the left Adding an Acid or a Base: When an acid is introduced into the system, the increase in hydronium ions will shift the first reaction to the left, producing unionised carbonic acid and water, thus removing most of the acid from the system Likewise when a base is introduced into the system, the increase in hydroxide ions will shift the second reaction to the left, with the carbonic acid transferring a proton directly onto the hydroxide ion to produce a hydrogen carbonate ion and water It is due to these reactions quickly removing any hydronium or hydroxide ions introduced into the solution that they make effective buffers and are able to maintain the pH at a relatively stable level

Significance to Living Organisms:


In living organisms, all metabolic reactions responsible for life are catalysed by biological catalysts known as enzymes These enzymes are protein globules that can only work in a very specific pH range, with a pH that is too high or too low changing the shape of the enzyme and destroying or denaturing it Therefore, buffers must be present in natural systems in order to prevent changes in pH that will risk destroying these enzymes and causing harm to the organism

Significance of the Carbonic Acid/Hydrogen Carbonate Buffer to Living Organisms:


Carbon dioxide is a substance that is present in all cells, produced as a waste product from cellular respiration Too much carbon dioxide is toxic for an organism, so it must be removed from the organism This can only be done by dissolving into the blood plasma in the bloodstream, creating carbonic acid and the hydrogen carbonate ions, creating a buffer system This system keeps the pH of blood at a constant level of around 7.4, and is important as it allows the enzymes to work at their most efficient rate at their optimum pH, thereby allowing the organism to survive

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Other Examples:
Other examples of buffers include ethanoic acid and the ethanoate ion which maintains the pH at around 3.5 to 5.5 and the ammonium ion and ammonia which maintains the pH at around 8.3 to 10.3

Limitations of Buffers:
Obviously, buffers do have limitations, and will cease to work if excess amounts of acid or base are added to the solution The excess amounts will drive the reactions to completion, and with the reagents which balance the pH completely depleted, the pH will no longer be buffered if the acid or base were to continue to be added

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5. Esterification is a naturally occurring process which can be performed in the laboratory


Describe the differences between the alkanol and alkanoic acid functional groups in carbon compounds

Alkanols:
Structure: Alkanols are carbon chains that contain a hydroxyl OH attached onto it The homologous formula for an alkanol is CnH2n+1OH

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Properties: Due to the hydroxyl group at the end, this makes the molecular polar The hydrogen bonded to the oxygen also allows for hydrogen bonding, and this allows the alkanols to be soluble in water However as the non-polar carbon chain increases, the solubility in water decreases as the dispersion forces that the alkanol molecules have with each other overpower the hydrogen bonds formed with the water molecules Due to the polar nature, alkanols have higher melting and boiling points than corresponding alkanes Alkanols are neutral as all the hydrogens are strongly bonded to the molecule, and it cannot accept any hydrogens either

Alkanoic Acids:
Structure: Alkanoic acids have a carboxyl group at the end of the alkyl chain This consists of a hydroxyl group like the alkanol, as well as a double bonded oxygen The homologous formula is Cn-1H2n-1COOH Properties: The extra oxygen as a strong partial negative charge, which increases the intermolecular forces between the molecules, making the melting and boiling points higher than the alkanols Being also a polar molecule, it is soluble in water, but as with alkanol, as the non-polar chain increases, solubility decreases Alkanoic acids are weak acids as they can donate the hydrogen at the end of the hydroxyl group

Identify the IUPAC nomenclature for describing the esters produced by reactions of straight-chained alkanoic acids from C1 to C8 and straight-chained primary alkanols from C1 to C8

Esters produced from straight-chained alkanoic acids and straight chained primary alkanols are named based on the alkanol and the alkanoic acid that fromed the ester The alkanol is placed first in the naming, followed by the alkanoic acid The prefixes are taken of both (meth, eth, prop, but, pent, hex, hept, oct), the suffix yl is placed after the prefix of the alkanol, and the suffix oate is placed after the prefix of the alkanoic acid Therefore, an ester formed from butanol and ethanoic acid would be called butyl ethanoate

Explain the difference in melting point and boiling point caused by straight-chained alkanoic acid and straight-chained primary alkanol structures

The difference in melting and boiling points of alkanoic acids and alkanols can be explained by their structures In an alkanol, only hydrogen bonding and dispersion occurs between molecules However, due to the extra oxygen in the carboxyl group in alkanoic acids, this allows for a third type of bonding to occur, dipole-dipole bonds This increases the intermolecular forces between the alkanoic acids as compared to the alkanols, therefore creating a higher melting and boiling point

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Equal length carbon chains of alkanoic acid also have larger molecular masses than alkanols, which increase the dispersion forces, further increasing the strength of the intermolecular forces in the alkanoic acid Hydrogen Bonding + Dipole-Dipole bonding in Alkanoic Acids:

Hydrogen Bonding in Alkanols:

Identify esterification as the reaction between an acid and an alkanol and describe, using equations, examples of esterification

The Reaction:
The process of esterification is the reaction between an alkanoic acid and an alkanol, which is a condensation reaction that is catalysed by heat and concentrated acid (usually sulfuric) The general equation is by As seen, this is an equilibrium reaction which is catalysed and shifted to the right by heat and concentrated sulfuric acid The heat provides sufficient energy in order for the particles to collide and react (collision theory) and the sulfuric acid catalyses the reaction, as well as shifting the reaction to the right being a dehydrating agent and removing water from the system

Example (Butyl Ethanoate):


Chemical Equation: Word Equation: Structural Equation:

Describe the purpose of using acid in esterification for catalysts

The purpose for using the concentrated sulfuric acid is that it catalyses the reaction because it reduces activation energy of the reaction by donating a proton to the unshared electron pairs of the alkanoic acid or the alkanol, to increase the rate of reaction Sulfuric acid is also a strong dehydrating agent which removes water from the system, and causing the reaction to shift to the right

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This shifting to the right will then increase the yield of the ester, so the use of concentrated sulfuric acid not only increases the reaction rate, but also the yield of the reaction

Explain the need for refluxing during esterification

The reactants and the ester produced are all volatile liquids, so they change into gaseous state easily and spontaneously This rate of vaporisation is only increased by the heat that is applied to catalyse the reaction Therefore refluxing is required in esterification to recondense the ester back into liquid form to reduce the amount of ester lost due to its volatility Refluxing is the process of attaching a condenser tube above the reaction flask in order to condense any vapours that leave the flask to allow it to return This allows minimal loss of the ester as most of it is condensed and returned to the flask, and therefore is required in esterification or else all of the ester would escape in the form of vapours

Identify data, plan, select equipment and perform a first-hand investigation to prepare an ester using reflux

Aim:
To prepare an ester using reflux

Equipment:
Retort stand Bossheads Clamps Condenser tube Tubing Pear shaped flask Butanol Ethanoic acid Concentrated sulfuric acid Bunsen burner Tripod Heat mat Gauze Water Beaker

Method:
1. 7mL of 1-Butanol, 10mL of ethanoic acid, 5mL of concentrated sulfuric acid and 4 boiling chips were added to the pear shaped flask 2. The equipment was set up ensure that the glassware was securely clamped so it cannot fall 3. The Bunsen burner was lit and allowed to heat the mixture for at least 30 minutes 4. After the heating was finished, the setup was allowed to cool 5. The flask was carefully detached and the contents poured into a separatory funnel 6. 25mL of water was added to the funnel and it was shaken, draining off the lower aqueous layer after it had settled, which was repeated twice 7. Finally 15mL of saturated sodium hydrogen carbonate and 15mL of water was added to the funnel, shaken and drained 8. The ester was extracted into a small beaker

Results:
Before refluxing, both the butanol and the ethanoic acid had foul smells

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After refluxing however, the ester had a sweet smell of banana When sodium hydrogen carbonate was added to the funnel, fizzing was apparent

Analysis:
The mixture fizzed when the sodium hydrogen carbonate was added as a neutralisation reaction occurred between any remaining acid and the sodium hydrogen carbonate, which released carbon dioxide gas

Discussion:
The sodium hydrogen carbonate purifies the ester, as it is in an equilibrium reaction and there will still be some acid leftover in the acid Also the sulfuric acid used to catalyse the reaction would also be present in the mixture, so the sodium hydrogen carbonate neutralises this to form an aqueous layer which can be drained off

Conclusion:
The ester butyl ethanoate was produced by refluxing

Outline some examples of the occurrence, production and use of esters


Alkanol Butanol Alkanoic Acid Butanoic Acid Smell Banana

Ester Butyl Ethanoate

Use Industrial solvent, synthetic fruit flavouring Butyl Methanoate Butanol Butanoic Acid Raspberry Flavouring and fragrance Ethyl Ethanoate Ethanol Ethanoic Acid Sweet, Pear Drops Glue, nail polish remover, cigarettes Ethyl Butanoate Ethanol Butanoic Acid Pineapple Flavouring, solvent Benzyl Acetate Benzyl Alcohol Acetic Acid Jasmine Natural in flowers, flower oils, baiting bees Methyl Phenylacetate Methanol Phenylacetic Acid Honey Flavouring, perfume - All of these esters are produced industrially except for benzyl acetate which occurs naturally in flowers

Process information from secondary sources to identify and describe the uses of esters as flavours and perfumes in processed foods and cosmetics

Esters occur naturally in a range of perfumes and flavourings in flowers and fruit Particular esters responsible for scent or taste can be identified and then reproduced on an industrial scale for use as flavours and perfumes in processed foods and cosmetics

Examples:
Examples of these can be seen in the table above In processed foods such as candy and ice cream, the ester is used as flavouring and can also provide a fragrance to the food, such as banana flavours lollies In cosmetics, flavoured lip gloss makes use of esters for flavouring and perfume, as well as many creams and ointments with fragrances coming from esters

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