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Teachers Book

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Essential Science teaches basic concepts of Science,
Geography and History through English.
Content and language are carefully interwoven
in Essential Science.
The syllabus covers all the scientific contents which
students require at this level.
The language objectives correlate with those set out
in the Cambridge Young Learners suite.
Essential Science
Recorded and mixed by EFLS Production Ltd. London, England 2006 Richmond Publishing - Santillana Educacin, S.L.
www.indexnet.santillana.es www.richmondelt.com
Students CD
Science, Geography and History
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Science, Geography and History
Activity
Book
The Students Book guides students towards
curricular objectives.
A series of presentations explain key concepts
in clear and simple language.
Basic activities in the Students Book give students
the confidence to ask questions, and make
descriptive statements.
The Students CD gives an
extensive selection of recorded
texts.
The students self-confidence
will grow, as their fluency
and pronunciation improve.
Learner autonomy is
encouraged.
The Activity Book provides reinforcement
and extension activities.
It includes projects and tasks to widen
the students horizons, and stimulate
reflection on work and progress.
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Essential Science provides a wealth of material to
teachers and students. This gives teachers great
flexibility to choose. They can adapt their work in
view of the time the students spend on Science,
Geography and History in English.
Richmond World Facts Readers provide a series of
stimulating and carefully graded texts on Geography,
Science, Culture and History. 58 readers at 6 levels
of proficiency are available.
Internet resources are available for teachers and
students on our websites. Links encourage students
to go further in their research.
Richmond Students Dictionary: a valuable reference
tool.
Assessment, Extension and Reinforcement
worksheets provide teachers with additional
resources.
Posters and flashcards give teachers important visual
back-up.
Teachers Book
Science, Geography and History
This Teachers Book offers page-by-page teaching
suggestions, solutions to the Activity Book activities,
and a guide to other resources.
The Teachers CD contains a selection
of recorded texts as well as all
the Students CD recordings.
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Class CD2
Recorded and mixed by EFS Production Ltd. London, England 2006 Richmond Publishing - Santillana Educacin, S.L.
www.indexnet.santillana.es www.richmondelt.com
Class CD1
Recorded and mixed by EFS Production Ltd. London, England 2006 Richmond Publishing - Santillana Educacin, S.L.
www.indexnet.santillana.es www.richmondelt.com
Roman Empire Boundaries
HI S PANI A
GALLI A
GERMANI A
I TALI A AS I A
AF RI CA
BRI TANNI A
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Baltic
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N o r t h
S e a
B l a c k S e a
S YRI A
J UDAEA
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The Roman Empire
Hadrians Wall baths theatre aqueduct temple Appian Way
sarcophagus
statue road sarcophagus theatre aqueduct theatre temple

Richm
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ond Publishing is an im
print of Santillana Educacin, S.L.
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CONTENTS FOR SCIENCE, GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY BOOK 5
UNIT CONCEPTS PROCEDURES CITIZENSHIP
Living and non-living things
Characteristics of life
processes
Cells and the parts of a cell
Unicellular and multicellular
organisms
Interpreting a diagram
Studying photographs
Respect for all
living things
01. Living things
Flowering and non-flowering
plants
Classification of plants
Plants breathe, make food
and reproduce
Observing parts of a plant
Describing the reproduction
of plants
Fruit and health 02. Plants
Characteristics
of invertebrates
Invertebrate groups
Characteristics
of arthropods
Classifying invertebrates
Studying labelled drawings
Protecting
animal habitats
03. Invertebrates
Characteristics
of vertebrates
Vertebrate groups
Classification of reptiles,
fish and amphibians
Comparing vertebrates
Associating groups with their
habitats
Benefits of
a fish diet
04. Vertebrates
The main organs in the
digestive, respiratory,
circulatory and excretory
systems
The processes of nutrition,
digestion, respiration,
circulation and excretion
Interpreting anatomical
drawings
Observing photographs
Healthy eating
habits
05. Nutrition
The properties of matter
Differentiating physical
and chemical changes
Changes in matter
Changes in state
Explaining events
scientifically
Using personal experience
to interpret a subject
Tetanus 06. Matter
The atmosphere
The hydrosphere
The geosphere
Changes in the Earths
surface
Sequencing information
Extracting information from
photographs, drawings
and diagrams
Natural
disasters
07. The atmosphere
N
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UNIT CONCEPTS PROCEDURES CITIZENSHIP
The concept of landscape
Inland and coastal
landforms
Mountains, plains
and coasts in Spain
Interpreting maps 18. The landscape Rubbish
Periods of Prehistory and
characteristics of prehistoric
life
Early civilisations on the
Iberian peninsula
The Roman legacy in Spain
Interpreting historical maps
Studying ancient monuments
Understanding
our cultural
legacy from
the past
12. Prehistory
and Antiquity
The Germanic tribes
and the Visigothic kingdom
The characteristics
of Al Andalus
The expansion of the
Christian kingdoms
Society in Spain after 1492
Putting historical events in order
Interpreting historical maps
Respect
for historic
buildings
13. The Middle Ages
Rivers, lakes
and watersheds
Climate and weather
Living things and their
habitats
Observing drawings and photos
Locating climate zones on a globe
19. Rivers The effects
of human
action on the
environment
The concept of population
Causes and types
of migration
Characteristics of the
population in Spain
Interpreting a population bar
Doing a census
10. Population Respect for
people from
other cultures
Respect
for senior
citizens
The concept of active
population
The agricultural, industrial
and service sectors
Tourism and transport
in Spain
Identifying industries in own area
Using maps to locate services
11. The economy The
importance
of all types of
work
Road safety
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The Student's Book
indicates an
Internet Activity.
indicates
a reading
activity.
indicates Richmond
World Facts Readers.
indicates that the
activity should
first be done
orally.
indicates that it
can also be used
as a writing
exercise.
shows that it is
also recorded.
LIVING THINGS 5
Living things
LOOK
READ
Look at this photo.
What living things
can you see?
What non-living things
can you see?
1. Living and non-living things
In nature, there are living things
and non-living things.
People, animals and plants are living things.
Rocks, air and wind are non-living things.
Living things have the following characteristics:
They are born from other living things.
They eat.
They react to their environment.
They grow.
They reproduce.
Finally, they die.
2. Life processes
There are three basic life processes:
Nutrition
Living things eat food, which contains nutrients.
Nutrients are substances which provide energy.
Sensitivity
Living things react to their environment.
Reproduction
Living things have offspring.
Many living things need a mate to reproduce.
New living things replace the ones which die.
Make more sentences. Living things are born. Living things
What living things are there in your home?
1
EXPRESSING POSSESSION
A regions characteristic temperature
The Earths climate
A rivers course and flow
Rivers
DESCRIBING PEOPLE
The population is the number of people live in a place.
Urban populations are people who live in cities.
Rural populations are people live in villages and towns.
People leave a country are called emigrants.
True or false? Make more sentences.
The population is the number of people who visit a place. True. / False.
TALKING ABOUT MANNER
The number of inhabitants in a place changes continually.
The adult population is growing quickly.
Some countries are densely populated.
The population is not evenly distributed.
Some areas are sparsely populated.
Population
Essential language
The Essential
Language section
summarises all the
key language used at
this level.
Title
This is the
number and
title of the unit.
Activities
Activities at the bottom
of the page reinforce
basic concepts, and
practise structures and
vocabulary.
Some are linked to
citizenship themes.
Read
Information is organised
into numbered sections.
Look
The units begin
with a LOOK or
COMPARE
section which
focuses
attention on the
theme of the
unit.
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Multicultural
non-sexist education
Health
education
Consumer
education
Road safety Environmental
education
Citizenship Sex
education
Peace
education
The Activity Book
7
Contents
2
Living things
Our senses
Our body
Animals
Vertebrates
and invertebrates
The Earth
Water
Air
Plants
Flowering plants
The landscape
Water and weather
Population
Work
Past and present
I can compare living things and non-living things.
I can identify animal and plant habitats.
I can identify our five senses.
I can name the parts of the eye and the ear.
I can name some bones and muscles.
I can say how we use our muscles.
I can classify animals in different groups.
I can identify what different animals eat.
I can identify vertebrates and invertebrates.
I can name the characteristics of mammals.
I can identify the three parts of the Earth.
I can compare solids, liquids and gases.
I can say where we find water.
I can describe the water cycle.
I can describe the characteristics of air.
I can identify some atmospheric phenomena.
I can identify stems, leaves and roots.
I can compare trees, bushes and grasses.
I can name some of the parts of a flower.
I can describe how plants grow.
I can identify different landscapes.
I can name the parts of a mountain.
I can describe the course of a river.
I can talk about the weather.
I can compare cities, towns and villages.
I can identify some means of transport.
I can identify some types of work.
I can talk about the needs of industry.
I can talk about the past.
I can make a family tree.
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30
32
35
40
44
48
51
53
PROJECT 1: Animal index cards 20
PROJECT 2: Make a skeleton to study bones and joints 21-24
PROJECT 3: An experiment 37
PROJECTS 4-7: Make objects to experiment with air 38-39
PROJECT 8: Make a relief model of your autonomous community 56-57
GLOSSARY: 58-64
UNIT
Read
and tick
I CAN DO IT
Extra
Learner autonomy:
the students assess
their own progress.
I can do it
57
stem
stolon
sunlight
tuber
abdomen
arachnid
arthropod
cephalothorax
cnidarian
crustacean
echinoderm
exoskeleton
insect
invertebrate
mollusc
myriapod
oviparous
parasite
shell
sponge
thorax
worm
alligator
amphibian
aquatic
beak
bony fish
carnivore
cartilaginous fish
cetacean
cold-blooded
crocodile
egg
feather
fin
fur
gill
habitat
incubation
lizard
lung
mammal
36
Use this information to construct a climate graph.
Temperature is in degrees centigrade (C).
Precipitation is in millimetres (mm).
1. Complete the temperature.
Put a point on each month using the information in the table. Then draw a red line
to connect the points from all twelve months.
2. Complete the precipitation.
Each month on the table is represented by a vertical blue bar at a different height
on the graph.
MAKE AND INTERPRET A CLIMATE GRAPH
Project 3
Temperature
Precipitation
J F M A M J J A S O N D
5 9 13 15 18 20 24 26 25 19 10 7
50 54 70 78 83 60 30 15 90 86 88 69
50
40
30
20
10
0
T (C)
100
80
60
40
20
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P (mm)
J F M A M J J A S O N D
Contents
Living things
Plants
Invertebrates
Vertebrates
Nutrition
Matter
The atmosphere
The landscape
Rivers
Population
The economy
Prehistory
and Antiquity
The Middle Ages
I can classify living things into three kingdoms.
I can describe a cell.
I can distinguish the different parts of a plant.
I can talk about photosynthesis.
I can classify invertebrates.
I can describe the different arthropod groups.
I can name the characteristics of vertebrate groups.
I can classify vertebrates into groups.
I can locate the main organs of nutrition.
I can describe the processes involved in nutrition.
I can talk about the general properties of matter.
I can identify changes of state in matter.
I can talk about the purpose of the atmosphere.
I can explain the water cycle.
I can talk about the concept of landscape.
I can identify the main inland and coastal landforms.
I can describe rivers and watersheds.
I can distinguish the Earths climatic zones.
I can talk about the concept of population.
I can identify the causes and types of migration.
I can identify the three economic sectors.
I can describe public and private service sectors.
I can talk about the main periods of Prehistory.
I can identify and describe some Roman ruins.
I can sequence events in Spanish history.
I can talk about the importance of the Golden Age.
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9
12
16
21
25
28
32
38
41
44
48
UNIT
Read
and tick
I CAN DO IT
PROJECT 1: Classify plants 19
PROJECT 2: Observe and describe a fungus 19
PROJECT 3: Make and interpret a climate graph 36
PROJECT 4: Investigate changes in matter 37
PROJECT 5: The Roman provinces of the Iberian Peninsula 54-55
GLOSSARY 56-63
Animal
4
Worksheet 2. Date Apply your knowledge
THE ORGANISATION OF LIVING THINGS
KINGDOMS
1. Match and label.
3. Classify the living things from Worksheet 1.
2. Complete the sentences.
a. are made up of which work together.
b. are made up of which work together.
c. are made up of which work together.
Many systems work together in an organism.
tisse
Tisse
A
D
B
C
KINGDOMS
Plant Fungi
E
system tissue cell
organ organism
The Activity
Book offers
a wealth of
activities.
Activities
Glossary
Students use the
glossary to record
the vocabulary
they have learned.
Projects and tasks
Projects and tasks
lead the students to
reflect, and carry out
simple experiments.
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The Teacher's Book
UNIT 0
16 17
UNIT CONTENT
Assessment criteria
Distinguishing living things and non-living things
Knowing that cells are the smallest living units in a living thing
Recognising the three parts of a cell
Explaining how living things are organised
Classifying living things into three kingdoms
Content objectives
1. Distinguishing living things and non-living things
2. Identifying the characteristics of living things and life processes
3. Understanding what a cell is and the parts of a cell
4. Understanding that there are unicellular organisms and multicellular organisms
5. Learning how living things are organised
Language objectives
1. Describing the characteristics of living things: They are born
are made up of
2. Giving extra information: Food, which contains nutrients
Tissues which work together
3. Expressing purpose: To keep a living thing healthy; to make their food
4. Giving examples: for example, our skin cells such as the heart
5. Describing position: around the cell between the nucleus and the membrane
6. Expressing ability: They can / cannot move.
Living things and non-living
things
The characteristics of living
things and life processes
The cell and the parts of a cell:
cytoplasm, membrane
and nucleus
The organisation of living
things: cell, tissue, organ,
system, organism
The principal kingdoms
of living things: animal, plant
and fungi
Interpreting a diagram about
the organisation of living things
Studying photographs to learn
about living things
Classifying living things into
three kingdoms
Identifying the characteristics
of the three kingdoms of living
things
Appreciating life and living
things
CONCEPTS PROCEDURES ATTITUDES
Contents
UNIT 1
Living things
RESOURCES
Resource folder
Reinforcement and extension
Reinforcement: Worksheet 1
Extension: Worksheet 1
Assessment
Assessment: Worksheet 1
Developing intelligence worksheets
Working with recent immigrants
PHOTOCOPIABLE RESOURCES SPECIAL PROGRAMMES*
Internet resources
www.richmondelt.com
www.indexnet.santillana.es
Cells and life processes
http://lgfl.skool.co.uk/keystage4.aspx?id=315
The structure of plant and animal cells and life
processes, along with other biology topics.
For students and teachers.
Living things
http://www.zephyrus.co.uk/biologytopics.html
A variety of biology topics including the kingdoms
of living things and human organ systems.
For students and teachers.
The fungi kingdom
http://www.wise-online.com/objects/index_tj.asp?
objid=BIO304
A closer look at the fungi kingdom.
For students and teachers.
Other resources
Richmond World Facts
Richmond Students Dictionary
Flashcards
Posters
* Not yet available in English
cell
membrane
Cells
The cell is the basic unit of living things. All living things are made up of cells. Some living things, such as bacteria, are made up of a single cell. An adult human, in contrast, has about 100 trillion cells. Every part of the body is made up of one kind of cell or another, and each kind of cell has a special function. There are about two hundred different kinds of cells in the human body, including bone cells, muscle cells, heart cells, liver cells and so on. The shape and size of a cell depend on its funtion. Muscle cells are long and thinwhen they contract, they produce movement. The three main parts of cells are the nucleus, the cytoplasm and the cell membrane. The nucleus is the central part of a cell and controls most of its functions. The cytoplasm is a jellylike substance that makes up most of the inside of a cell. The cell membrane is the outside covering of a cell. It controls what can enter and exit a cell.
Tissue
Tissue is made up of a group of cells that have the same function. For example, bone tissue is made up of three types of bone cellone to make bones, one to repair bones and one to remove dead bone cells. Humans have four types of tissue. Muscle tissue is made up of cells that contract and relax to produce movement. Nervous tissue is found in the brain and spinal cord, as well as the sense organs. Connective tissue includes the bones and tendons. Epithelial tissue covers the body and lines some internal organs. Bone tissue, despite its strength, is amazingly light; bones make up only about one fifth of our weight. There are two main types of muscle tissue: skeletal muscle tissue, which is connected to the skeleton, and smooth muscle tissue, which is found in the internal organs. Around 40% of a mans weight and 20% of a womans weight is made up of skeletal muscle tissue.
Organs
An organ is a set of tissues that have the same function. Each organ is made up of several types of tissue. For example, there are three types of bone tissue in bones: a hard outer tissue, a sponge-like tissue inside bones, and a smooth tissue at the ends of bones. In the skin, which is also an organ, there is epithelial tissue, muscle tissue, nervous tissue and connective tissue.
Systems
A system is a set of organs that work together to perform a common function. There are ten major systems in humans, including the respiratory, nervous, circulatory, digestive, excretory, skeletal, muscular and reproductory systems.
Musculoskeletal System
Bone Cells Muscle Cells
Bone Tissue Muscle Tissue
Bone
Skeleton Muscular System
Muscle
nucleus
cytoplasm
nucleus cytoplasm
cell
membrane
The Organisation of the Human Body
Richmond Publishing 2006. Richmond Publishing is an imprint of Santillana Educacin, S.L.
Contents for
Science skills
3
8
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Worksheet 7. Date Apply your knowledge
WHAT ARE ANIMALS LIKE?
1. Complete the word maps about animals.
are born from eggs.
are born from their
mothers womb.
Reproduction: animals are divided into
are animals with a skeleton.
have no bones.
Skeletons: animals are divided into
What organs do these animals use to breathe? Name them.
VOCABULARY
A B C
Oviparou
Viviparou
Verebrae
Inrebrae
gill trace lung
10
Worksheet 8. Date Read and learn
AN INVERTEBRATE PARASITE
1. Read carefully.
The tapeworm
The tapeworm (taenia) is an invertebrate animal.
It is a parasite in humans, pigs and other animals.
For example, a pig eats food contaminated with tapeworm
eggs. The eggs hatch into larvae in the animals intestine.
Then they travel into the bloodstream and the muscles.
If people eat undercooked meat from this infected pig,
the larva grows in their intestine. It becomes a tapeworm.
This parasite absorbs their food and causes weakness
and anaemia.
Contaminated animals have eggs in their faeces.
These can infect other animals.
2. Tick () the true sentences about the tapeworm.
It is an invertebrate. It is a parasite. It is oviparous.
It is an amphibian. It is viviparous. It is an herbivore.
3. Order the information as it appears in the text.
What kind of animal a tapeworm is How it lives inside a person
How it goes from animals to humans How it lives inside an animal
4. Investigate. Find the names of other human parasites.

1
3
4
2
M. A. hookwar
flatwor
ascari
trichi>ell
Internet resources
Other resources
Materials for reinforcement
and extension
Contents for
English skills
Solutions
There are
solutions to
all Activity Book
activities.
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18 19
I Special attention
Understanding that cells are three-
dimensional and not flat
Understanding that humans are made up
of tiny cells
I Hands on
I Presentation
Focus on the drawing of cells. Ask:
What are the parts of an animal cell?
(membrane, nucleus, cytoplasm)
What are the parts of a plant cell?
(nucleus, cytoplasm, membrane, wall)
Give examples of unicellular living things:
bacteria, some algae, yeast, protozoa
Point out that cells have three dimensions
and are not flat. Cells can have different
shapes: cubes, octahedrons
Ask: Are cells small? (yes) How can we see
cells? (with a microscope)
Ss read with , and . They then
do the activity at the bottom of the page.
5 4 3 1-3
READ
LIVING THINGS 5
Living things
LOOK
READ
Look at this photo.
What living things
can you see?
What non-living things
can you see?
1. Living and non-living things
In nature, there are living things
and non-living things.
People, animals and plants are living things.
Rocks, air and wind are non-living things.
Living things have the following characteristics:
They are born from other living things.
They eat.
They react to their environment.
They grow.
They reproduce.
Finally, they die.
2. Life processes
There are three basic life processes:
Nutrition
Living things eat food, which contains nutrients.
Nutrients are substances which provide energy.
Sensitivity
Living things react to their environment.
Reproduction
Living things have offspring.
Many living things need a mate to reproduce.
New living things replace the ones which die.
Make more sentences. Living things are born. Living things
What living things are there in your home?
1
6 LIVING THINGS
READ
1. What is a cell?
Living things are made up of tiny units
called cells.
Cells are the smallest living units
in a living thing.
Some living things are made up of a single cell.
They are unicellular.
Other living things are made up of many cells.
They are multicellular.
2. What are cells like?
Cells differ in shape and size.
They carry out different tasks.
For example, our skin cells
are different from our bone cells.
3. Parts of a cell
Cells have three parts:
The membrane is the covering
around the cell.
The nucleus is the part
which controls the cell.
Cytoplasm is between the nucleus
and the membrane.
Plant cells also have a hard cell wall
around the membrane.
This is why some plant stems are hard.
Cells
These cells are amplified by a microscope.
We use microscopes to study small things.
Complete the sentence.
Cells have three parts:
The parts of animal and plant cells
membrane
cytoplasm
nucleus
Animal
cell
nucleus
cytoplasm
membrane
wall
Plant
cell
2
3
I CONTENT AND LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT
Comprehension. Write the following phrases on the BB.
Ask Ss to match the sentence halves.
1. Living things a. provide energy.
2. Non-living things b. basic life processes.
3. Nutrients c. are born and die.
4. Animals d. do not reproduce.
5. There are three e. are living things.
Answers: 1 c. 2 d. 3 a. 4 e. 5 b.
1
I CONTENT AND LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT
Comprehension. Write the following sentences on the BB.
Ask Ss to choose the correct option.
1. Living things are made up of tiny / big units called cells.
2. Cells are the smallest units in a living / non-living thing.
3. Living things with a single cell are multicellular / unicellular.
4. Living things made up of many cells are multicellular /
unicellular.
5. Skin cells and bone cells are different / the same.
Answers: 1. tiny. 2. living. 3. unicellular. 4. multicellular.
5. different.
1
Content objectives: 1, 2.
Language objectives: 1,2, 3.
Vocabulary
are born, die, eat, grow, living things, non-living things,
nutrients, nutrition, react, reproduce, sensitivity
Content objectives: 3, 4.
Language objectives: 1, 2, 3, 4.
Vocabulary
cell, cytoplasm, membrane, multicellular,
nucleus, unicellular
react to their environmentgrowdie/ Open answers. membrane, nucleus and cytoplasm
I Special attention
Using the vocabulary correctly
Relative clauses with which
I Hands on
I Presentation
Focus on the photo and questions.
Living things: grass, trees, cows, calves.
Non-living things: air, buildings
Ask: How do you know cows are living
things? (They are born, eat, react, grow,
reproduce and die.) What do cows need to
live? (food, water, space)
Elicit examples of the characteristics
of living things. Ask: When are more calves
born? (spring) What do cows eat? (grass)
When chickens grow, what do they
become? (hens, cockerels) What animal
does a cow need to reproduce? (a bull)
Ss read and with and . They
then do the activities at the bottom of the
page.
Activity Book, page 3. R
2 1 2 1
READ
LOOK
Our pets
Encourage Ss to talk about their
experiences with pets.
Ask: Who has a pet? What is it? What
does it do? (It sleeps, plays, eats)
What does it need? (food, water )
Making yoghurt
Pour two litres of warm milk into
a container. Add two plain yoghurts
and mix. Put a lid on the container
and cover it with a towel.
Ask: What do you think will happen
after twelve hours? (The milk will
change to yoghurt.)
Examine the mixture later. Explain that
the bacteria in the yoghurt caused
a chemical change. Bacteria are
unicellular living things.
Respecting all living things.
All living things, big or small, deserve
our respect.
Bacteria and living things. Bacteria
can cause illnesses, such as pneumonia.
Some bacteria are used to make food,
like yoghurt.
Activity Book
This symbol
indicates a revision
activity.
This symbol
indicates an extension
activity.
E
R
Hands on
A classroom experience
which is motivating and
simple to do.
Citizenship
Citizenship themes
are identified with
symbols.
Content objectives
A cross-reference
to the content
objectives
on the previous
double page.
Language objectives
A cross-reference
to the language
objectives.
Vocabulary
Presented in
alphabetical order.
It is recommended
that students
learn it.
Special attention
Points which may be
difficult for the students
in both Science and
English.
Presentation
The suggestions include
texts as well as graphic
materials, such as
photographs, drawings,
diagrams and graphs.
Content and language
development
These activities combine
Science and Language
skills.
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Learning skills
Techniques
Various learning skills can help students to master the
contents of Essential Science:
Memorisation
To memorise new vocabulary, it is useful to associate
the words with mental pictures, and then revise them
in order.
In order to teach the circulatory system, for example,
students touch the corresponding parts of their
bodies.
Photographs
The photographs help students to obtain information.
It can be helpful to ask the students to study
a picture before they have read the caption
or received any other external information.
Focus the students attention: What do you see
in the photo? Can you see ?
Go on to analyse the picture systematically,
highlighting all the details.
Drawings
These drawings represent parts of the human body,
plants, etc. Some are realistic, while others are
simplified.
he digestive
ystem
mouth
pharynx
salivary
glands
small
intestine
oesophagus
liver
stomach
pancreas
rectum
anus
large
intestine
26
To extract information, it is important to study the
whole picture carefully as well as look at the details.
The students study the accompanying texts, which
give the names of the different parts or functions.
Highlighted words
These are printed in bold. They highlight key points
and vocabulary.
Experiments
Before an experiment begins, the students
are asked to predict how they think it will end.
Students need to have a clear idea
of an experiments different stages.
Point out the following:
material they will need
initial situation
sequence of events
final result
Enquiry questions
Learning should never be a purely mechanical
process. Questions can be used to elicit prior
knowledge, and find out students ideas.
Students should be encouraged to predict what they
will learn: What do you know about volcanoes?
What do you think this unit / this page is going
to be about?
Comparison questions encourage students to relate
information from different sections: In what ways are
... different from ... ?
This type of question should be adapted to the
language level of the class.
Activities
Initially, the activities at the bottom of the page
should be done orally with the whole class. Later,
most can be written down, either as homework
or as whole class activites. This will help students
to master the key concepts and language.
Some citizenship questions may be difficult
for the students in English. It is advisable to begin
by eliciting short, simple replies.
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Recorded Material
Some sections of each Unit are recorded on the
Students CD. There is a more complete selection
of texts on the Class CD.
The listening exercises can be used in the
presentation stage of the Unit.
Students should listen to the recording at least
twice before they check their answers.
The exercises can be corrected on the board,
or by looking at the text in the book.
For revision purposes, the listening exercises can
be used at the end of the unit to recycle vocabulary
or revise the content.
The recorded material will help students with the
pronunciation of new language and vocabulary.
Essential Language
The Essential Language section in the Students Book
(pages 51 - 56), summarises the main functions and
structures.
Here are some practical suggestions for using this
section:
Expressing facts
The Present Simple tense in the affirmative,
negative, interrogative forms: Students underline
examples of the structure in each unit, either copying
the texts, or using pencils.
Passive verb forms: Students identify the structure:
verb to be + past participle, and write examples.
Giving examples
Students ask questions related to examples from
the unit, for example: Are vegetables consumer
products?
Talking about the past
Students copy the table from Unit 12 into their
notebooks. They test each other with True / False
questions in pairs.
Defining
Prepositions of place: Students copy the texts,
or use pencils to underline prepositions of place.
In pairs they ask each other: Where is ?,
and answer using the correct preposition.
Relative pronouns: Students identify examples
of relative pronouns (who which ). They write
True / False sentences to test their partners, using
relative pronouns to give correct or incorrect
definitions.
Describing
Properties: verb to have: The students write
affirmative and negative sentences.
Describing a process, using linking words: First,
then, next, etc. The students find more examples
of processes using these linkers in other units.
There is / there are + singular / plural nouns.
Students find and underline more examples
of this structure.
54 ESSENTIAL LANGUAGE
MAKING IMPERSONAL STATEMENTS
Waves
wind.
Ocean currents
are caused by differences in water temperature.
Earthquakes
movements of the Earths crust.
GIVING EXAMPLES Water can be a liquid or a solid,
ice or snow.
There are hundreds of minerals, such as diamonds.
Precipitation is water,
rain, snow or hail.
Water in liquid form
oceans, seas, rivers and lakes.
Water in solid form is found in / on mountains.
Water vapour
the atmosphere.
The atmosphere
INDICATING LOCATION Coastal plains are flat land near the coast.
A marsh is wet land
near the mouth of a river.
Low-lying coasts are plains by the sea.
High coasts are high areas by the sea.
There are high mountains in some areas.
The Ebro depression is
in the north. MAKING IMPERSONAL STATEMENTS
Central Spain
is dominated
a large plateau.
An island
is completely surrounded by water.
The Central Plateau is divided
the Central Mountain Chain.
The landscape
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Linking units and contents
Before students look at the Contents list, write a few
titles on the left of the board: The landscape; Living
things; Population; The economy.
On the right, write, in a different order, some of the
information about the titles: Migration; Mountains
and plains in Spain; Cells; The primary and secondary
sectors.
Students volunteer to go to the board and draw a line
between a title and its information.
The students now have the list of contents (page 2
of the Students Book), open in front of them. Draw
something on the board to represent a title, for
example, a dog (Unit 4), and a mountain (Unit 8).
Students guess which unit is referred to. Students
then volunteer to draw other titles on the board, and
the activity continues. They may also do this activity
in pairs.
Anagrams
Write anagrams on board, for example CLIMATE
(TEMACLI) and ask the students to say which unit is
being referred to. The students could do this in pairs.
Contents
Notes:
2
Multicultural
non-sexist education
Health
education
Consumer
education
Road safety Environmental
education
Citizenship Sex
education
Peace
education
Contents
01
Living things . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
Cells The organisation of living things Kingdoms
02
Plants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
Plant nutrition Plant reproduction
03
Invertebrates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
Invertebrate groups Arthropods
04
Vertebrates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
Birds Reptiles Fish and amphibians
05
Nutrition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
The digestive system Respiration and excretion Blood circulation
06
Matter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
The properties of matter Changes in matter Changes of state
07
The atmosphere . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
The hydrosphere The geosphere Volcanoes, earthquakes and weathering
08
The landscape . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
Mountains and plains in Spain The coast Spanish coasts
09
Rivers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
Climate Vegetation and fauna
10
Population . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
Migration The population of Spain
11
The economy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
The primary and secondary sectors in Spain The service sector in Spain
12
Prehistory and Antiquity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
The Iberian peninsula in pre-Roman times Roman Hispania
13
The Middle Ages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
Al Andalus The Christian kingdoms Spain after 1492
PAGE
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General questions
Ask general questions:
How many units are there in the book?
What is the first / last unit about?
What do you think you will study in Unit (5)?
What are Units 4, 8, 12 about? (These questions
can also be asked in pairs.)
Which unit is about animals / plants / the Earth?
(These questions can also be asked in pairs.)
Which unit discusses reptiles?
Which unit do you like best / is most interesting
for you?
Pairwork activities
In pairs, the students test each other:
A: Mountains?
B: Unit 8. Birds?
A: Unit 4. Population?
B: Unit 10.
Answers: a 2; b 13; c 1; d 7; e 12; f 4; g
10; h 5; i 8; j 11; k 3; l 6; m 9.
ABOUT THIS BOOK
Look at pictures A-M.
Match them to Units 1-13 on page 2.
Then look at the book. Check your answers.
Unit 1 Unit 7 Unit ......... Unit .........
Unit ......... Unit ......... Unit 9
Unit 10 Unit 5 Unit ......... Unit .........
Unit ......... Unit .........
B
G
D C E
H
K L M
J
F
I
Learning to learn
A
3
Notes:
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14
You already know a lot!
This section shows students that they already have
considerable prior knowledge.
Explain that this will help them throughout the year.
This section can also be used as a diagnostic test at
the beginning of the year.
Choose how many words to include according to the
level of the class.
These are topics you will
study this year.
You already know a lot!
TITLE
What is the number of the unit?
What is the title?
What is the first section on the page?
LOOK AT THE PHOTO
What is the animal doing?
Can you see water?
What else can you see in the photo?
Think about what you see in photos.
Photos have a lot of information.
What is the second section on the page?
EXPLANATIONS
These paragraphs have important information.
Important words are like this: water, food.
SYMBOLS
The text is on the CD
Richmond World Facts
There is an Internet activity
Speak
Read
Write
ACTIVITIES
These exercises give you
practice in ESSENTIAL SCIENCE.
YOU ALREADY KNOW
A LOT!
ANIMALS
What do animals eat?
Herbivores eat plants.
Carnivores eat
Omnivores eat
FOOD
Can you name five types of food?
Do you know the names of three meals?
THE BODY
What can babies do when they are born?
Name two things.
What can't babies do when they are born?
Name two things.
PLANTS
What do plants need? Name more two things.
Sunlight, and
THE UNIVERSE
Do you know the names of any astronomical
bodies?
The Sun, planets,
How many hours are there in a day?
LIGHT
Do you know the seven colours in a rainbow?
Red, indigo and violet.
AUTONOMOUS COMMUNITIES
What is the name of your Autonomous
Community?
Which other communities are close to your
Autonomous Community?
OCEANS AND CONTINENTS
Can you name three continents?
Can you name two oceans?
4 LIVING THINGS
These are topics you will study
this year.
You already know a lot!
TITLE
What is the number of the unit?
What is the title?
What is the first section on the page?
LOOK AT THE PHOTO
What is the animal doing?
Can you see trees?
What else can you see in the photo?
Think about what you see in photos.
Photos have a lot of information.
What is the second section on the page?
EXPLANATIONS
These texts give you important information.
Important words appear like this: react, nutrients.
SYMBOLS
The text is on the CD
Richmond World Facts
There is an Internet activity
Speak
Read
Write
ACTIVITIES
These exercises give you
practice in ESSENTIAL SCIENCE.
YOU ALREADY KNOW
A LOT!
PLANTS
Name four things plants need.
Plants need the correct
temperature, ...
ANIMALS
How do animals breathe?
FOOD
What is a healthy diet?
THE BODY
Name four parts of the digestive system.
Name three parts of the respiratory system.
Name two parts of the excretory system.
THE ATMOSPHERE
Can you talk about the weather?
Today it is sunny; today it is raining; ...
MINERALS
What is the difference between minerals
and rocks?
THE ECONOMY
Can you name six jobs in the service sector?
Lawyers, ...
ROMAN TIMES
Describe Roman cities.
In Roman cities, there were important buildings:
amphitheatres, ...
MUSLIMS AND CHRISTIANS
Where did Muslims and Christians live?
Muslims lived in cities surrounded by ...
Christians ...
Notes:
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Focus on the page
Use the text in the right-hand column of page 4 to show
the students how their textbook is organised.
TITLE AND PHOTO
Ask the students to tell you the number and title
of the unit. Then ask them to look at the photo
and predict what they think the unit will be about:
What do you think this unit is going to be about?
Explain that photos include a great deal of
information. Ask the students: What can you
see in the photo?
If their language level allows it, suggest that they
compare this landscape with their own region:
Is this landscape different from your region?
(Its green )
Further suggestions for teaching page 5 are given
on page 18 of this Teachers Book.
The use of photos is discussed in the Learning skills
section on page 10 of this Teachers Book.
EXPLANATIONS AND SYMBOLS
Explain that the students have their own
Students CD.
Students should listen to the recordings at home,
which will help them to assimilate what they have
learned. It is helpful if they sometimes listen to the
recordings without using the Students Book.
This sharpens their auditory capacity. The recordings
also help them to work on their pronunciation.
Further suggestions for exploiting the recording
are given in the Learning skills section on page 11.
ACTIVITIES
Some activities reinforce acquisition of the scientific
contents. Others focus on citizenship reflection.
Suggestions for exploitation are given in the
Learning skills section on page 10.
LIVING THINGS 5
Living things
LOOK
READ
Look at this photo.
What living things
can you see?
What non-living things
can you see?
1. Living and non-living things
In nature, there are living things
and non-living things.
People, animals and plants are living things.
Rocks, air and wind are non-living things.
Living things have the following characteristics:
They are born from other living things.
They eat.
They react to their environment.
They grow.
They reproduce.
Finally, they die.
2. Life processes
There are three basic life processes:
Nutrition
Living things eat food, which contains nutrients.
Nutrients are substances which provide energy.
Sensitivity
Living things react to their environment.
Reproduction
Living things have offspring.
Many living things need a mate to reproduce.
New living things replace the ones which die.
Make more sentences. Living things are born. Living things
What living things are there in your home?
1
Notes:
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UNIT CONTENT
Assessment criteria
Distinguishing living things and non-living things
Knowing that cells are the smallest living units in a living thing
Recognising the three parts of a cell
Explaining how living things are organised
Classifying living things into three kingdoms
Content objectives
1. Distinguishing living things and non-living things
2. Identifying the characteristics of living things and life processes
3. Understanding what a cell is and the parts of a cell
4. Understanding that there are unicellular organisms and multicellular organisms
5. Learning how living things are organised
Language objectives
1. Describing the characteristics of living things: They are born
are made up of
2. Giving extra information: Food, which contains nutrients
Tissues which work together
3. Expressing purpose: To keep a living thing healthy; to make their food
4. Giving examples: for example, our skin cells such as the heart
5. Describing position: around the cell between the nucleus and the membrane
6. Expressing ability: They can / cannot move.
Living things and non-living
things
The characteristics of living
things and life processes
The cell and the parts of a cell:
cytoplasm, membrane
and nucleus
The organisation of living
things: cell, tissue, organ,
system, organism
The principal kingdoms
of living things: animal, plant
and fungi
Interpreting a diagram about
the organisation of living things
Studying photographs to learn
about living things
Classifying living things into
three kingdoms
Identifying the characteristics
of the three kingdoms of living
things
Appreciating life and living
things
CONCEPTS PROCEDURES ATTITUDES
Contents
UNIT 1
Living things
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UNIT 0
17
RESOURCES
Resource folder
Reinforcement and extension
Reinforcement: Worksheet 1
Extension: Worksheet 1
Assessment
Assessment: Worksheet 1
Developing intelligence worksheets
Working with recent immigrants
PHOTOCOPIABLE RESOURCES SPECIAL PROGRAMMES*
Internet resources
www.richmondelt.com
www.indexnet.santillana.es
Cells and life processes
http://lgfl.skool.co.uk/keystage4.aspx?id=315
The structure of plant and animal cells and life
processes, along with other biology topics.
For students and teachers.
Living things
http://www.zephyrus.co.uk/biologytopics.html
A variety of biology topics including the kingdoms
of living things and human organ systems.
For students and teachers.
The fungi kingdom
http://www.wise-online.com/objects/index_tj.asp?
objid=BIO304
A closer look at the fungi kingdom.
For students and teachers.
Other resources
Richmond World Facts
Richmond Students Dictionary
Flashcards
Posters
* Not yet available in English
cell
membrane
Cells
The cell is the basic unit of living things. All living things are
made up of cells. Some living things, such as bacteria, are made
up of a single cell. An adult human, in contrast, has about 100
trillion cells.
Every part of the body is made up of one kind of cell or another,
and each kind of cell has a special function. There are about two
hundred different kinds of cells in the human body, including bone
cells, muscle cells, heart cells, liver cells and so on.
The shape and size of a cell depend on its funtion. Muscle cells
are long and thinwhen they contract, they produce movement.
The three main parts of cells are the nucleus, the cytoplasm and
the cell membrane. The nucleus is the central part of a cell and
controls most of its functions. The cytoplasm is a jellylike
substance that makes up most of the inside of a cell. The cell
membrane is the outside covering of a cell. It controls what can
enter and exit a cell.
Tissue
Tissue is made up of a group of cells that have the same function. For
example, bone tissue is made up of three types of bone cellone to
make bones, one to repair bones and one to remove dead bone cells.
Humans have four types of tissue.
Muscle tissue is made up of cells that contract and relax to produce
movement.
Nervous tissue is found in the brain and spinal cord, as well as the
sense organs.
Connective tissue includes the bones and tendons.
Epithelial tissue covers the body and lines some internal organs.
Bone tissue, despite its strength, is amazingly light; bones make up
only about one fifth of our weight.
There are two main types of muscle tissue: skeletal muscle tissue,
which is connected to the skeleton, and smooth muscle tissue, which
is found in the internal organs. Around 40% of a mans weight and
20% of a womans weight is made up of skeletal muscle tissue.
Organs
An organ is a set of tissues that have the same function. Each organ is made
up of several types of tissue. For example, there are three types of bone tissue
in bones: a hard outer tissue, a sponge-like tissue inside bones, and a smooth
tissue at the ends of bones. In the skin, which is also an organ, there is
epithelial tissue, muscle tissue, nervous tissue and connective tissue.
Systems
A system is a set of organs that work together to perform a common
function. There are ten major systems in humans, including the
respiratory, nervous, circulatory, digestive, excretory, skeletal, muscular
and reproductory systems.
Musculoskeletal System
Bone Cells
Muscle Cells
Bone Tissue
Muscle Tissue
Bone
Skeleton Muscular System
Muscle
nucleus
cytoplasm
nucleus
cytoplasm
cell
membrane
The Organisation of the Human Body

Richm
ond Publishing 2006. Richm
ond Publishing is an im
print of Santillana Educacin, S.L.
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LIVING THINGS 5
Living things
LOOK
READ
Look at this photo.
What living things
can you see?
What non-living things
can you see?
1. Living and non-living things
In nature, there are living things
and non-living things.
People, animals and plants are living things.
Rocks, air and wind are non-living things.
Living things have the following characteristics:
They are born from other living things.
They eat.
They react to their environment.
They grow.
They reproduce.
Finally, they die.
2. Life processes
There are three basic life processes:
Nutrition
Living things eat food, which contains nutrients.
Nutrients are substances which provide energy.
Sensitivity
Living things react to their environment.
Reproduction
Living things have offspring.
Many living things need a mate to reproduce.
New living things replace the ones which die.
Make more sentences. Living things are born. Living things
What living things are there in your home?
1
CONTENT AND LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT
Comprehension. Write the following phrases on the BB.
Ask Ss to match the sentence halves.
1. Living things a. provide energy.
2. Non-living things b. basic life processes.
3. Nutrients c. are born and die.
4. Animals d. do not reproduce.
5. There are three e. are living things.
Answers: 1 c. 2 d. 3 a. 4 e. 5 b.
1
Content objectives: 1, 2.
Language objectives: 1,2, 3.
Vocabulary
are born, die, eat, grow, living things, non-living things,
nutrients, nutrition, react, reproduce, sensitivity
react to their environmentgrowdie/ Open
Special attention
Using the vocabulary correctly
Relative clauses with which
Hands on
Presentation
Focus on the photo and questions.
Living things: grass, trees, cows, calves.
Non-living things: air, buildings
Ask: How do you know cows are living
things? (They are born, eat, react, grow,
reproduce and die.) What do cows need to
live? (food, water, space)
Elicit examples of the characteristics
of living things. Ask: When are more calves
born? (spring) What do cows eat? (grass)
When chickens grow, what do they
become? (hens, cockerels) What animal
does a cow need to reproduce? (a bull)
Ss read and with and . They
then do the activities at the bottom of the
page.
Activity Book, page 3. R
2 1
2 1
READ
LOOK
Our pets
Encourage Ss to talk about their
experiences with pets.
Ask: Who has a pet? What is it? What
does it do? (It sleeps, plays, eats)
What does it need? (food, water )
Respecting all living things.
All living things, big or small, deserve
our respect.
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Special attention
Understanding that cells are three-
dimensional and not flat
Understanding that humans are made up
of tiny cells
Hands on
Presentation
Focus on the drawing of cells. Ask:
What are the parts of an animal cell?
(membrane, nucleus, cytoplasm)
What are the parts of a plant cell?
(nucleus, cytoplasm, membrane, wall)
Give examples of unicellular living things:
bacteria, some algae, yeast, protozoa
Point out that cells have three dimensions
and are not flat. Cells can have different
shapes: cubes, octahedrons
Ask: Are cells small? (yes) How can we see
cells? (with a microscope)
Ss read with , and . They then
do the activity at the bottom of the page.
5 4 3
1-3
READ
6 LIVING THINGS
READ
1. What is a cell?
Living things are made up of tiny units
called cells.
Cells are the smallest living units
in a living thing.
Some living things are made up of a single cell.
They are unicellular.
Other living things are made up of many cells.
They are multicellular.
2. What are cells like?
Cells differ in shape and size.
They carry out different tasks.
For example, our skin cells
are different from our bone cells.
3. Parts of a cell
Cells have three parts:
The membrane is the covering
around the cell.
The nucleus is the part
which controls the cell.
Cytoplasm is between the nucleus
and the membrane.
Plant cells also have a hard cell wall
around the membrane.
This is why some plant stems are hard.
Cells
These cells are amplified by a microscope.
We use microscopes to study small things.
Complete the sentence.
Cells have three parts:
The parts of animal and plant cells
membrane
cytoplasm
nucleus
Animal
cell
nucleus
cytoplasm
membrane
wall
Plant
cell
2
3
CONTENT AND LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT
Comprehension. Write the following sentences on the BB.
Ask Ss to choose the correct option.
1. Living things are made up of tiny / big units called cells.
2. Cells are the smallest units in a living / non-living thing.
3. Living things with a single cell are multicellular / unicellular.
4. Living things made up of many cells are multicellular /
unicellular.
5. Skin cells and bone cells are different / the same.
Answers: 1. tiny. 2. living. 3. unicellular. 4. multicellular.
5. different.
1
Content objectives: 3, 4.
Language objectives: 1, 2, 3, 4.
Vocabulary
cell, cytoplasm, membrane, multicellular,
nucleus, unicellular
membrane, nucleus and
Making yoghurt
Pour two litres of warm milk into
a container. Add two plain yoghurts
and mix. Put a lid on the container
and cover it with a towel.
Ask: What do you think will happen
after twelve hours? (The milk will
change to yoghurt.)
Examine the mixture later. Explain that
the bacteria in the yoghurt caused
a chemical change. Bacteria are
unicellular living things.
Bacteria and living things. Bacteria
can cause illnesses, such as pneumonia.
Some bacteria are used to make food,
like yoghurt.
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Special attention
Understanding new concepts
Pronunciation of muscle, tissue
Hands on
Presentation
Explain that the human
body is organised into systems which work
together.
Draw concentric circles on the BB and write
these words from the centre outwards:
cells, tissues, organs, systems, organism.
Ask: What is the simplest unit in the
human body? (a cell) Which is more
complex, an organ or a cell? (an organ)
Which is more complex, an organ or an
organism? (an organism)
Use different colour chalk and write these
words inside the same concentric circles:
muscle cell, muscle tissue, deltoid muscle,
muscular system, organism.
Ss read with . They then do the
activities at the bottom of the page.
Activity Book, page 4. R
7
1
LOOK AND READ
CONTENT AND LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT
Vocabulary. Write these sentences on the BB.
Ask Ss to write the jumbled words correctly.
1. A human being is an NAGROMIS.
2. Human beings are ILTUMRALULELC.
3. One type of tissue is ELSCUM tissue.
4. Tissues are made up of SELCL.
5. The heart is an AGRON.
6. One type of system is the VITESGIDE system.
Answers: 1. organism. 2. multicellular. 3. muscle. 4. cells.
5. organ. 6. digestive.
1
LIVING THINGS 7
1. How are living things organised?
Multicellular living things
have the following structure:
Cells form tissues:
Tissues, such as muscle tissue,
are made up of cells
which work together.
Tissues form organs:
Organs, such as the heart,
are made up of tissues
which work together.
Organs form systems:
Systems, such as the digestive system,
are made up of organs
which work together.
An organism is a complete living thing:
Many systems work together in an organism.
All living things are organisms.
All the systems in an organism
work together to keep
a living thing healthy.
The organisation of living things
tissue organism
cell organ system
Put the words in order from the simplest structure
to the most complex structure.
Make more sentences.
Change the underlined words.
Tissues, such as muscle tissue, are made up of
cells which work together.
LOOK AND READ
muscle
cell
cell
tissue
organ
system
muscle
tissue
muscular
system
human
being
organism
The organisation of living things
4
5
muscle
cell, tissue, organ, system, organism / Model Answer (M.A.) Systems
the digestive system organs. Organsthe hearttissues
Content objectives: 5.
Language objectives: 1, 2, 3, 4, 6.
Vocabulary
cell, organ, organism, system, tissue
Atlas of human anatomy
Use an atlas of human anatomy, or the
Richmond poster of the human body,
to show different structures in the
human body.
Ask: What does the human body
consist of? (bones, organs, muscles ...)
What are the major organs in the
digestive system?
(mouth, oesophagus, stomach)
Prevention. Periodic health check-ups
can help prevent illness by detecting
health problems before they become
serious.
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Special attention
Understanding the concept of kingdom
Understanding that fungi are neither plants
nor animals
Hands on
Presentation
Present with and . Ask: Can
animals move? (Yes) Can plants move?
(No) Can mushrooms move? (No) How do
plants obtain food? (They make their food.)
Ask about plants and fungi.
Help Ss make a tree diagram. Title: The
three kingdoms. Level 1: The animal
kingdom, The plant kingdom, The fungi
kingdom. Level 2: characteristics of each.
Level 3: examples.
Read and listen to and . Ask: Can
you give some examples of fungi? (bread
and fruit mould, yeast) What do you know
about mushrooms? (many are poisonous)
Activity Book, page 5. E
12 11
10 9
READ
8 LIVING THINGS
1. Kingdoms
Living things are classified
into groups called kingdoms.
The three principal kingdoms are the animal
kingdom, the plant kingdom and the fungi kingdom.
2. The animal kingdom
Animals are multicellular.
They eat other living things.
They can move from one place to another.
They have a nervous system and sense organs.
They react to stimuli.
3. The plant kingdom
Plants are multicellular.
They use sunlight and substances
from the soil and air to make their food.
They cannot move.
They have roots in the ground.
Plants do not have a nervous system
or sense organs. However, they react
slowly to some stimuli. For example,
many plants grow towards the light.
4. The fungi kingdom
Most fungi are multicellular.
A few are unicellular.
They depend on other organisms for food.
They do not make their own food.
They are fixed to something.
They cannot move.
READ
Kingdoms
Animals can move.
Plants grow well when there is a lot of sunlight
and water.
A mushroom is the top part of a fungus.
Most of it is underground.
6
7
Content objectives: 4, 5.
Language objectives: 1, 3, 4, 6.
Vocabulary
animal kingdom, fungi kingdom, kingdoms,
plant kingdom
Mould
Put a few drops of water on a slice
of bread.
Place inside a plastic bag. Put the bag
in a warm, dark place.
Show Ss the bread after a few days.
Ask: What has happened?
(The bread has developed mould.)
Ask: What does the mould need to
grow? (moisture, warmth and nutrients)
Yeast and bread. Yeast is a
microscopic fungus used to make bread.
It feeds on sugar and produces carbon
dioxide, making the bread rise.
CONTENT AND LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT
Comprehension. Write these sentences on the BB.
Ss copy the sentences and circle the correct option.
1. Living things are classified into three / four kingdoms.
2. Animals can / cannot move from one place to another.
3. Plants have / do not have a nervous system or sense organs.
4. Plants grow towards / away from the light.
5. Fungi depend on / do not depend on other organisms for food.
6. Fungi can / cannot move.
Answers: 1. three. 2. can. 3. do not have. 4. towards.
5. depend on. 6. cannot.
1
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Worksheet 1. Date Apply your knowledge
CLASSIFICATION
3
1. Classify into living or non-living things.
wind people cows chairs rocks air
trees snakes fungi glass flowers plastic
Match and write.
sensitivity reproduction nutrition
: living things eat food, which contains nutrients.
: living things react to their environment.
: living things have offspring.
VOCABULARY
LIVING NON-LIVING
eop
cow
te
snae
flor
fung^
nutritio>
ensitivit
eproductio>
chair
glas
plasti
ai
win
rock
Animal
4
Worksheet 2. Date Apply your knowledge
THE ORGANISATION OF LIVING THINGS
KINGDOMS
1. Match and label.
3. Classify the living things from Worksheet 1.
2. Complete the sentences.
a. are made up of which work together.
b. are made up of which work together.
c. are made up of which work together.
Many systems work together in an organism.
tisse
Tisse
A
D
B
C
KINGDOMS
Plant Fungi
E
system tissue cell
organ organism
el tiss
orga> syse organis
ell
Organ
organ Sysem
eop
cow
tre fung^
flor
snae
8
5
7
4
1
5

_

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Worksheet 3. Date Read and learn
FUNGI
1. Read carefully.
What type of living things are fungi?
Fungi are living things. They are born, grow, reproduce
and die, but they are not plants or animals.
They are not plants because they cannot make their
own food. They absorb nutrients from the remains of
other living things. They are not animals because they
do not have sense organs and they cannot move.
Some fungi, such as yeast, are too tiny to see.
Others, such as moulds, are also tiny, but you can
see them all together.
Some fungi are in the ground. In autumn,
they become mushrooms and grow above the ground.
There are many edible mushrooms.
2. Identify.
mould mushrooms microscopic yeast
cap
stem
mushroom
A B C
Match.
Fungi are they do not have sense organs.
Fungi are not plants because born, grow, reproduce and die.
Fungi are not animals because they cannot make their own food.
Investigate. Which edible mushrooms are found in your region?
VOCABULARY
A C B
Model Answer (M. A.) Butto> mushroom a foun i> m egio>.
N
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s
:
8
5
7
4
1
5

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UNIT CONTENT
Assessment criteria
Distinguishing the different parts of a plant
Understanding the processes carried out in plant reproduction
Identifying the different groups of plants with their main characteristics
Explaining the process of photosynthesis
Understanding the difference between respiration and photosynthesis
Knowing about different types of plant reproduction
Interpreting diagrams, drawings and photographs correctly to obtain answers
Respecting plants
Content objectives
1. Recognising the distinguishing features of flowering and non-flowering plants
2. Understanding how to classify plants and the main characteristics of each group
3. Identifying what plants need
4. Learning how plants breathe and make their own food
5. Understanding how plants reproduce
6. Appreciating the important role plants have in nature
Language objectives
1. Describing properties: Plants have , angiosperms have
2. Describing processes (passive, present simple): are absorbed from the soil
transported from the roots Photosynthesis takes place
3. Expressing quantity: almost all gymnosperms some grasses
4. Giving examples: such as pine trees
5. Giving additional information: small plants which live stems which extend
6. Describing movement (prepositions): through the roots up the stem from
the stamens to the ovary
The parts of a plant and their
functions
Plant classification
Plant nutrition: respiration
and photosynthesis
Flowers as organs of
reproduction: the parts of
a flower, pollination, how
seeds form and germinate
Types of special stems
involved in plant reproduction
Observe the different parts
of a plant
Classify plants into two groups
Describe the processes carried
out in plant nutrition
Describe the processes carried
out in the reproduction of
flowering plants using the
correct sequence
Interpret drawings, photographs
and diagrams correctly
Appreciate the role of plants
and show an interest in
protecting them
CONCEPTS PROCEDURES ATTITUDES
Contents
UNIT 2
Plants
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UNIT 0
25
RESOURCES
Resource folder
Reinforcement and extension
Reinforcement: Worksheet 2
Extension: Worksheet 2
Assessment
Assessment: Worksheet 2
Developing intelligence worksheets
Working with recent immigrants
PHOTOCOPIABLE RESOURCES SPECIAL PROGRAMMES*
Internet resources
www.richmondelt.com
www.indexnet.santillana.es
Plants
http://www.urbanext.uiuc.edu/gpe/
The Great Plant Escape combines facts, pictures
and activities. For students and teachers.
Plants and animals
http://www.saburchill.com/chapters/chapters.html
The Open Door Web Site has a wealth of material about
plants and animals, including how plants breathe, feed
and reproduce. For teachers.
How plants grow
http://www.kidport.com/RefLib/Science/
HowPlantsGrow/HowPlantsGrow.html
How Plants Grow includes information on pollination,
seeds and bulbs.
Other resources
Richmond World Facts
Richmond Students Dictionary
Flashcards
Posters
* Not yet available in English
COCONUT:
SEED OR FRUIT?
www.richmondelt.com
LEVEL
4
COCONUT:
SEED OR FRUIT?
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PLANTS 9
Plants
1. Plant groups
Plants have roots, a stem and leaves.
The roots are in the soil. Water and other substances
are absorbed from the soil through the roots.
The stem supports the leaves.
Water and nutrients are transported from the roots
to the leaves inside the stem.
The leaves breathe and make the plants food.
2. Flowering plants
Flowering plants are the biggest group of plants.
Gymnosperms have small flowers, but no fruit.
Their seeds are all together in cones.
Almost all gymnosperms are trees,
such as pine trees.
Angiosperms have flowers and fruit.
Chestnut trees and some grasses are angiosperms.
3. Non-flowering plants
Non-flowering plants are the smallest group
of plants. They need shade and moisture.
Mosses are small plants which live
on rocks, trees and the ground.
Ferns are larger than mosses.
They have thick, underground stems and big leaves.
How many plants
can you see
in this photo?
What are the plants like
where you live?
LOOK
READ
pine cone
Gymnosperm
cone
8
olives
grapes
Angiosperm fruit
Ferns and mosses
are found in dark,
humid forests.
ferns
moss
CONTENT AND LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT
Quiz. Ask Ss to close their books. Read out these questions.
Ss write the answers in their notebooks.
1. Which is the biggest group of plants?
2. Which is the smallest?
3. Plants have roots, a stem and what else?
4. What does the stem transport to the leaves?
5. What do the leaves make?
6. Where do we find ferns and mosses?
Answers: 1. flowering plants. 2. non-flowering plants. 3. leaves.
4. water and nutrients. 5. food for the plant. 6. in forests /
on rocks and trees.
1
Vocabulary
angiosperms, cones, fungi, gymnosperms, leaves,
mosses, stem
Special attention
Not all plants have flowers
Pronunciation of breathe and moisture
Hands on
Presentation
Establish that plants have different
shapes, sizes, colours, leaves Focus on
the photo and elicit answers.
Draw a plant on the BB with the
three main parts and a line to show the
ground. Ask: What is the part in the soil?
(the roots) What supports the leaves?
(the stem) What makes the plants food?
(the leaves) Ss read with , , .
Draw a table on the BB. Title: PLANT
GROUPS. First level: Flowering plants
Non-flowering plants. Second level:
Gymnosperms Angiosperms.
Third level: examples.
Examples:
Gymnosperms: cedar, cypress, fir
Angiosperms: wheat, poppy, oak, rosemary
Non-flowering plants: moss, fern
Activity Book, pages 6, 7. R
15 14 13
1-3
READ
LOOK
Cones
Collect different gymnosperm cones.
Get Ss to compare their shape, size
and colour.
Lift the pine cone scales to show where
the seeds are and what they are like.
Ancient trees. Some trees live
for hundreds of years. They are part
of our natural heritage. We should respect
and protect them.
Content objectives: 1, 2.
Language objectives: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6.
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Special attention
Plants, like all living things, breathe
continually
Distinguishing respiration and
photosynthesis
Hands on
Presentation
Ask: What happens to
plants in a room without light? (they die)
Do plants breathe? (yes)
Ss read and listen to , , .
Ask: What do plants need to survive?
(sunlight, carbon dioxide, water and minerals)
Where does respiration take place?
(in the leaves) How do plants obtain food?
(They make their own food.)
Ask: What is raw sap? (a mixture of water
and minerals) Where does it form?
(in the roots)
Ss read with . Ask: What is
elaborated sap? (the plants food)
Where does it form? (in the leaves)
Ss do the activity at the bottom
of the page.
19
4
18 17 16
1-3
LOOK AND READ
10 PLANTS
LOOK AND READ
Plant nutrition
1. Respiration
Like all living things, plants breathe.
They take oxygen from the air, and release
carbon dioxide. This exchange of gases
is called respiration. It takes place
in leaves continually, day and night.
2. Plant nutrition
Plants obtain food in a different way
from animals. Plants are autotrophs:
they make their own food. To make food,
plants need sunlight, carbon dioxide,
water, and minerals from the soil.
3. Water and minerals
Water and minerals are important for plant
nutrition. In the soil, minerals dissolve in water.
Plants absorb this water through their roots.
These nutrients, called raw sap,
travel up the stem to the leaves.
4. Photosynthesis
Photosynthesis enables plants to make
food from sunlight, carbon dioxide,
water and minerals.
Photosynthesis takes place in the leaves.
In the leaves, raw sap mixes with carbon
dioxide and becomes elaborated sap.
This is the plants food.
Sunlight is essential for photosynthesis,
so it only takes place during the day.
During photosynthesis, plants release oxygen.
Complete the sentence. To make food, plants need
Do you have plants in your home? How do you take care of them?
sunlight
carbon
dioxide
oxygen
raw sap
raw
sap
elaborated
sap
stem
leaf
roots
water and dissolved minerals

Respiration
The exchange of gases
Plant nutrition
oxygen
carbon
dioxide

Photosynthesis
carbon
dioxide
oxygen

10
9
CONTENT AND LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT
Comprehension. Write these words and sentences on the BB.
Ss copy the sentences and complete them with the correct words.
oxygen food stem minerals gases leaves respiration
1. Oxygen and carbon dioxide are
2. Plants breathe through their
3. When they breathe, plants take from the air and release
carbon dioxide.
4. The exchange of gases is called
5. Plants make their own
6. Water and are important for plant nutrition.
7. In plants, nutrients travel up the to the leaves.
Answers: 1. gases. 2. leaves. 3. oxygen. 4. respiration. 5. food.
6. minerals. 7. stem.
1
Content objectives: 3, 4, 6.
Language objectives: 2, 3, 6.
Vocabulary: autotrophs, carbon dioxide,
elaborated sap, nutrition, oxygen,
photosynthesis, raw sap, respiration, sunlight
sunlight, carbon dioxide, water and minerals. M. A. I give them
sunlight and water and replant when necessary.
Plants produce oxygen
Put an aquatic plant in a jar full of
water. Cover the plant with a short
inverted funnel and place an inverted
test tube over the funnel.
After several days, show Ss the
bubbles in the inverted test tube.
Explain that the plant releases oxygen
when it makes food during photo-
synthesis.
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Special attention
The sequence in the reproductive
processes of angiosperms
Fruit comes from flowers
Tubers and bulbs are underground stems
Hands on
Presentation
Ask: What are the male and female
parts of a flower? (stamens and ovary,
respectively)
Play and ask Ss to point to the parts in
the drawing as they hear the names.
SS read and listen to , , , .
Ask: Why are stolons an example of
asexual reproduction? (New plants grow
from the stems without flowers or seeds.)
Ask: Can you name any bulbs? (onions,
tulips, hyacinths )
Discuss the questions at the bottom of the
page.
Activity Book, page 8. R
25 24 23 22
1-4
21
READ
CONTENT AND LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT
Comprehension. Write these sentences on the BB. Ask Ss to
write the numbers in the correct sequence. Number 1 is correct.
1. The stamens produce pollen.
2. A new plant forms.
3. When the fruit is ripe, it falls to the ground.
4. The pollen moves from the stamens to the ovary.
5. Tiny pollen grains form on the stamens.
6. The seeds germinate: they open and small roots and leaves
grow.
7. The ovary grows and becomes a fruit with seeds inside.
8. The fruit opens and its seeds fall out.
9. After pollination, the petals fall.
Answers: 1 5 4 9 7 3 8 6 2.
1
PLANTS 11
Plant reproduction
READ
1. Sexual reproduction
Flowers are the reproductive organs of the plant.
The stamens are the male parts
which produce pollen.
The ovary is the female part which contains
ovules. Ovules become seeds.
2. Pollination
Tiny pollen grains form on the stamens.
Pollination is the movement of pollen
from the stamens to the ovary.
Pollination usually takes place in the same plant.
However, wind and insects also carry pollen
to other plants.
3. Seeds and fruit
After pollination, the flower changes. Its petals fall.
The ovary grows, and becomes a fruit with seeds
inside. When the fruit is ripe, it falls to the ground.
The fruit opens, and its seeds fall out.
The seeds germinate: they open, and small roots
and tiny leaves grow. A new plant forms.
4. Asexual reproduction
Some plants reproduce without flowers or seeds.
Tubers, such as potatoes, are underground stems.
The underground stem develops roots.
A thin stem rises above the ground,
and develops leaves. A complete plant grows.
Bulbs, such as onions, also grow underground.
Some plants, such as strawberry plants, have
stolons. These are stems which extend across
the ground. Roots grow, and a new plant begins.
calyx
sepal
petal
corolla pollen
stamens
ovary
stolon
new
plant
A potato plant:
reproduction by tubers
A strawberry plant:
reproduction by stolons

The parts of a flower
stem
tubers
Wind pollination
Insect pollination
11
What is your favourite fruit?
What do the seeds look like?
Content objectives: 5, 6.
Language objectives: 2, 3, 4, 5, 6.
Vocabulary: asexual reproduction, bulbs, germinate,
ovary, petal, pollen, pollination, seeds, sepal, sexual
reproduction, stamens, stolons, tubers
Needs of seeds
Soak some lentils in water. Then put a
folded paper napkin and some lentils
on three soup plates.
Wet the napkin in plate 1. Do not wet
the napkin in plate 2. Cover the lentils
in plate 3 completely with water.
Ask: What will happen to the lentils?
(The lentils in plate 1 germinate
because they have air and water.
The lentils in plate 2 stay the same
because they have no water.
The lentils in plate 3 begin to germinate
but later die because they have no air.)
Fruit and health. Fruit helps us grow
strong and healthy. To get all the vitamins,
we should eat fresh fruit.
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1. Decide if these sentences are true or false.
1. Gymnosperms have small flowers. True / False
2. Gymnosperms have fruit. True / False
3. The seeds of gymnosperms are in the leaves. True / False
4. Almost all gymnosperms are trees. True / False
5. Angiosperms have no flowers. True / False
6. Angiosperms have fruit. True / False
7. Some grasses are angiosperms. True / False
2. Circle the correct word.
1. Photosynthesis enables plants to make food / light.
2. Plants make food from sunlight, carbon dioxide, water and roots / minerals.
3. Photosynthesis takes place in the stems / leaves.
4. Raw sap mixes with carbon dioxide / oxygen in the leaves.
5. Photosynthesis takes place during the day / night.
6. During photosynthesis, plants release oxygen / carbon dioxide.
A n s w e r s : 1 . T r u e . 2 . F a l s e . 3 . F a l s e ( i n c o n e s ) . 4 . T r u e . 5 . F a l s e . 6 . T r u e . 7 . T r u e .
A n s w e r s : 1 . f o o d . 2 . m i n e r a l s . 3 . l e a v e s . 4 . c a r b o n d i o x i d e . 5 . d a y . 6 . o x y g e n .
ESSENTIAL SCIENCE 5 Photocopiable material Richmond Publishing - Santillana Educacin, S.L.
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Apply your knowledge
PLANTS
1. Complete each sentence.
a. The stems of bushes are
soft and flexible hard
b. Plants need the correct temperature, water, soil and
sunlight salt
c. The reproductive organs of a plant are the
flowers leaves
d. Seeds are inside the
fruit flowers
e. Plants breathe and
make their own food eat other living things
Match and write.
flower ovary stamens pollination fruit cone
: movement of pollen from the stamens to the ovary.
: part of gymnosperms which contains the seeds.
: part of angiosperms which contains the seeds.
: female part of the flower which turns into fruit.
: male parts of the flower which produce pollen.
: reproductive organ of the plant.
VOCABULARY
2. Name the parts of the plant involved in the following processes.
Worksheet 4. Date
production of pollen formation of fruit pollination
sof an fexib.
sunligh.
flor.
frui.
ma tei ow> foo.
staen ovar staen, ovar
pollinatio>
co>
frui
ovar
staen
flo
2. Gymnosperm or angiosperm? Decide and label the photos.
1. Use the words below to complete the word map.
Tasks
CLASSIFY PLANTS
Worksheet 5. Date
gymnosperms pine trees angiosperms
chestnut trees ferns
PLANTS
without
flowers
with
flowers
(They do not have any fruit.)
(They have fruit.)
mosses
A
F E
B
D C
ern
pi> te
cestnu te
angioserm
gymnoserm
gymnoser angioser
gymnoser angioser angioser gymnoser
8
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Worksheet 6. Date Apply your knowledge
PLANT REPRODUCTION
1. Match and write. Then order the photos.
2. Complete the table.
Stage What happens?
1
2
3
4
germination
flowering
pollination
formation of fruits
and seeds
formatio> o fruit an ed @erminatio>
pollinatio> florin@
@erminatio>
florin@
pollinatio>
formatio> o
fruit an ed
Sed oe> an smal root an tin ea gro.
Flor apea. Tei etal attrac inect.
Pole> mo fro t staen t t ovar.
Afe pollinatio>, t flo chan@e. It etal fal.
T ovar grow an coe frui wit ed.
N
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32
UNIT CONTENT
Assessment criteria
Recognising characteristics of invertebrate animals
Classifying invertebrates
Using the main characteristics to identify arthropods
Interpreting anatomical drawings
Showing interest in protecting nature
Content objectives
1. Identifying characteristics of invertebrates and where they live
2. Learning names of invertebrate animals
3. Understanding the main characteristics of invertebrate groups
4. Identifying the characteristics of arthropods and where they live
5. Understanding the different arthropod groups
6. Appreciating the importance of protecting animal habitats
Language objectives
1. Describing and classifying invertebrates and arthropods: Invertebrates are
Arthropods are covered by have an external skeleton
2. Expressing contrast: Most are but some Many live in the sea others live
3. Giving examples: such as giant squids such as medusas
4. Expressing ability: Most invertebrates can move The arthropod can grow
5. Describing sequence: At first , then
6. Expressing frequency: They are usually and often have
From time to time
The main characteristics
of invertebrate animals
Invertebrate groups
Arthropods: characteristics,
groups, and anatomical
differences
Recognise different types
of invertebrates
Classify invertebrates into groups
Observe photographs and
drawings of invertebrates
Distinguish body parts
of insects, arachnids
and arthropods
Study labelled anatomical
drawings of invertebrate
animals
Understand the importance
of protecting habitats in order
to protect animal life
CONCEPTS PROCEDURES ATTITUDES
Contents
UNIT 3
Invertebrates
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UNIT 0
33
RESOURCES
Resource folder
Reinforcement and extension
Reinforcement: Worksheet 3
Extension: Worksheet 3
Assessment
Assessment: Worksheet 3
Developing intelligence worksheets
Working with recent immigrants
PHOTOCOPIABLE RESOURCES SPECIAL PROGRAMMES*
Internet resources
www.richmondelt.com
www.indexnet.santillana.es
Insects
http://www.ento.csiro.au/education/index.html
Everything you ever wanted to know about insects
and more. For teachers and students.
Invertebrate animals
http://www.pbs.org/kcet/shapeoflife/animals/index.html
The Shape of Life gives facts, photos
and activities on all the invertebrate groups.
For students and teachers.
Let's talk about insects
http://www.urbanext.uiuc.edu/insects/12.html
A clever ant explains about insects.
For students and teachers.
Other resources
Richmond World Facts
Richmond Students Dictionary
Flashcards
Posters
* Not yet available in English
www.richmondelt.com
LEVEL
5
WE NEED
INSECTS!
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34
12 INVERTEBRATES
Invertebrates
COMPARE
Compare the photos.
How many different animals can you see?
Think of other animals which live in,
or near, the sea.
1. What are invertebrates?
Invertebrates are animals which do not have
a skeleton or a backbone.
Size:
Most invertebrates are very small,
but some, such as giant squids,
are enormous.
Body shape:
Most invertebrates are symmetrical,
but some have irregular bodies.
Body covering:
Many invertebrate bodies are protected
by shells or exoskeletons,
but others have no covering.
2. How do invertebrates live?
Many invertebrates live in the sea,
but some live in fresh water.
Others live on land.
Most invertebrates can move,
but some attach themselves to rocks
or the sea floor.
Others, called parasites,
live inside other animals.
Invertebrates are oviparous.
A larva hatches from an egg.
At first, it does not look like an adult.
Then its physical appearance
changes.
READ
12
Describe invertebrates. Most invertebrates are very small,
Why is it important to protect animals habitats?
CONTENT AND LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT
Comprehension. Write the words and sentences on the BB.
Ss copy and complete the sentences with the correct word.
parasites sea shells or exoskeletons skeleton oviparous
1. Invertebrates do not have a
2. Many invertebrates are protected by
3. Not all invertebrates live in the
4. live inside other animals.
5. Invertebrates are
Answers: 1. skeleton. 2. shells or exoskeletons. 3. sea.
4. Parasites. 5. oviparous.
1
Vocabulary: exoskeleton, invertebrates, oviparous,
parasites, shells
Special attention
Using the vocabulary correctly
Hands on
Presentation
Focus on the photos and
questions.
Present and with and .
Ask Ss for examples of invertebrates:
Which are very small? (flies, ladybirds)
Which are a little larger? (snails, clams)
Which are even larger? (octopus, starfish,
crabs)
Ask: Which invertebrates have shells?
(limpets, mussels, cockles, snails) have
exoskeletons? (crabs, sea urchins,
starfish, scorpions) have no body
covering? (earthworms, squid, jellyfish)
Ss do the activity at the bottom of the
page.
and Activity Book, page 9.
The vocabulary activity is Extension.
Present the vocabulary on the BB before
Ss name the organs.
E R
27 26
2 1 READ
COMPARE
Worms and light
Ask: Where do worms live?
(underground)
Cut off about one-third of the lid
of a shoebox.
Place the earthworms on a wet paper
towel at one end of the box.
Cover the box with the lid making sure
the worms are on the open side. Ask:
What will the worms do? (move to the
dark side)
Place the box away from the light.
Wait 30 minutes and take off the lid.
Ask: Why do the earthworms move to
the dark side? (They avoid light
because they live underground.)
Content objectives: 1, 6.
Language objectives: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5.
M.A. are symmetrical, are protected by shells or exoskeletons
M.A. If an animals habitat is destroyed, it can die
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35
Special attention
The fact that anemone and coral are
animals
Some vertebrates are protected by hard
body coverings, but do not have a skeleton
Hands on
Presentation
Focus on the illustrations.
Ask: How many groups of animals are
there? (six) Which names are in big
letters? (names of the invertebrate groups)
Which group does (coral) belong to?
Ask: How can we organise all the
information? (in a table) Ask: What type
of table should we use? Point out that in
this case, a double-entry table is useful.
Write the names of the invertebrate groups
down the left side. At the top, write
these headings: Body, Habitat, Other
characteristics, Examples.
Ss read with and complete the table.
Some squares will be empty.
Activity Book, page 10. R
28
1
LOOK AND READ
INVERTEBRATES 13
Invertebrate groups
1. Invertebrate groups
Sponges have irregular bodies.
They cannot move. They attach themselves
to rocks or the sea floor. They filter seawater,
and retain nutritive substances for food.
Cnidarians have jelly-like bodies.
They are marine animals.
They have tentacles which can sting you.
Some, such as coral and sea anemone,
attach themselves to rocks.
Others, such as medusas, can move about.
Worms have long, soft bodies.
Some are cylindrical, and others are flat.
Some are aquatic, and others are terrestrial.
Many are parasites.
Echinoderms are symmetrical:
they are usually in five parts.
They are marine animals.
They have a skeleton made of hard plates,
and often have spines.
They are covered by a thin skin.
Arthropods are covered by a hard
exoskeleton. Some are aquatic. Others
are terrestrial.
Molluscs have a soft body.
Many are covered by one or two shells.
LOOK AND READ
A B C
ofiura
star
beetle
scorpion
snail
clam
octopus
river crab
ECHINODERMS
ARTHROPODS
MOLLUSCS
D
E
F
sea
urchin
starfish
anemone
jellyfish
tapeworm
planaria
earthworm
SPONGES CNIDARIANS WORMS
coral
13
CONTENT AND LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT
Listening. Write these sentences on the BB. Ss decide if they
are true or false, then check by listening again to .
1. Sponges have symmetrical bodies.
2. Cnidarians have tentacles which can sting you.
3. Medusas cannot move about.
4. Many worms are parasites.
5. Echinoderms are usually in four parts.
6. Arthropods are covered by a hard exoskeleton.
7. Molluscs have a hard body.
Answers: 1. False (irregular). 2. True. 3. False (can). 4. True.
5. False (five). 6. True. 7. False (soft).
28
1
Content objectives: 2, 3.
Language objectives: 1, 2, 3, 4, 6.
Vocabulary: arthropods, cnidarians,
echinoderms, molluscs, sponges, worms
Draw and label
Ask: Which invertebrate animals
can you name? Write suggestions
on the BB.
Ss choose an invertebrate animal
and draw it.
They label the body parts.
They write what they know about
the invertebrate in the drawing.
Invertebrates and food. Many people
include invertebrates in their diet,
for example, prawns, squid, mussels
and snails.
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Special attention
The fact that arachnids are not insects
Worms and myriapods are two different
groups
Hands on
Presentation
Ask: Which invertebrates
can we see in the drawings? (grasshopper,
spider, lobster) Which group do they belong
to? (insect, arachnid, crustacean) Which
invertebrate has a head / thorax /
abdomen? etc.
Have Ss copy this sentence: Arthropods
are invertebrate animals which have
exoskeletons made up of many small plates.
Ss make a double entry chart for
arthropods. Down the left, they write
the arthropod groups. They write these
headings: Body, Habitat, Other
characteristics, Examples.
Ss read and with and .
They do the activity at the bottom of the
page.
Activity Book, page 11. E
30 29
2 1
LOOK AND READ
CONTENT AND LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT
Pairwork testing. Ss use their tables and the information
in their books to test each other on arthropods. They should
prepare a minimum of five questions for their partner and write
them down. Student A should ask all the questions first.
Student B should not look at his / her book or notes.
Then, the roles are reversed and Student B asks the questions.
Ask for feedback after a few minutes, e.g. How many questions
did you get right? Were any of your questions the same?
1
14 INVERTEBRATES
LOOK AND READ
Arthropods
1. Arthropods
Arthropods have an external exoskeleton.
It is made up of many small plates, and covers
the body, legs and antennae.
The exoskeleton is rigid. From time to time,
the arthropod sheds it, and grows a new, flexible one.
As a result, the arthropod can grow
until its new exoskeleton becomes rigid.
Arthropod sense organs are well developed:
they have antennae and eyes. The eyes can be simple or compound.
Compound eyes are made up of many smaller, simpler eyes.
Insects, arachnids, crustaceans and myriapods are arthropods.
2. Arthropod groups
Insects: An insects body is divided into three parts: head, thorax
and abdomen. The head has a mouth, two eyes and two antennae.
The thorax has six legs. Many insects also have wings on the thorax.
Insects are the most numerous arthropod group.
They are found in many different habitats.
Flies and butterflies are insects.
Arachnids: Arachnids have eight legs.
The body is divided into two parts:
the abdomen and the cephalothorax.
Spiders and scorpions are arachnids.
Crustaceans: Crustaceans have ten or more legs.
Many have long antennae. The body is divided into two parts:
the abdomen and the cephalothorax.
Lobsters, shrimps and crabs are crustaceans.
Myriapods: Myriapods have long bodies with many legs.
The head has one pair of short antennae.
Centipedes and millipedes are myriapods.
Make more questions. Change the underlined words.
Do insects have six legs? Is an insects body divided into two parts?
Are there many insects or arachnids where you live?
Where do you see them?
legs
eye
mouth
antenna
head
thorax
abdomen
cephalothorax
abdomen
legs
cephalothorax
abdomen
antenna
legs
leg
leg
Insect: grasshopper
Arachnid: spider
Crustacean: lobster
wing
wing
pincher claws
14
15
Content objectives: 4, 5.
Language objectives: 1, 4, 6.
Vocabulary: abdomen, arachnids, arthropods,
cephalothorax, crustaceans, exoskeleton, head,
insects, myriapods, thorax
Making a spider
Ask: How can we make a spider out
of plasticine?
Elicit suggestions from Ss. First,
make a small ball and a large ball.
Then connect them. Ask: How many
legs have spiders got? (eight)
Make four pairs of articulated legs
to place on the cephalothorax.
Cochineals. Cochineal insects live
on cactus plants. The females produce
a deep red dye used to colour cloth,
cosmetics and food.
Yes. No, three. M.A. Do arachnids have eight legs?
Do crustaceans have ten legs? Is a crustaceans body divided
into three parts? Is an arachnids body divided into three parts?
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37
2. Write the words below under the appropriate heading.
the sea shell symmetrical enormous fresh water irregular small on land
Body shape Body covering Size Habitat
A n s w e r s : B o d y s h a p e : s y m m e t r i c a l , i r r e g u l a r . B o d y c o v e r i n g : s h e l l .
S i z e : e n o r m o u s , s m a l l . H a b i t a t : t h e s e a , f r e s h w a t e r , o n l a n d .
ESSENTIAL SCIENCE 5 Photocopiable material Richmond Publishing - Santillana Educacin, S.L.
1. Match the sentence halves.
1. From time to time, the arthropod a. are crustaceans
2. Arthropod sense organs b. can be simple or compound
3. The eyes of arthropods c. into three parts
4. An insect's body is divided d. an arachnid
5. The spider is e. myriapods
6. Shrimps and crabs f. are well developed
7. Centipedes are g. sheds its skeleton
A n s w e r s : 1 g . 2 f . 3 b . 4 c . 5 d . 6 a . 7 e .
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9
Worksheet 7. Date Apply your knowledge
WHAT ARE ANIMALS LIKE?
1. Complete the word maps about animals.
are born from eggs.
are born from their
mothers womb.
Reproduction: animals are divided into
are animals with a skeleton.
have no bones.
Skeletons: animals are divided into
What organs do these animals use to breathe? Name them.
VOCABULARY
A B C
Oviparou
Viviparou
Verebrae
Inrebrae
gill trace lung
10
Worksheet 8. Date Read and learn
AN INVERTEBRATE PARASITE
1. Read carefully.
The tapeworm
The tapeworm (taenia) is an invertebrate animal.
It is a parasite in humans, pigs and other animals.
For example, a pig eats food contaminated with tapeworm
eggs. The eggs hatch into larvae in the animals intestine.
Then they travel into the bloodstream and the muscles.
If people eat undercooked meat from this infected pig,
the larva grows in their intestine. It becomes a tapeworm.
This parasite absorbs their food and causes weakness
and anaemia.
Contaminated animals have eggs in their faeces.
These can infect other animals.
2. Tick () the true sentences about the tapeworm.
It is an invertebrate. It is a parasite. It is oviparous.
It is an amphibian. It is viviparous. It is an herbivore.
3. Order the information as it appears in the text.
What kind of animal a tapeworm is How it lives inside a person
How it goes from animals to humans How it lives inside an animal
4. Investigate. Find the names of other human parasites.

1
3
4
2
M. A. hookwar
flatwor
ascari
trichi>ell
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Worksheet 9. Date Tasks
CLASSIFY INVERTEBRATE ANIMALS
1. Name the invertebrate groups. Give examples.
2. Write the name of the group of arthropods in the correct space.
Covered by a hard
exoskeleton
body divided into 2 parts
INVERTEBRATE ANIMALS
insects arachnids crustaceans myriapods
Arthropod groups
8 legs 10 or more legs 6 legs many legs
body divided into more than 2 parts
Soft bodies, usually
covered by shells
They cannot move
and live in the sea
Jelly-like bodies
and tentacles
Skeleton made of hard
plates; symmetrical
Long, soft bodies
arthropod
mollusc
spon@e
cnidarian
echinoerm
worm
M. A. scorpio>
M. A. snai
M. A. spon@
M. A. ellyfis
M. A. starfis
M. A. earthwor
arachnid crustaean inect myriapod
N
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40
UNIT CONTENT
Assessment criteria
Recognising the distinctive characteristics which define each of the vertebrate groups
Distinguishing reptiles, amphibians and fish
Classifying vertebrates correctly using different criteria
Associating characteristics of the different vertebrate groups with their way of life
Recognising the variety of marine animals
Associating the physical appearance and structure of certain animals with their
adaptation to life in the sea
Observing photographs of vertebrates to obtain information
Content objectives
1. Recognising the characteristics of the main groups of vertebrates
2. Classifying vertebrates into mammals, birds, reptiles, fish and amphibians
3. Learning that there are various bird groups with distinctive characteristics
4. Understanding how reptiles are classified
5. Understanding how fish are classified
6. Understanding how amphibians are classified
7. Appreciating the importance of knowing about and protecting animals
Language objectives
1. Describing quantity: most; some; many; a few; others
2. Describing location: inside; on; on the front of; on the sides; underwater
3. Explaining how actions occur: They swim by moving Using their wings
4. Describing general and particular characteristics: All birds Each bird species
5. Providing additional information: food which the bird eats
6. Expressing purpose: They come to the surface to breathe use their fins to swim.
7. Describing progression: As young amphibians grow, they change
Physical appearance and
structure of vertebrate groups
Reproduction, habitats, how
they breathe, and main
characteristics of vertebrate
groups
Describe the vertebrate groups
Classify vertebrates into groups
Compare types of vertebrates
Associate physical aspects of
the vertebrate groups with the
habitats where they live and
their habits
Observe photographs of
vertebrate animals to obtain
information
Appreciate the importance
of knowing about and
protecting animals
CONCEPTS PROCEDURES ATTITUDES
Contents
UNIT 4
Vertebrates
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UNIT 0
41
RESOURCES
Resource folder
Reinforcement and extension
Reinforcement: Worksheet 4
Extension: Worksheet 4
Assessment
Assessment: Worksheet 4
Developing intelligence worksheets
Working with recent immigrants
PHOTOCOPIABLE RESOURCES SPECIAL PROGRAMMES*
Internet resources
www.richmondelt.com
www.indexnet.santillana.es
Animal classification
http://www.kidport.com/RefLib/Science/
ScienceIndex.htm
Many interesting science topics are covered including
animal classification. For students and teachers.
Animal photo galleries
http://nationalzoo.si.edu/Animals/PhotoGallery/
default.cfm
Up close with a variety of reptiles, amphibians, birds and
mammals, including primates and giant pandas, at the
Smithsonian Zoological Park. For students and teachers.
Iberian Nature
http://www.iberianature.com/index.html
A guide to the wildlife, geography and nature of Spain.
For students and teachers.
Other resources
Richmond World Facts
Richmond Students Dictionary
Flashcards
Posters
* Not yet available in English
www.richmondelt.com
LEVEL
5
ITS A MAMMAL! ITS A MAMMAL!
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42
Make more questions. Change the underlined words.
Do carnivores have sharp teeth? Are zebras carnivores?
What do you think about fur coats and jackets?
VERTEBRATES 15
Vertebrates
LOOK
READ
1. Mammals
All mammals have a head, a trunk and limbs.
However, they differ in their limbs and bodies.
Most mammals have legs, some have fins,
and bats have wings. Many mammals
have a body covered with hair or fur.
Mammals can keep their body temperature
constant when the outside temperature changes.
For this reason, they are called warm-blooded
animals. They breathe air through their lungs.
Mammals are viviparous. The young grow
inside the females body, receiving oxygen
and nutrients. Baby mammals drink their
mothers milk.
Mammals live in different habitats.
Most mammals are terrestrial.
However, some mammals, such as dolphins,
are aquatic. They breathe at the waters surface.
2. Mammal groups
Primates have five fingers on their hands and feet.
Their eyes are on the front of the head,
not on the sides like many animals.
Human beings, monkeys and gorillas are primates.
Carnivores hunt for food.
They have sharp teeth and feet with claws.
Lions are carnivores.
Ungulates are herbivores.
They have feet with hooves.
Zebras are ungulates.
Cetaceans are marine mammals.
They have no hair.
They swim by moving their tails and flippers.
Whales and dolphins are cetaceans.
Look at the photo.
Think about these questions:
What do these animals
look like?
They have
Do all mammals live
on land?
Then read the texts and
answer the questions.
16
CONTENT AND LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT
Mammal Quiz. Ss read the information about mammals and
mammal groups again and listen to and . Then they close
their books. Divide the class into two groups and read each of the
following questions aloud twice. Ss put up their hand if they know
the answer. The first student to answer correctly wins a point for
their group.
1. Do all mammals have legs? (no)
2. Are mammals warm-blooded animals? (yes)
3. Do whales breathe air through their lungs? (yes)
4. Do mammals lay eggs? (no)
5. Do all baby mammals eat solid food? (no)
6. Are human beings primates? (yes)
7. Do zebras have feet with claws? (no)
8. Do dolphins have hair? (no)
33 32
1
Content objectives: 1, 2, 7.
Language objectives: 1, 2, 3.
Vocabulary: carnivores, cetaceans, fur, hair, lungs,
mammals, milk, primates, ungulates, viviparous,
warm-blooded
M.A. Do primates have five fingers? Are gorillas primates? Do ungulates
have feet with hooves? Are dolphins ungulates? Open answers.
Special attention
Associating each mammal group with their
general and distinctive characteristics
Understanding that marine mammals
breathe through lungs
Hands on
Presentation
Ss compare and contrast the animals
in the picture. Which is the biggest?
What do they all have in common?
(a head, a trunk and four limbs/legs.)
Ss read and with and .
Write a list of the highlighted words in on
the BB. Ask Ss: Which characteristics do
most mammals have? (They are viviparous,
terrestrial, warm-blooded, breathe through
lungs, and have hair or fur. Baby mammals
drink their mothers milk.)
Ask Ss: Name the mammal groups. What
group do dolphins belong to? What group
has hooves?, etc.
Ss do the activity at the bottom of the page.
1
33 32
2 1 READ
LOOK
Marine mammals and flotation
Tie an elastic band to one end of a
large stone.
Put the stone in a pail of water. Ask
Ss: When we pull the stone up, will it
feel heavier or lighter? Ss take turns
to pull up the stone.
Ask: Does it feel heavier or lighter in
the water? (lighter) What is pushing it
up? (the water) This is the Archimedes
Principle. How do marine mammals
float? (because of their shape, density
and the upward push of the water)
Wool. Wool is the hair from sheep and
other animals. The animals are not hurt
when the wool is cut.
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43
Special attention
Associating bird groups with their
distinctive characteristics
Hands on
Presentation
Ask Ss: What distinctive
characteristics do birds have that no other
animals have? (feathers and a beak)
Ss read with .
Ask Ss: What group does the
pheasant belong to? What group does
the ostrich belong to?
Ask Ss: Look at the beak of the canary, the
heron and the duck: which is the shortest?
(the canarys) the longest? (the herons)
the flattest and widest? (the ducks)
Tell Ss that some birds feed by themselves
as soon as they are born. For example,
ducks and chickens are born with feathers;
they walk and follow their mother around.
Activity Book, page 12. R
LOOK
34
1
READ
16 VERTEBRATES
READ
Birds
LOOK
Bird groups
1. Birds
Birds have a head, a trunk, a tail and limbs.
The front limbs are wings,
and the back limbs are legs.
A birds skin is covered with feathers.
Using their wings, most birds can fly.
Birds can keep their body temperature constant
when the outside temperature changes.
For this reason, they are called warm-blooded
animals. They breathe through their lungs.
Female birds lay eggs on land.
Female birds, and sometimes male birds,
keep their eggs warm with their body heat.
This process is called incubation.
When baby birds are born, at least
one parent feeds and cares for them.
All birds are terrestrial, but some
spend a lot of time in water.
Each bird species eats its own type of food
such as seeds, fruit, insects or other birds.
A birds mouth is covered by a hard beak.
The shape of the beak is appropriate
for the type of food which the bird eats.
A PERCHING BIRDS
canary
D RUNNERS
ostrich
B FOWL
pheasant
E BIRDS OF PREY
eagle
C SWIMMING BIRDS
duck
F WADING BIRDS
heron
Describe birds. Birds are vertebrates. Their front limbs are
17
18
CONTENT AND LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT
Comprehension. Write the following sentences on the BB.
Ss copy them and choose the correct alternative.
1. The front limbs of a bird are the wings / legs.
2. The back limbs of a bird are the wings / legs.
3. Most / all birds can fly.
4. Female / male birds lay eggs.
5. Incubation is when parent birds keep their eggs warm / cold
with their body heat.
6. All / some birds are terrestrial.
7. All / some birds spend a lot of time in water.
8. Birds have / do not have the same shape of beak.
Answers: 1. wings. 2. legs. 3. Most. 4. Female. 5. warm. 6. All.
7. Some. 8. do not have.
1
Content objectives: 1, 3, 7.
Language objectives: 3, 4, 5.
Vocabulary: beak, eggs, feathers, incubation, lungs,
warm-blooded, wings
wings. Their skin is covered with feathers. They are warm-
blooded animals. They breathe through lungs.
Mobile of birds in flight
Draw silhouettes of various birds
in flight on white card. Swallows,
seagulls, eagles, storks and vultures
have distinctive silhouettes.
Cut them out and tie a piece of thread
to each.
Tie them at various lengths on coat
hangers to make a mobile.
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44
Special attention
Not all reptiles crawl. Some slither, swim,
or walk or run on hind limbs.
Hands on
Presentation
Ask Ss: Name some
reptiles you know. (crocodile, lizard, turtle,
snake) Name the reptile groups.
(crocodiles, lizards, snakes, turtles)
Present and with and .
Ask: What is a cold-blooded animal?
(an animal whose body has the same
temperature as its surroundings)
What group does the iguana belong to?
(lizards) What group does the sea turtle
belong to? (turtles)
Ask: What reptile group has a shell? (turtles)
What are the iguanas scales like? (green)
What is a snakes body like? (long with no
limbs) What are a crocodiles legs like?
(short)
Ss do the activity at the bottom of the
page.
Activity Book, page 13. E
37 36
2 1
LOOK AND READ
CONTENT AND LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT
Comprehension. Ss read and listen to and . Then, without
looking at their books, they copy and complete the sentences.
They check their answers by listening again to the CD recording.
oviparous / shell / scales / lungs / cold / legs / terrestrial / no
1. Reptiles are covered with hard
2. Most reptiles are but a few are aquatic.
3. Reptiles need external heat so they are blooded.
4. Reptiles breathe through their
5. Reptiles are The female lays eggs.
6. Lizards have four short
7. Snakes have limbs.
8. Turtles have a to protect their bodies.
Answers: 1. scales. 2. terrestrial. 3. cold. 4. lungs. 5. oviparous.
6. legs. 7. no. 8. shell.
37 36
1
VERTEBRATES 17
LOOK AND READ
Reptiles
1. Reptiles
Most reptiles have a head, a trunk, limbs and a tail.
Their body is covered with hard scales.
Most reptiles are terrestrial, but a few are aquatic.
Reptiles cannot keep their body temperature constant
when the outside temperature changes.
They need external heat, such as heat from the Sun.
For this reason, they are called cold-blooded animals.
All reptiles breathe through their lungs.
Aquatic reptiles, such as crocodiles and alligators,
cannot remain underwater for long.
They come to the surface to breathe.
Reptiles are oviparous.
The female reptile lays many eggs.
Most reptiles are carnivorous.
2. Reptile groups
Reptiles can be classified into four groups:
Crocodiles and alligators are very large reptiles.
They have four legs, and a body covered with hard scales.
They use their large teeth to capture their prey.
They spend a lot of time in water.
Lizards are small terrestrial reptiles.
They have four very short legs.
They crawl.
Most snakes live on land.
They have long bodies with no limbs.
They slither.
Turtles have a shell to protect their body.
They can extend their head, legs and tail
through openings in the shell.
Many turtles are aquatic.
However, they breathe air,
and they lay their eggs on land.
Make more questions. Change the underlined words.
Do reptiles breathe through gills? Are snakes warm-blooded?
C SNAKES
rattlesnake
B LIZARDS
iguana
A CROCODILES
Nile crocodile
D TURTLES
sea turtle
19
20
M.A. Do snakes have legs? Are turtles aquatic? Do crocodiles
have large teeth?
Content objectives: 1, 4, 7.
Language objectives: 1, 6.
Vocabulary: alligators, cold-blooded, crawl, lungs,
oviparous, scales, slither, turtles
Lizards lie in the sun
Place an umbrella in the sun.
Put an outdoor thermometer in the
shade of the umbrella and another
one in the sun. Write down the
temperatures on both thermometers.
Wait several hours then compare
the temperatures on the two
thermometers.
Ask: Which thermometer shows the
higher temperature (the one in
the sun) Why do lizards spend a lot
of time in the sun? (to keep warm)
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45
Special attention
Pronunciation of bony, cartilaginous
Meaning of the word moist
Hands on
Presentation
Say: Look at the pictures.
Ask: How do fish move? (they swim) What
do they use to swim? (their fins and tails)
Ask Ss to name some amphibians.
Present with , , and , Show
photographs of the metamorphosis of a
frog: egg a tadpole with a tail and gills
which looks like a fish tadpoles develop
legs and lungs and lose their tails and gills
when the transformation is complete, the
frogs come out of the water
Explain that amphibians begin their lives in
the water, where the females lay eggs.
Adult amphibians live on land, but depend
on water.
Activity Book, pages 14, 15. E
41 40 39 38
1-4
LOOK AND READ
18 VERTEBRATES
1. Fish
Fish have a head, a trunk and a tail. A fishs body is covered
with thin, shiny scales. Fish live in water, and use their fins to swim.
Fish breathe through gills located on the sides of the head.
They take in oxygen from water.
Fish are oviparous. Female fish lay their eggs in the water.
Baby fish are born from the eggs.
2. Fish groups
Fish can be classified into two groups:
Bony fish. They have skeletons made of bones.
Some live in the sea, but others live in rivers and lakes.
Sardines and salmon are bony fish.
Cartilaginous fish. They have skeletons made of cartilage.
They live in the sea. Sharks are cartilaginous fish.
3. Amphibians
Amphibians have a head, a trunk and limbs.
Some have tails. They can live on land, but they stay
in, or near, water to keep their skin moist.
Amphibians are oviparous. The female lays eggs in ponds or rivers.
As young amphibians grow, their appearance changes completely.
4. Amphibian groups
Amphibians can be classified into two groups:
Amphibians without tails, such as frogs, have a wide body.
They have long, strong back legs which they use for jumping.
They catch their prey with their long tongue.
Amphibians with tails, such as salamanders, have a long body
and four limbs. All four limbs are approximately the same length.
Fish and amphibians
LOOK AND READ
True or false? Make more sentences about fish and amphibians.
A fishs body is covered with feathers. Fish breathe through gills.
Do you eat fish from fish farms? Do you eat tinned fish? Which is your favourite fish?
A BONY FISH
salmon
B CARTILAGINOUS FISH
shark
C AMPHIBIANS WITHOUT TAILS
frog
D AMPHIBIANS WITH TAILS
salamander
21
22
Content objectives: 1, 5, 6, 7.
Language objectives: 1, 2, 5, 6, 7.
Vocabulary: bony fish, cartilaginous fish, eggs,
fins, gills, oviparous, scales, tails
Scales
Draw the silhouette of a fish on a
piece of paper. Cut out small circles for
the scales and glue them onto the
fish, overlapping rows of circles.
Ask Ss: Do the scales feel rough or
smooth if you pass your hand over the
fish from head to tail? (they feel
smooth) What do the scales feel like
if you do it in the opposite direction
from tail to head? (they feel rough)
Health benefits of fish. Fish are
an important part of a healthy diet.
White fish has protein and is low in fat.
Oily fish contains fatty acids which help
control cholesterol.
CONTENT AND LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT
Vocabulary. Write the following sentences on the BB. Ss copy
them and rearrange the letters of the words in capitals to form
words related to fish and amphibians.
1. A fishs body is covered with thin, shiny S E C A L S.
2. Fish use their N F S I to swim.
3. They breathe through their S L G I L.
4. Female fish lay S G E G in water.
5. Salmon are Y B N O fish.
6. R H S A K S are cartilaginous fish.
7. Amphibians live on land but stay in or near E A T W R.
8. R F G O S use their back legs for jumping.
Answers: 1. scales. 2. fins. 3. gills. 4. eggs. 5. bony. 6. sharks.
7. water. 8. frogs.
1
M. A. Fish are oviparous. Amphibians are oviparous. Female fish
lay eggs in the water. Female amphibians lay eggs in ponds and rivers.
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4
6
A
c
t
i
v
i
t
y

B
o
o
k
Apply your knowledge
BIRDS
12
2. Write the bird group.
1. Write the name of the bird group.
a. Big birds with long, thin legs:
b. Medium-size birds with webbed feet:
c. Birds with sharp, hooked beaks and strong claws:
d. Small birds with short beaks:
e. Birds with plump bodies and short beaks:
canary partridge
duck hawk
heron
Worksheet 10. Date
fowl swimming birds wading birds perching birds birds of prey
A B
D E
C
wadin@ bird
swimmin@ bird
bird o pe
erchin@ bird
fow
erchin@ bir fow wadin@ bir
swimmin@ bir bir o pe
13
Worksheet 11. Date Read and learn
SCIENTIFIC NAMES
1. Read carefully.
2. Learn some scientific names.
Lion: Panthera leo
Rosemary: Rosmarinus officinalis
Cork oak: Quercus suber
Leopard: Panthera pardus
Beech: Fagus sylvatica
Brown bear: Ursus arctos
Tiger: Panthera tigris
Jaguar: Panthera onca
Linnaeus and the names of living things
All living things have scientific names. The names
which we use today are based on the system
developed by the Swedish naturalist Linnaeus in 1758.
Linnaeus went to Lapland to study plants. To study them
better, he decided to name and classify plants.
Later, he did the same for animals.
In Linnaeus system, the scientific name of the plant
consists of two Latin words. The first word is the genus and
the second is the species. The genus is like our family name,
and the species is like our first name. For example,
the dog is called Canis familiaris. This name distinguishes
the dog from the wolf, which is called Canis lupus. It also
shows that the dog and wolf belong to the same genus.
The advantage of this system is that it is universal.
The common names which we use are different
in every language.
3. In the above list, there are four living things which belong to the same genus
but to a different species. Which ones are they? Explain.
4. Write the word dog in different languages. Consult a dictionary.
Wolf: Canis lupus
Panter eo, Panter pardiu, Panter tigri, Panter onc.
Th @enu i Panter, an eac anima sec^e ha it ow> na.
M. A. I> Spanis erro; i> Germa> hun; i> Fenc ch^e>
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Worksheet 12. Date Read and learn
CLASSIFICATION KEYS
1. What is a dichotomous key used for? Read and complete.
We use dichotomous keys to identify and classify living things.
With a dichotomous key, we can find out the group a living thing belongs to.
To use the key, you must answer questions about the characteristics
of an animal. Then follow the direction given after each answer.
Do they have scales, fins, use gills to breathe and live
in water? YES FISH
NO
Do they stay in or near water to keep their skin moist?
YES _____
NO
Do they have scales and use lungs to breathe?
YES _____
NO
Do they have feathers and use lungs to breathe?
YES _____
NO
MAMMALS
Match and write.
carnivores cetaceans primates ungulates
are herbivores and have feet with hooves.
have no hair and move by moving their tails and flippers.
have five fingers and eyes are on the front of their head.
have sharp teeth and feet with claws.
VOCABULARY
KEY TO IDENTIFY VERTEBRATES
Do they have scales, fins, use gills to breathe and live in water?
NO YES fis
Do they stay in or near water to keep their skin moist?
NO YES
Do they have scales and use lungs to breathe?
NO YES
Do they have feathers and use lungs to breathe?
NO
MAMMALS
YES
amphibian
eptie
bird
Ungulae
Cetaean
Primae
Carnivoe
15
Tasks
ANALYSE ANIMAL FOOTPRINTS
Worksheet 13. Date
1. Read and answer.
Animal footprints are also called tracks. If we study an animals tracks
and other remains we can learn about these animals. We get information
about their anatomy, their habits, what they eat and how they reproduce.
a. Where can we find animal tracks? Tick ().
In areas with mud or clay In areas with rocks or stones
b. What can you find out about an animal by observing its tracks?
Its size How it walks
If it has hoofs, claws, etc. What it eats
Its colour If it lives in a pack or herd
c. Which animal left each track? Decide and write.
lynx
badger
mouflon
bustard
A B C D

lyn mouflo> bustar bad@e


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48
UNIT CONTENT
Assessment criteria
Understanding the processes involved in nutrition
Identifying the organs of the digestive, respiratory, circulatory and excretory
systems
Recognising the anatomy and physiology of the systems involved in nutrition
Interpreting anatomical drawings correctly
Acquiring healthy eating habits
Showing interest in taking care of their own health
Content objectives
1. Recognising and locating the main organs in the digestive, respiratory,
circulatory and excretory systems and their functions
2. Describing the processes involved in nutrition, digestion, respiration,
circulation and excretion
3. Developing healthy eating habits and taking care of the whole body
Language objectives
1. Expressing obligation: our diet must be complete
2. Describing stages in a process: First , then
3. Describing what occurs in the process (passive forms): is chewed; is formed;
are absorbed
4. Making comparisons: Our heart works like a pump.
5. Explaining where blood circulates (prepositions of movement): between;
through; away from; throughout
Nutrition: digestion, blood
circulation, respiration and
excretion
The organs and systems
involved in nutrition
Anatomy and physiology of the
digestive, respiratory,
circulatory and excretory
systems
Interpret anatomical drawings
of the organs in the human
body
Interpret anatomical drawings
of the processes involved in
nutrition
Observe photographs carefully
to obtain information
Interest in acquiring healthy
habits regarding food and for
taking care of the body
CONCEPTS PROCEDURES ATTITUDES
Contents
UNIT 5
Nutrition
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UNIT 0
49
RESOURCES
Resource folder
Reinforcement and extension
Reinforcement: Worksheet 5
Extension: Worksheet 5
Assessment
Assessment: Worksheet 5
Developing intelligence worksheets
Working with recent immigrants
PHOTOCOPIABLE RESOURCES SPECIAL PROGRAMMES*
Internet resources
www.richmondelt.com
www.indexnet.santillana.es
The world of nutrition
http://www.nutritionexplorations.org/kids/links-
main.asp
Fun sites and games about nutrition. For students.
The Digestive System
http://www.naspghan.org/sub/For_Children/for_children.
asp#ImageTop
An interactive presentation with pictures and descriptive
text about the digestive organs.
For teachers and students.
The Digestive, Respiratory and Circulatory Systems
http://hes.ucf.k12.pa.us/gclaypo/health_index.html
Information on body systems with facts and quizzes.
For students and teachers.
Other resources
Richmond World Facts
Richmond Students Dictionary
Flashcards
Posters
* Not yet available in English
www.richmondelt.com
LEVEL
3
EAT YOUR VEGETABLES!
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50
NUTRITION 19
Nutrition
1. Nutrients
Nutrients are the substances which our body
needs to survive, grow and repair itself.
Nutrients also give us energy.
Carbohydrates give us energy. There are two
types of carbohydrate. Sugars are in foods
which taste sweet. Starches are in bread,
potatoes and legumes.
Fats also give us energy. We get some fats,
such as butter, from animals. We get other
fats, such as olive oil, from plants.
Proteins help our body to grow
and repair itself. Meat, fish and legumes
are good sources of protein.
2. Other nutritive substances
Vitamins and minerals are essential for our
bodies to function well. Fruits and vegetables
are good sources, but minerals
and vitamins are also found in other foods.
Milk gives us calcium for our bones.
Water. Most of our body is made up of
water, so it is essential. We drink water,
and our body also obtains water from food.
Fibre helps food to move through
the digestive system. It is found in fruits,
vegetables and whole-grains.
3. Diet
The food which someone normally eats over
a period of time is called their diet. For good, healthy
nutrition, our diet must be complete and balanced.
A complete diet includes nutrients
from all the food groups.
A balanced diet includes the right amount
of each nutrient.
LOOK
What meal are these
children eating?
What food can you see?
Why do you think it is
important to have
a good breakfast?
Complete the sentences. We get some fats ... We get other fats ...
Do you eat a balanced diet? Do you know what anorexia is?
What can you and your classmates do to prevent it?
READ
23
CONTENT AND LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT
Vocabulary Revision. Draw on the BB a vocabulary tree. The
trunk word is Food and the branches are Carbohydrates /
Fats / Proteins / Vitamins and Minerals / Fibre. On each branch
the Ss write the corresponding words from page 19.
Answers: Carbohydrates: sugars, starches, bread, potatoes,
legumes; Fats: butter, olive oil; Proteins: meat, fish, legumes;
Vitamins and minerals: fruits, vegetables, milk; Fibre: fruits,
vegetables, whole grains.
A balanced lunch. Ss work in pairs and prepare a menu which
they consider to be balanced. Ask Ss for their menus and write
one or two examples on the board, correcting any difficulties if
they arise. Ss should be able to name different varieties of meat,
vegetables, fruit etc. in their menu
2
1
Content objectives: 1, 2, 3.
Language objectives: 1.
Vocabulary: carbohydrates, diet, fats, fibre, minerals,
nutrition, proteins, vitamins, water
from animals. from plants. / Anorexia is an eating disorder.
It can cause severe health problems and even death.
Special attention
Understanding that we need nutrients and
energy to live
Hands on
Presentation
Ss look at the photo and answer the
questions. Ask: Do you eat a healthy
breakfast? Why/why not?
Present , and with , ,
. Say: Give me an example of food
classified as fat (butter), carbohydrate
(bread) protein (fish).
Ask Ss to identify the different food
groups: meat, fish and eggs; bread, rice,
pasta, cereals and sugars; milk and dairy
products; fruits and vegetables.
Ask Ss: What advice would you give to
someone who wants a healthy diet?
(Eat foods with calcium and fibre; eat
vegetables and fruit every day, eat
very little animal fat )
Ss do the activity at the bottom of the
page.
Activity Book, page 16. R
44
43 42 3 2 1 READ
LOOK
Labels and nutrients
Collect and read labels from packaged
foods, such as biscuits, butter, can of
tuna, to find out the nutrients they
contain.
Classify the food into carbohydrates,
fats or proteins based on the most
abundant nutrient.
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51
Special attention
Understanding that the substances we
need from food pass from the small
intestine into the blood
Pronunciation: pharynx, oesophagus,
stomach, faeces
Hands on
Presentation
Ask Ss: Why do we need to digest food?
(to convert it into substances our body can
absorb) Where does digestion begin? (in
the mouth) Where does the digestion
process end? (in the large intestine)
Point out the various stages in the
digestive process. First digestion, then
absorption, and finally the elimination of
waste.
Present with , ,
, .
Name the organs of the digestive system
and ask Ss to point to them in the drawing.
Ask: What organ is like a long, thin tube?
(the oesophagus) What organ is dark red
and triangular? (the liver) What organ is
below the oesophagus and next to the
liver? (stomach)
Ss do the activity at the bottom of the
page.
48 47
46 45
1-4 LOOK AND READ
20 NUTRITION
small intestine anus pharynx mouth
oesophagus stomach large intestine
Follow the path that food takes. Put the organs
of the digestive system in order: mouth
The digestive system
1. The digestive system
We need to eat. Food gives us the energy
which we require for our daily activities. It also gives
us the substances which we need to grow.
The digestive system converts the food we eat
into nutrients which our body can absorb.
It carries out three important functions:
digestion, absorption and the elimination of waste.
2. Digestion
First, food is chewed in the mouth, and mixed
with saliva produced by the salivary glands.
Gradually, a mass of chewed, soft food is formed.
Then, this food moves down the pharynx and the
oesophagus, and passes into the stomach.
Next, it mixes with gastric juices in the stomach.
This produces a thick liquid called chyme.
Finally, the chyme leaves the stomach
and reaches the small intestine.
It mixes with juices from the intestine,
the pancreas and the liver. All the substances
which we require have now been separated.
3. Absorption
In the small intestine, the substances which
we need are absorbed into the blood.
4. Elimination of waste
The chyle loses its nutritional value
as it passes through the small intestine.
Only undigested substances, like fibre,
remain and move to the large intestine.
The large intestine removes water from these
substances, and forms solid waste called faeces.
This is expelled through the anus.
LOOK AND READ
The digestive
system
mouth
pharynx
salivary
glands
small
intestine
oesophagus
liver
stomach
pancreas
rectum
anus
large
intestine
Digestion in the mouth
Digestion in the stomach
Digestion in the intestine
Absorption in the intestine
Elimination of waste
25
26
24
The stages of digestion
CONTENT AND LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT
Sequencing. The Ss copy the sentences from the stages in
digestion onto a piece of paper. They cut the sentences into
strips, then turn them over and mix them up. With a partner, they
look at each sentence again and put them in the correct order.
Vocabulary. Write on the BB the following list of words:
large intestine / mouth / fibre / liver / anus / stomach /
faeces / pancreas / pharynx / oesophagus / salivary glands /
substances absorbed into the blood / chyme / small intestine
Write three headings: Digestion; Absorption; Elimination of waste.
Ss classify.
Answers: Digestion: mouth, salivary glands, pharynx, oesophagus,
stomach, small intestine, chyme, pancreas, liver. Absorption:
substances absorbed into the blood. Elimination of waste: fibre,
large intestine, faeces, anus.
2
1
Content objectives: 1, 2.
Language objectives: 2, 3.
Vocabulary: absorption, anus, chyme, digestive system,
faeces, large intestine, liver, oesophagus, pancreas,
pharynx, salivary glands, small intestine
, pharynx, oesophagus, stomach,
small intestine, large intestine, anus
Saliva and digestion
Say: Hold a piece of bread in your
mouth for about five minutes.
Ask: Does it taste sweet? (yes) Why?
(Enzymes found in the saliva begin to
break down starch into simple sugars
in the mouth. That is why bread tastes
sweet even though most bread does
not contain sugar.)
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Special attention
Understanding that oxygen from the air
passes into the blood in the lungs
Understanding what excretion is
and why it is necessary
Presentation
Ask Ss: Why do we need to
breathe? (to obtain oxygen from the air)
What are the two breathing movements we
make? (inhalation and exhalation)
Ask Ss: What do we call the process that
eliminates waste substances from the
blood? (excretion) What are the main
organs? (the kidneys) Point out that the
excretory system is below the digestive
system. Ask Ss to locate their own kidneys
(in the middle of the back on both sides of
the spinal column).
Present and with and .
Ss answer the question at the bottom of
the page.
Activity Book, page 18. E
52 51
2 1
LOOK AND READ
CONTENT AND LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT
Comprehension. Write the two halves of each sentence on the BB.
Ss copy them and join the correct halves.
1. First the air a. air leaves the lungs.
2. Then it b. tiny sacs of air.
3. Next it c. enters through the nose.
4. In the lungs d. oxygen passes into the blood.
5. Alveoli are e. our lungs fill with air.
6. In the alveoli f. the bronchi divide into smaller bronchioles.
7. When we inhale g. passes through the pharynx, larynx and
trachea.
8. When we exhale h. goes through the two main bronchi into
each lung.
Answers: 1 c. 2 g. 3 h. 4 f. 5 b. 6 d. 7 e. 8 a.
1
NUTRITION 21
Respiration and excretion
1. The respiratory system
In addition to nutrients, we need oxygen to live.
We breathe to obtain oxygen from the air.
This function is carried out by the respiratory system.
It is made up of the nose, air passageways (the tubes
which carry air in and out of the body), and the lungs.
First, the air enters through the nose. Then it passes
through the pharynx, the larynx, and the trachea.
Next, it goes through the two main bronchi
and into each lung. In the lungs, the bronchi divide
into smaller bronchioles. There are tiny sacs of air
at the end of the bronchioles called alveoli.
In the alveoli, oxygen from the air passes into the blood.
The blood releases carbon dioxide which passes into the alveoli.
It is toxic, and the body expels it.
Two movements, inhalation and exhalation,
cause the air to circulate.
When we inhale, our lungs fill with air.
When we exhale, air leaves the lungs.
2. The excretory system
Our body produces waste substances
which go into the blood, and can be dangerous.
Excretion is the elimination of these waste substances.
The kidneys are the organs of the excretory system.
These two organs filter the blood and produce urine.
This is made up of water (95%) and waste substances (5%).
The urine leaves the kidneys and passes through the ureters,
two tubes which go to the bladder.
The urine accumulates there
until it is expelled through the urethra.
The sweat glands in the skin also help in excretion.
They make sweat.
LOOK AND READ
The respiratory system
kidney kidney
kidneys
The excretory system
renal
vein
renal
artery
bladder
bladder
pharynx
trachea
lung
bronchioles
bronchi
urethra
ureters
larynx
lung
nose
27
What is a major cause of lung cancer?
28
29
Smoking. Tobacco contains substances which cause cancer.
Content objectives: 1, 2, 3.
Language objectives: 2.
Vocabulary: air passageways, alveoli, bladder, bronchi,
bronchioles, excretion, exhale, inhale, kidneys, larynx,
lungs, pharynx, respiratory system, sweat glands,
trachea, ureters, urethra, urine
See air from our lungs
Prepare a small tub with about five cm
of water, a large water bottle and a
flexible tube.
Fill the bottle with water. Quickly
invert it and hold it with the mouth
underwater in the tub. Put one
end of the tube into the bottle. Tell
a student to blow through the tube.
Ask: Where do the bubbles come
from? (the air in our lungs) Why does
the water go out of the bottle?
(The air displaces the water.)
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Special attention
Understanding that blood is circulating
continually
Distinguishing the two circulatory systems
Hands on
Presentation
Point out that arteries and
veins are different colours in the drawings
so we can distinguish them.
Ask Ss to look at the first drawing and ask:
Where is the carotid artery? (in the neck)
Where is the femoral artery? (in the leg)
Where is the jugular vein? (in the neck)
Ask them to look at the lower diagram and
ask: What is the name of the artery which
carries the blood from the heart to all
parts of the body? (aorta) What is the
name of the vein which carries blood from
all parts of the body to the heart? (vena
cava) What carries the blood from the
heart to the lungs? (the pulmonary artery)
Ss read and with and .
Activity Book, page 17. R
56 55
2 1
LOOK AND READ
22 NUTRITION
Blood circulation
1. The circulatory system
Circulation is the movement of blood through
the circulatory system. Circulation carries
nutrients and oxygen to all parts of the body,
and collects waste substances,
which can be dangerous.
Our heart works like a pump,
and moves blood through the body.
It never stops beating.
Blood vessels are tubes which transport blood
through the circulatory system. There are three
kinds: arteries, veins and capillaries.
Arteries are the blood vessels
which carry blood away from the heart.
Veins are the blood vessels
which carry blood into the heart.
Capillaries are tiny blood vessels
which connect arteries to veins.
They reach every part of our body.
2. Blood circulation
There are two circulatory systems:
Pulmonary circulation is the movement of
blood between the heart and the lungs.
Blood leaves the heart through
the pulmonary arteries and goes to the lungs.
In the lungs, the blood absorbs oxygen
and releases carbon dioxide. The blood then returns
to the heart through the pulmonary veins.
Systemic circulation is the movement
of blood to the rest of the body.
Blood with oxygen from the lungs
leaves the heart through the aorta.
It distributes nutritive substances
and oxygen throughout the body.
Finally, it returns to the heart
through the vena cava.
LOOK AND READ
The circulatory
system
carotid artery
aorta
renal vein
vena cava
jugular vein
humeral
artery
heart
femoral
artery
Blood circulation
pulmonary
artery
vena
cava
pulmonary
vein
aorta
left side of
the heart
right side
of the heart
PULMONARY CIRCULATION
SYSTEMIC CIRCULATION
32 30
31
Content objectives: 1, 2.
Language objectives: 4, 5.
Vocabulary: aorta, arteries, blood, blood vessels, capillaries,
carotid artery, circulation, circulatory system, femoral artery, heart,
humeral artery, jugular vein, pump, renal vein, veins, vena cava
The heartbeat
Bring some long, thin balloons to class
and a pear-type balloon inflator.
Place a balloon on the mouth of the
inflator.
Squeeze the inflator. Ask: What
happens? (The balloon inflates.) Why?
(air enters) What part of the body can
we compare the heart to? (the inflator)
What is pushed along by each heart
beat? (blood)
Fat and health. Too much fat in your
diet is unhealthy. Deposits of fat can
accumulate in the blood vessels and
block normal blood flow.
CONTENT AND LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT
Comprehension. Write the following sentences on the BB. Ss
copy them and choose the correct alternative. They then compare
answers in pairs and listen to to check their answers.
1. Digestion / circulation is the movement of blood through the
circulatory system.
2. Our heart / stomach works like a pump.
3. It never stops eating / beating.
4. There are three kinds of food / blood vessels
5. Arteries carry blood into / away from the heart.
6. Veins carry blood away from / into the heart.
7. Capillaries connect arteries to veins. They reach / dont reach
every part of our body.
Answers: 1. circulation. 2. heart. 3. beating. 4. blood.
5. away from. 6. into. 7. reach.
55
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4
A
c
t
i
v
i
t
y

B
o
o
k
16
Tasks
MAKE UP A HEALTHY MENU
1. Make up a healthy menu.
Remember the conditions a diet must have to be healthy:
A diet should be complete; it should have foods from all the groups.
A diet should be balanced; it should have the right amount of each food type.
2. Write down what you eat for dinner for a week.
3. Do you think you should change anything in your diet? Explain.
Worksheet 14. Date
Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday
spaghetti rice noodle soup custard
vegetable soup chicken with potatoes yoghurt banana
lentils pear fish with salad beefsteak with salad
omelette with tuna and potatoes orange meatballs with vegetables
First
course
Second
course
Dessert
@etab
sou
nood
sou
spagett^ entil ri
chice>
wit
potate
fis wit
sala
fsea
wit sala
oeet wit
tun an
potate
eatball
wit
@etabe
ea oran@ custar yoghur banan
M. A. sala, @etabe, sou, oeet, fis, chice>, fsea,
por, frui, yoghur, custar an ce.
M. A. Ye. I thin I shoul ea mo frui an @etabe an I shoul
ea es suga.
Worksheet 15. Date Apply your knowledge
DIGESTION, RESPIRATION,
EXCRETION, CIRCULATION
1. Put the following words in order.
3. Underline the words related to breathing.
inhalation exhalation intestine expiration bronchi
lungs liver kidney trachea oxygen
4. Order the steps in the excretion process.
The kidneys filter the blood. Blood goes through the kidneys.
Urine is expelled through the urethra. Urine is formed.
Urine is carried by the ureters. Urine is stored in the bladder.
absorption digestion
elimination of waste
2. Write the name
of each organ.
stomach
pharynx
small
intestine
large
intestine
liver
oesophagus
Match.
Capillaries are blood vessels which carry blood away from the heart.
Veins are tiny blood vessels which connect arteries to veins.
Arteries are blood vessels which carry blood into the heart.
VOCABULARY
1
2
3
17
The stages of digestion
pharyn
esophagu
stomac
di@estio>
absorptio>
eliminatio> o was
2
6
4
3
5
lar@ inesti>
li
smal inesti>
8
5
7
4
1
5

_

0
0
4
8
-
0
0
5
5
.
q
x
d


2
/
1
0
/
0
6


2
0
:
2
9


P

g
i
n
a

5
4
5
5
Read and learn
TEETH
1. Read carefully.
2. Underline the most important words in the text. Choose three and give their meanings.
3. Name the numbered parts on the tooth drawing.
4. Think and answer.
What can we do to keep our teeth healthy?
What are teeth like?
Teeth are part of the skeleton. Like bones, they are alive.
The outside of a tooth is covered with a hard, white
substance called enamel. Enamel is the hardest substance
in our body. Dentin, which is not very hard, is under the
enamel. Pulp is in the centre of the tooth. The pulp is the
living part of the tooth and contains blood vessels and nerve
endings.
The roots are fixed into the jawbone. But we cannot see
them because they are below the gums. The part of the
tooth above the gums is called the crown.
When babies are born, their teeth are inside the jawbone.
The milk teeth, or baby teeth, break through little by little.
At about six years old, milk teeth begin to fall out and
permanent teeth appear.
Worksheet 16. Date
1
2
3
4
5
6
18
1
2
3
4
5
6
enae
enti>
pul
jawbo>
gum
crow>
M. A. Brus ou et th tie da. Do> ea lo o set.
Visi t entis on ea.
M. A. Pul i t ent o t toot. Enae i har, whi substan
whic cor t outsi o toot. T crow> i t toot abo t gum.
19
Project 1
Material needed: a ruler and some mushrooms.
1. What size is it?
2. What colour is the cap?
3. What shape is the cap?
4. What colour are the gills?
5. What colour is the stem?
6. What shape is the stem? Is it cylindrical
or does the thickness change?
7. Does the stem have rings?
Complete the chart with the information you have gathered:
CLASSIFY PLANTS
OBSERVE AND DESCRIBE A FUNGUS
Project 2
Size
Cap
Stem
Height
Width
Colour
Shape
Gills
Colour
Shape
Ring
Name of the plant
Type of plant:
Stem:
Leaves:
Flowers:
Fruit:
Grows in:
Other information:
M. A.
@eraniu
angioser, florin@ plan
ge>, sof
ge> eave, lo o scalloe
brigh e, pin o purp
no frui ca> ea
eop gro @erianium i> flo pot
i> man plae, fo examp, i> Afric, Euro,
Sout Aeric, Nort Aeric
M. A.
10 cm.
13 cm.
dar brow>
circula
r dar brow>
ligh brow>
cylindrica
no>
8
5
7
4
1
5

_

0
0
4
8
-
0
0
5
5
.
q
x
d


2
/
1
0
/
0
6


2
0
:
2
9


P

g
i
n
a

5
5
56
UNIT CONTENT
Assessment criteria
Defining matter
Understanding the properties of matter
Differentiating between physical and chemical
changes in matter
Identifying the properties of solids, liquids
and gases
Identifying changes of state
Explaining events scientifically
Content objectives
1. Understanding the properties of matter
2. Differentiating between pure substances and mixtures
3. Identifying the general properties of matter
4. Learning how the properties of matter are measured and the units used
5. Identifying changes in matter
6. Differentiating physical changes and chemical changes in matter
7. Distinguishing the different states of matter and their properties
8. Identifying changes of state in matter
9. Understanding why water is important in our diet
10. Associating certain changes of state with temperature changes
Language objectives
1. Describing mass and unit nouns (uncountable and countable):
Matter is made up of An element is matter
2. Giving examples: like mass and volume; for example; such as plastic
3. Making comparisons: have more mass than others more matter than
a pencil the football's mass is greater the same volume it weighs more
4. Measuring mass and volume: one litre is equal to mass per volume
5. Contrasting facts and conditions: When the temperature increases
If the temperature rises
6. Describing changes: The balloon gets smaller Iron changes into rust
7. Talking about ability: They can be transported Gases can be compressed
Matter and its main properties
The three states of matter:
solid, liquid and gaseous
Physical and chemical changes
in matter
Changes of state
Observe photographs to obtain
information
Explain events around us
scientifically
Use personal experience to
comprehend the unit contents
Appreciation of why water is
important in our diet
Association of certain changes
of state with temperature
changes
CONCEPTS PROCEDURES ATTITUDES
Contents
UNIT 6
Matter
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57
RESOURCES
Resource folder
Reinforcement and extension
Reinforcement: Worksheet 6
Extension: Worksheet 6
Assessment
Assessment: Worksheet 6
Developing intelligence worksheets
Working with recent immigrants
PHOTOCOPIABLE RESOURCES SPECIAL PROGRAMMES*
Internet resources
www.richmondelt.com
www.indexnet.santillana.es
Matter
http://www.chem4kids.com/index.html
Rader's Chemkids provides a variety of material
about matter, changes in matter and changes of state.
For teachers and students.
Matter and energy
http://bengu-pc2.njit.edu/trp-chem/scism.html
Matter and energy and other fundamentals of chemistry
are explored. For teachers and students.
Solids, liquids, gases
http://lgfl.skool.co.uk/keystage3.aspx?id=64
Properties of solids, liquids and gases and changes
of state are addressed. For students and teachers.
Other resources
Richmond World Facts
Richmond Students Dictionary
Flashcards
Posters
* Not yet available in English
BALLOONS
www.richmondelt.com
LEVEL
4
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MATTER 23
Matter
LOOK
READ
1. Matter
Everything in the universe is made of matter.
The Sun, rocks, plants, human beings and
manufactured objects are all made of matter.
Matter is made up of tiny particles called atoms.
Atoms are extremely small.
They are invisible to the human eye.
There are approximately one hundred different
types of atoms. When they are combined
in different ways, they make up
all the substances in the world.
An element is matter which consists
of only one type of atom.
A compound is matter which consists
of more than one kind of atom.
2. Types of matter
Matter can be classified into two groups:
Pure substances are made up of a single type
of element or compound. For example,
gold, iron and salt are pure substances.
Mixtures are made up of several pure substances.
For example, sea water is a mixture
which is formed by water and salt.
3. Properties of matter
We can classify properties into two types:
General properties: All matter has
general properties like mass and volume.
Everything which is made of matter
has mass and takes up space.
Characteristic properties: Properties
like odour, colour, shininess and density
are characteristic. They are different
for each substance.
Look at the photo.
Which things are solid?
Liquid? Gaseous?
Is there more water
in the river at some times
of the year?
True or false?
Make more sentences about matter.
Human beings are not made of matter.
Sea water is a pure substance.
33
CONTENT AND LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT
Comprehension. Write the following sentences on the BB.
The Ss decide if they are true or false. If they are false,
they correct them.
1. Matter is made up of tiny particles called atoms.
2. Atoms are visible to the human eye.
3. There are about 100 similar types of atoms.
4. An element is matter which consists of only one type of atom.
5. Salt is a pure substance.
6. Sea water is a pure substance.
7. All matter has mass and volume.
Answers: 1. True. 2. False. They are invisible to the human eye.
3. False. There are about 100 different types of atoms. 4. True.
5. True. 6. False. Sea water is a mixture. 7. True.
1
Content objectives: 1, 2, 3.
Language objectives: 2, 3, 4.
Vocabulary: compound, element, mass, matter,
mixtures, properties, pure substances, volume
Both sentences are false. M.A. The human body has mass and
volume. Mayonnaise is a mixture of eggs, oil, salt and lemon juice.
Special attention
Understanding the concept of matter
Differentiating between pure substances
and mixtures
Identifying the properties of matter
Hands on
Presentation
Ss look at the photo and answer the
questions.
Present , , with , , .
Ask: Where can we find matter in the
universe? (everywhere because everything
is made of matter) What are the tiny
particles called that matter is made of?
(atoms)
Ask: What matter can we find in a cup of
coffee with milk and sugar? (milk, sugar,
coffee) Is it a mixture of various
substances? (yes) Can you name other
mixtures? (mayonnaise, soup, soft drinks,
perfume )
Choose various objects or materials and
talk about their characteristic properties.
For example, show a fork. Ask: What colour
is it? (silver) Does it have an odour? (no)
Is it shiny? (yes)
Activity Book, page 21. R
60 59 58
3 2 1 READ
LOOK
Composition of drinking water
Ask: Is drinking water a pure
substance or a mixture? (a mixture
of water and minerals)
To prove it, bring in labels from bottled
water and examine their composition.
Ask: What minerals can you see on the
labels? (chloride, calcium, magnesium,
silica, sodium )
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Special attention
Understanding the concept of density
Hands on
Presentation
Present , , with , , .
Ss role-play they are in a small shop and
have to ask for different things. They
should pay special attention to units of
measure. For example: I would like a
kilo of rice a litre of milk a hundred
grams of sunflower seeds a quarter
of a kilo of almonds.
Ask: Can we put five litres of water in a
two-litre bottle? (no) Why not? (because
there is too much volume of water)
Ask: How do we measure mass? (with
scales or balances) Give some examples.
(bathroom scales, kitchen scales, food
scales, baby scales)
63 62 61
3 2 1 READ
24 MATTER
The properties of matter
READ
1. Mass
Mass is the amount of matter in an object.
Some objects have more mass than others.
For example, a football has more matter
than a pencil. The footballs mass is greater.
The unit of measure for mass is the kilogram (kg),
or kilo. One kilo is equal to 1,000 (one thousand)
grams (g). 1,000 (one thousand) kilos are
equal to one ton (t).
2. Volume
Volume is the amount of space
which an object occupies.
For example, a football has more volume than
a pencil. It takes up more space.
The unit of measure for volume is the litre (l).
One litre is equal to 1,000 (one thousand) cubic
centimetres (cm
3
). 1,000 (one thousand) litres
are equal to one cubic metre (m
3
).
3. Density
Density is mass per volume.
To calculate density, divide the mass
of a substance by its volume:

V
M
olu
as
m
s
e

Each object or substance has its own density:


Water has a density of one kilo per litre of water:
1 kg/l. This means that one litre of water
has a mass of 1 kilo.
Iron has a density of 7.9 kilos per litre of iron:
7.9 kg/l. This means that one litre of iron
has a mass of 7.9 kilos.
Complete the sentences.
Mass:
One kilo grams.
One thousand kilos ton.
Volume:
One litre cubic centimetres.
One thousand litres cubic metre.
How many litres of liquid do you drink in a day?
Make a chart with the different kinds
of liquid, and when you drink them.
Scales are
used to
measure mass.
Measuring cups are
used to measure
the volume of a liquid.
These two marbles have the same volume.
However, the iron marble weighs more.
Iron has more density than glass.
34
35
36
CONTENT AND LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT
Vocabulary. Write the words on the BB. Ss match them.
1. Mass a. mass per volume
2. Unit of measure for mass b. the kilogram
3. Volume c. the litre
4. Unit of measure for volume d. the amount of matter in an
object
5. Density e. the amount of space which
an object occupies
Answers: 1d. 2b. 3e. 4c. 5a.
Numbers. At home the Ss can observe different quantities
of mass and volume, for example, bread, a small bottle of water,
or a packet of biscuits. They note down the results and report
their findings to the class.
2
1
Content objectives: 3, 4, 9.
Language objectives: 2, 3, 4.
Vocabulary: density, kilogram,
mass, volume
one thousand - one - one thousand - one
Decantation
Pour some oil into a container and add
water.
Quickly cover the container and shake
it to mix the liquids.
Let the container stand and ask: What
is going to happen? (After some time,
the liquids will separate.) Which liquid
will be on top? (The oil will be on the
top, and the water will be on the
bottom.) Which is less dense the oil
or the water? (the oil, which is why it
floats)
Water and health. Water is essential
in our diet. Children should drink at least
one and a half litres of water every day.
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Special attention
Differentiating between physical and
chemical changes in matter
Identifying chemical changes in matter
Hands on
Presentation
Look at the pictures. Ask: Is ice water?
(Yes, it is water in a solid state) What is
happening to the wood? (It is burning.)
What does fire produce? (light, heat,
smoke) What does the wood change into
when it burns? (ashes and gases)
Present , , with , , .
Ask: Are these physical changes or
chemical changes? a match burns (C)
butter melts (P) a basketball goes through
the hoop (P) we grate a carrot (P) food
decays (C)
Cut up an apple or banana and wait
several minutes. The fruit will turn brown.
Ask: What type of change in matter has
occurred? (chemical; fruit reacts with the
oxygen in the air during oxidation)
66 65 64
3 2 1 READ
CONTENT AND LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT
Write the following headings on the BB and ask Ss to copy them.
Physical changes: Movement, Expansion, Contraction, Changes
of state, Fragmentation
Chemical changes: Oxidation, Combustion, Putrefaction
Write the following list on the BB and tell Ss to classify them.
an apple decays / water changes into steam / wood changes into
ashes and gases / an object changes position / iron changes into
rust / mercury expands in a thermometer / a glass breaks
Answers: Movement an object changes position; Expansion
mercury expands in a thermometer; Changes of state water
changes into steam; Fragmentation a glass breaks; Oxidation
iron changes into rust; Combustion wood changes into ashes
and gases; Putrefaction an apple decays.
1
Physical change or chemical change? Decide and make more sentences.
A glass breaks into pieces. ( change) Iron changes into rust. ( change)
MATTER 25
Changes in matter
READ
1. Changes in matter
There are two types of change in matter:
Physical changes: The object or substance changes, but the matter
remains the same. When water freezes, it is still water.
Chemical changes: The original matter changes into a different
substance. When paper burns, it changes into ashes and gases.
2. Physical changes
Movement: The object changes position,
but the matter remains the same.
Expansion: When the temperature of an object increases, it gets
bigger. If the temperature rises, mercury expands in a thermometer.
Contraction: When the temperature of an object decreases,
it gets smaller. If a balloon filled with air is put in a refrigerator,
the air contracts: the balloon gets smaller.
Changes of state: When the temperature rises,
the state changes. If water is heated, it changes into steam.
Fragmentation: The object is divided into small pieces.
If a glass breaks, the pieces are still made of glass.
3. Chemical changes
Oxidation: One substance changes into another
when it reacts with oxygen. For example, iron changes into rust.
Combustion: When an object or substance is burned,
it changes into another substance. For example,
when wood burns, it changes into ashes and gases.
Putrefaction: This occurs when a living thing decomposes.
For example, when an apple decays, its appearance,
colour, smell and taste change.
Chemical industries use chemical reactions to manufacture
substances. Some substances, such as plastic, are artificial.
Plastic is made from petroleum.
A physical change:
ice melts, and becomes water.
A chemical change:
wood burns, and changes
into ashes and gases.
smoke
ashes
37
38
M.A. physical, chemical. M.A. Wood burns and changes into
ashes and gases. (C). If water is heated, it changes into a gas. (P).
Content objectives: 5, 6.
Language objectives: 5, 6.
Vocabulary: changes of state, chemical changes, contraction,
expansion, fragmentation, movement, oxidation, physical
changes, putrefaction
Inflate a balloon with a banana
Mash a ripe banana with a fork and
spoon it into a bottle with a small
mouth.
Put a balloon over the mouth of the
bottle and place it in a warm, sunny
place.
Ask: Why does the balloon inflate?
(because it fills with gas) Where does
the gas come from? (from the
putrefaction of the banana)
Putrefaction produces gas.
Tetanus. Cuts from rusty objects can
cause tetanus. This illness can be
prevented by vaccinations.
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Special attention
Understanding the permanence of matter
when there is a change of state
Hands on
Presentation
Draw attention to the upper illustration.
Ask: What happens to the ball? (It changes
place.) Does it change in any other way?
(no)
Tell Ss to imagine they untie the knot in an
inflated balloon. Ask: What happens to the
balloon? (it deflates) Where does the air
from the balloon go? (into the room) (Air is
a gas and tends to occupy all available
space.)
Pour the water from a jar into containers
with different shapes. Point out that water
takes the shape of each container. Ask.
Does liquid have a fixed shape? (no) What
shape does the liquid take? (the same as
the container).
Present and with and .
and Activity Book, pages 20, 22-24. E R
68 67
2 1 READ
26 MATTER
READ
Changes of state
1. The three states of matter
The states of matter are solid, liquid and gaseous.
Each state has different properties.
Solids have a fixed volume and shape. For example,
if we put a ball in a bag, the shape of the ball stays the same.
Liquids have a fixed volume, but not a fixed shape.
Liquids take the shape of their container. For example,
if we pour water into a glass, the water takes the shape of the glass.
Gases do not have a fixed volume or a fixed shape.
For example, if a balloon bursts, the air escapes and expands
into the room. It acquires the volume and shape of the room.
Liquids and gases are fluid. They flow through openings
in solid bodies. They can be transported through pipes.
2. Changes of state
Matter can change from one state to another.
This change of state sometimes occurs
when the temperature changes.
Melting: A solid changes into a liquid.
For example, snow melts when it is warm.
Solidification: A liquid changes into a solid.
For example, water changes into ice when it is very cold.
Boiling: A liquid changes into a gas.
For example, water boils when it is very hot:
one hundred degrees centigrade (100C).
Evaporation: A liquid changes into a gas.
For example, water in a pond evaporates.
Condensation: A gas changes into a liquid.
For example, water vapour in the air forms
condensation on car windows when it is very cold.
Sublimation: A solid changes into a gas.
For example, solid air fresheners change
into a gas when they mix with air.
If we move a solid, it still has
the same volume and shape.
Condensation and solidification sometimes make
it dangerous to drive. What happens?
Liquids maintain their volume,
but change their shape.
Gases can be compressed.
There is a lot of oxygen in this tank.
39
40
Content objectives: 7, 8, 10.
Language objectives: 5, 6, 7.
Vocabulary: boiling, change of state, condensation,
evaporation, fluid, gas, liquid, melting, solid,
solidification, sublimation
Making stalactites
Fill two jars with warm water. Add
magnesium sulphate until no more will
dissolve.
Tie a paper clip to each end of a string
and put the ends in the jars. Put a
plate between the two jars with the
string hanging over it. Wait several
days.
The solution will wet the string.
In the centre, drops will begin to fall.
Gradually, a column of salt will form
and continue to grow.
Slippery roads. More accidents
happen in bad weather. When roads are
wet or icy, good drivers drive carefully.
CONTENT AND LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT
Comprehension. Distribute photocopies of page 62.
SS listen to to complete the missing words.
1. a solid changes into a liquid.
2. a liquid changes into a solid.
3. a liquid changes into a gas.
4. a liquid changes into a gas.
5. a gas changes into a liquid.
6. a solid changes into a gas.
Answers: 1. melting. 2. solidification. 3. boiling. 4. evaporation.
5. condensation. 6. sublimination.
68
1
M. A. When it is cold outside, water vapour condenses inside the car
windows and we cannot see very well. Also water freezes on the roads
and makes them slippery.
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62
1. Listen and complete the missing words.
1. a solid changes into a liquid.
2. a liquid changes into a solid.
3. a liquid changes into a gas.
4. a liquid changes into a gas.
5. a gas changes into a liquid.
6. a solid changes into a gas.
A n s w e r s : 1 . m e l t i n g . 2 . s o l i d i f i c a t i o n . 3 . b o i l i n g . 4 . e v a p o r a t i o n . 5 . c o n d e n s a t i o n . 6 . s u b l i m i n a t i o n .
ESSENTIAL SCIENCE 5 Photocopiable material Richmond Publishing - Santillana Educacin, S.L.
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Worksheet 17. Date Tasks
ORGANISE INFORMATION
ON WORD MAPS
1. Complete the word map about matter.
can be found in three states
has two kinds of properties
can go through two types of change
such as
such as
Match.
mass the ratio of the mass to the volume of an object
volume the amount of matter in an object
density the amount of space which an object occupies
VOCABULARY
Matter
soli
liqui
ga
M. A. moen
oxidatio>
combustio>
putefactio>
mas
volu
physica
cemica
21
1. Read carefully.
2. What does fractional distillation mean? Tick the correct answer.
A process for separating substances in a mixture.
The sum of fractions. A type of factory.
3. Write two of the main ideas in the text.
4. Answer the question.
What will happen if our oil supply runs out?
Worksheet 18. Date Read and learn
OIL
Oil
Oil is a thick, black liquid which is extracted from
inside the Earth. It is formed from the remains
of living things which lived millions of years ago.
Crude oil is not very useful when it comes out of the
ground. It is a mixture of many different substances.
These substances are separated at a refinery
by a process called fractional distillation.
This process involves physical and chemical changes.
We obtain useful products including petrol,
gas-oil, tar and butane gas.
Today oil is a vital raw material of great economic
importance. After the refining process, it is used
as petrol and fuel for heating and transport.
It is also used to make plastic, medicines, detergents,
paint and lubricant oils.

M. A.
Oi i thic blac liqui fore fro t emain o livin@
thing million o ear ago. I i vita ra maeria o gea
economi importan.
W wil no ha etro an fe fo eatin@ an transpor.
W wil no ab t ma plasti, paint, edici>e o eer@ent.
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1. Give examples of changes of state.
From solid into liquid:
From gas into liquid:
From liquid into solid:
From liquid into gas:
2. Complete the word map. Write the name of the changes of state in each space.
Worksheet 19. Date Apply your knowledge
MATTER: CHANGES OF STATE
3. Answer.
a. Is the ice cream in the photo in a solid, liquid
or gaseous state?
b. What change of state is produced when ice
cream melts?
SOLIDS
GASES LIQUIDS
sno elt
wae vapou i> t ai form conensatio> o> ca window
wae chan@e into i
wae i> pon evaporae
eltin@
sublimatio>
solidificatio>
conensatio>
evaporatio>
I i i> soli sta.
I i cale eltin@.
Worksheet 20. Date Apply your knowledge
SOLIDS AND LIQUIDS
1. Which of these liquids do you think is the thickest? Tick.
water oil alcohol honey milk
What experiment can you do to test your answer?
23
3. Compare the properties
of raw clay and baked clay.
sapphire (precious stone)
What causes the change in the properties of this solid?
gold coin
raw clay baked clay
2. Name two properties of the solid that makes up each of these objects.
metal wire
rubber
boots

M. A.
M. A. I ca> ho lon@ i tae fo dro o eac liqui to fal.
har
durab
har
transluen
stron@
fexib
smoot
waerproo
M. A. sof har
M. A. I dr^e; i loe it wae.
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Worksheet 21. Date Tasks
APPLY KNOWLEDGE TO DAILY LIFE
24
1. Apply what you have learned to daily life. Tick () and explain.
c. You are having noodle soup. How do you separate the liquid from the noodles with a strainer?
What property of liquids are you observing? Explain.
b. Imagine you have three inflated balloons in your hand.
You have inflated two by blowing. The other is full of helium gas.
If you let the balloons go, what will happen?
The one with helium will rise. The others will fall to the ground.
All of them will rise.
Why?
a. What happens when we put ice cubes
in a full glass of water?
The glass overflows.
Nothing happens.
Why?

M. A. Becau t volu o t
M. A. Becau eliu ga i lighe tha> ai.
M. A. I pou t sou throug t strai>e. Onl t liqui pase.
M. A. Liquid do no ha fie sha.
wae inceae.
N
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t
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66
UNIT CONTENT
Assessment criteria
Knowing the Earth is made up of the atmosphere,
the hydrosphere and the geosphere
Knowing the purpose of the atmosphere
Explaining the water cycle
Associating volcanoes, earthquakes and
weathering with changes on the Earths surface
Interpreting photographs, drawings
and diagrams
Content objectives
1. Understanding the composition of the atmosphere
2. Understanding the purpose of the atmosphere
3. Identifying weather phenomena
4. Learning the distribution and characteristics of the hydrosphere
5. Explaining the circulation of water and changes of state during the water cycle
6. Learning the characteristics and components of the geosphere
7. Identifying changes on the Earths surface due to natural causes
8. Protecting nature
9. Saving water
Language objectives
1. Defining and describing: The atmosphere is the air which Waves are Erosion is
2. Classifying: The principal weather phenomena are Rocks can be classified into
3. Describing location: the lowest layer It is found in
4. Giving examples: such as rain; for example, the sea's waves
5. Describing process: Liquid water evaporates When a volcano erupts
6. Describing conditions: As we travel higher If it is very cold Igneous rocks are formed
when water cools
The atmosphere: composition
and layers
Precipitation and wind
The hydrosphere
The water cycle
The layers of the geosphere:
crust, mantle and core
Components of the crust: rocks
and minerals
Changes in the Earths crust:
volcanoes, earthquakes,
weathering
Explain the stages of the water
cycle
Identify the movement of
water in the oceans
Recognise the effects of
weathering
Put the stages of weathering in
the correct order: erosion,
transport and sedimentation
Interpret photographs,
drawings and diagrams to
extract information
Show interest in protecting
nature
Understand the importance of
saving water
CONCEPTS PROCEDURES ATTITUDES
Contents
UNIT 7
The atmosphere
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UNIT 0
67
RESOURCES
Resource folder
Reinforcement and extension
Reinforcement: Worksheet 7
Extension: Worksheet 7
Assessment
Assessment: Worksheet 7
Developing intelligence worksheets
Working with recent immigrants
PHOTOCOPIABLE RESOURCES SPECIAL PROGRAMMES*
Internet resources
www.richmondelt.com
www.indexnet.santillana.es
Geography
http://www.geography4kids.com/
The atmosphere, the hydrosphere and the Earth's
structure are explained using diagrams.
For students and teachers.
Weather
http://www.weatherwizkids.com/index.htm
The fascinating world of weather and weather
phenomena, including experiments.
For students and teachers.
Rocks
http://sln.fi.edu/fellows/payton/rocks/create/index.html
Discover how rocks are formed.
For students and teachers.
Other resources
Richmond World Facts
Richmond Students Dictionary
Flashcards
Posters
* Not yet available in English
www.richmondelt.com
LEVEL
4
LIVING
ON THE
MOON
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68
What is happening to the ozone layer?
Complete the sentences.
The air which surrounds the Earth contains
five gases:
The atmosphere has three layers:
THE ATMOSPHERE 27
The atmosphere
As we travel higher, the gases become less dense.
In outer space there is no atmosphere.
3. Weather phenomena
The principal weather phenomena
are precipitation and wind.
Precipitation is water, such as rain,
snow or hail, which falls from
the atmosphere to the Earth.
Wind is the movement of air, and has different
names depending on how strongly it blows.
Breezes are gentle winds.
Hurricanes are violent winds.
LOOK
READ
Look at this photo of the Earth.
What do clouds look like
from space?
Can we see the atmosphere?
1. What is the atmosphere?
The atmosphere is the air which surrounds
the Earth.
Air is a mixture of gases. It is mainly nitrogen
and oxygen. There are also small quantities
of carbon dioxide, ozone and water vapour.
The atmosphere is essential to life on Earth:
It has the oxygen which all living things breathe.
It also has carbon dioxide which plants
need for photosynthesis.
Carbon dioxide and other gases are like
a blanket which retains the Earths heat.
Ozone filters harmful ultraviolet rays.
2. The layers of the atmosphere
The troposphere is the lowest layer.
Most gases are in this layer.
Plants and animals live in the troposphere.
The stratosphere is the next layer.
There is a thin layer of ozone
in the upper stratosphere. This is called
the ozone layer.
41
42
CONTENT AND LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT
Comprehension. Write these sentences on the BB and ask
Ss to say if they are true or false. They correct the false
sentences.
1. The main gases in the air are nitrogen and oxygen.
2. The atmosphere has large quantities of carbon dioxide,
ozone and water vapour.
3. The atmosphere is not essential to life on earth.
4. All living things breathe oxygen.
5. Plants need carbon dioxide for photosynthesis.
6. Oxygen filters harmful ultraviolet rays.
Answers: 1. True. 2. False (small quantities).
3. False (is essential). 4. True. 5. True.
6. False (ozone filters).
1
Content objectives: 1, 2, 3, 8.
Language objectives: 1, 2, 3, 4, 6.
Vocabulary: air, atmosphere, carbon dioxide,
layer, nitrogen, outer space, oxygen, ozone,
precipitation, stratosphere, troposphere, water
vapour
M.A. Certain gases are destroying the ozone layer. / nitrogen,
oxygen, carbon dioxide, ozone, water vapour / the troposphere,
the stratosphere and the ozone layer
Special attention
Understanding that the atmosphere filters
the Suns rays
Understanding that the atmosphere is
made up of various layers
Hands on
Presentation
Focus attention on the photo and
questions. Clouds look like white masses
from space. We cannot see the
atmosphere because it is made up
of gases.
Use a mirror to reflect the Suns
rays. Ask: What happens when the rays
reach the mirror? (they bounce off) Explain
that the atmosphere also reflects the
Suns rays and protects us from harmful
radiation.
Draw a tall, thin rectangle. At the top, write
outer space. At the bottom write Earths
surface. Divide the rectangle into two parts
and write troposhere in the bottom part
and stratosphere in the top part.
Ask: Where do plants and animals live?
(troposphere) Where is the ozone layer?
(stratosphere) Ss read , and with
, and and then do the activity at
the bottom of the page.
71 70 69
3 2 1
READ
LOOK
Movement of the air
Draw a spiral six cm in diameter on a
square of onion paper and cut it out.
Glue or tape the end of a thread to the
centre of the paper spiral.
Hold the spiral over a lamp by the
thread about ten cm from the light bulb.
Ask: Why does the spiral spin?
(The light bulb heats the air. The hot
air rises and the cold air falls, forming
currents which make the spiral move.)
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Special attention
Understanding that the water cycle is
continuous and takes place all over the
Earth
Hands on
Presentation
Ask: What kinds of water
are there in the photo? (liquid the ocean;
solid ice; water vapour) Ask: How much
of the Earth is covered by water? (about
three quarters) Explain that most of the
water is in the oceans and seas.
Ss read with .
Write on the BB the changes of state in the
water cycle. Ss read with . Ask: What
is evaporation? solidification?
condensation?
Ask: What does the beach look like at high
tide? (Water covers most of the beach.)
What does it look like at low tide? (The
water recedes and the beach looks bigger.)
Ss read with , and answer the
questions at the bottom of the page.
Activity Book, page 25. R
74
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73
2
72
1
LOOK AND READ
28 THE ATMOSPHERE
The hydrosphere
1. The hydrosphere
All the water on Earth makes up the hydrosphere.
Water is usually a liquid, but it can also be a solid
or a gas.
Water in liquid form covers most of the Earths
surface. It is found in oceans, seas, rivers and lakes.
Water in solid form (snow and ice) is found in the
polar regions. It is also found on mountains.
Water vapour, a gas, is found in the atmosphere.
2. The water cycle
The water cycle is the constant circulation of water
between the sea, the atmosphere and land.
1. Liquid water in the sea, rivers and lakes
evaporates because of heat from the Sun.
It becomes water vapour.
2. Water vapour rises and condenses into drops
of water. The water drops form clouds.
3. Water falls from clouds as rain: precipitation.
If it is very cold, water solidifies and falls as snow.
4. Water flows over the land and filters into it.
It forms rivers and lakes.
Some water returns to the sea or evaporates.
The water cycle starts again.
3. The movement of water
Waves are the rise and fall of the waters surface.
They are caused by wind.
Tides are the rise and fall of the sea level
twice a day. They are caused by the gravitational
pull of the Moon and Sun.
Ocean currents are the movement of large
masses of ocean water in the same direction.
LOOK AND READ
Water can be a liquid or a solid, such as ice or snow.
Water vapour is in the atmosphere.
The water cycle
clouds and
water vapour
condensation
evaporation
43
Why is it important to save water? What do you do to save water?
precipitation
river
ocean
CONTENT AND LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT
Comprehension (reordering). Write the following sentences
about the water cycle on the BB. Ss write the sentences
in the correct order in their notebooks. They check by listening
again to .
1. Water filters into the land, returns to the sea or evaporates.
2. It becomes water vapour.
3. Water falls from clouds as rain or snow.
4. Water vapour rises and condenses into drops of water.
5. The water cycle starts again.
6. Liquid water evaporates because of heat from the sun.
7. The water drops form clouds.
Answers: 6 2 4 7 3 1 5.
73
1
Content objectives: 4, 5, 9.
Language objectives: 1, 3, 5, 6.
Vocabulary: hydrosphere, ocean currents, tides,
water cycle, waves
M. A. Water is scarce in many parts of the Earth. To save water:
turn off the tap when you clean your teeth, take showers and
not baths
Raindrops
Take a clear, plastic lid and eyedropper.
With the concave surface of the lid
facing up, squeeze a few drops of
water onto the inside of the lid.
Then, turn the lid over quickly.
Ask: What happens if you collect the
drops of water in one place with a
pencil point? (they form bigger drops,
then fall) Demonstrate using a pencil.
Explain that in the water cycle drops of
water collect in cloud. Raindrops form
and fall to the ground.
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Special attention
Distinguishing types of rocks
Distinguishing between outer, middle and
inner
Hands on
Presentation
Look at the drawing of the Earth.
Point out that the geosphere is the solid
part of the Earth. Ss read with . Ask:
Which is the outer layer of the geosphere?
(the crust) Which is the inner layer?
(the core) Which layer is between the crust
and the core? (the mantle)
Explain that the crust is made up of solid
materials. Ask: Are rocks natural
materials? (yes) Are minerals natural
materials? (yes) What are rocks made of?
(minerals) Ss read and with and
and do the activity at the bottom
of the page.
Activity Book, page 27, exercise 1. R
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75
1
READ
CONTENT AND LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT
Comprehension. Write these sentences on the BB and
underline the different options. Ask Ss to write down
the correct option in each sentence.
1. The geosphere is made up of three / four layers.
2. The crust is the Earths outer / inner layer.
3. The mantle, or middle layer, is very cold / hot.
4. The core is the Earths outer / inner layer.
5. Magma is red-hot solid / liquid rock.
Answers: 1. three. 2. outer. 3. hot. 4. inner. 5. liquid.
1
THE ATMOSPHERE 29
The geosphere
1. The geosphere
The geosphere is made up of three layers:
The crust is the Earths outer layer.
It is made up of solid materials.
The mantle is the Earths middle layer.
It is extremely hot. In some parts,
there is magma (red-hot liquid rock).
The core is the Earths inner layer.
It is also extremely hot. It is divided into
the liquid outer core and the solid inner core.
2. Rocks and minerals
Rocks are natural materials which make up
the Earths crust.
Rocks are made up of minerals. Minerals are pure.
We cannot break them down into other substances.
There are hundreds of minerals, such as diamonds
and other precious stones. We can identify each
mineral by its density, colour, hardness and shine.
3. Types of rock
Rocks can be classified into three types depending
on how they are formed:
Sedimentary rocks are formed from pieces
of other rocks or pieces of living things.
Coal and gypsum are sedimentary rocks.
Igneous rocks are formed when magma cools and
solidifies. Granite and basalt are igneous rocks.
Metamorphic rocks are formed when heat
or pressure changes the original rocks.
Marble and slate are metamorphic rocks.
READ
core
Parts of the geosphere
crust mantle
There are several crystals
in this rock.
bituminous coal
(a sedimentary rock)
basalt
(an igneous rock)
slate
(a metamorphic rock)
44
45
True or false? Make more sentences.
The crust is the inner layer of the geosphere. Rocks are made up of minerals.
Where can you see granite and marble in your community?
crystal
The mantle is the Earths inner layer/ M. A.
mountains, quarries, stairs, walls, kitchens, sculptures
Content objectives: 6.
Language objectives: 1, 2, 3, 4, 6.
Vocabulary: core, crust, geosphere, igneous
rocks, magma, mantle, metamorphic rocks,
minerals, sedimentary rocks
The shape of the Earth
Put a stone in a plastic bottle top and
then fill the top with oil. Put the bottle
top in a glass and pour alcohol into the
glass until it is 1 cm above the bottle
top. Pour water slowly down the side of
the glass. The oil leaves the bottle top
in the form of a bubble. Turn the
bubble gently without breaking it.
If it rises to the top of the glass,
add more alcohol letting it slide down
the side of the glass.
Ask: What shape is the bubble? (like
a rugby ball, not a sphere) The Earth is
not a perfect sphere but is flattened at
the poles.
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Special attention
Associate volcanoes, earthquakes and
weathering with their effects on the Earths
crust
Hands on
Presentation
Present and with
and . Ask: Where does the magma
go? (up through the chimney)
What emerges through the crater?
(lava, gases, pieces of rock)
Explain that earthquakes and volcanic
eruptions change the Earths surface.
Focus on photo 2 and ask: What do you
see along the river banks? (rocks) Where
do they come from? (the flow of the river
moves them and leaves them in flat areas)
The action of the wind and water
continually affect the Earths surface.
Ss read with .
Activity Book, page 26.
Activity Book, page 27, exercise 2. R
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2 1 LOOK AND READ
30 THE ATMOSPHERE
Volcanoes, earthquakes and weathering
1. Volcanoes
Volcanoes form in places where there is magma,
red-hot liquid rock, just under the surface.
When a volcano erupts, internal forces push
the magma up through a central pipe,
the volcanic chimney. It emerges through
a circular opening called a crater.
Magma is called lava when it reaches
the surface.
Layers of lava and ash cool and solidify
around the crater, and form a volcanic cone.
2. Earthquakes
Earthquakes are caused by movements of the
Earths crust. They can destroy buildings and
bridges, divert rivers, and cause avalanches.
Earthquakes on the ocean floor produce
enormous, destructive waves called tsunamis.
3. Weathering
The action of wind and water is called weathering:
Erosion is the removal of soil and rocks
by wind and water.
For example, the seas waves gradually
erode a cliff.
Transport is the movement of eroded material.
For example, rivers, seas and the wind carry sand.
Sedimentation is the accumulation
of eroded material from other places.
For example, mud settles at the bottom of a river.
LOOK AND READ
volcanic
cone
chimney
lava
magma
mantle
The parts
of a volcano
Many islands were formed by underwater volcanic
eruptions.
Rivers can carry mud or sand.
crater
46
Describe what happens when a volcano
erupts.
Internal forces push the magma
47
Content objectives: 7.
Language objectives: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5
Vocabulary: chimney, cone, crater, earthquakes, erosion,
lava, magma, sedimentation, transport, volcanoes,
weathering
Volcanic eruptions
Half fill a plastic bottle with sodium
bicarbonate and place on a tray.
Put sand around the bottle.
Mix vinegar and food colouring and
pour it into the bottle. Observe the
eruption. The bubbles that are created
are filled with carbon dioxide gas which
pushes the vinegar to the surface.
Ask: How is our experiment similar
to a volcanic eruption? (Pressure from
gases pushes materials to surface.)
Natural disasters. Volcanoes and
earthquakes can harm people and other
living things. It is very difficult to predict
when they will occur.
CONTENT AND LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT
Comprehension. Comprehension. Write these half sentences on
the BB. Ask Ss to match them and write the complete sentences.
1. Volcanoes form in places a. eroded material
2. Earthquakes are caused by b. is called weathering
3. Earthquakes on the ocean floor c. produce enormous
waves called tsunamis
4. The action of wind and water d. where there is magma
5. Erosion is the removal of e. of eroded material
from other places
6. Transport is the movement of f. movements of the
Earths crust
7. Sedimentation g. soil and rocks by
is the accumulation wind and weather
Answers: 1 d. 2 f. 3 c. 4 b. 5 g. 6 a. 7 e.
1
M. A. up through the volcanic chimney. Magma emerges
through the crater.
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1. Label the diagram.

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25
Apply your knowledge
THE WATER CYCLE
Match.
sunlight plants need this for photosynthesis
carbon dioxide it filters harmful ultraviolet rays
ozone it is like a blanket which retains the Earths heat
VOCABULARY
1 2
3
4
5
6
precipitation ocean
condensation river
clouds and water vapor
evaporation
Worksheet 22. Date
conensatio>
evaporatio>
pecipitatio>
oea>
ri
26
Worksheet 23. Date Read and learn
VOLCANIC FORMATIONS
1. Read carefully.
2. Answer the questions.
a. What are badlands?
b. How are badlands formed?
c. What are calderas?
d. Where can we find calderas?
3. Look for information. Write down the name of each area on the Iberian Peninsula
with volcanic formations.
Volcanic landscapes
A volcanic eruption is when magma rises through
cracks in the Earths surface. Eruptions can rapidly
change the landscape for kilometres around.
During eruptions, red-hot material is ejected.
This is called lava when it reaches the Earths surface.
Lava moves down, destroying everything in its path.
It turns the ground into a dry, stony landscape
where very little vegetation can grow.
The Canary Islands are a good example of volcanic
landscapes. On the islands of Lanzarote and Hierro,
we find volcanic cones. These are cone-shaped mountains
built up by volcanic eruptions. There are also very large
craters called calderas on Tenerife and La Palma.
Other volcanic formations on the Canary Islands
are fields of lava called badlands. A good example
is the Fire Mountains on the island of Lanzarote.
M. A. Te a volcani formation i> Cabo Gat i> Aleri, i> t
Errigoit^ formatio> i> t Pye>e, an, o cour, o> t Canar Island
an i> t Azoe.
Te a f^eld o lav.
Lav turn t groun into dr, ston landscae.
Te a r lar@ craer.
W ca> fin te o> Te>eri an L Palm.
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2. Complete each sentence.
a. Erosion is the removal of rocks by
volcanic activity wind and water
b. Transport is the of eroded material.
movement eruption
c. Sedimentation is the of eroded material.
destruction accumulation
1. Name the type of rock.
Worksheet 24. Date Apply your knowledge
ROCKS, WEATHERING
A
C
B
D
slate coal marble granite
sla
coa
grani
marb
win an wae.
moen
accumulatio>
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UNIT CONTENT
Assessment criteria
Distinguishing the main coastal and inland landforms
Using maps to learn about landscape
Knowing about the Spanish landscape and its main landforms
Observing photographs and drawings to obtain information about the landscape
Appreciating the importance of the landscape
Content objectives
1. Understanding the concept of landscape
2. Using the term altitude correctly
3. Learning the main inland landforms
4. Learning the main coastal landforms
5. Understanding information about the mountains and plains of Spain
6. Understanding information about Spanish coasts and their main landforms
7. Appreciating the importance of the landscape
Language objectives
1. Defining and describing landscape: Plains are A cape is land which
2. Classifying: Mountain landscapes are made up of There are two types of coast ...
3. Describing features (adjectives): high; low; flat; raised; long; sandy
4. Comparing: lower than the highest peaks
5. Describing location: near the coast to the north in the south by the sea
Main inland landforms:
mountains, plains, plateaus and
valleys
The mountains, plains,
plateaus and valleys of Spain
Main coastal landforms:
archipelago, beach, cape, cliffs,
coast, estuary, gulf, high coast,
island, low-lying coast, marsh,
peninsula
Spanish coasts
Observe photographs and
drawings to obtain information
about the landscape and
landforms
Locate the main landforms in
Spain on maps
Use a map to learn about
Spanish coasts
Interpret different types of
maps
Appreciate, respect, protect
and preserve natural
landscapes
CONCEPTS PROCEDURES ATTITUDES
Contents
UNIT 8
The landscape
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RESOURCES
Resource folder
Reinforcement and extension
Reinforcement: Worksheet 8
Extension: Worksheet 8
Assessment
Assessment: Worksheet 8
Developing intelligence worksheets
Working with recent immigrants
PHOTOCOPIABLE RESOURCES SPECIAL PROGRAMMES*
Internet resources
www.richmondelt.com
www.indexnet.santillana.es
Landforms
http://www.edu.pe.ca.southernkings/landforms.htm
A picture-filled website made by students of the Faces
of the Earth. In addition to landforms, processes like
weathering and erosion, as well as the rock cycle are
also covered.
Endangered species and landscapes
http://www.arkive.org/
Enter Arkive to visit the Globally Endangered Chapter
or visit the Planet Arkive to learn about landscapes
and habitats. For teachers and students.
Geography
http://www.iberianature.com/index.html
A guide to wildlife, geography and climate of Spain.
For students and teachers.
Other resources
Richmond World Facts
Richmond Students Dictionary
Flashcards
Posters
* Not yet available in English
MAKING
MOUNTAINS
www.richmondelt.com
LEVEL
4
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THE LANDSCAPE 31
3. Plains
Plains are large areas of flat land
with no hills or slopes.
A plateau is a plain at a high altitude.
Depressions are plains which are lower
than the surrounding land.
Coastal plains are flat land near the coast.
The landscape
True or false? Make more sentences
about landscape features.
Mountains are low areas.
Mountains are raised parts of the Earths surface.
Which mountains are closest
to your home? What is their altitude?
LOOK
Look at the photo.
What can you see
in the landscape?
Is everything natural,
or are some things
man-made?
READ
1. The landscape
All the different features of the Earths
surface make up the landscape.
There are high mountains in some areas.
There is low flat land in other areas.
There are mountain landscapes,
flat landscapes and coastal landscapes.
2. Mountains
Mountain landscapes are made up
of mountains and valleys.
Mountains are raised parts of the Earths
surface. Hills have a lower altitude
than mountains. (Altitude is the height
of something above sea level,
or the Earths surface.)
Several mountains grouped together are called
a mountain range. A long line of mountain
ranges is called a mountain chain.
Valleys are low areas between mountains.
Rivers are often found in valleys.
48
49
CONTENT AND LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT
Comprehension. Write these words and sentences on the BB.
Ask Ss to copy the sentences and complete them with the correct
word.
flat chain features plateau altitude low
1. Valleys and mountains are of the landscape.
2. Hills have a lower than mountains.
3. A mountain is a long line of mountain ranges.
4. Valleys are areas between mountains.
5. Plains are large areas of land.
6. A is a plain at a high altitude.
Answers: 1. features. 2. altitude. 3. chain. 4. low. 5. flat.
6. plateau.
1
Vocabulary: coastal plains, depression,
landscape, mountain chain, mountain
range, plains, plateau, valley
M. A. Valleys are low areas between mountains.
A plateau is a plain at a high altitude. Coastal plains
are flat land near the coast.
Special attention
Using the new vocabulary correctly
Distinguishing between long and large
Hands on
Presentation
Ask Ss to look at the photo and
compare natural and man-made features.
Ask: Are trees/mountains natural
features? (yes) Are houses/roads
man-made? (yes)
Explain the difference between
height and altitude. Altitude is the height of
something above sea level. Height is the
vertical measurement of something.
Ask Ss: Which has a higher altitude
a hill or a mountain? (a mountain)
a hill or a valley? (a hill)
Ss read , and with , , .
They do the activity at the bottom of the
page.
Activity Book, page 29. E
84 83 82
3 2 1
READ
LOOK
Landscape features
Ask: What natural features can you
see in the landscape around your
town? (trees, grass, plains, mountains,
rivers, lakes, waterfalls)
Ask: Which things are man-made?
(roads, pavements, buildings, bridges,
walls )
Write suggestions on the BB in two
lists.
Content objectives: 1, 2, 3, 7.
Language objectives: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5.
Excursions and rubbish. When we go
on excursions, we should always throw our
rubbish in the bins or take it home. This
way we protect nature and help prevent
fires.
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Special attention
Interpret a relief map
Adverbial phrases: to the north,
in the south etc.
Hands on
Presentation
Focus on the map. Ask:
What colours do you see on the map?
What do these colours indicate?
(different altitudes)
Ask: What do you see in the upper left
corner? (a compass) What is it for?
(to show north, south, east and west)
Ask: What is the name of the mountain
chain which separates the Iberian
peninsula from France? (Pyrenees) Is the
Betic Chain in the south of the Iberian
peninsula? (yes) Which is further north,
the Ebro depression or the Guadalquivir
depression? (Ebro depression)
Ask: What is the highest mountain
in Spain? (the Teide) Where is it?
(in the Canary Islands)
Ss read and do the activity. 1
LOOK AND READ
32 THE LANDSCAPE
1. Mountains and plains in Spain
The Iberian peninsula has many different landscapes.
The map shows the mountains and plains.
Central Spain is dominated by a large plateau,
called the Central Plateau.
This is divided into two parts
by the Central Mountain Chain.
There are mountains to the north,
east and south of the Central Plateau:
The Pyrenees is a mountain chain
to the north of the Central Plateau.
The Betic Chain is a mountain chain
to the south of the Central Plateau.
The highest peaks on the peninsula
are in these chains.
The Iberian peninsula has narrow coastal plains.
There are two extensive depressions:
The Ebro depression is in the north.
The Guadalquivir depression is in the south.
Mountains and plains in Spain
LOOK AND READ
Complete the sentences.
The highest peaks on the Iberian peninsula
are in
The two extensive depressions on the Iberian
peninsula are
0
500
1,000
2,000
metres
Peak
ATLANTIC OCEAN
Teide
3,718
N
S
W E
F R A N C E
P
O
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T
U
G
A
L
Medi terran
e
a
n
S
e
a
B a y o f B i s c a y
ATLANTIC
OCEAN
Ba l e a r i c
I s l a n d s
Ca n a r y I s l a n d s
Aneto
3,404
Pico
del Moro
Almanzor
2,592
Mulhacn
3,478
LEO
N
C E N
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IB
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B
R
O
DEPR
ESSION
P
Y R E N E E S
CA
TALAN
COASTAL MOUNTAIN CHAIN
ANDORRA
Tram
untana
Range
SIERRA MORENA MOUNTAIN RANGE
BETIC
C
H
A
IN
G
U
A
D
A
L
Q
UIVIR DEPRESSION
Ceuta
Melilla
C E N T R A L
P L A T E A U
Kilometres
0 127
SCALE
MO R O C C O
M
o
u
n
ta
in
R
ange
MOUN
TA
IN
S
The Teide, on the Canary Islands,
is the highest mountain in Spain.
Mountains and plains in Spain
CONTENT AND LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT
Quiz. Ask the questions. Ss raise their hands if they can answer.
1. Which countries make up the Iberian peninsula?
2. What is the highest mountain in Spain? Where is it?
3. Where are the Pyrenees?
4. Which mountains divide the Central Plateau into two parts?
5. Where are the highest peaks on the Iberian peninsula?
6. Where is the Betic mountain chain?
7. Where is the Ebro depression?
8. Where is the Guadalquivir depression?
Answers: 1. Spain and Portugal. 2. Teide, Canary Islands.
3. Between Spain and France. 4. Central Mountain Chain.
5. Pyrenees, Betic Chain. 6. To the south of the Central Plateau.
7. In the north. 8. In the south.
1
Vocabulary: Betic Chain, Central Mountain
Chain, Central Plateau, Iberian Peninsula,
mountains, plains, Pyrenees
the Pyrenees and the Betic Chain The Ebro
depression and the Guadalquivir depression.
Content objectives: 5, 7.
Language objectives: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5.
Relief maps
Show a simple relief map of the area
where you live. Ask: How can you
distinguish the plains? the
mountains? (by their colour and
with the map key)
Ask: How do we know where north is?
(the compass symbol) Where is it?
Ask: Which is the highest mountain
in Spain? Where is it?
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Special attention
Distinguish coastal landforms
Vocabulary for types of coastline
Hands on
Presentation
Focus on the drawing. Say
the names of the landforms in jumbled
order and ask Ss to point to them.
Ask: How are beaches and cliffs the same?
(they are by the sea) How are they
different? (beaches are flat and have sand;
cliffs are high and rocky)
Use coastal landforms to play a guessing
game. It is completely surrounded by water.
(island) It is a group of islands.
(archipelago) It is the part of a river which
opens into the sea. (estuary) It is a place
where the sea extends into the land. (gulf)
Ss read and with and . Then
they do the activity.
Activity Book, page 28. R
86 85
2 1
LOOK AND READ
CONTENT AND LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT
Comprehension. Write these sentence halves on the BB and
ask Ss to match them.
1. The coast is the place a. which opens into the sea
2. A cape is land which b. extends into the sea
3. A gulf is a place c. where the land meets the sea
4. A peninsula is land which d. which is completely
surrounded by water
5. An island is land e. where the sea extends
into the land
6. An archipelago is f. is almost completely
surrounded by water
7. An estuary is the part of a river g. a group of islands
8. A marsh is wet land h. near the mouth of a river
Answers: 1 c. 2 b. 3 e. 4 f. 5 d. 6 g. 7 a. 8 h.
1
THE LANDSCAPE 33
1. The coast
The coast is the place where the land
meets the sea.
There are two types of coast:
Low-lying coasts are plains by the sea.
They often have sandy beaches.
High coasts are mountains
or high areas by the sea.
They often have rocky cliffs.
2. Types of coastline
Coastlines have different shapes.
A cape is land which extends
into the sea.
A gulf is a place where the sea extends
into the land.
A peninsula is land which is almost
completely surrounded by water.
An island is land which is completely
surrounded by water.
An archipelago is a group of islands.
An estuary is the part of a river
which opens into the sea.
A marsh is wet land near the mouth of a river.
The coast
LOOK AND READ
Make more sentences to describe
coastal landforms. Change the underlined words.
A cape is land which extends into the sea.
An archipelago is a group of islands.
A coastline
50
52
51
marsh
estuary
cape
island
cliff
beach
gulf
archipelago
peninsula
M.A. A marsh is wet land near the mouth of a river.
A peninsula is land which is almost completely surrounded by
water.
Content objectives: 4, 7.
Language objectives: 1, 2, 3, 5.
Vocabulary: archipelago, beach, cape, cliffs,
coast, coastlines, estuary, gulf, island,
landforms, marsh, peninsula
Coastal relief map
Ask: Where is the nearest coast to
where you live?
Show Ss a map of the coastline where
you live or the nearest coastal area.
Point out different landforms and ask
Ss to say the names.
Ask: What is the name of this cape?
What is the name of this beach?
What is the name of the gulf between
and ?
Water pollution. Rivers flow into the
sea. If rivers become contaminated, this
water will reach the sea and harm the
living things near our coasts too.
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Special attention
Interpreting maps
Hands on
Presentation
Focus on the map. Ask:
What do you notice about the coast of
Spain? (a lot of coast with different seas)
Ask Ss to look at the photos in pairs and
to ask each other questions: In which
photo/s can you see a high cliff?
(Atlantic) a sandy beach?
(Mediterranean, Balearic Islands)
rocks on the beach? (Canary Islands)
Help Ss organise a tree diagram. Title:
Spanish coasts. Level 1: Cantabrian coast /
Atlantic coast / Mediterranean coast. Level
2: Iberian Peninsula / Iberian Peninsula,
Canary Islands coast / Iberian Peninsula,
Balearic Islands coast.
Ss read and do the activity.
and Activity Book, pages 30, 31. E R
1
LOOK AND READ
Complete the sentence. Spain has five different types of coastal areas:
Describe each one. The Cantabrian coast has rocky cliffs.
34 THE LANDSCAPE
Spanish coasts
LOOK AND READ
The Mediterranean coast is low-lying
and sandy. There are many
long beaches.
The coastline in the Canary Islands
varies greatly.
In the Balearic Islands, high coasts
alternate with long beaches.
1. Spanish coasts
Spain has more than 6,000 kilometres
of coastline in the peninsula.
There are five types of coast.
The Cantabrian coast has rocky cliffs,
estuaries and gulfs.
The Atlantic coast is very varied.
In the northwest, it is high and rocky.
There are many estuaries.
In the south, it is low-lying and sandy.
Cantabrian coast
Mediterranean coast
Atlantic coast
Cape
Creus
Gulf
of
Roses
Cape
La Nao
Cape
Palos
Gulf of
Valencia
Cape
Gata
Tarifa Point
Cape Fisterra
Estaca de Bares Point Cape
Peas
Cape
Ajo
Cape
Matxitxako
ATLANTIC OCEAN
Mediterra
n
e
a
n
S
e
a
ATLANTIC
OCEAN
Kilometres
0 142
SCALE
F R A N C E
P
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T
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G
A
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Ba l e a r i c
I s l a n d s
Gulf
of Cadiz
Ca n a r y I s l a n d s
Ceuta
Melilla
ANDORRA
N
S
W E
Cantabria Atlantic Canary Islands
Mediterranean Balearic Islands
Vocabulary: Atlantic coast, Balearic
Islands, Canary Islands, Cantabrian
coast, Mediterranean coast
Spanish coasts
Hand out photocopies of a map of
Spain and lengths of yarn in three
colours: red, green, orange.
Ask Ss to glue the yarn on the coasts
according to the map in the book.
Ss write Mediterranean Sea, Atlantic
Ocean and the name of each type of
coastal area on the map. Ask: What
coastal area do the Canary Islands
belong to? (Atlantic) And the Balearic
Islands? (Mediterranean)
Pollution in the Mediterranean Sea.
The Mediterranean is almost enclosed
and is surrounded by populated countries.
This causes a serious pollution problem.
CONTENT AND LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT
Quiz. Books closed. Read out these questions and ask Ss
to raise their hands if they know the answer.
1. How long is the Spanish coastline?
2. How many types of coast are there?
3. What is the coast in the north called?
4. Which coast is very varied?
5. Which coast is low-lying and sandy?
6. Which islands have coastlines?
Answers: 1. about 6.000 kilometres. 2. five. 3. Cantabrian and
Atlantic. 4. Atlantic / Canaries. 5. Mediterranean. 6. Canary
Islands, Balearic Islands.
1
Cantabrian coast, Atlantic coast, Mediterranean coast, Canary
Islands coast, Balearic Islands coast/ The Atlantic coast is very
varied. The Mediterranean coast is low-lying and sandy
Content objectives: 6, 7.
Language objectives: 1, 2, 3, 5.
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Worksheet 25. Date Apply your knowledge
LANDSCAPES
1. Read the definition and write the word.
a. Land which is almost completely surrounded by water:
b. Large area of flat land with no hills or slopes:
c. Several mountains grouped together:
d. A low area between mountains:
e. The wet land near the mouth of a river:
f. Where the sea extends into the land:
3. Complete the following text about the principal landscapes in your Autonomous Community.
In my Autonomous Community, there are different landscapes including
There are high areas, for example
There are flat areas, for example
2. Now classify these landscapes into coastal or inland.
eninsul
plai>
chai>
vale
elt
estuar
coasta inlan
M. A.
chain, rir, plain an valey.
mountain.
Navaerrad an t Guadarram
t eadow o Aranje.
mountai>
29
Worksheet 26. Date Read and learn
UNDERWATER LANDSCAPES
1. Read carefully.
2. Explain the difference between an oceanic ridge and a mountain.
Oceanic landscapes
The ocean floor, just like the Earths surface,
has different landscapes. There are mountain
ranges, flat lands and deep oceanic trenches.
Underwater mountain ranges are known as
oceanic ridges. Some are over 3,000 metres
high and more than 2,000 kilometres long.
The longest mountain range extends from
the Arctic almost to Antarctica. In some cases,
underwater mountain peaks reach the surface
and form islands in the middle of the ocean.
Oceanic trenches are long, narrow and very
deep depressions. The most important ones are
found in the Pacific Ocean. The deepest ocean
trench is the Challenger Deep in the Pacific
Ocean. It is almost 11,000 metres deep.
Match.
oceanic ridge deep, long, narrow depression on the ocean floor
oceanic trench the highest point of a mountain
peak flat land which is lower than the surrounding land
depression an underwater mountain range
VOCABULARY
A> oeani rid@ i a> unerwae mountai> ran@.
A mountai> i foun abo wae.
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Worksheet 27. Date
1. Look at the map on page 31 and answer.
a. Which mountain chain is the farthest north?
b. Which mountain range is the farthest east?
c. Where are the highest mountains?
d. Where are the lowest areas of land?
2. Look at the elevation and complete.
Different colours represent different altitudes.The colour
is used for the highest areas. The colour is used
for the lowest areas. The most important rivers flow through areas indicated by the colour
. These areas are between
and metres
in height. The highest mountain peak is located in an area indicated by the colour
.
3. Find where you live on the map and answer. Find additional information and write the names.
a. Does it have any mountains?
b. Does it have any plains?
c. Does it have any depressions?
d. Is there a coast?
4. Which of these landforms are found near where you live?
plain island marsh mountain
valley cape estuary hill
T Cantabria> mountai> chai>.
T Tramuntan ran@.
T Canar island/Bti chai>.
T Ebro/Guadalquivi epession.
dar brow>
ge>
ge> o ligh brow>
0
ge
1,000

M. A. Ye, i d.
M. A. Ye, i d.
M. A. No, i ds>.
M. A. No, te is>.
M. A.
31
Tasks
INTERPRET A MAP
0
500
1,000
2,000
metres
Peak
N
S
W E
Kilometres
0 254
SCALE
ATLANTI C OCEAN
Teide
3,718
F R A N C E
P
O
R
T
U
G
A
L
M e d i t e r r a
n
e
a
n
S
e
a
B a y o f B i s c a y
A T L A N T I C
O C E A N
B a l e a r i c
I s l a n d s
C a n a r y I s l a n d s
Aneto
3,404
Pico
del Moro
Almanzor
2,592
Mulhacn
3,478
L
E
O
N
C
E
N
T
R
A
L
C
H
A
I
N
G
a
l
i
c
i
a
n Cantabrian Mountain Chain
I
B
E
R
I
A
N
C
H
A
I
N
E
B
R
O
D
E
P
R
E
S
S
ION
P
Y
R
E
N E E S
C
A
T
A
L
A
N
C
O
A
S
TAL MO
U
N
T
A
IN
C
H
A
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Ceuta
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C E N T R A L
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UNIT CONTENT
Assessment criteria
Knowing what rivers and watersheds are
Distinguishing the Earths climate zones
Knowing the different types of climate in Spain
Associating climate with the type of landscape
Associating climate with the living things in each zone
Observing drawings and photographs to learn about rivers, climate and landscape
Appreciating the importance of learning about and protecting nature
Content objectives
1. Defining rivers, reservoirs, lakes and watersheds and identifying the watersheds
of Spain
2. Distinguishing weather and climate
3. Recognising the Earths climatic zones and understanding their characteristics
4. Describing and locating the main types of Spanish climate
5. Associating climate with type of landscape
6. Associating climate with the living things in the different zones
7. Associating destructive and protective human actions with their effects on
nature
6. Appreciating the importance of learning about and protecting nature
Language objectives
1. Defining: A river is Reservoirs are Climate is Fauna is
2. Describing (adjectives): greater; irregular; hot; cool; mild
3. Classifying: There are three watersheds There are different types of climate
4. Expressing purpose: to irrigate fields; for urban consumption
5. Describing quantity: a lot; more than half; less water; abundant; many species
6. Describing time: in the summer; all year round; a few months of the year
Rivers and watersheds
Lakes and reservoirs
Climate, the Earths climate
zones, the climate of Spain
Vegetation and fauna
Protecting nature
Observe drawings and photos
to learn about rivers, climate
and landscape
Locate the Earths climate
zones on a globe
Appreciating the importance of
learning about and protecting
nature
Appreciating and respecting
vegetation and fauna in the
place where we live
CONCEPTS PROCEDURES ATTITUDES
Contents
UNIT 9
Rivers
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RESOURCES
Resource folder
Reinforcement and extension
Reinforcement: Worksheet 9
Extension: Worksheet 9
Assessment
Assessment: Worksheet 9
Developing intelligence worksheets
Working with recent immigrants
PHOTOCOPIABLE RESOURCES SPECIAL PROGRAMMES*
Internet resources
www.richmondelt.com
www.indexnet.santillana.es
Rivers and coasts
http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/riversandcoasts/
index.shtml
Animated drawings about rivers and coasts.
For students.
River features
http://www.kented.org.uk/ngfl/subjects/geography/
rivers/River Articles/rivart.htm
Different river features. Also offers teacher planning
and worksheets. Useful for students and teachers.
Dams
http://www.simscience.org/cracks/beginning/
dams1.html
All about dams. For teachers and students.
Other resources
Richmond World Facts
Richmond Students Dictionary
Flashcards
Posters
* Not yet available in English
www.richmondelt.com
LEVEL
3
FOLLOW A
RIVER
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RIVERS 35
Rivers
READ
LOOK AND READ
Make more sentences.
Change the underlined words.
In the Cantabrian watershed, the river flow
is abundant and regular.
Look at the photo
of a reservoir.
How do you think
this water is used?
Think of other places
where we find water.
1. A rivers course and flow
A river is a body of moving water.
It starts high in the mountains.
It flows into a sea, a lake or another river.
The course is the route which a river takes.
The flow is the amount of water which a river
carries. The flow is greater when it rains,
or if snow melts in the mountains.
2. Lakes and reservoirs
Water can also be found in lakes and reservoirs.
Lakes are large bodies of water
surrounded by land.
Reservoirs are artificial lakes.
Water from reservoirs is used
to irrigate fields, and for urban consumption.
Canals and irrigation channels
transport water away from reservoirs.
Reservoirs are also used to produce energy.
3. The watersheds of Spain
Watersheds are areas where all
the rivers flow into the same sea.
There are three watersheds in Spain.
The Cantabrian watershed has short, rapid rivers.
Their flow is abundant and regular.
The Mediterranean watershed covers about
one third of Spain. Except for the Ebro,
the rivers are short, and their flow is irregular.
They sometimes overflow when it rains a lot.
They are sometimes dry in the summer.
The Atlantic watershed covers more than
half of Spain. The flow of these rivers
is abundant and fairly regular, but they carry
less water in the summer.
53
54
CONTENT AND LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT
Comprehension: definitions Books closed. Write these sentence
halves on the BB. Ask Ss to match the halves and write complete
sentences.
1. A river is a. large bodies of water surrounded
by land
2. The course is b. the route which a river takes
3. The flow is c. artificial lakes
4. Lakes are d. a body of moving water
5. Reservoirs are e. the amount of water which a river
carries
Answers: 1 d. 2 b. 3 e. 4 a. 5 c.
1
Vocabulary: course, flow, lakes, reservoirs, river,
watershed
Special attention
Understanding the concept of watershed
Adjectives and expressions of quantity
Hands on
Presentation
Focus on the photo. Ask: Is there a
lot of water? (yes) What holds the water
back? (a dam) Explain that reservoirs store
water for use in homes as drinking water,
in agriculture, in industry, and to produce
electricity.
Present and with and .
Ask: Can we produce electricity with the
water in a reservoir? (yes) How?
(Hydroelectric plants capture the force of
falling water to produce electrical energy.)
Ss read with . Write a word map on
the BB. Title: WATERSHEDS OF SPAIN Level
1: Cantabrian watershed - Mediterranean
watershed - Atlantic watershed.
Level 2: Characteristics of the rivers.
Ss do the activity at the bottom of the
page.
Activity Book, page 32. R
90
3
89 88
2 1 READ
LOOK
Transport of materials
Build a mountain out of sand on
a tray.
Prepare to pour water over the
mountain so it goes down one side.
Ask: What will happen when the water
moves down the mountain? (It will
carry sand with it to the bottom.)
Make another mountain of sand
and place some little stones near
the surface. Ask: What will happen
this time when the water moves down
the side? (It will mostly carry the little
stones.) Why? (because they are larger)
Content objectives: 1.
Language objectives: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6.
M.A. In the Mediterranean watershed, the river flow is irregular.
In the Atlantic watershed, the river flow is abundant and fairly
regular.
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Special attention
Identifying the characteristics of the
different types of climate in Spain
Hands on
Presentation
Focus on the photos. Ask
Ss to compare landscapes. Ask: What is
the landscape like in the Atlantic climate?
(wet, a lot of vegetation ) And in the
continental climate? (dry, few trees, low
vegetation )
Ss read and and with , , .
Draw a map of Spain on the BB. Ask.
Where is there a subtropical climate?
(Canary Islands) A Mediterranean climate?
(near the Mediterranean Sea) An Atlantic
climate? (Galicia and Cantabrian coast)
A continental climate? (central Spain)
Ss discuss the questions at the bottom of
the page.
Activity Book, page 33.
Activity Book, page 34. E
R
93 92 91
3 2 1
LOOK AND READ
36 RIVERS
1. Climate
Climate is not the same as weather.
Weather can change in just a few minutes.
Climate is a regions characteristic temperature,
wind and precipitation over a very long time.
2. The Earths climate
The distance of an area from the equator
determines how much heat it gets from the Sun.
Tropical zone: It is very hot all year round
near the equator.
Temperate zone: There are warm summers
and cool winters. In some regions,
it is rainy all year round. In other regions,
it is dry and sunny in the summer.
Polar zone: It is very cold all year round
at the North and South Poles.
3. Climate in Spain
There are different types of climate in Spain.
The Atlantic climate: This is the mild climate
on the Cantabrian coast and in Galicia.
Rainfall is abundant all year round.
The Mediterranean climate: This is the climate
near the Mediterranean. Summers are hot,
and winters are mild. Rainfall is light.
The subtropical climate: This is the climate
in the Canary Islands. It is hot all year round.
Rainfall is limited to a few months of the year.
The continental climate: This is the climate
of central Spain. Summers are hot
and winters are cold. Rainfall is irregular.
Climate
LOOK AND READ
polar
North Pole
South Pole
Southern
Hemisphere
Northern
Hemisphere
temperate
temperate
tropical
E
q
u
a
to
r

polar
Atlantic climate
Subtropical climate
Mediterranean climate
Continental climate
55
What zone do you live in? What kind
of climate do you have where you live?
World climatic zones
CONTENT AND LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT
True or false? Write these questions on the BB and ask Ss
to say if they are true or false. They should correct the false
sentences.
1. Weather and climate are the same thing.
2. Weather can change very quickly.
3. Different regions have different temperatures.
4. It is very cold near the equator.
5. In the temperate zone, there are warm summers
and cool winters.
6. It is very warm in the Polar zone.
Answers: 1. False. They are different. 2. True. 3. True.
4. False. It is very hot. 5. True. 6. False. It is very cold.
1
Content objectives: 2, 3, 4, 5
Language objectives: 1, 2, 3, 5, 6.
Vocabulary: climate, continental climate, polar
zone, temperate zone, tropical zone, weather
A globe
Show the class a globe. Ask: What
shape is the Earth? (a sphere which
is slightly flattened at the poles)
Find the equator. What countries
does the equator pass through?
(Ecuador, Brazil, Congo, Kenya )
Find the temperate zone and the
tropical zone. Say: Name four countries
in the temperate zone. (Spain,
France, Germany, Great Britain )
in the tropical zone. (Costa Rica,
Venezuela, Ethiopia )
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Special attention
Understanding that the growth of cities etc.,
are things which affect flora and fauna
Hands on
Presentation
Focus on the photos. Ask:
Where can you find waterfalls? (tropical
rainforests) A lot of sand? (deserts)
Mountains with snow? (Snowdonia NP)
Present and with and .
Explain that National Parks have rules and
regulations to protect nature. Elicit some
examples: bans on cars, hunting, taking
plants, entering after visiting hours
Ask Ss to form groups to make posters
about National Parks. They can include
photos and information on the following:
What is the Parks name? Where is it?
What kind of vegetation/fauna is found
there? What is the landscape/climate like?
Ss do the activities at the bottom of the
page.
Activity Book, page 35.
Note: Project 4 (Activity Book, page 37),
should be carried out with a glass bottle.
R
95 94
2 1
READ
CONTENT AND LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT
Comprehension. Books closed. Write these sentences on the
BB and ask Ss to choose the correct option. They then listen to
to check their answers.
1. The growth of cities / countries affects animal and plant
habitats.
2. Many species disappear or are in danger of pollution /
extinction.
3. Governments create special areas / species where the
environment is protected.
4. Two important National Parks are the Teide in Spain and
Snowdonia in Germany / the United Kingdom.
Answers: 1. cities. 2. extinction. 3. areas. 4. the United Kingdom.
95
1
RIVERS 37
Vegetation and fauna
READ
1. Vegetation and fauna
Plant and animal life depend on the climate.
Each climate has its own flora and fauna.
Flora is all the plant life or vegetation in an area.
Fauna is all the animal life in an area.
In rainy areas, such as tropical rainforests,
there is abundant vegetation and fauna.
In very dry areas, such as deserts,
there is little vegetation or fauna.
2. Natural preserves
Flora and fauna are affected by many things.
The growth of cities, pollution and
the exploitation of our natural resources
all affect animal and plant habitats.
Many animal and plant species disappear,
or are in danger of extinction.
Governments and regional authorities
create special areas where the environment
is protected.
In Europe, four important National Parks
are the Teide in Spain, Snowdonia
in the United Kingdom, Vanoise in France
and Harz in Germany.
Complete the sentences.
Many animal and plant habitats
are in danger because of
Do you know any plant or animal species
in danger of extinction?
There is abundant vegetation in tropical rainforests.
There is little vegetation in deserts.
Snowdonia National Park, United Kingdom
56
Content objectives: 5, 6, 7, 8.
Language objectives: 1, 2, 5.
Vocabulary: fauna, flora, habitats, National Park,
natural preserves, vegetation
Our National Parks
Ask: How does the government protect
our flora and fauna? (for example,
by creating National Parks)
Use an atlas to show where different
National Parks are located.
Ask: Is X in the north? Is Y on an
island? Is Z near the sea?
Species extinction. It is estimated that
around one tenth of all species on Earth
could disappear by the year 2010. Many
extinctions will be caused by humans.
M. A. the growth of cities, pollution, the exploitation of natural
resources, hunting / Iberian lynx, blue whale, white
rhinoceros
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2. Complete the sentences with the correct word.
A n s w e r s : 1 . c l i m a t e . 2 . f a u n a . 3 . p l a n t . 4 . a n i m a l . 5 . r a i n y . 6 . d r y .
ESSENTIAL SCIENCE 5 Photocopiable material Richmond Publishing - Santillana Educacin, S.L.
1. Write the correct form of the jumbled adjective.
1. The Cantabrian watershed has short DAPIR rivers.
2. Their flow is abundant and ARLEGUR.
3. The Mediterranean watershed has TROSH rivers.
4. Their flow is GRELARIRU.
5. The Atlantic watershed has rivers with an NUDBATNA flow.
1. Plant and animal life depend on the .
2. Each climate has its own flora and .
3. Flora is all the life or vegetation in an area.
4. Fauna is all the life in an area.
5. In areas, there is abundant vegetation and fauna.
6. In very areas, there is little vegetation or fauna.
A n s w e r s : 1 . r a p i d . 2 . r e g u l a r . 3 . s h o r t . 4 . i r r e g u l a r . 5 . a b u n d a n t .
rainy plant climate dry fauna animal
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Worksheet 28. Date Apply your knowledge
WATER
1. Match.
2. Read and tick () the true sentences.
a. A river is a body of moving water.
b. The course is the amount of water which a river carries.
c. The flow of a river is smaller when it rains.
d. A lake is a large body of water surrounded by land.
e. A reservoir is an artificial lake.
f. Reservoirs are never used to produce energy.
g. Watersheds are areas where all the rivers flow into the same sea.
h. The Atlantic watershed is the smallest one in Spain.
3. Name the most important river in your Autonomous Community.
Explain its principal characteristics.
A B C
river reservoir lake

T Ri i t mos importan ri i> . I ha it


sour i> t mountai> ran@. I> i form t
eervoi, o> o t mos importan wae suppl^e fo t egio>.
I flow into t Ri.
33
Worksheet 29. Date Apply your knowledge
CLIMATE AND WEATHER
1. Find the climates of Spain in the wordsearch.
2. Complete the paragraph. Use words from Activity 1.
The is the climate in central Spain. Summers are hot
and winters are cold.There is a near the Mediterranean.
Summers are not, but winters are mild. The
is in Galicia and in Cantabria. It rains all year round. The Canary Islands has
a . It is hot all year round.
A S D F G H J K L Q W E R
P O K A T L A N T I C X C
M E D I T E R R A N E A N
M N B V C X Z P O S U Y T
Z S U B T R O P I C A L Q
S C O N T I N E N T A L M
Match and write.
tropical zone polar zone temperate zone
: near the equator. It is hot all year round.
: far from the equator. It is cold all year round.
: between the other two zones. It is warm in the summer
and cool in the winter.
VOCABULARY
conti>enta clima
Medierra>ea> clima
Atlanti clima
subtropica clima
tropica zo>
emera zo>
pola zo>
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Read and learn
DESERTS
Worksheet 30. Date
2. Circle the words in the text which you do not understand.
Look up the meanings in a dictionary and write them down.
3. Think and explain.
Some people who live in the desert are nomads. They have no fixed home,
and move from place to place. Why?
1. Read carefully.
Weather in the desert
Deserts are areas with very
little rain. Very few plants and
animals can survive in a desert.
Deserts have a very dry climate.
Rain is scarce and usually irregular.
Months or years can go by without
rain and then torrential rains fall.
Because of the dry climate, rivers
in deserts only have water
when it rains.
There is always a big difference
between day and night
temperatures in deserts. During
the day, temperatures are very high.
At night it is very cold, and
temperatures fall below 0.
M. A. survi = li
scar = r litt
torentia = r stron@
M. A. Becau te >e to loo fo foo an wae.
35
Worksheet 31. Date Tasks
INTERPRET A CLIMATE GRAPH
1. Read carefully.
Climate graphs
Climate graphs give us information about climates. They help us compare the climates
in two different areas.
The blue bars tell us the monthly precipitation. We can see if a climate is rainy or dry.
The red line shows the monthly temperatures. We can see if it is a warm or a cold climate.
2. Look at the climate graphs. Complete the following activities.
Then you are ready to do project 3 on page 36.
a. Read the data cards.
b. Write Mountain or Desert below each climogram.
DATA: DESERT
Temperatures: very high all year
round. Over 20 for six months.
Precipitation: very little rain all year
round.
DATA: MOUNTAIN
Temperatures: very cold in winter and
moderate in summer.
Precipitation: heavy rains all year
round, although in summer it rains less.
Temperature in C Precipitation in l/m
2
J F M A M J J A S O N D
months
40
30
20
10
0
10
200
180
160
140
120
100
80
60
40
20
0
Temperature in C Precipitation in l/m
2
J F M A M J J A S O N D
months
40
30
20
10
0
220
200
180
160
140
120
100
80
60
40
20
0
mountai> eer
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36
Use this information to construct a climate graph.
Temperature is in degrees centigrade (C).
Precipitation is in millimetres (mm).
1. Complete the temperature.
Put a point on each month using the information in the table. Then draw a red line
to connect the points from all twelve months.
2. Complete the precipitation.
Each month on the table is represented by a vertical blue bar at a different height
on the graph.
MAKE AND INTERPRET A CLIMATE GRAPH
Project 3
Temperature
Precipitation
J F M A M J J A S O N D
5 9 13 15 18 20 24 26 25 19 10 7
50 54 70 78 83 60 30 15 90 86 88 69
50
40
30
20
10
0
T (C)
100
80
60
40
20
0
P (mm)
J F M A M J J A S O N D
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37
INVESTIGATE CHANGES IN MATTER
Pour vinegar
into a bottle.
balloon bicarbonate
Now think and answer these questions.
a. What happens inside the balloon?
b. Why does the volume of the balloon increase?
c. Where did the gas that is now in the balloon come from?
d. What type of change has occurred inside the bottle?
What type of change has occurred inside the balloon?
Project 4
1
Put some bicarbonate
into a balloon.
2
Place the mouth of the balloon over
the mouth of the bottle.
3
The balloon inflates
when the vinegar
and bicarbonate mix.
4
The baloon inflates
more and more
as time passes.
5
M. A. T vi>ega an bicarbona mi an for ga.
Becau t ga expand.
Fro t cemica eactio> ete> vi>ega an bicarbona.
Insi t bott: cemical chan@. Insi t balloo>: physica chan@
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UNIT CONTENT
Assessment criteria
Understanding concepts associated with population: density, growth, urban and rural
Understanding what migration is, the causes and types
Identifying the characteristics of the population of Spain
Interpreting a bar graph about population
Studying photographs to learn about population
Appreciating the role of immigrants in society
Population: concept, census,
density, rural, urban, growth
Migration: causes, types,
emigrants, immigrants
The population of Spain:
number of inhabitants,
immigrants, density,
distribution, getting older
Interpret a population bar
graph
Study photographs to learn
about population
Appreciation of the role of
immigrants in society
Appreciation of senior citizens
and their contribution to
society
CONCEPTS PROCEDURES ATTITUDES
Contents
UNIT 10
Population
Content objectives
1. Understanding the concept of population
2. Distinguishing between urban and rural population
3. Associating population changes with the number of people who are born and die
4. Understanding the concept of population density
5. Understanding what migration is, the causes and types
6. Distinguishing emigrants and immigrants
7. Understanding the characteristics of the population of Spain
8. Appreciating the role of immigrants in society
Language objectives
1. Providing additional information (relative clauses): People who live in cities places where
2. Explaining methods: Density is measured by dividing can be classified by gender
3. Making comparisons: more densely populated; better opportunities; is low compared to;
like other European populations; is getting older
4. Expressing quantity: some; others; many.
5. Expressing purpose: to live in another place; to find work; to escape
6. Describing part of a continuing process: The number is increasing is getting older
7. Stating facts (present passive): is not evenly distributed are densely populated
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UNIT 0
93
RESOURCES
Resource folder
Reinforcement and extension
Reinforcement: Worksheet 10
Extension: Worksheet 10
Assessment
Assessment: Worksheet 10
Developing intelligence worksheets
Working with recent immigrants
PHOTOCOPIABLE RESOURCES SPECIAL PROGRAMMES*
Internet resources
www.richmondelt.com
www.indexnet.santillana.es
Population
http://www.geography.learnontheinternet.co.uk/
index.html
Internet geography with sections on population
and migration. For teachers.
Population comparisons
http://www.un.org/Pubs/CyberSchoolBus/
infonation3/basic.asp
View and compare country population, economic,
health, technology and environmental data.
For teachers and students.
Population statistics
http://www.nationmaster.com/country/sp/Age_distribution
Spain population pyramids for 1995-2005
and predictions. For students and teachers.
Other resources
Richmond World Facts
Richmond Students Dictionary
Flashcards
Posters
* Not yet available in English
www.richmondelt.com
LEVEL
5
NEW LANGUAGE,
NEW FRIENDS
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38 POPULATION
Population
LOOK
Do you live in a place
with many inhabitants?
Do you know people
who come from
a different place?
READ
1. Population
The population of an area is the number of people
who live there. It can be classified into two types.
Urban populations are people who live in cities.
Rural populations are people
who live in villages and towns.
A census measures the size of a population.
2. Natural increase
Natural increase is the difference between
the number of people who are born and
the number of people who die in the same year.
The number of inhabitants in a place
changes continually.
There is a positive natural increase
when more people are born than die.
The population grows.
There is a negative natural increase
when more people die than are born.
The population decreases.
3. Population distribution
People like to live in places where there
are job opportunities, a healthy climate
and good services. Many people live on
the coasts and plains in temperate zones.
Population density is measured by dividing
the total number of inhabitants by the
surface area of the place where they live.
Some countries and regions are more densely
populated than others. In Australia there are
huge, dry areas with no inhabitants, and there
are only 2 inhabitants per square kilometre.
4. Population groups
Population can be classified by gender
into male and female inhabitants,
and by age into three main groups:
Young people under the age of 18
Adults between the ages of 18 and 64
Senior citizens over the age of 65
57
Do a census of your class. What is the population?
Classify your classmates by gender and age.
CONTENT AND LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT
Word order. Write the following sentences on the BB.
Ss rewrite the sentences and check with .
1. there are good job opportunities / a healthy climate / people /
and good services / like to live / in places where
2. on / people / coasts / live / many / the
3. are / some countries and regions / than others / more
densely populated
4. per square km / there are / in Australia / only 2 inhabitants
Answers: 1. People like to live in places where there are good job
opportunities, a healthy climate and good services. 2. Many
people live on the coasts. 3. Some countries and regions are
more densely populated than others. 4. In Australia there are only
2 inhabitants per square kilometre.
98
1
Vocabulary: adults, age, census, density, gender,
inhabitants, natural increase, population, rural, senior
citizens, urban, young people
Special attention
Understanding the term population density
Hands on
Presentation
Ss look at the photo. Ask: Are there
many people? Is everybody alike? How are
they different? Discuss the questions
together.
Ask: What is the difference between
rural populations and urban populations?
(Rural populations live in villages or towns
and urban populations live in cities.)
Present , , and with , , ,
.
Explain that population censuses are taken
every ten years to find out the number
of inhabitants in a country and other
information such as age, gender, place
of birth, etc.
Do the activity at the bottom of the page.
99
98 97 96
4 3 2 1
READ
LOOK
School census
Ask: How many students do you think
are in the school? Are there more boys
than girls? How many students of
different nationalities are there in the
school?
Create a questionnaire to find out
the answers to the above questions.
Distribute it to all the classes at
school.
Ss do the mathematical calculations
to obtain the answers for the whole
school.
Content objectives: 1, 2, 3, 4.
Language objectives: 1, 2, 3.
Respect. Everybody deserves respect
and dignity. We are all important. For
communities to function well, people of all
ages, genders and races must take part.
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95
Special attention
Distinguishing immigrants and emigrants
Hands on
Presentation
Ss look at the photographs. Ask:
What are some of the reasons people
emigrate? (to study, find work/better jobs,
climate) Can you think of other reasons?
(wars, drought, better living conditions)
Present Present , and with ,
, .
Write a chart on the BB with the title
MIGRATION and the subtitles Internal and
External. Ask Ss to write examples of each.
Ask: What are some of the advantages of
living in a town or village? (peace and
quiet, clean air, contact with nature, safety)
And in a city? (more opportunities for
culture, shopping, work, leisure, health
services)
Ask: What are some of the disadvantages
of living in the country? (few shops, no
hospitals) And in a city? (pollution, noise)
Activity Book, page 38.
Activity Book, page 39. E
R
102 101
100
3 2 1
READ
POPULATION 39
Migration
READ
1. Migration
Many people leave their homes to live in another place.
This movement of population is called migration.
There are two main reasons:
Natural causes, for example floods, droughts
and earthquakes, can cause migration.
Social factors, for example wars or political
and religious problems, can also cause migration.
Also, people sometimes leave home to find work.
2. Internal migration
Internal migration is produced within the same country.
For example, there are often migrations from rural areas
to cities. There are two main reasons:
The number of jobs in rural areas decreases.
Young people find better opportunities to study,
work and live in cities.
3. International migration
Migration from one country to another is called international migration.
People who leave a country are called emigrants.
When they arrive in the other country, they are called immigrants.
People emigrate for many reasons. Some leave to find work,
or to join relatives in another country. Others leave to escape
from war and persecution in their own country.
In the past, many emigrants left Europe and went to other
countries, such as the United States, to find better jobs.
Today, many immigrants come to the European Union from Africa,
Latin America and other European countries to find better jobs.
Today, many young European adults also emigrate
to study or work in a different country.
True or false? Make more sentences about migration.
Droughts are a social factor which can cause migration. People who leave a country are called emigrants.
Many people emigrate
to find better jobs.
Young people often go
to another country to study.
Senior citizens sometimes emigrate
to live in a warmer climate.
58
CONTENT AND LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT
Comprehension. Write the sentence halves on the BB.
Ss copy them and draw a line to join the halves.
1. The movement of a. produced within the same
population is called country
2. Earthquakes are b. migration
3. Finding work is c. people who leave a country
4. Internal migration is d. migration from one country
to another
5. International migration is e. a natural cause of migration
6. Emigrants are f. people who arrive in another
country
7. Immigrants are g. a social factor of migration
Answers: 1 b. 2 e. 3 g. 4 a. 5 d. 6 c. 7 f.
1
Content objectives: 5, 6, 8.
Language objectives: 1, 3, 4, 5.
Vocabulary: emigrants, immigrants, international
migration, internal migration
Role-play
Ask Ss: Where do immigrants in Spain
come from? Why do they come?
Some Ss play the parts of immigrants
and the rest are the citizens of their
new community. Citizens ask questions
to get to know the immigrants: What is
your home country? Why did you come
here? Do you like it here?
The immigrants invent answers.
Ss think about how they would like
to be treated if they were immigrants.
Ask Ss from other countries to
describe their experiences.
M. A. Many people emigrate to find better jobs. Internal
migration is produced within the same country. Young people
often go to another country to study.
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96
Special attention
Interpreting bar graphs
Hands on
Presentation
Ss look at the graph on
page 40. Ask: What does the horizontal
axis show? (years) What does the vertical
axis show? (number of inhabitants in
millions) What is the meaning of the bars
height? (millions of inhabitants in that
year) What was the population in 1910?
(20 million inhabitants) And in 2004?
(43 million)
Present with .
Ask: What regions of Spain are densely
populated? (the coast and the Autonomous
Community of Madrid) What regions of
Spain are sparsely populated? (some
inland areas such as Extremadura)
SS do the activity at the bottom of the
page.
Activity Book, page 40. R
103
1
LOOK AND READ
CONTENT AND LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT
Comprehension. Write the following sentences on the BB.
Ss copy them and choose the correct alternative in each
sentence.
1. In Spain the number of emigrants / immigrants is increasing.
2. Senior citizens come to work / retire here.
3. Population density in Spain is low / high compared to other
European countries.
4. The population is / is not evenly distributed.
5. The Spanish population is getting younger / older.
Answers: 1. immigrants. 2. retire. 3. low. 4. is not. 5. older.
1
40 POPULATION
1. Population characteristics
Today the population of Spain is approximately
43 million inhabitants.
In 1900 it was 18 million inhabitants.
(See the chart.)
The number of immigrants is increasing.
There are now about three million immigrants.
Some come to work in Spain.
Others, such as senior citizens,
come to retire here.
Population density is low compared
to population density in other European
countries, such as Germany, Belgium
or France. It is 86 inhabitants per km
2
.
The population is not evenly distributed.
The coast and the Autonomous Community
of Madrid are densely populated.
In contrast, other inland areas
are sparsely populated.
In many Autonomous Communities,
a high proportion of the population
is found in the provincial capital.
Like other European populations,
the Spanish population is getting older.
This means that the adult and senior
population is growing more quickly
than the population of young people.
Complete the sentences to describe
the population of Spain.
The population of Spain is approximately
The number of immigrants is
The population density is
The population is not evenly
The Spanish population is getting
Are there immigrants in your community?
Where do they come from?
The population of Spain
Some regions are sparsely populated.
Some regions are densely populated.
Spanish population since 1900
1
9
0
0
45
Number of inhabitants in millions
1
9
1
0
1
9
2
0
1
9
3
0
1
9
4
0
1
9
5
0
1
9
6
0
1
9
7
0
1
9
8
1
1
9
9
1
2
0
0
1
2
0
0
4
40
35
30
25
20
15
10
5
0
LOOK AND READ
Content objectives: 7.
Language objectives: 3, 4, 6, 7.
Vocabulary
densely, density, immigrants, inhabitants, sparsely
Bar graph
Create a bar graph with the data
collected in the class census.
(See Student Book, page 38).
On the vertical axis write: the numbers
from zero to the maximum number of
students.
On the horizontal axis write: girls, boys.
Make two bars: one for the number of
girls (b 1), the other for the number
of boys (b 2).
43 million inhabitants / increasing /
low / distributed / older.
Senior citizens. Have a discussion in
class about the importance of senior
citizens, their contribution to society and
their needs.
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97
ESSENTIAL SCIENCE 5 Photocopiable material Richmond Publishing - Santillana Educacin, S.L.
1. Answer the questions.
1. What are urban populations?
2. What are rural populations?
3. What measures the size of a population?
4. What is a positive natural increase?
5. What is a negative natural increase?
2. Complete the sentences with the missing numbers.
1. Today the population of Spain is approximately million inhabitants.
2. In 1960 it was about million.
3. There are now about million immigrants.
4. Population density is inhabitants per square km.
A n s w e r s : 1 . t h e p e o p l e w h o l i v e i n c i t i e s . 2 . t h e p e o p l e w h o l i v e i n v i l l a g e s a n d t o w n s . 3 . a c e n s u s .
4 . w h e n m o r e p e o p l e a r e b o r n t h a n d i e . 5 . w h e n m o r e p e o p l e d i e t h a n a r e b o r n .
A n s w e r s : 1 4 3 . 2 3 0 . 3 t h r e e . 4 8 6 .
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9
8
A
c
t
i
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i
t
y

B
o
o
k
38
Worksheet 32. Date Apply your knowledge
POPULATION
1. Circle the correct word.
a. When people born in another country come to live in our country, the change
in population is due to natural increase / migration.
b. If more people are born than die, the change is due to natural increase / migration.
c. When people who live in villages move to cities, the population change is due to
natural increase / migration.
2. Explain what the population is like in your Autonomous Community.
3. Look at the photo and answer.
a. Is this a rural or urban population?
Give your reasons.
b. What means of transport do you think
there are?
Complete the sentences.
population density a census
: measures the size of a population.
: is measured by dividing the number of inhabitants
by the surface area of a place.
VOCABULARY
M. A. Man eop fro ote countr^e co to li an wor i> Madri
inceasin@ t populatio> o t communit.
M. A. Te a e houe an i i
surroune b mountain an hill.
M. A. car, taxi an train
ensu
populatio>
ensit
39
Worksheet 33. Date Read and learn
CITIES
2. Find the most important words in each paragraph.
3. Is there a relationship between the increase in population and the growth of cities?
Explain.
4. Do more people live today in villages or in cities? Why?
1. Read carefully.
The growth of cities
The first cities appeared between 6,000
and 7,000 years ago in different parts
of the world: the Middle East, India
and China. They were small settlements.
Most of the population was employed
in fishing, agriculture or livestock farming.
Today, cities have almost nothing in common
with the first settlements. They are large urban
areas with tall buildings, leisure facilities,
and varied means of transport.
Two factors have influenced the growth of cities.
One is the increase in population, thanks
to medical advances and better health and food
habits. The other is the opportunity they give
people to work and the services they provide.
This produces migration from rural areas.
M. A. Ye. We> te i a> incea i> populatio>, t nume o eop
livin@ i> cit^e also grow.
M. A. I> cit^e, cau te a mo jo opportunit^e an ervie i> cit^e
M. A. fishin@, agricultu, listoc farmin@, urba> aea, growt, migratio>
tha> i> villa@e.
8
5
7
4
1
5

_

0
0
9
2
-
0
0
9
9
.
q
x
d


2
/
1
0
/
0
6


2
0
:
3
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9
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40
Tasks
CALCULATE POPULATION DENSITY
Worksheet 34. Date
Country Population
Austria
Belgium
Denmark
Federal Republic of Germany
Finland
France
Greece
Ireland
Italy
Luxemburg
Netherlands
Poland
Portugal
Spain
Sweden
United Kingdom
8,100,000
10,200,000
5,300,000
82,000,000
5,150,000
59,000,000
10,500,000
3,740,000
57,600,000
430,000
15,750,000
38,500,000
10,000,000
43,000,000
8,850,000
59,400,000
Area (km
2
)
83,900
30,500
43,100
356,900
337,100
544,000
132,000
70,300
301,300
2,600
41,200
312,700
92,400
506,000
411,000
244,100
Population density
1. Work with a partner. Look at the data, and calculate the population density of the following
European countries:
2. Now answer these questions.
a. Which countries have a population density of less than 50 inhabitants per square kilometre?
b. Which countries have a population density of between 50 and 150 inhabitants
per square kilometre?
c. Which countries have a population density of between 150 and 400 inhabitants
per square kilometre?
96.5
334.4
122.9
229.7
15.2
108.4
79.5
53.2
191.1
165.3
382.2
123.1
108.2
84.9
21.5
243.3
Se> an Finlan
Austri, Denmar, Fran, Ge, Ielan, Polan, Portuga, an Spai>
Belgiu, Fe. Republi o German, Ital, Luembur@, Neterland,
Unie Kingdo
N
o
t
e
s
:
8
5
7
4
1
5

_

0
0
9
2
-
0
0
9
9
.
q
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2
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/
0
6


2
0
:
3
2


P

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a

9
9
100
UNIT CONTENT
Assessment criteria
Distinguishing the three economic sectors
Distinguishing between obtaining products and their transformation
Describing the activities in each economic sector in Spain
Appreciating the work people do in all economic sectors and what they provide
to society
Content objectives
1. Understanding the concept of active population
2. Identifying the various types of economic activity i.e the agricultural,
industrial and service sectors
3. Identifying the work people do in each economic sector
4. Understanding how the active population in Spain is distributed by economic sector
5. Describing the activities in the primary sector and secondary sector in Spain
6. Understanding the main types of industries
7. Describing the types of activities in the public and private service sectors in Spain
8. Understanding the importance of the transport system in Spain
9. Appreciating the importance of tourism as part of the service sector in Spain
10. Appreciating that all the jobs people do are important
Language objectives
1. Stating facts (passive forms): Natural resources are obtained are
transformed are raised.
2. Describing ability: The money enables these people People who cannot work
3. Making comparisons: less than 5%; the most important crop; the most important
industries
4. Expressing purpose: aim to make money to provide a service
The active population
The economic sectors: primary,
secondary and service sectors
The activities in the three
economic sectors
Distribution by sectors of the
active population in Spain
Distinguish crop and livestock
production from the
transformation of these
products in the agro-food
industry
Associate a dominant service
sector with a societys
prosperity
Appreciate the work people
do in all the economic sectors
Appreciate that tourism
is important for Spain
CONCEPTS PROCEDURES ATTITUDES
Contents
UNIT 11
The economy
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UNIT 0
101
RESOURCES
Resource folder
Reinforcement and extension
Reinforcement: Worksheet 11
Extension: Worksheet 11
Assessment
Assessment: Worksheet 11
Developing intelligence worksheets
Working with recent immigrants
PHOTOCOPIABLE RESOURCES SPECIAL PROGRAMMES*
Internet resources
www.richmondelt.com
www.indexnet.santillana.es
Jobs
http://www.learnenglish.org.uk/kids/archive/
theme_jobs.html
Matching games and other activities about jobs.
For students and teachers.
Agriculture in Europe and Spain
http://www.ceja.educagri.fr/en/pays/espa.htm
Agricultural and livestock production in the past and
present. For teachers and students.
Careers and jobs
http://www.kidsnewsroom.org/careers/careers.asp
Interviews by Kidsnewsroom with people in a variety
of jobs. For teachers and students.
Employment structures
http://www.geography.learnontheinternet.co.uk/
topics/empstruct.html
Employment structure and how jobs are classified with
examples of pie charts. For teachers and students.
Other resources
Richmond World Facts
Richmond Students Dictionary
Flashcards
Posters
* Not yet available in English
www.richmondelt.com
LEVEL
4
ON THE FARM ON THE FARM
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102
THE ECONOMY 41
The economy
Look at the photo.
What is this womans job?
Does she make things
or provide a service?
1. Work
Work refers to the many productive activities
which people do, usually for money. The money
enables these people, and their families, to buy
food and clothing and enjoy leisure activities.
The active population includes people
who work and receive money for their work.
It also includes unemployed people
who are looking for work.
The inactive population includes people
who cannot work, for example, some severely
disabled people. It also includes people
who work but receive no money,
for example children, retired people,
and people with family responsibilities.
Work can be in the primary, secondary
or service sectors.
2. The primary sector
Natural resources are obtained in the primary
sector. Agriculture, fishing, mining and forestry
are in the primary sector.
3. The secondary sector
Natural resources are transformed into
manufactured products in the secondary sector.
Manufacturing industries transform raw
materials into manufactured products,
such as tools and machines.
Consumer industries manufacture products
such as frozen vegetables.
4. The service sector
Transport, schools, tourism and other
businesses that provide services are in the service
sector (also called the tertiary sector).
Private services, such as cinemas,
are privately controlled.
Public services, such as public transport, are
controlled by the state or by the local government.
LOOK
READ
59
60
61
What examples of private services
and public services are there
in your town?
CONTENT AND LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT
Listening. Write the sentences on the BB. Ss listen again
to - and decide if they are true or false.
1. The active population only includes people who work.
2. The inactive population includes people who cannot work.
3. Natural resources are obtained in the secondary sector.
4. Agriculture is in the primary sector.
5. Consumer industries manufacture as tools and machines.
6. The service sector is also called the tertiary sector.
Answers: 1 F. 2 T. 3 F. 4 T. 5 F. 6 T.
Speaking In pairs Ss each think of a job. In turns they guess
each others job by asking yes/no questions. For example:
Do you work in the service sector? Do you work with people?
Do you wear a uniform? Do you work in a factory?
2
107 104
1
Vocabulary: active, consumer, inactive, manufacturing,
primary, private services, public services, secondary,
service
Special attention
Understanding the concept of service as
used in the field of economics
Difference between manufacturing and
consumer industries
Hands on
Presentation
Ask Ss to look at the photo. Ask:
What is the womans job? What does she
do in her job? Would you like to do her job?
Why/Why not?
Present with - .
Draw on the BB a chart with the title THE
ECONOMIC SECTORS. Write the following
sub-headings: Primary sector / Secondary
sector / Service sector. Under each sub-
heading write the corresponding industries:
Agriculture Mining Livestock farming
Fishing / Manufacturing industries
Consumer industries / Private services
Public services. Ask Ss to write examples
of each.
Ss answer the question at the bottom of
the page.
107 104
1-4 READ
LOOK
Jobs
Ask: What job do you want to have
when you are older? Write all the jobs
on the BB.
Ask: How many different jobs have we
written on the BB? Which job was
chosen most?
Ss classify the jobs by sectors. Ask:
Which of these jobs are in the primary
sector, secondary sector, service
sector?
Content objectives: 1, 2, 3, 6, 10.
Language objectives: 1, 2.
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103
Special attention
Understanding percentages
Collective nouns: crops, livestock, cattle,
poultry
Hands on
Presentation
Ask Ss to look at the two pictures at the
bottom of page 42 and compare them. Ask:
What is being produced? (In the first, plants,
maybe crops for food; in the second, cars)
Present , and with , ,
. Ask: Which of the following
activities are in the primary sector?
1. working in the fields. 2. fumigating
crops. 3. driving lorries. 4. packaging
shirts. 5. picking strawberries. 6. milking
cows. 7. building houses. (1, 2, 5, 6)
Ask: Name some products obtained from
livestock farming. (wool, meat, milk)
Ask: Why are industries near big cities?
(transport is easier; more workers) How
can factories manufacture many products
in a short time? (using machines)
Ss do the activity at the bottom of the page.
Activity Book, page 41. R
110
109 108
3 2 1 READ
42 THE ECONOMY
READ
The primary and secondary sectors in Spain
1. The active population
The total active population in Spain is approximately
20 million people. There are 18 million employed
people and 2 million unemployed people.
The active population can be classified
by economic sector:
Less than 5%, about one million people,
work in the primary sector.
About 30%, around 6 million people,
work in the secondary sector.
About 60%, around 12 million people,
work in the service sector.
2. The primary sector
In Spain, the principal primary sector activities
are agriculture, livestock farming and fishing.
There is agriculture on the plains.
The most important crops are:
wheat and barley
olives and grapes
potatoes, vegetables and fruit
There is livestock farming. Sheep
and poultry are raised on the plains.
Cattle are raised in mountain areas
to obtain beef, milk and leather.
Fishing is an important industry on the coast.
Other primary sector activities are mining
and forestry.
3. The secondary sector
Many industries are near big cities.
Industries often invest in new technology.
The most important industries are the metal,
chemical, food, telecommunications,
textile and car industries.
The construction industry is also very important.
There are many new houses and roads.
Complete the sentences and name three activities for each sector.
Less than %, about millon people, work in the primary sector in Spain.
About %, around million people, work in the secondary sector in Spain.
Agriculture is in the primary sector. Manufacturing industries are in the secondary sector.
62
CONTENT AND LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT
Listening. Write the following sentences on the BB.
Students copy them and try to complete them in pairs.
They then listen to to check their answers.
1. The total active population is approximately million people.
2. There are million people employed.
3. There are million people unemployed.
4. Less than %, about million people work in the primary
sector.
5. About %, around million people work in the secondary
sector.
6. About %, around million people work in the service
sector.
Answers: 1 20. 2 18. 3 2. 4 5 one. 5 30 6.
6 60 12.
108
1
Content objectives: 1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 10.
Language objectives: 1, 3, 4.
Vocabulary: active population, agriculture,
construction, fishing, forestry, industry,
livestock farming, mining
Making a pie chart
Draw a circle and divide it into three
parts.
Make each sector a different colour
and write: Primary sector (less than
5%), Secondary sector (around 30%),
Service sector (around 60%)
Ask: Which sector has the most
workers? (the service sector)
Which sector has the least workers?
(the primary sector)
M.A. 5one / 30 6
Prosperity. Prosperous countries
usually have many services, such as
hospitals, cinemas, banks, restaurants.
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104
Special attention
Identifying jobs in the service sector
Pronunciation of foreign
Hands on
Presentation
Ss look at the three photos on page 43.
Ask: Which services do the photos show?
(education, transport, tourism)
Present , and with , , .
Ss discuss transport in their area. Ask:
Are there buses, taxis, trains, motorways?
Are the roads in good condition?
Ask: What are some positive aspects of
tourism? (Examples economic benefits; it
creates jobs such as cooks, waiters, tour
guides; traditional activities, such as
basket-making, embroidery, sweet-making,
etc. continue because tourists buy these
things; our heritage, such as the
natural parks and monuments are cared
for and appreciated.)
Ss do the activities at the bottom of the
page.
Activity Book, pages 42, 43. R
113 112 111
3 2 1 READ
CONTENT AND LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT
Comprehension. Write the following sentences on the BB.
Ss decide if the sentences are true or false and then listen to
to check their answers.
1. Tourism is one of the most important service activities
in Spain.
2. Tourism provides work for many.
3. Tourism makes little money.
4. Every year thousands of foreign tourists come to Spain.
5. There are also many Spanish tourists.
6. Tourists dont visit museums.
Answers: 1 true. 2 true. 3 false. 4 false. 5 true.
6 false.
113
1
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THE ECONOMY 43
The service sector in Spain
1. The service sector
There are many activities in this sector.
In general, there are two types of objective:
In the private sector, banks, insurance companies,
the entertainment industry, restaurants and shops
aim to make money.
In the public sector, hospitals and schools aim to provide
a service. Many services are offered by the government.
2. Transport
Transport is very important for trade and tourism.
All of Spain is connected by roads,
including many motorways.
Major cities and towns are also connected by railway.
Suburban trains connect cities with the surrounding areas.
Madrid, Barcelona, Valencia and Bilbao
have underground transport systems.
There are airports in most major cities.
3. Tourism
Tourism is one of the most important service activities in Spain.
It provides work for many people and makes a lot of money.
Every year millions of foreign tourists come to Spain.
There are also many Spanish tourists.
They visit museums, and relax on beaches
or in the mountains.
Education is in the service sector.
Motorways connect large cities.
Tourism is an important industry in
Spain.
True or false? Make more sentences about the service
sector in Spain.
Banks and insurance companies are part of the service sector.
Tourism is not one of the most important service activities in Spain.
Why is it important to use public transport?
63
Content objectives: 7, 8, 9, 10.
Language objectives: 1, 3, 4
Vocabulary: airport, motorways, private sector,
public sector, railway, roads, suburban trains,
tourism, transport, underground
Nearby services
Ss use a map of the area near their
school and mark the locations of the
services offered.
Invent a code and write it on the BB.
For example: SH shop, K kiosk,
P park, Ph Pharmacy, H hospital,
ST stationery shop, S school,
F fire station
Ask: What other services do we need in
our area? Where would you put them?
M.A. Tourism provides work for many people. There are
airports in most major cities. / To reduce the amount of traffic
on the roads.
Road safety. Roads must be kept in
good condition to avoid accidents.
Examples of road maintenance services:
fix holes, pave roads, paint lines, put up
road signs
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ESSENTIAL SCIENCE 5 Photocopiable material Richmond Publishing - Santillana Educacin, S.L.
1. Write the answers to these questions.
1. What is the aim of activities in the private sector?
2. What is the aim of activities in the public sector?
3. What organisation offers many of the services in the public sector?
4. Which cities in Spain have underground transport systems?
5. Where are there airports?
A n s w e r s : 1 . t o m a k e m o n e y . 2 . t o p r o v i d e a s e r v i c e . 3 . t h e g o v e r n m e n t . 4 . M a d r i d , B a r c e l o n a , V a l e n c i a , B i l b a o .
5 . I n m o s t m a j o r c i t i e s .
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Worksheet 35. Date Apply your knowledge
WORK
1. Look at the photos and name the jobs.
2. Now classify each job in the correct economic sector. Write the number.
1. Primary sector: agriculture, livestock farming, fishing, mining, forestry
2. Secondary sector: manufacturing: metal, chemical, food, telecommunications,
textile, car, construction
3. Service sector: transport, schools, tourism, banks, entertainment, restaurants,
shops, hospitals
farmer miner
shop assistant engineer
taxi driver builder
Match and write.
service primary secondary
: sector where natural resources are obtained
: sector which provides services (transport, tourism)
: sector where natural resources are transformed into manufactured
products
VOCABULARY
A B
C D E F
fare mi>e
buile engi>e sho assistan tax^ dri
1 1
2 2 3 3
primar
ervi
econdar
42
Worksheet 36. Date Read and learn
INDUSTRY IN ANTIQUITY
1. Read carefully.
An industry from Roman times
When the Romans occupied the Iberian
Peninsula, one of the most important industries
was the production of salted fish and fish sauce.
Spains Atlantic coast was an ideal place for
these industries. There was a lot of fish, salt
extraction was easy, and the fresh water
needed to clean the fish was also available.
The fish sauce which the Romans liked most
was garum. Garum was a paste made by
mixing parts of fish, such as tuna and
anchovies, with salt and herbs. The paste
was left in the Sun until it was ready.
The garum was then transported by ship to
Rome in large, pointed bottles called amphorae.
It was very popular, and the Romans used
it in many dishes.
ROMAN SALTED-FISH INDUSTRY
a. What three characteristics did a place need for this type of industry?
b. What two products were produced?
c. How were these products transported to Rome?
2. Complete the index card.
Lot o fis, pla to @e sal an fes wae to cea> t fis.
Sale fis an fis sau.
B shi i> lar@, poine botte cale amphor.
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Worksheet 37. Date Tasks
HOW IS A PRODUCT MANUFACTURED?
1. Choose a product manufactured in your Autonomous Community. Complete the word map.
2. Tick ().
a. Where would you locate your industry?
In a densely populated area with a good communication network.
In a sparsely populated area with a poor communication network.
b. What types of transport do you need to distribute the product?
air sea land
c. What is the product used for?
For direct consumption.
As a raw material for other industries.
stages
raw materials industrial process manufactured product
from
A PRODUCT FROM MY AUTONOMOUS COMMUNITY
packaging/bottling transport
M. A.
een
liesto>
calciu
aluminiu
iro>
cla o san
mixin@
grindin@
eatin@
coolin@
pae bag railwa
truc

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UNIT CONTENT
Assessment criteria
Understanding how early men and women lived
Understanding the basic divisions and chronology of Prehistory
Understanding about the earliest inhabitants on the Iberian peninsula
Identifying the typical characteristics of the historical periods studied
Describing some artistic and cultural expressions of Roman times
Appreciating why we study the past
Content objectives
1. Understanding the main periods of Prehistory and their characteristics
2. Learning how people lived in Prehistory
3. Recognising the tribes which inhabited the Iberian peninsula in pre-Roman times: Iberians and Celts
4. Recognising the ancient civilisations which established colonies on the Iberian peninsula
in pre-Roman times: the Phoenicians, the Greeks and the Carthaginians
5. Identifying Roman ruins in Hispania.
6. Understanding the meaning of Romanisation and its principal legacies
7. Appreciating ancient ruins and paintings from the past
8. Appreciating the Roman legacy in Spain
Language objectives
1. Past tenses to talk about historical events: began; moved; made; had
2. Stating facts in the past (passive forms): were used; was inhabited; were divided
3. Describing how things were made: by hitting
4. Describing location: on the Iberian peninsula; in the east of the peninsula; on the Mediterranean coast
5. Expressing time: at first; later; for 600 years; after
Prehistory: periods, utensils,
works of art
Tribes in pre-Roman times:
Iberians and Celts
The arrival of the Phoenicians,
Greeks and Carthaginians on
the Iberian peninsula
Romanisation and its legacies
Interpret historical maps about
the cities of the Phoenicians,
Greeks and Carthaginians
Interpret maps about Roman
Hispania
Observe photographs to learn
about the past
Study ancient monuments to
learn about their significance
Ancient architecture and
clothing
Appreciate ancient ruins and
other works of art as a way of
learning about the past
Appreciate the Roman legacy
in Spain and its influence on
our life
CONCEPTS PROCEDURES ATTITUDES
Contents
UNIT 12
Prehistory and Antiquity
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RESOURCES
Resource folder
Reinforcement and extension
Reinforcement: Worksheet 12
Extension: Worksheet 12
Assessment
Assessment: Worksheet 12
Developing intelligence worksheets
Working with recent immigrants
PHOTOCOPIABLE RESOURCES SPECIAL PROGRAMMES*
Internet resources
www.richmondelt.com
www.indexnet.santillana.es
Atapuerca
http://www.atapuerca.com/
This official site contains a wealth of information about
the archaeological sites, early humans, as well as
survival games. For students and teachers.
The Stone Age
http://museums.ncl.ac.uk/flint/menu.html
The world of Late Stone Age hunter gatherers.
For students and teachers.
Primitive caves
http://www.creswell-crags.org.uk/virtuallytheiceage/
Activities/Explore/Cave.htm
Explore a primitive cave from 50,000 years ago.
Useful for students.
Other resources
Richmond World Facts
Richmond Dictionaries
Flashcards
Posters
* Not yet available in English
Roman Empire Boundaries
HI S PANI A
GALLI A
GERMANI A
I TALI A AS I A
AF RI CA
BRI TANNI A
M
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t
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a n e
a
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S
e a
A T L A N T I C
O C E A N
Baltic
S
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N o r t h
S e a
B l a c k S e a
S YRI A
J UDAEA
3
5
2
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6
14
9
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11
12
1
13
8
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The Roman Empire
Hadrians Wall baths theatre aqueduct temple Appian Way
sarcophagus
statue road sarcophagus theatre aqueduct theatre temple

Richm
ond Publishing 2006. Richm
ond Publishing is an im
print of Santillana Educacin, S.L.
1 2 3 4 5 6
8 9 10 11 12 13 14
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44 PREHISTORY AND ANTIQUITY
Prehistory and Antiquity
LOOK
How do we know
what happened
many thousands
of years ago?
READ
2. The first craftsmen
In the Palaeolithic period, craftsmen made tools
and weapons by hitting one stone against another.
In the Neolithic period, craftsmen made
polished stone tools and weapons.
They also made pots and cloth.
In the Metal Ages, craftsmen made metal tools,
weapons and jewellery.
3. The first artists
Cave paintings, for example in the Altamira Cave
in Cantabria, are magnificent works of art.
They were painted on cave walls and ceilings.
Early artists often painted animals
like bison and deer.
1. Prehistory
Prehistory is the long period before the invention
of writing. It can be divided into the Stone Age
and the Metal Ages.
The Stone Age began two and a half million
years ago. Stone tools were used.
In the early Stone Age, called the Palaeolithic
period, people moved from place to place.
They lived by hunting, fishing
and gathering wild plants.
Later, in the Neolithic period, people lived
permanently in one place. They were farmers,
had crops, learned to cultivate plants
and had domestic animals.
The Metal Ages began about seven
thousand years ago. Metal tools were used.
The wheel and the plough were invented.
The first cities were built.
64 65
66
CONTENT AND LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT
Past tense. Write the following sentences on the BB.
Ss copy them but write the verb in the past form.
They listen to before checking their answers in the textbook.
1. The Stone Age begins 2 and a half million years ago.
2. Stone tools are used.
3. In the Palaeolithic period, people move from place to place.
4. In the Neolithic period, people live permanently in one place.
5. They are farmers and have crops and domestic animals.
6. The Metal Ages begin about 7,000 years ago.
7. Metal tools are used.
8. The wheel and plough are invented.
Answers: 1. began. 2. were. 3. moved. 4. lived.
5. were had. 6. began. 7. were. 8. were.
114
1
Vocabulary: cave painting, craftsmen, Metal Ages,
Neolithic, Palaeolithic, Prehistory, Stone Age
Special attention
Understanding that the invention of writing
marked the end of Prehistory
Hands on
Presentation
Discuss the question together.
(Archaeological remains can tell us a lot
about the distant past) Ask: What do you
think the people are looking for? (bones,
pieces of ceramic, tools ...) What is in
the second photo? (a painting of a deer)
Where do you think it was painted?
(in a cave)
Present , , with , , .
Ask: How did people live in the Palaeolithic
period? (They moved from place to place.
They lived by hunting, fishing and gathering
wild plants.) How did they live in the
Neolithic period? (They lived in one place
and grew crops and kept animals.)
Activity Book, page 44, exercise 1. R
116 115 114
3 2 1 READ
LOOK
Discovering cave paintings
Ask Ss to imagine they have entered a
cave and discover some cave
paintings.
Ask: Is the cave big?
Is there water in the cave?
Where are the cave paintings?
What colours are the paintings?
What animals are represented?
What did you feel when you discovered
the paintings?
What are you going to do
about your discovery?
Content objectives: 1, 2, 7.
Language objectives: 1, 2, 3.
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Special attention
Understanding time and the historical
sequence of events
Hands on
Presentation
Write on the BB: Carthaginians,
Phoenicians, Greeks. Ask Ss to number
them according to the order of their arrival
on the Iberian Peninsula. (3, 1, 2)
Write two columns. Left column:
Phoenicians, Greeks, Carthaginians.
Right column: Ampurias, Cartagena,
Cadiz, Denia, Almuecar. Ss match each
civilisation with the cities they founded.
(Phoenicians Cadiz, Almuecar;
Greeks Denia, Ampurias;
Carthaginians Cartagena)
Tell Ss to look at the map. Ask: What
colour are the Carthaginian colonies?
(blue) Which ones are shown on the map?
(Cartagena, Ibiza)
Ss read , and with , , .
SS do the activity at the bottom of the
page.
Activity Book, pages 44, exercise 2,
and 45.
R
119 118 117
3 2 1
READ
The Iberian peninsula in pre-Roman times
1. Pre-Roman times
In pre-Roman times, the peninsula was inhabited
by Iberian and Celtic tribes. Later, Phoenicians,
Greeks and Carthaginians sailed across
the Mediterranean Sea to the peninsula,
and established colonies.
2. The Iberians and the Celts
Iberians and Celts lived together
on the Iberian peninsula.
The Iberians lived in the east and south of the
peninsula. They lived in walled settlements with
rectangular houses. The Iberians were divided into
tribes. They were herders, farmers, traders and
craftsmen. Some of their works of art, such
as the famous Lady of Elche, have been preserved.
The Celts lived in the centre and north of the
peninsula. They lived in walled settlements with
round houses. The Celts were also divided
into tribes. They were herders, farmers
and expert metalworkers.
3. Colonies
Many ancient civilisations established colonies
on the Iberian peninsula.
The Phoenicians came from Asia, and settled
on the southern coast. They founded the cities
of Cadiz and Almunecar.
The Greeks came from Greece, and settled
on the Mediterranean coast. They founded
the cities of Denia and Ampurias.
The Carthaginians came from North Africa,
and also settled on the Mediterranean coast.
They founded the city of Cartagena.
PREHISTORY AND ANTIQUITY 45
Rosas
Ampurias
Denia
Alonis
Sagunto
Akra Leuke
Baria
Mainake
Cadiz
Malaga Almunecar
Adra
Cartagena
Ibiza
A
T
L
A
N
T
I
C
O
C
E
A
N
Me d i t e r r a
n
e
a
n
S
e
a
Bay of Bi scay N
S
W E
ATLANTIC OCEAN
Canary Islands Phoenician Colonies
Greek Colonies
Carthaginian Colonies
Ancient civilisations: colonies on the coast
The Lady of Elche: an Iberian masterpiece
READ
67
68
69
Where did they live? Make sentences.
The Iberians lived in the east. The Greeks
CONTENT AND LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT
Sentence completion. Write the following vocabulary and
gapped sentences on the BB. Ss write in the missing word
and then listen to to check their answers.
tribes / metalworkers / east / round / rectangular / Celts / farmers
1. The Iberians lived in the and south of the peninsula.
2. They lived in walled settlements with houses.
3. They were divided into
4. They were herders, traders and craftsmen.
5. The lived in the centre and north of the peninsula.
6. They lived in walled settlements with houses.
7. They were herders, farmers and expert
Answers: 1. east. 2. rectangular. 3. tribes. 4. farmers. 5. Celts.
6. round. 7. metalworkers.
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Content objectives: 3, 4, 7.
Language objectives: 1, 2, 4.
Vocabulary: Carthaginians, Celts, colonies,
Greeks, Iberians, Phoenicians, pre-Roman times,
settlements
The Lady of Elche
Ask Ss to look closely at the photo.
Ask: What can you see? (the face,
headdress, necklace, clothing )
Ss make their own personal version
of the figure. Tell them they can use
crayons, paints, markers and decorate
it with sequins, rice, legumes, little bits
of paper
M.A. settled on the Mediterranean coast.
The Celts lived in the centre and north of the peninsula.
The Carthaginians settled on the Mediterranean coast.
The Lady of Elches return home. In
2006, this national treasure was returned
to the place it was discovered: Elche.
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Special attention
Understanding that Spain was part of the
Roman Empire
Hands on
Presentation
Ask: What have we inherited from the
Romans? (Latin, Roman law, bridges,
aqueducts )
Ss look at the map. Ask: How many
Roman provinces were there in Hispania?
(five) How are they represented on the
map? (in five different colours)
What Roman cities are on the map?
(Lugo, Zaragoza, Tarragona, Sagunto,
Hispalis, Merida, Lisboa)
Ss look at the photograph. Ask: What were
Roman theatres like? Where did the
audience sit? (on stone steps) How was
the seating arranged? (in a semicircle)
Where did the actors stand? (on the stage)
What can you see at the back of the
stage? (columns)
Ss read , , with , , .
Activity Book, pages 46, 47. E
122 121 120
3 2 1
READ
CONTENT AND LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT
Comprehension. Write the two halves of the following sentences
on the BB. Ss match them and write out the whole sentences.
1
Answers: 1 c. 2 e. 3 g. 4 d. 5 a. 6 h. 7 i. 8 f. 9 b.
1. More than 2000 years ago
the Romans
2. The Romans called it
3. The conquered tribes
4. Seneca was
5. Hispania was
6. The Visigoth invaders
entered the peninsula
7. Roman cities had
8. A forum was
9. Aqueducts transported
a. Roman for 600 years.
b. water to the cities.
c. conquered the Iberian
peninsula.
d. a philosopher.
e. Hispania.
f. a large public square.
g. spoke Latin.
h. from Northern Europe.
i. two main streets and
a forum.
Content objectives: 5, 6, 8.
Language objectives: 1, 2, 4, 5.
Making puzzles
Collect pictures of well-known Roman
monuments or ruins.
Glue them onto coloured card and cut
them into several pieces.
Hand out puzzles so Ss can put them
together.
46 PREHISTORY AND ANTIQUITY
1. Roman times
More than two thousand years ago, the Romans
defeated the Carthaginians and conquered
the Iberian peninsula. The peninsula became part
of the Roman Empire. The Romans called it Hispania.
At first, the conquered tribes did not participate
in Roman government. Later, they adopted Roman
customs and spoke Latin, the language
of the Romans. Many people from Hispania,
such as the philosopher Seneca,
became important figures in the Roman Empire.
The emperors Trajan and Hadrian were also from
Hispania.
Hispania was Roman for 600 years.
However, after about 400 A.D. the Roman Empire
weakened. Visigothic invaders entered
the peninsula from northern Europe.
2. Roman cities
The Romans founded many cities in their empire.
In Hispania, important Roman cities included
Tarraco (now Tarragona) and Sagunto in the east,
and Hispalis in the south.
Roman cities were modelled on Rome, the imperial
capital. They all had two main streets and a forum.
The forum was a large public square where
important events were celebrated. Roman cities
were connected by excellent stone roads.
3. Roman architecture
The Romans built many different types
of monuments.
Temples were used for religious purposes.
Theatres, amphitheatres and circuses
were used for entertainment.
Aqueducts transported water to the cities.
Public bath houses used hot water.
Roman Hispania
READ
Roman cities
Mediterranean
Sea
Sagunto
Merida Lisboa
A
T
L
A
N
T
I
C
O
C
E
A
N
Hispalis
Tarragona
Zaragoza
Lugo
GALLAETIA
TARRACONENSIS
LUSITANIA
CARTAGINENSIS
BAETICA
Bay of Biscay
ATLANTIC OCEAN
Canary Isl ands
N
S
W E
The Roman provinces of the the Iberian peninsula
The Roman theatre in Merida
Describe Roman cities and their monuments.
Roman cities were modelled on Rome.
They all had two
Are there any Roman ruins near where you live?
70
71
Vocabulary: amphitheatres, aqueducts, circuses,
forum, Hispania, Latin, public bath houses, roads,
Roman times, temples, theatres
M.A. main streets and a forum. Roman cities were
connected by stone roads. Aqueducts transported wa-
ter to the cities.
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ESSENTIAL SCIENCE 5 Photocopiable material Richmond Publishing - Santillana Educacin, S.L.
1. Reorganise the letters of each word that is spelt incorrectly.
1. In the Palaeolithic period craftsmen made OLOTS
by hitting one stone against another.
2. In the Neolithic period craftsmen made polished stone NOPEWAS
.
3. They also made SPOT .
4. They also made THOCL .
5. In the Metal Ages craftsmen made metal RELELJEWY .
2. Underline the correct word.
1. The Phoenicians came from ASIA / GREECE.
2. They settled on the EASTERN / SOUTHERN coast.
3. The Greeks settled on the SOUTHERN / MEDITERRANEAN coast.
4. They founded the city of DENIA / CADIZ.
5. The Carthaginians came from ASIA / NORTH AFRICA.
A n s w e r s : 1 . A s i a . 2 . s o u t h e r n . 3 . M e d i t e r r a n e a n . 4 . D e n i a . 5 . N o r t h A f r i c a .
A n s w e r s : 1 . t o o l s . 2 . w e a p o n s . 3 . p o t s . 4 . c l o t h . 5 . j e w e l l e r y .
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Worksheet 38. Date Apply your knowledge
PREHISTORY
1. Match and write the period.
Palaeolithic period
Neolithic period
Metal Ages
a. Craftsmen made polished stone tools, pots and cloth.
b. People used metal tools. The wheel was invented.
c. People moved from place to place. They hunted and fished.
d. People were farmers. They had domestic animals.
e. Craftsmen made metal weapons and jewelry.
f. Craftsmen made tools by hitting one stone against another.
2. Match and write Iberians or Celts.
a. They lived in the east and south of the peninsula.
b. They lived in the centre and north of the peninsula.
c. They lived in rectangular houses.
d. They lived in round houses.
e. The Lady of Elche is one of their most famous works of art.
Neolithi erio
Meta A@e
Paleolithi erio
Neolithi erio
Meta A@e
Paleolithi erio
Irian
Celt
Irian
Celt
Irian
45
Worksheet 39. Date Apply your knowledge
ANCIENT HISTORY
1. Complete the word map.
2. Circle the structures built by the Romans.
came from
settled on the
founded the city / cities of
The Phoenicians
came from
settled on the
founded the city / cities of
The Greeks
came from
settled on the
founded the city / cities of
The Carthaginians
aqueducts television studios amphitheatres
universities theme parks stone roads
airports theatres railway stations
temples circuses public bath houses
Asi Ge Nort Afric
souter> coas Medierra>ea> coas Medierra>ea> coas
Cadi Deni Carta@en
Almu>eca Ampuria
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Read and learn
ROMAN CIRCUS GAMES
Worksheet 40. Date
1. Read carefully.
Gladiators and charioteers
Circus games were the Romans most popular form of
entertainment. Games were held regularly, and lasted
for many days. The events were advertised on signs
and proclaimed throughout the city. People came from
all over the Roman Empire to watch the games. Sometimes
they slept outdoors waiting for the games to begin.
The gladiators fights and chariot races were
the most popular circus games.
Most of the gladiators were slaves, prisoners of war,
or criminals, but some were volunteers. All gladiators went
to training schools to learn special fighting techniques.
Many gladiators died in the fights. The president
of the games decided if a gladiator lived or died.
Chariot races were held in the circuses. There were
four different chariot teams which had different colours.
The chariots were pulled by four horses and driven by the
charioteer. The races were very dangerous. Chariots crashed,
and men and horses were injured and killed.
Some gladiators and chariot drivers became rich and famous.
2. Tick the correct answer.
a. Where did gladiators learn their techniques?
At home In training schools In wars
b. How many horses pulled chariots?
Two Three Four
3. Imagine you live in ancient Rome and you are going to see the circus games.
Describe your day.

M. A. I wa u earl an go to t circu earl too. I go wit m


paent an watc t chario rae. I enjo t rae lo.
47
Worksheet 41. Date Tasks
MEASURE HISTORICAL TIME
2. Order the historical events in chronological order.
711 AD: Muslims invaded the Iberian Peninsula.
753 BC (approximately): Rome was founded.
1492: Columbus expedition reached America.
1200 BC (approximately): the Phoenician
alphabet was invented.
3. Write the century these dates are in.
a. 211: b. 536: c. 1359:
4. Answer the questions.
a. What year were you born in?
b. What century were you born in?
c. What century are we in now?
1. Read carefully.
Measuring time
Dates can be expressed as BC or AD. The birth of Christ, more
than 2,000 years ago, is used to make the first big division in historical
time. Events that happened before the birth of Christ use the
letters BC (before Christ) after the date. For example,
the prehistoric paintings in the Caves of Altamira
are from the year 15,000 BC.
Events taking place after the birth of Christ
are identified with the letters AD after
the date, but most of the time we do not
use anything. For example, we could write
that the Crown of Castile was formed
in 1230 or 1230 AD. Both forms are correct.
A period of one hundred years is called a century.
The year 1492 was in the fifteenth century.
a.
b.
c.
d.
thir entur sixt entur fourent entur
T Phnicia> alpha wa inne.
Ro wa foune.
Muslim invae t Ieria> Peninsul.
Columbu eace Aeric.
M. A. 1997
tnt^et entur
tnt-firs entur
8
5
7
4
1
5

_

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1
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8
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2
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7


P

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1
1
5
116
UNIT CONTENT
Content objectives
1. Identifying the different people who invaded the
Iberian peninsula after the Roman Empire and
placing them in the correct periods of time.
2. Identifying and describing the characteristics
of the Visigothic kingdom
3. Identifying and describing the characteristics
of Al Andalus
4. Identifying the location of the Christian kingdoms
5. Learning what the Christian Reconquest was
6. Understanding the expansion of the Christian
kingdoms on the Iberian peninsula
7. Understanding events in Spain after 1492
8. Identifying the characteristics of the Spanish
Empire
9. Understanding the nature of an absolute
monarchy
10. Recognising the cultural importance
of the Golden Age
Assessment criteria
Sequencing historical events in Spain after the fall
of the Roman Empire
Describing characteristics of the Visigothic
kingdom and of Al Andalus
Identifying the Christian kingdoms on the
peninsula.
Describing characteristics of the Spanish
Empire.
Language objectives
1. Talking about the past: adopted; spoke; became
2. Making impersonal statements (past passive): were created; was formed
3. Time sequence: first, later, next, finally
4. Expressing purpose: to unify their new kingdom; to practise their religion
5. Making comparisons: their highest authority; the most important
6. Describing simultaneous events: Meanwhile,
7. Expressing contrast: in contrast; however
The invasion of Germanic
tribes: Vandals, Suevi, Visigoths
The Visigoths and Muslims:
arrival in Hispania, customs,
way of life, religion, law
The Christian kingdoms and
the Christian Reconquest:
significance, events, dates
The Catholic Monarchs
The territories of the Spanish
Empire
The Golden Age: important
artists and works of art
Putting historical events in
order: historical sequence and
simultaneous development
Identifying buildings from
different historical periods
Interpreting historical maps
Show appreciation and respect
for historic buildings and
interest in preserving them
Show interest in learning about
the past
CONCEPTS PROCEDURES ATTITUDES
Contents
UNIT 13
The Middle Ages
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UNIT 0
117
RESOURCES
Resource folder
Reinforcement and extension
Reinforcement: Worksheet 13
Extension: Worksheet 13
Assessment
Assessment: Worksheet 13
Developing intelligence worksheets
Working with recent immigrants
PHOTOCOPIABLE RESOURCES SPECIAL PROGRAMMES*
Internet resources
www.richmondelt.com
www.indexnet.santillana.es
The Middle Ages
http://www.themiddleages.net/
Middle Ages art and lifestyle, weapons, and famous
medieval people. For teachers.
Romans
http://www.brims.co.uk/romans/index.html
All about the Romans, especially in Britain.
For students and teachers.
Columbus
http://www.columbusnavigation.com/
The Columbus Navigation homepage examines many
different areas including the history, voyages and ships
of Christopher Columbus. For teachers and students.
The history of chocolate
http://www.fieldmuseum.org/Chocolate/history.html
All about chocolate. For teachers.
Other resources
Richmond World Facts
Richmond Dictionaries
Flashcards
Posters
* Not yet available in English
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118
LOOK
READ
THE MIDDLE AGES 47
The Middle Ages
Describe the invasion of the Visigoths.
First, the Visigoths Later, Finally,
Who lived in the Iberian
peninsula in the centuries
after the Roman Empire?
The Visigoths, the ...
1. The invasion of Germanic tribes
Under the Roman Empire, Hispania adopted
Roman customs and laws. Its inhabitants
spoke Latin. They became Christians.
In 409 A.D., the Vandals and other Germanic
tribes invaded Hispania.
Later, the Visigoths established a kingdom
on the Iberian peninsula.
2. The Visigoths
First, the Visigoths crossed the Pyrenees
into Hispania, and settled in the centre
of the peninsula. Toledo became their capital.
Later, they conquered the territories occupied
by other Germanic tribes, such as the Suevs.
Finally, they extended Visigothic rule
over the entire peninsula.
The Visigoths changed their language, religion
and laws to unify their new kingdom.
They adopted the Hispano-Roman culture
and converted to Christianity.
They based their laws on Roman law.
The Visigoths lived in villages.
They did not build cities like the Romans.
Instead, they used the land for agriculture,
livestock farming and pastures.
They were expert metalworkers.
The Visigothic kingdom ended
after the Muslim invasion in 711 A.D.
A Visigothic church
72
73
CONTENT AND LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT
True or False? Write the following sentences on the BB.
Ss copy them and say if they are true or false.
If they are false they re-write them correctly.
1. Under the Roman Empire the inhabitants of Hispania
spoke Latin.
2. The Visigoths crossed the sea into Hispania.
3. Madrid became their capital.
4. The Visigoths lived in villages.
5. They used the land for agriculture.
6. They were expert farmers.
Answers: 1 true. 2 false. They crossed the Pyrenees into
Hispania. 3 false. Toledo became their capital. 4 true.
5 true. 6 false. They were expert metalworkers.
1
Vocabulary: Christianity, Germanic tribes,
metalworkers, Roman law, Vandals, Visigoths
Special attention
Sequencing historical events
Hands on
Presentation
Say: Describe the church in the
photo. (Its small, made of stone, with long,
narrow windows.)
Ask: What do you know about the
Visigoths? Elicit ideas. Present and
with and .
Write on the BB: Visigoths, Romans,
Vandals. Ask Ss to number them in the
order they arrived on the Iberian peninsula.
(3, 1, 2)
Ask: What was the capital of the Visigothic
kingdom? (Toledo) Describe how they lived.
(In villages; they were farmers and
metalworkers.) How did they unify their
kingdom? (They changed their language,
religion and laws ) Why did the Visigothic
kingdom end? (The Muslims invaded and
conquered the peninsula.)
Ss do the activity at the bottom of the
page.
124 123
2 1
READ
LOOK
Looking up information
Ask: What do you know about St
Isidore of Seville? (He was a key figure
in the Visigothic period in Spain)
Write on the BB: Why was he famous?
What was his most important work?
Ask: Where can you find this
information? (encyclopaedias, history
books, Internet) Explain how to
investigate: first, look up information
and read it; then, extract the main
ideas; next, organise the ideas;
finally, write the report.
Content objectives: 1, 2.
Language objectives: 1, 3, 4.
M.A crossed the Pyrenees Later, they conquered the territories
Finally, they extended Visigothic rule
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119
Special attention
Sequencing historical events
Hands on
Presentation
Focus on the photos. Ask: What can
you see? (columns and arches) Compare
the arches: Which building has red and
white arches? (the Great Mosque of
Cordoba) Which has more elaborate
arches? (the Aljafera in Zaragoza)
Ask: Where did the Muslims come from?
(northern Africa) Present and with
and .
Ask: Where did the Muslim invasion begin
in Spain? (in the south) What was the
capital of Al Andalus? (Cordoba) What was
the highest Muslim authority called?
(caliph) Describe how the Muslims lived in
Al Andalus. (Many lived in cities and were
merchants and craftsmen.) What did the
Muslims bring to Al Andalus? (customs,
laws and religion) What types of buildings
did they build in Spain? (mosques and
palaces)
Ss read .
and Activity Book, pages 48, 49. E R
3
126
125
2 1
READ
48 THE MIDDLE AGES
1. Muslims and Christians
In 711 A.D., a small army of Muslims from northern
Africa invaded Visigothic Spain. In seven years,
they conquered most of the peninsula
and the Balearic Islands. Under the Muslims,
Hispania was called Al Andalus.
The Muslims brought their customs, laws and
religion to Al Andalus. Their highest authority
was the caliph, and their religion was Islam.
Many Muslims lived in cities, and worked
as merchants and craftsmen.
Christians continued to live in the north
of the peninsula. Their highest authority was
the king, and their religion was Christianity.
Most Christians lived in the countryside,
and were farmers.
2. Al Andalus
For almost eight hundred years, the centre
and south of the peninsula were Muslim.
The Muslims built cities, protected by walls,
on hills. They built palaces, such as the Aljaferia
in Zaragoza.They also built mosques,
such as the Great Mosque of Cordoba,
to practise their religion.
The most important Muslim city was Cordoba,
the capital of Al Andalus. The great philosopher
Averroes was born there.
3. The Christian kingdoms
After the Muslim conquest, small, independent
Christian kingdoms grew on the Cantabrian coast,
and in the Pyrenees. The first was the Kingdom
of Asturias, which later became the Kingdom of Leon.
Next, the Kingdoms of Aragon, Navarre,
and the Catalonian Counties were created.
Finally, the Kingdom of Castile was formed.
Al Andalus
READ
Independent Christian
territories
Main battles
Main Muslim
expeditions
Cordoba
Toledo
Zaragoza
Oviedo
Astorga
Merida
Battle of
Covadonga
Battle of
Roncesvalles
Battle of
Guadalete
Mediterranean
Sea
Ceuta
ATLANTIC OCEAN
Canary Isl ands
A
T
L
A
N
T
I
C
O
C
E
A
N
The Muslim conquest of the Iberian peninsula
The Aljaferia palace in Zaragoza
The Great Mosque of Cordoba
74
75
CONTENT AND LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT
Comprehension. Ss copy and complete the sentences below
with the correct word, then check by listening to .
Islam / Caliph / Africa / north / Hispania / king / seven
1. In 711 a small army of Muslims from northern invaded
Visigothic Spain.
2. In years the Muslims conquered most of the peninsula and
the Balearic Islands.
3. Under the Muslims was called Al Andalus.
4. Their highest authority was the
5. Their religion was
6. Christians continued to live in the of the peninsula.
7. Their highest authority was the
Answers: 1. Africa. 2. seven. 3. Hispania. 4. caliph. 5. Islam.
6. north. 7. king.
125
1
Content objectives: 3, 4.
Language objectives: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5.
Vocabulary: Al Andalus, caliph, Christianity,
Christian kingdoms, Christians, Islam,
mosques, Muslims, palaces
Words of Arabic origin
Ask: What do you know about Al
Andalus?
Explain that many Spanish words are
Arabic in origin. Ask if Ss know any.
Write a list on the BB: almohada
(pillow), alcalde (mayor), alcachofa
(artichoke), zanahoria (carrot), azafrn
(saffron), aduana (customs), almacn
(warehouse), alcoba (bedroom),
azulejo (glazed tile)
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120
Muslim territory
Christian territory
A
T
L
A
N
T
I
C
O
C
E
A
N
Me d i t e r r a n e a n
S e a
B a y o f B i s c a y
P
O
R
T
U
G
A
L
NAVARRE
A R A G O N
C A S T I L E
KINGDOM OF
GRANADA
ATLANTIC OCEAN
Canary Isl ands
READ
THE MIDDLE AGES 49
The Christian kingdoms
1. The Christian reconquest
Around the year 1000, Al Andalus weakened.
Finally, it broke up into small independent
kingdoms called taifas.
Meanwhile, the Christian kingdoms expanded,
and formed alliances. Their populations grew,
and their cities became prosperous.
In contrast, the taifas, weakened by their lack
of unity, lost many battles. The Christian
Reconquest was completed in 1492,
when the Catholic Monarchs conquered Granada.
2. The Christian kingdoms
Around 1230, the Christian territory
was divided into several large kingdoms.
The Kingdom of Navarre included Navarre
and part of La Rioja.
The Crown of Aragon included the Kingdom
of Aragon, Valencia and Majorca,
and the Catalonian Counties.
The Crown of Castile included the Kingdom
of Castile and the Kingdom of Leon.
Later, it included all Andalusia,
except for the Kingdom of Granada.
Portugal was an independent kingdom.
In 1479, the Catholic Monarchs, Isabella I
of Castile and Ferdinand II of Aragon, married
and united the Crowns of Castile and Aragon.
3. The Kingdom of Granada
The Kingdom of Granada was the last taifa kingdom.
Its territory included Granada, Malaga and Almeria.
It was weakened by internal disputes, and was
finally conquered by the Catholic Monarchs.
The Iberian peninsula in the fifteenth century
Burgos Cathedral was built in the Gothic style.
Gothic architecture is characterised by great height,
pointed arches and large windows.
76
CONTENT AND LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT
Comprehension. Books closed. Write the following sentences
on the BB and ask Ss to choose the correct option.
1. Al Andalus weakened around the year 100 / 1000.
2. Al Andalus broke up into small / large independent kingdoms.
3. The Muslim kingdoms were called cities / taifas.
4. The Christian kingdoms became bigger / smaller and more
prosperous.
5. The taifas were weak and lost / won many battles.
6. The Christian reconquest was started / completed in 1492.
7. The Catholic Monarchs conquered the last Muslim kingdom,
Valencia / Granada.
Answers: 1. 1000. 2. small. 3. taifas. 4. bigger. 5. lost.
6. completed. 7. Granada.
1
Vocabulary: Catholic Monarchs, Christian
Reconquest, Christian kingdoms, Gothic style,
taifas
Special attention
Sequencing historical events
Hands on
Presentation
Focus on the map. Ask: Which was
larger in the 15
th
century, the Christian or
the Muslim territories? (the Christian
territories)
Present , , with , , . Ask:
What happened around the year 1000?
(Al Andalus broke up into small
independent kingdoms, called taifas.
The Christian kingdoms expanded
and formed alliances.)
Ask: How was the Christian territory divided
around 1230? (Kingdom of Navarra, Crown
of Aragon, Crown of Castile, Portugal)
How and when was the Christian
Reconquest completed? (In 1492, when
the Catholic Monarchs conquered the
Kingdom of Granada.)
Focus on the photo of Burgos Cathedral
and talk about the characteristics of Gothic
cathedrals.
and Activity Book, pages 50-52. E R
129 128 127
3 2 1
READ
Create a stained glass window
Ask: Where can you see stained glass
windows? (in churches and cathedrals)
Ss cut rectangles out of black card.
They draw simple figures: stars,
circles, diamonds and cut them out.
They glue or tape coloured cellophane
over the holes then turn the card over
to admire their stained glass
windows.
Content objectives: 5, 6.
Language objectives: 1, 2, 3, 6, 7.
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121
Special attention
Sequencing historical events
Understanding that historical events can
occur at the same time
Hands on
Presentation
Explain to Ss that some historical
events on this page occurred at the same
time as other events on the previous page.
Ask: What happened in Spain in 1492?
(The Catholic Monarchs completed the
Christian Reconquest and unified the
kingdoms of Spain.) (Columbuss
expedition reached America.)
Focus on the map. Ask: What can you see?
(continents and oceans) On which
continents did Spain have territories?
(America, Europe, Africa, Asia and Oceania)
Ss read , and with , , and
do the activity at the bottom of the page.
132 131 130
3 2 1
READ
50 THE MIDDLE AGES
Spain after 1492
1 Spain after 1492
Columbus expedition reached America in 1492.
In the same year, Ferdinand and Isabella,
the Catholic Monarchs, unified the kingdoms
of Spain. They began the conquest of America,
and Spain became the centre of a great empire.
Their successors, Charles I and Philip II, acquired
many new possessions in the 16th century.
In the 18th century, the kings established
an absolute monarchy. In this form of government,
the monarchs actions are not controlled by law.
The local laws of the old kingdoms were abolished,
except in Navarre and the Basque Country.
2. The territories of the Spanish empire
Between the 16th and the 19th centuries, Spain
had possessions in almost every part of the world.
Spanish armies conquered the Canary Islands,
much of the Americas, the Philippines in Asia,
and several small territories in North Africa. The kingsiiiii
also inherited territories in central and southern Europe.
However, by the end of the 19th century, most
of these possessions no longer belonged to Spain.
3. Writers and artists
In the 16th and 17th centuries, Spain
produced many great works of literature and art.
This period is called the Golden Age.
In literature, Miguel de Cervantes wrote
Don Quijote de La Mancha. There were great poets,
such as Francisco de Quevedo and Luis de
Gongora. Lope de Vega and Pedro Calderon
de la Barca wrote many famous plays.
In painting, Diego Velazquez became the most
important artist of his time.
READ
Make new questions. Change the date.
What happened in 1492? What happened
in ? the 16
th
century
The Spanish Empire
PACIFIC
OCEAN
ATLANTIC
OCEAN
I N D I A N
O C E A N
PACIFIC
OCEAN
NORTH
AMERICA
SOUTH
AMERICA
AF RI CA
EUROPE
A S I A
O C E A N I A
The Spanish Empire
77
CONTENT AND LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT
Comprehension. Write the dates and events on the BB and ask
Ss to match them.
1. In 1492 a. Spain had possessions in almost
every part of the world.
2. In the 16
th
century b. the kings established an absolute
monarchy.
3. In the 18
th
century c. Columbus reached America.
4. Between the 16
th
d. was the Golden Age of Spanish
and 19
th
centuries literature and art.
5. By the end e. Charles 1 and Philip II acquired
of the 19
th
century many possessions for the empire.
6. The 16
th
and f. Spain had lost most of its empire.
17
th
centuries
Answers: 1 c. 2 e. 3 b. 4 a. 5 f. 6 d.
1
Content objectives: 7, 8, 9, 10.
Language objectives: 1, 2, 5, 7.
Vocabulary: absolute monarchy, Catholic
Monarchs, Golden Age, Spanish Empire
Las Meninas
Show Ss a copy of Las Meninas
(Maids of Honour) by Diego Velazquez.
Ask: What do you know about this
painting?
Ask: Do you think the painting is large
or small? Why? Describe the room /
the people. Who do you think they are?
Describe their clothes. What name
would you give this painting?
M.A. the 18
th
century? between the 16
th
and the 19
th
centuries?
Chocolate. Cacao seeds were brought
to Europe by Columbus. At first, it was
only used as a drink. Later, they mixed the
powder with sugar, milk and other things
to make chocolate.
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122
ESSENTIAL SCIENCE 5 Photocopiable material Richmond Publishing - Santillana Educacin, S.L.
1. Reorder the letters to make a correct word.
1. The Muslims built ASAPLEC.
2. The Muslims built SUMEOSQ.
3. They built SICETI on hills.
4. They occupied the centre and south of the peninsula for GETIH
hundred years.
5. The philosopher Averroes was born in ORCODBA.
2. Complete the sentences.
1. The Kingdom of Navarre included Navarre and part of La .
2. The Crown of Aragon included the Kingdom of Aragon, Valencia, Majorca and
the Counties.
3. The Crown of Castile included the Kingdom of Castile and the Kingdom of
. Later, it included all Andalusia, except for the
Kingdom of .
4. Portugal was an independent kingdom. In 1479, the Catholic Monarchs,
Isabella 1 of Castile and of Aragon, married and
united the Crowns of Castile and Aragon.
A n s w e r s : 1 . R i o j a . 2 . C a t a l o n i a n . 3 . L e o n , G r a n a d a . 4 . F e r d i n a n d I I .
A n s w e r s : 1 . p a l a c e s . 2 . m o s q u e s . 3 . c i t i e s . 4 . e i g h t . 5 . C o r d o b a .
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1
2
3
48
Worksheet 42. Date Apply your knowledge
BEGINNING OF THE MIDDLE AGES
1. Does the event correspond to the Christian civilisation or the Islamic civilisation?
Write Christian or Islamic.
a. They arrived on the Iberian Peninsula in 711.
b. Their religion was Islam.
c. They created kingdoms in the north of Spain.
d. They lived in the countryside.
e. They built palaces and mosques.
f. They lived in cities.
2. Name three Christian kingdoms at the beginning of the Middle Ages.
a.
b.
c.
3. What parts of a medieval castle can you see in the photo. Tick ().
battlements
courtyard
tower
water
bridge
Islami
Islami
Christia>
Christia>
Islami
Islami
Arago>
Casti
Navar

49
Worksheet 43. Date Read and learn
MOSQUES
1. Read carefully.
2. Complete the sentences.
a. Mosques are used for
b. The muezzin is responsible for
The place where Muslims pray
Muslims pray five times a day. On Fridays,
they meet in mosques for community
prayer. The muezzin is responsible for
calling Muslims to pray. He calls them
from a minaret, the mosque tower.
Inside the mosque, believers kneel and
pray towards the wall which faces in the
direction of Mecca. Mecca is the most
sacred Muslim city.
As well as being a place of prayer,
mosques are used as meeting places
and even schools. Mosques have a large
courtyard at the entrance, a prayer hall
inside, and one or more minarets,
depending on their size.
During the Middle Ages, Muslims built
many mosques on the Iberian Peninsula.
The most important one is in Cordoba,
the capital of Al-Andalus.
Circle the words related to mosques.
minaret courtyard bridge
university wall school
VOCABULARY
prae an a etin@ plae an school.
callin@ Muslim to pra.
8
5
7
4
1
5

_

0
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6
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4
A
c
t
i
v
i
t
y

B
o
o
k
50
Worksheet 44. Date Apply your knowledge
THE MIDDLE AGES
1. Complete the word map.
2. Answer.
a. Which was the last Muslim kingdom?
b. When was it conquered?
c. Who conquered it?
Match.
caliph a great philosopher
Gothic style small, independent kingdoms
Averroes the highest authority of the Muslims
taifas It is characterised by great height, pointed arches and large windows.
VOCABULARY
CHRISTIAN KINGDOMS
Kingdom of Navarre Crown of Aragon Crown of Castile
Territories included Territories included Territories included
Navar
L Rioj
Arago>, Vaenci
Majorc an
Cataloni
Castil, Leo>,
Andalusi exep
fo Granad
Granad
1492
t Catholi Monarch
51
Worksheet 45. Date Read and learn
THE INVENTION OF THE PRINTING PRESS
2. Think and answer.
After the invention of the printing press, the price of books dropped.
Why do you think this happened?
Match.
goldsmith a document written by hand
manuscript a person who copies manuscripts
scribe a person who makes things of gold
VOCABULARY
1. Read carefully.
Johann Gutenberg, inventor of the printing press
Gutenberg was born in the German city of Mainz
around the year 1400. He was trained as a goldsmith,
but he was always interested in printing,
and he experimented with printing machines.
Finally he completed his invention, and around
the year 1450, he formed a partnership with a German
merchant who lent him the money for his printing
business. He began to print his first books.
At that time, books were hand-written by scribes.
Gutenberg designed the letters of his printing press
to imitate the original manuscripts.
The Gutenberg Bible is usually considered to be
the first printed book in the Western world.
Thanks to the invention of the printing press, news
such as the discovery of America spread rapidly
throughout Europe.
M. A. Becau i wa no >eessar to wri book b han anymo.
T printin@ pes ma book mo ceapl. Usin@ scri wa exensi.
8
5
7
4
1
5

_

0
1
1
6
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0
1
2
7
.
q
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2
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2
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a

1
2
4
1
2
5
52
Worksheet 46. Date Tasks
IDENTIFY MEDIEVAL BUILDINGS
A
1. Identify the buildings in the photos as Christian or Muslim.
2. Answer the question.
What differences are there between the two buildings?
3. Choose a medieval building in your Autonomous Community.
Complete the index card.
BUILDING
Date built:
Who built it:
What it was used for in the past:
What it is used for today:
B
Christia> Musli
T Christia> buildin@ wa ue a hou an fo proectio>. I i fortes
T Musli buildin@ i ue fo prae. I ha minae.
M. A.
Manzanae e Rea Cast
etee> 1475 an 1478
t Marqui o Santillan, Inigo Lope
t famil esien
tourist ca> visi t cast. Cultura ent a
el e.
N
o
t
e
s
:
8
5
7
4
1
5

_

0
1
1
6
-
0
1
2
7
.
q
x
d


2
/
1
0
/
0
6


2
0
:
3
8


P

g
i
n
a

1
2
5
1
2
6
A
c
t
i
v
i
t
y

B
o
o
k
54
THE ROMAN PROVINCES OF THE IBERIAN PENINSULA
1. Cut out the Roman provinces.
2. Stick them on the map.
3. Write the names of Roman cities.
N
o
t
e
s
:
8
5
7
4
1
5

_

0
1
1
6
-
0
1
2
7
.
q
x
d


2
/
1
0
/
0
6


2
0
:
3
8


P

g
i
n
a

1
2
6
127
5
5
P
r
o
j
e
c
t

5
A
T
L
A
N
T
I
C

O
C
E
A
N
C
a
n
a
r
y

I
s
l
a
n
d
s
Notes:
857415 _ 0116-0127.qxd 2/10/06 20:38 Pgina 127
Essential Science, Science, Geography and History, for Year 5 of Primary Education is a collective work,
conceived, designed and created by the Primary Education department at Santillana, under the supervision
of JOS LUIS ALZU GOI, JOS TOMAS HENAO and MICHELE C. GUERRINI
Contributing authors: Cristina Zarzuelo, Jane Kilner and Lesley Thompson
English language editors: Martin Minchom, Cathy Myers, Sheila Klaiber, Nancy Konvalinka, Nikki Strutt
English language specialist: Jeannette West
Art director: Jos Crespo
Design coordinator: Rosa Marn
Design Team:
Cover: Martn Len-Barreto
Interior: Rosa Barriga
Artwork coordinator: Carlos Aguilera
Design development: Ral de Andrs, Jos Luis Garca and Javier Tejeda
Technical director: ngel Garca Encinar
Technical coordinator: Marisa Valbuena
Layout: Fernando Calonge and Miguel . Mora-Gil
Research and photographic selection: Amparo Rodrguez
Photographs: C. Jimnez; F. Ontan; GARCA-PELAYO/Juancho; I. Rovira; J. Jaime; J. Lucas;
M. G. Vicente; S. Enrquez/Our thanks to the electrical appliances shop EXPERT;
HIGHRES PRESS STOCK/AbleStock.com; I. Preysler; STOCKBYTE; MATTON-BILD;
SERIDEC PHOTOIMAGENES CD; ARCHIVO SANTILLANA
All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced, sto-
red in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any me-
ans, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise,
without the prior permission in writing of the publisher.
2006 by Santillana Educacin, S. L./Richmond Publishing
Torrelaguna, 60. 28043 Madrid
Richmond Publishing is an imprint
of Santillana Educacin, S. L.
PRINTED IN SPAIN
Printed in Spain
ISBN: 84-294-0963-7
CP: 857415
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857415 _ 0128-0128.qxd 2/10/06 20:23 Pgina 128