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Mark scheme for Holiday’s Hw for block 3.

June 07 (Nurazie Basar)

1(a) A- Surface run-off
B-Baseflow (2)

(b) Interception storage is where the first raindrops of a rainfall event will fall on
vegetation which shelters the underlying ground. (1)
The water will be collected in leaves, stems of trees before it can be loss by
evaporation or fall on the ground through stemflow or throughfall.

(c ) Some of the water in the surface storage will infiltrate to the ground, which is in
the aeration zone whereas, some of the water flow as surface run-off. The water then
store as soil moisture storage. Some of the water will flow laterally as throughflow.
Then as water reaches underling soil or rock layers, which sometimes called
groundwater zone, which tend to be more compact, it progress is slow. The constant
movement is called percolation which creates groundwater storage. (5)

June 06 (Samhanidah Sambut)

6(a) (i) Interception means the water was collected on leaves before it falls directly
on earth surfaces via stemflow and throughfall, while stemflow is water that reaches
the ground when it flows down the trunks.

(ii) This shows the state of equilibrium in the drainage basin between the input
(precipitation) and outputs (evapotranspiration, river run-off and stores) Following is
the equation:

Precipitation (P) = Run-off (Q) + Evapotranspiration (E) +/ - change in stores.

(b) Before urbanisation ( woodland), intercepts precipitation creates shallow rising

limb and falling limb, and longer lagtime due to less run-off. After urbanisation,
surface covered with concrete and tarmac thus form impermeable surface thus
creates steep rising limb & falling limb and shorter lagtime. Gutter or drains carry
water quickly to nearest river. Small streams canalised so water flows away more
quickly or culverted which limited the amount of water to pass through at one time.

(c) Abstraction occurs not only directly from channel flow (irrigation, water
supplies etc.) but
also from groundwater sources through wells, boreholes etc. The former
will affect discharge levels whilst the latter will affect water tables,
baseflow and ultimately channel flow. Storage will be seen largely in terms
of reservoirs. These increase surface storage, regulate channel flow,
ironing out flood peaks etc. It also deprives water from the lower parts of
the catchment (e.g. Nile, Colorado etc.). Evapotranspiration rates may
also increase as may groundwater supplies in part of the catchment and
decrease elsewhere. (8 - 10)

J 04 (Nuryante Telantang)
6(b) Input is the main product that is needed in a hydrological cycle. Example of
input is precipitation, it form as rain or snow that falls down from the atmosphere.
Outputs are processes involved in hydrological cycle. Output is where water flow out
of the system either by process of evaporation, transpiration and river run-off.
Evaporation is when liquid water turns into vapour or water loss back to atmosphere
from water bodies such as lake, sea, river or water intercepted in leaves and
transpiration is the process by which plants release water through tiny holes/pores
called stomata on the underside of their leaves.

(c ) When the land is deforested, there will be no trees to intercept rainwater.

Rainwater will flow over the land at a fast speed and there will be less water
infiltrated into soil. Thus groundwater storage have less water. Water are collected in
puddles or ponds creating depression storage on the surface of the land. The
drainage basin will also have a high discharge. If the land is urbanised, the water will
have no access to soak into the ground because the area is made of concrete.
Concrete is an example of an impermeable rock makes the ground to become
impermeable which means it doesn’t allow any water to pass. through due to the
presence of small pores spaces.
Infiltration will be less but surface runoff will be active. Thus the discharge in the
drainage basin will be high. Area with trees presence encourage high amount of
water to infiltrate into the ground. Water will also be stored in leaves as interception
storage. Roots of trees create pathways for water to move into the soil, water stored
in the ground as groundwater storage. Surface runoff will be less active and the
water will mostly flow by baseflow and throughflow and reach the drainage basin
slowly. The discharge will be low.

N’07 (Syafinna Salong)

6(a) (i) Precipitation intensity is amount of rainfall over a period of time, e.g. heavy
rainfall is said to have a high intensity precipitation rate and light or drizzle rainfall
has low intensity precipitation rate.

Antecendent moisture is the amount of water already in the soil, if it become

saturated after a storm it will overflow and might cause flooding.

(ii) If precipitation intensity exceeds infiltration capacity, overland flow is generated

which mean shorter lagtime for the water to reach the stream and high surface run-
off. This creates steeper rising limb and high discharge. Prolonged drizzle will

produce slower rise in discharge than a short intense storm. This is because much
water infiltrated into the ground and less surface run-off occurs. The nature of the
storm hydrograph become complicated by the fact that a storm may deliver different
intensities of rainfall in different parts of the basin.