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AP CHEMISTRY ACID-BASE Exam

Part I Multiple Choice

Note: For all questions referring to solutions, assume that the solvent is water unless otherwise stated. Directions: Each set of lettered choices below refers to the numbered statements immediately following it. Select the one lettered choice that best fits each statement and then blacken the corresponding space on the answer sheet. A choice may be used once, more than once, or not at all in each set. Questions 1-3 (A) F (B) S 1. 2. 3. (C) Mg (D) Ar (E) Mn

Forms monatomic ions with 2 charge in solutions Forms a compound having the formula KXO4 Forms oxides that are common air pollutants and that yield acidic solution in water

Questions 47 (A) Hydrofluoric acid (D) Ammonia (B) Carbon dioxide (E) Hydrogen peroxide (C) Aluminum hydroxide 4. Is a good oxidizing agent 5. Is used to etch glass chemically 6. Is used extensively for the production of fertilizers 7. Has amphoteric properties Directions: Each of the questions or incomplete statements below is followed by five suggested answers or compilations. Select the one that is best in each case and then blacken the corresponding space on the answer sheet. 8. Which of the following is the correct equilibrium expression for the hydrolysis of CO32 ?
K = [ HCO 3 ] [ CO 3 ][ H 3 O K = [ HCO 3 ][ OH
2 [ CO 3 ]

K = ] ]

[ CO 3 ] [ CO 2 ][ OH
2

a. b.
K =

d.
K =

2
+

[ CO 3 ][ H 3 O [ HCO 3 ]

[ CO 3 ][ OH [ HCO 3 ]

e.
]

c.

9. The formula for potassium hexacyanoferrate (II) is (A) K4[Fe(CN)6] (D) K2[Pt(CN)6] (B) K3[Fe(CN)6] (E) KCN (C) K2[Pt(CN)4] 10. The net ionic equation for the reaction between silver carbonate and hydrochloric acid is
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(A) (B) (C) (D) (E)

Ag2CO3(s) + 2 H+ + 2 Cl > 2 AgCl(s) + H2O + CO2(g) 2 Ag+ + CO32 + 2 H+ + 2 Cl 2 AgCl(s) + H2O + CO2(g) CO32 + 2 H+ H2O + CO2(g) Ag+ + Cl AgCl(s) Ag2CO3(s) + 2 H+ 2 Ag+ + H2CO3

11. The pH of 0.1molar ammonia is approximately (A) 1 (C) 7 (E) 14 (B) 4 (D) 11 12. The molality of the glucose in a 1.0-molar glucose solution can be obtained by using which of the following? (A) Volume of the solution (B) Temperature of the solution (C) Solubility of glucose in water (D) Degree of dissociation of glucose (E) Density of the solution 13. MnS(s) + 2 H+ Mn2+ + H2S(g) At 25_C the solubility product constant, Ksp, for MnS in 5 x 1015 and the acid dissociation constants K1 and K2 for H2S are 1 x 107 and 1 x 1013, respectively. What is the equilibrium constant for the reaction represented by the equation above at 25_C?
110
13 15 15 5 10 20

a. b.

510

15 5 10

d. e.

1 10

20 1 10

1 10
20

5 10

15

7 1 10

c.

5 10

14. The elements in which of the following have most nearly the same atomic radius? (A) Be, B, C, N (D) C, P, Se, I (B) Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe (E) Cr, Mn, Fe, Co (C) Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba 15. What number of moles of O2 is needed to produce 14.2 grams of P4O10 from P? (Molecular weight P4O10 = 284) (A) 0.0500 mole (D) 0.250 mole (B) 0.0625 mole (E) 0.500 mole (C) 0.125 mole 16. Which of the following ions is the strongest Lewis acid? (A) Na+ (C) CH3COO (E) Al3+ (B) Cl (D) Mg2+ 17. Each of the following can act as both a Brnsted acid and a Brnsted base EXCEPT (A) HCO3 (C) NH4+ (E) HS (B) H2PO4 (D) H2O
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18. 3 Ag(s) + 4 HNO3 3 AgNO3 + NO(g) + 2 H2O The reaction of silver metal and dilute nitric acid proceeds according to the equation above. If 0.10 mole of powdered silver is added to 10. milliliters of 6.0molar nitric acid, the number of moles of NO gas that can be formed is (A) 0.015 mole (C) 0.030 mole (E) 0.090 mole (B) 0.020 mole (D) 0.045 mole 19. Which, if any, of the following species is in the greatest concentration in a 0.100molar solution of H 2SO4 in water? (A) H2SO4 molecules (C) HSO4 ions + (B) H3O ions (D) SO42 ions (E) All species are in equilibrium and therefore have the same concentrations. 20. When 70. milliliter of 3.0-molar Na2CO3 is added to 30. milliliters of 1.0-molar NaHCO3 the resulting concentration of Na+ is (A) 2.0 M (C) 4.0 M (E) 7.0 M (B) 2.4 M (D) 4.5 M 21. A student pipetted five 25.00milliliter samples of hydrochloric acid and transferred each sample to an Erlenmeyer flask, diluted it with distilled water, and added a few drops of phenolphthalein to each. Each sample was then titrated with a sodium hydroxide solution to the appearance of the first permanent faint pink color. The following results were obtained. Volumes of NaOH Solution First Sample...................35.22 mL Second Sample...............36.14 mL Third Sample..................36.13 mL Fourth Sample................36.15 mL Fifth Sample...................36.12 mL Which of the following is the most probable explanation for the variation in the students results? (A) The burette was not rinsed with NaOH solution (B) The student misread a 5 for a 6 on the burette when the first sample was titrated. (C) A different amount of water was added to the first sample. (D) The pipette was not rinsed with the HCI solution. (E) The student added too little indicator to the first sample. 22. Acid Acid Dissociation Constant, Ka H3PO4 7 x 103 H2PO4 8 x 108 2 HPO4 5 x 1013 On the basis of the information above, a buffer with a pH = 9 can best be made by using (A) pure NaH2PO4 (D) H2PO4 + HPO42 (B) H3PO4 + H2PO4 (E) HPO42 + PO43 (C) H2PO4 + PO42 23. The net ionic equation for the reaction that occurs during the titration of nitrous acid with sodium hydroxide is (A) HNO2 + Na+ + OH NaNO2 + H2O (B) HNO2 + NaOH Na+ + NO2 + H2O (C) H+ + OH H2O (D) HNO2 + H2O NO2 + H3O+ (E) HNO2 + OH NO2 + H2O
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24. A student wishes to prepare 2.00 liters of 0.100molar KIO 3 (molecular weight 214). The proper procedure is to weigh out (A) 42.8 grams of KIO3 and add 2.00 kilograms of H2O (B) 42.8 grams of KIO3 and add H2O until the final homogeneous solution has a volume of 2.00 liters (C) 21.4 grams of KIO3 and add H2O until the final homogeneous solution has a volume of 2.00 liters (D) 42.8 grams of KIO3 and add 2.00 liters of H2O (E) 21.4 grams of KIO3 and add 2.00 liters of H2O 25. A 20.0milliliter sample of 0.200molar K2CO3 solution is added to 30.0 milliliters of 0.400molar Ba(NO3)2 solution. Barium carbonate precipitates. The concentration of barium ion, Ba2+, in solution after reaction is (A) 0.150 M (C) 0.200 M (E) 0.267 M (B) 0.160 M (D) 0.240 M

26. What is the mole fraction of ethanol, C2H5OH, in an aqueous solution in which the ethanol concentration is 4.6 molal? (A) 0.0046 (C) 0.083 (E) 0.72 (B) 0.076 (D) 0.20 27. A 0.20molar solution of a weak monoprotic acid, HA, has a pH of 3.00. The ionization constant of this acid is a. 5.0 x 107 c. 5.0 x 106 e. 2.0 x 103 7 3 b. 2.0 x 10 d. 5.0 x 10 28. How many moles of NaF must be dissolved in 1.00 liter of a saturated solution of PbF 2 at 25_C to reduce the [Pb2+] to 1106 molar? (Ksp PbF2 at 25_C = 4.0 x 108) (A) 0.020 mole (C) 0.10 mole (E) 0.40 mole (B) 0.040 mole (D) 0.20 mole 29. If the acid dissociation constant, Ka, for an acid HA is 8 x 10 4 at 25_C, what percent of the acid is dissociated in a 0.50molar solution of HA at 25_C? (A) 0.08% (C) 1% (E) 4% (B) 0.2% (D) 2% 30. HgO(s) + H2O HgI42 + 2 OH Consider the equilibrium above. Which of the following changes will increase the concentration of HgI 42 ? (A) Increasing the concentration of OH (B) Adding 6 M HNO3 (C) Increasing the mass of HgO present (D) Increasing the temperature (E) Adding a catalyst 31. 5 Fe2+ MnO4 + 8 H+ 5 Fe3+ + Mn2+ + 4 H2O In a titration experiment based on the equation above, 25.0 milliliters of an acidified Fe 2+ solution requires 14.0 milliliters of standard 0.050molar MnO4 solution to reach the equivalence point. The concentration of Fe2+ in the original solution is (A) 0.0010 M (C) 0.028 M (E) 0.14 M (B) 0.0056 M (D) 0.090 M
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32. A sample of 9.00 grams of aluminum metal is added to an excess of hydrochloric acid. The volume of hydrogen gas produced at standard temperature and pressure is (A) 22.4 liters (C) 7.46 liters (E) 3.74 liters (B) 11.2 liters (D) 5.60 liters Questions 33-35 a. a solution with a pH less than 7 that is not a buffer solution b. a buffer solution with a pH between 4 and 7 c. a buffer solution with a pH between 7 and 10 d. a solution with a pH greater than 7 that is not a buffer solution e. a solution with a pH of 7 (Ionization constants: CH3COOH =1.8 x 105; NH3 =1.8 x 105; H2CO3: K1 =4 x 107; K2 =4 x 1011;) 33. A solution prepared to be initially 1 M in NaCl and 1 M in HCl. 34. A solution prepared to be initially 1 M in Na2CO3 and 1 M in CH3COONa 35. A solution prepared to be initially 0.5 M in CH3COOH and 1 M in CH3COONa Directions: Each of the questions or incomplete statements below is followed by five suggested answers or compilations. Select the one that is best in each case and then blacken the corresponding space on the answer sheet. 36. The weight of H2SO4 (molecular weight 98.1) in 50.0 milliliters of a 6.00-molar solution is a. 3.10 grams c. 29.4 grams e. 300. grams b. 12.0 grams d. 294 grams 37. The Lewis dot structure of which of the following molecules shows only one unshared pair of valence electrons? a. Cl2 c. NH3 e. H2O2 b. N2 d. CCl4 38. In the titration of a weak acid of unknown concentration with a standard solution of a strong base, a pH meter was used to follow the progress of the titration. Which of the following is true for this experiment? a. The pH is 7 at the equivalence point. b. The pH at the equivalence point depends on the indicator used. c. The graph of pH versus volume of base added rises gradually at first and then much more rapidly. d. The graph of pH versus volume of base added shows no sharp rise. e. The [H+] at the equivalence point equals the ionization constant of the acid. 39. 6 I + 2 MnO4 + 4 H2O(l) 3 I2(s) + 2 MnO2(s) + OH Which of the following statements regarding the reaction represented by the equation above is correct? a. Iodide ion is oxidized by hydroxide ion. b. MnO4 is oxidized by iodide ion. c. The oxidation number of manganese changes from +7 to +2. d. The oxidation number of manganese remains the same. e. The oxidation number of iodine changes from 1 to 0.
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40. How many milliliters of 11.6-molar HCl must be diluted to obtain 1.0 liter of 3.0-molar HCl? a. 3.9 mL c. 260 mL e. 3,900 mL b. 35 mL d. 1,000 mL 41. All of the following species can function as BrnstedLowry bases in solution EXCEPT a. H2O c. S2 e. HCO3 b. NH3 d. NH4+ 42. When phenolphthalein is used as the indicator in a titration of an HCl solution with a solution of NaOH, the indicator undergoes a color change from clear to red at the end point of the titration. This color change occurs abruptly because a. phenolphthalein is a very strong acid that is capable of rapid dissociation b. the solution being titrated undergoes a large pH change near the end point of the titration c. phenolphthalein undergoes an irreversible reaction in basic solution d. OH acts as a catalyst for the decomposition of phenolphthalein e. phenolphthalein is involved in the ratedetermining step of the reaction between H3O+ and OH 43. Appropriate laboratory procedures include which of the following? I. Rinsing a buret with distilled water just before filling it with the titrant for the first titration II. Lubricating glass tubing before inserting it into a stopper III. For accurate results, waiting until warm or hot objects have reached room temperature before weighing them a. II only d. II and III only b. I and II only e. I, II, and III c. I and III only 44. 2 K + 2 H2O 2K+ + 2 OH + H2 When 0.400 mole of potassium reacts with excess water at standard temperature and pressure as shown in the equation above, the volume of hydrogen gas produced is a. 1.12 liters c. 3.36 liters e. 6.72 liters b. 2.24 liters d. 4.48 liters 43. Which of the following does NOT behave as an electrolyte when it is dissolved in water? a. CH3OH d. HI b. K2CO3 e. Sodium acetate, CH3COONa c. NH4Br 44. The metal calcium reacts with molecular hydrogen to form a compound. All of the following statements concerning this compound are true EXCEPT: a. Its formula is CaH2. b. It is ionic. c. It is solid at room temperature. d. When added to water, it reacts to produce H2 gas. e. When added to water, it forms an acidic solution. 45. As the number of oxygen atoms increases in any series of oxygen acids, such as HXO, HXO 2, HXO3, which of the following is generally true? a. The acid strength varies unpredictably. b. The acid strength decreases only if X is a nonmetal.
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c. d. e.

The acid strength decreases only if X is a metal. The acid strength decreases whether X is a nonmetal or a metal. The acid strength increases.

ANSWER THE FOLLOWING ESSAY: The equations and constants for the dissociation of three different acids are given below. HCO3 H+ + CO32 Ka = 4.2 x 107 H2PO4 H+ + HPO42 Ka = 6.2 x 108 + 2 HSO4 H + SO4 Ka = 1.3 x 102 (a) From the systems above, identify the conjugate pair that is best for preparing a buffer with a pH of 7.2. Explain your choice. (b) Explain briefly how you would prepare the buffer solution described in (a) with the conjugate pair you have chosen. (c) If the concentrations of both the acid and the conjugate base you have chosen were doubled, how would the pH be affected? Explain how the capacity of the buffer is affected by this change in concentrations of acid and base. (d) Explain briefly how you could prepare the buffer solution in (a) if you had available the solid salt of the only one member of the conjugate pair and solution of a strong acid and a strong base.

SELECT TWO OF THE FOLLOWING PROBLEMS: 1. Methylamine CH3NH2, is a weak base that ionizes in solution as shown by the following equation. CH3NH2 + H2O _ CH3NH3+ + OH (a) At 25C the percentage ionization in a 0.160 molar solution of CH3NH2 is 4.7%. Calculate [OH], [CH3NH3+], [CH3NH2], [H3O+], and the pH of a 0.160 molar solution of CH3NH2 at 25C (b) Calculate the value for Kb, the ionization constant for CH3NH2, at 25C. (c) If 0.050 mole of crystalline lanthanum nitrate is added to 1.00 liter of a solution containing 0.20 mole of CH3NH2 and 0.20 mole of its salt CH3NH3Cl at 25C, and the solution is stirred until equilibrium is attained, will any La(OH)3 precipitate? Show the calculations that prove your answer. (The solubility constant for La(OH)3, Ksp = 1x1019 at 25C) 2. A buffer solution contains 0.40 mole of formic acid, HCOOH, and 0.60 mole of sodium formate, HCOONa, in 1.00 litre of solution. The ionization constant, Ka, of formic acid is 1.8x104. (a) Calculate the pH of this solution. (b) If 100. millilitres of this buffer solution is diluted to a volume of 1.00 litre with pure water, the pH does not change. Discuss why the pH remains constant on dilution. (c) A 5.00 millilitre sample of 1.00 molar HCl is added to 100. millilitres of the original buffer solution. Calculate the [H3O+] of the resulting solution. (d) A 800.milliliter sample of 2.00molar formic acid is mixed with 200. milliliters of 4.80 molar NaOH. Calculate the [H3O+] of the resulting solution.
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3. In an experiment to determine the molecular weight and the ionization constant for ascorbic acid (vitamin C), a student dissolved 1.3717 grams of the acid in water to make 50.00 millilitres of solution. The entire solution was titrated with a 0.2211 molar NaOH solution. The pH was monitored throughout the titration. The equivalence point was reached when 35.23 millilitres of the base has been added. Under the conditions of this experiment, ascorbic acid acts as a monoprotic acid that can be represented as HA. (a) From the information above, calculate the molecular weight of ascorbic acid. (b) When 20.00 millilitres of NaOH had been added during the titration, the pH of the solution was 4.23. Calculate the acid ionization constant for ascorbic acid. (c) Calculate the equilibrium constant for the reaction of the ascorbate ion, A, with water. (d) Calculate the pH of the solution at the equivalence point of the titration.

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