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STRUCTURED CURRICULUM LESSON PLAN Day: 091-092 Subject: World Studies Grade Level: 9

Correlations (SG,CAS,CFS): 16A ITBS/TAP: Geography Physical features of Earth Interactions of people with environment ISAT: Demonstrate knowledge of world and United States geography

Unit Focus/Foci Africa Instructional Focus/Foci Geography and culture of Africa Materials Classroom textbooks Teacher-made materials (rubric) Political map of Africa Construction paper Markers Internet Educational Strategies/Instructional Procedures Overview of Africa Africa, commonly called the Dark Continent, is shaped like a question mark. Have students give reasons why Africa was labeled the dark continent. Possible answers are: The color of the inhabitants, the impenetrable jungle and the fact that Europeans knew so little about the continent. Africa is about three times the size of the continent of Europe and straddles the equator. Approximately 4,500 miles wide and 5,000 miles long, Africa boasts of the Sahara Desert (which covers an area almost as large as the United States.) The Sahara is the largest desert in the world, making up most of North Africa and reaching from the Atlantic coast to the Red Sea. The Sahara is barren dry and unfruitful except where it is crossed by the Nile River. During the day temperatures may reach 120 F; at night, however, the temperature often falls to 50 F. Africa has many rivers but the most famous (and the longest in the world) is the Nile River. The length of the Nile is 4,187 miles, and it is composed of the White Nile, which starts in Uganda, and flows through Sudan joining the Blue Nile, which has its beginning in the Ethiopian highland.

The two rivers merge in the city of Khartoum, flowing through Egypt, emptying into the Mediterranean Sea. The Zambezi River (1,650 miles long) is South Africas most important river and is unique in that it is among the few African rivers that flow into the Indian Ocean. The Atlantic Ocean also borders Africa. Believed to be the worlds deepest lake is Lake Tanganyika (tan-gun-YEE-Kuh), which is 420 miles long, approximately 45 miles wide and 4,708 feet deep and the second largest is Lake Victoria, which is only 270 feet deep but 6,820 square miles in area. Africa is known for its vast resources. Vegetation grown there consists of cassavas, African rice, yams, bananas, plantains, wheat, corn, millet, sorghum, sugar, tea, palm oil, sisal fiber, tropical woods, salt, coffee, cocoyams, coco beans, cashews, and peanuts. Animals raised there are camels, cattle, sheep, and goats. Mineral resources are gold (70% of the worlds gold comes from South Africa), diamonds, steel, zinc, nickel, uranium, tin, bauxite, chromium, coal, cobalt, copper, iron ore, lead, limestone, manganese, platinum, timber, and petroleum (natural gas, gasoline, fuel, lubricating oils, paraffin, and asphalt.) The climates of Africa are as varied as its terrain. During the winter, the desert is extremely hot, however, it is quite cold in the summer; steppe (step) runs hot to cold in the winter and hot in the summer; savanna has a hot/wet and dry season; Mediterranean has a mild, moist winter and a warm, dry summer; tropical rain forest has a hot, rainy climate and finally, the highland has temperatures and rainfalls which vary with altitudes. Also, the physical features include high and low plateaus or hills, plains, basins, and rifts. There are over 800 ethnic groups and as many as 1,000 different languages contained within Africa such as Afrikaners (af-rih-KAH-nurs), who are descendants of Dutch, French and German settlers.) Arabs, Europeans and Asians are other groups which inhabit Africa. In Nigeria alone there are about 300 different ethic groups; in Zaire there are only 40 groups. Although dialects differ the languages can primarily be grouped into four families, which are Niger-Congo (NY-jur-KONG-go), of which Swahili is a part, Nilo-Saharan (ny-loh-suh-HARun), Afro-Asiatic (af-roh-ay-zhee-At-ik), and Khosian (KOI-san). About 100 million Africans speak Arabic, 100 million speak Swahili and 15 million speak Hausa. About half of the African population practices traditional African religions and most believe in God as the creator, in living things, and in a spirit that cannot die. Furthermore, death is viewed in a different perspective; a change in status but not the final curtain. Many believe deceased members still have a relationship with living members. Nearly 150 million Africans embrace the Islamic religion and are practicing Muslims. In Nigeria, Uganda, Lesotho, and South Africa there are 160 million Christians. African art, sculpture, and music are clearly delineated. The sculptures are ceremonial, i.e., a bird looking backward perched on top of an Ashanti staff is reminding people that they should never forget their past. African art depicts everyday life. African music is an expression of religion and there are songs which tell of peoples pasts, songs for honoring prestigious

personalities, songs for traveling hunting, gathering crops, et cetera; drums and percussions are the most frequently used instruments. Saxophones and electric guitars are also used to compliment traditional instruments; soul reggae, and Latin music can be heard interwoven into African music. Also, Africans dance for nearly every occasion including weddings, christening, rights of passage, and death. African societies also have an oral tradition of passing history down from one generation to the next. Some African societies have professional historians called griots who are trained in oral tradition. In earlier African societies, griots were entrusted by the kings to remember all of the important historical facts of the society. They also reminded kings of traditions that had to be followed. Griots believed that kings had to be taught the history of their ancestors so that the ancestors lives could serve as an example because the future springs from the past. Have students discuss what the quote means and give examples in support of their answers. Distribute a blank map of African. Using an atlas or a map of Africa found in the students text, have them label the following: Senegal River Gambia River Zaire River Zambezi River Nile River Volta River Limpopo River Niger River Red Sea Indian Ocean Mediterranean Sea Lake Chad Lake Tunyanika Lake Victoria Lake Malowi Sahara Desert Kalahari Desert Libyan Desert Atlas Mountains

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Geography of Africa Worksheet 1. Is Africa a city, village, country, nation or a continent?

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What two continents are to the north of Africa?

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Located in Africa is the largest desert in the world. What is the name of this desert?

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What river runs through the Sahara? How long is that river?

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Describe the temperatures in the Sahara.

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Name at least three animal, plant, and mineral resources found in Africa. three animal resources ______________________________________ three plant resources ______________________________________ three mineral resources ______________________________________

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What percentage of the worlds gold comes from Africa?

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Is it true that Africa has a population of 600 million plus, and that there are over 11 million miles of land there?

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How are communication, culture, rituals, and/or religious practices impacted by the fact that over 800 ethnic groups and over 1,000 languages are present in Africa? How many languages are used? (Students answers will vary as far as dialogue is concerned.) List some other ethnic groups who inhabit Africa.

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Geography of Africa Worksheet Answer Key 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Continent Europe and Asia or Eurasia Sahara Nile; 4,187 miles 120 F day/50 F night Answers vary and can be found in the narrative. 70% Yes Answers will vary as far as dialogue is concerned. Arabs, Asians, and Europeans

Have students form triads (groups with three students in each group); invite each triad to design a brochure depicting/describing Africas natural resources. Have students design brochures describing natural resources. Animal Resources Plant Resources Mineral Resources

Integration with Core Subject(s) SC: Analyze and interpret data Interpret data from charts and graphs Conservation and renewability/utilization of resources Connection(s) Enrichment: Have students pretend they are griots and have them record the history of their family, church, or some other organization. Fine Arts: Home: Remediation: Tell students to list geographic features such as those associated with Africa. Technology: Assessment Informal assessment will occur in the evaluation of student-made brochures using a teachermade rubric assessing content and creativity factors which the teacher designs. Formal assessment will occur in the grading of the map and homework essay. Homework Have students write a paragraph that explains how the geography of Africa prevented contact with outsiders and made it difficult for Africans to unite. Teacher Notes After grading the students maps, have them keep them since they will be used again in later lessons. If your classroom tests do not present the terms presented below and on the following page, please use secondary resources. The terms are listed and definitions have been provided for the new or inexperienced teachers benefit. The terms are not to be taught in isolation but are to be integrated into the lessons where appropriate. Definitions Age Grade System: A system used in Africa to develop loyalty among girls and boys born in the same year. All of these children pass through maturation and engage in celebratory ceremonies, at the same time, as they journey toward adulthood. Apartheid: Separation of races backed by a strict legal system.

Berlin Conference : Although no Africans were invited, this conference was where 14 European Nations (1884) gathered and decided to divide up Africa. Most of the continent had been partitioned off by 1914. 1884 Cameroons German Togo German Southwest Africa German Somaliland French Somaliland British 1885 East Africa German RioDe Oro Spanish Bechuanaland British 1886 East Africa British Cabinda Portuguese 1888 Gambia British 1889 Anglo-Egyptian Sudan British 1890 Eritrea Italian South Rhodesia British 1891 Northern Rhodesia British Nyasaland German 1895 Madagascar French Uganda British 1900 Rio Muni Spanish 1901 Portuguese Guinea Portuguese 1907 Swaziland Portuguese 1908 Belgian Congo Belgian 1910 Union of South Africa British 1912 Libya Italian Spanish Morocco French ******Liberia and Ethiopia remained independent****** Democratization: To become or make democratic. Desertification: The turning of semi desert land into desert and this occurs in a region referred to as Sahel, which separates the Savanna from the Sahara. Diaspora : The scattering of people which spreads beliefs, customs, and ideas to other places; also included artistic styles, food, musical traditions, proverbs, and religious beliefs, all of which contributed greatly to the improvement of other cultures. Drought: Prolonged periods whereby very little or no rainfalls at all. Economic sanctions : Imposed by the UN, member nations were requested to stop trading with Rhodesia because no nation but white-ruled South Africa recognized Rhodesias independence. Escarpments : Steep cliffs that divide the coastal plains from the plateaus.

STRUCTURED CURRICULUM LESSON PLAN Day: 093-94 Subject: World Studies Grade Level: 9

Correlations (SG,CAS,CFS): 16A;18C1 ITBS/TAP: Geography Physical features of Earth ISAT: Demonstrate knowledge of world and United States geography Interaction of people with the environment Unit Focus/Foci Africa Instructional Focus/Foci Early African Kingdoms Materials Classroom textbooks Teacher-made materials Land regions in Africa Outlined map of African Kingdoms and Trading States Examining hieroglyphics Educational Strategies/Instructional Procedures Africa has a long and glorious past of which all people can be proud. Research based upon the excavations of Louis and Mary Leakey point to the conclusion that humanity developed in Africa at the Source of the Nile River. Archeologists have found examples of each of the developmental types of man. Thus, Africa may be considered a cradle of humanity and one of the major foundations of world civilization. Before man used metal weapons they used stones to fashion utensils such as axes, picks, knifes, scrapers, and borers (a person or thing that bores holes.) The Stone Age began in Africa, Asia, and Europe about 2 million years ago and is a stage of civilization and not a period of time. The Stone Age is divided into three periods, which are delineated in Table 1:

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Table 1 Paleolithic Mesolithic (Middle Stone Age) Neolithic (New Stone Age) 1. 2. 1. 2. 2 million years ago Neanderthal man Greater food availability Use of domesticated animals and plants Villages developed Tools were invented Pottery was used Copper used for the first time Ended at the close of the ice age 13,000 B.C. After 13,000 B.C.

Between 8,000 and 6,000 B.C

Tools used during that time of the Stone Age were called Neoliths. If one should visit Salisbury, England (Stonehenge) or Carnac, France, Northern Africa, South America, or India, one will find elaborate circles or squares of enormous stones (cromlechs.) Since that time the Stone Age man has progressed from caves to huts, from huts to tents, and from tents to houses. Egypt is the oldest civilization of Africa. Egyptian civilization advanced with bureaucratic systems to rule the people, handle agricultural production and improve transportations action and trade along the Nile. Egyptians achieved success in medicine, mathematics, writing, mining, and architecture (There are 97 pyramids). All of the accomplishments of the Ancient Egyptians attest to their having a great civilization in which people attempted to live in an orderly society. Provide students with the hieroglyphic alphabet (provided at the end of the lesson.) Write the word hieroglyphic on the chalkboard and explain that this was the earliest form of writing. Review the symbols and sounds from the alphabet and have students write their own names in hieroglyphics. Ask students to send short messages to classmates and have students translate the messages. West African empires were first mentioned in Arabic writings around A.D. 772. The first empire was simply referred to as the land of gold. It later became Ghana. Ghana became extremely wealthy from its abundance of salt and gold. The King of Ghana was called the master of Gold. Tenhamenin is the only Ghanaian King of Riend. Ghanas demise came at the hand of Muslim warriors who were stronger. The two most famous rulers were Sundiata Kieta and Mansa Musa. Song hay was the last great empire of West Africa. Sonni Ali and Mohammad I Askia were two of the great kings of Song hay. In 1591 Song hay was defeated by the Moors of Morocco. The royal army of Song hay was unable to defeat the Moors because of their lack of firearms and new technology. All three empires of West Africans were wealthy because of the trade of gold and salt with Muslim traders from the Middle East. They had superior military forces and superior technology

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for that time period especially in ironwork. But most importantly, each empire had an excellent government structure and strong leadership from their kings. Ask students what events were happening in Europe between 700 A.D and 1300 A.D while African empires were flourishing. Students should be aware that feudalism or the dark ages spanned this time period and Africa was politically superior. Distribute a map of Africa and its Kingdoms to the students; have students study the maps. Ask students to identify the major cities of the western empires (Timbuktu, Gao, Walata, Djenme.) Have students identify cities in North Africa that traded with the West African empires. Ask students to explain why powerful kingdoms emerged in West Africa. Answers should include the area had water from the river. Also there were iron deposits that made it possible to make good weapons, fertile land for farming, and salt and gold for trading. Have students discuss how trade with Northern Africa and the Middle East encouraged cultural diffusion. Answers should include that the Arabs brought Islam into West Africa, they brought education, and social practices that were infused into African society. Have students write a paragraph completing both of the following statements: A. The early kingdoms of Africa developed around rivers because B. Ghana, Mali and Song hay became powerful West African kingdoms because Integration with Core Subject(s) LA: Understand explicit, factual information/identify important facts specifically stated in the Context. Connection(s)

Enrichment: Have students make a list of Egyptian inventions and explain how each is used today. Fine Arts: Have students show examples of African art, music or dance. Home: Have students bring in any African artifacts they may have at home to share with the class. Remediation: Direct students to produce a chart showing the trade resources of the ancient African kingdoms. Technology: Have students access the Internet and generate a one-page report on one of the early African kingdoms. A film or video on African traditions or cultures may be introduced to students to aid in their understanding of concepts introduced.

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Assessment Informal assessment will occur in the discussion of the trade system and the demise of the African kingdoms. Homework Have students use an encyclopedia or the Internet to write a short description of the reign of Mansa Musa, King of Mali. Teacher Notes The journals, notebooks or portfolios are useful materials for the students to document their daily learning experiences. Choose one for your students and make this a daily activity throughout the school year. http://www.pbs.org/wonders

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STRUCTURED CURRICULUM LESSON PLAN Day: 095 Subject: World Studies Grade Level: 9

Correlations (SG,CAS,CFS): 16A ITBS/TAP: Geography Physical features of Earth Interactions of people with environment ISAT: Demonstrate knowledge of world and United States geography Interaction of people with the environment Unit Focus/Foci Africa Instructional Focus/Foci Trade, kingdoms, Islam Materials Classroom textbooks Teacher-made materials Land regions in Africa Outlined map of African kingdoms and trading states World natural vegetation map Educational Strategies/Instructional Procedures Use the first 15 minutes of the class to have one student orally report on African music, one student reports on African art and one student reports on African sculpture. Record students grades. Write the following quote on the chalkboard: It can be argued that diverse societies of Africa, from kingdoms to villages can be explained by its diverse geography. Have students gather data to respond to this quote by studying the World Natural Vegetation map included at the end of this lesson. Draw attention to the fact that on the West Coast of South Africa is the Atlantic Ocean and on the east coast is the Indian Ocean; at the northern end is the Mediterranean Sea. Have students identify important African kingdoms and trading states. With teacher guidance students should be able to recognize the role traders played in the spread of Islam. Integration with Core Subject(s) LA: Understand explicit, factual information/identify important facts specifically stated in the context Connection(s)

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Enrichment: Challenge students to describe a journey a trading caravan may take through Africa. Fine Arts: Home: Encourage students to practice presenting a Renaissance Person. Remediation: Direct students to produce a chart showing the trade resources of the ancient African kingdoms. Technology: Have students access the Internet and generate a one-page report on one of the African kingdoms they located on their maps.

Assessment As an informal assessment activity students must be able to express concepts orally and in written form. Homework Homework is given at the discretion of the teacher. Teacher Notes http://www.pbs.org/wonders

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Timeline: The Atlantic Slave Trade

1502 First reported African slaves 1628 Petition of Rights 1640-1680 Intro of African Slave labor in Sugar production 1791 Haitian Revolution 1793 Black nation of Haiti established White refugees come to U.S. fleeing Santo Domingo 1794 1794 French Natl Convention U.S. Congress passes legislation emancipates slaves in prohibiting any vessel to be employed French colonies in slave trade 1795 Pickneys Treaty 1800 Established relations between U.S. U.S. enacts penalties for Americans and Spain who volunteer in slave trading between two foreign countries 1804 Republic of Haiti proclaimed 1807 British Parliament bans Atlantic Slave trade U.S. passes legislation banning slave trade 1810 British negotiate agreement for gradual abolition of slave trade 1815 British presses to abolish slave trade 1817 Great Britain & Spain sign treaty 1819 prohibiting slaves trade U.S. & Spain renew agreements in Adams-Onis Treaty U.S. Congress passes legislation against American participation in slave trade

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1820 U.S. law makes slave trading 1824 piracy, punishable by death U.S. & Great Britain negotiate treaty penalty recognizing slave trade as piracy 1825 Antelope Case 1831 Declared slave trade as a violation Large slave revolt breaks out in of law Jamaica 1833 Britain passes the Abolition of 1835 Slavery Anglo-Spanish agreement on slave trade is renewed and enforcement is tightene d. 1837 Britain invites U.S. & France to 1838 create patrol to interdict slaving Colonial assemblies introduce legislation dismantling apprenticeships. 1839 U.S. federal officers arrest vessel owners implicated as slave traders 1841 Nicolas Trist dismissed as U.S. consul in Havana

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Students Name ____________________________ Date _____________________________

Title of Movie/Video:

Copyright:

Major Characters:

Minor Characters:

Setting:

Synopsis of Movie/Video:

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STRUCTURED CURRICULUM LESSON PLAN Day: 096-097 Subject: World Studies Grade Level: 9

Correlations (SG,CAS,CFS): 16A; 16D; 18C ITBS/TAP: Interactions of people with environment Geography/Economics Economic interdependence people/nations Political interdependence people/nations ISAT: Read and interpret maps, charts, graphs, and cartoons Understand and analyze events, trends, personalities, and movements shaping history Demonstrate knowledge of social science concepts and movements shaping history Understand and analyze comparative political economic systems, particularly in the United States Demonstrate knowledge of world and United States geography Unit Focus/Foci Africa Instructional Focus/Foci African Slave Trade Materials Classroom textbooks Teacher-made materials Chalkboard or overhead projector Notebooks Journals Portfolios Video: Roots Part I Educational Strategies/Instructional Procedures Slavery was neither a new term nor a new action when Europeans began to enslave West Africans. Slavery had been a part of civilization for centuries. The ancient Egyptians, Greeks, Romans, and even West Africans themselves engaged in slavery and slave trading.

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Slavery in Ancient Africa Prior to the beginning of the European slave trade, a person might become a slave because the person was a: prisoner of war criminal debtor Slaves were protected by laws and customs. Many were allowed to: earn money own land intermarry with their captors develop skills eventually become respected members of society gain freedom after many years of faithful service Unlike the system of slavery practiced in the New World, ancient forms of slavery did not deny the humanity of the slaves, nor did it rank them inferior because of color, for slaves in ancient times came in all colors, races, and creeds. European Slave Trade The African slave trade actually began in 1442 when a Portuguese sailor named Pedro Gonzalez brought ten Africans to Prince Henry of Portugal. Portugal and other European powers were looking for a shorter route to India and the Far East, hoping to bypass the Italian city-states and Muslim-dominated trade routes by sailing along the coast of Africa. It was at this time that Portugal established trade with the west coast of Africa. After Vasco da Gamma rounded the Cape of Good Hope to India, the Portuguese eventually gained a monopoly of the coastal trade of both Eastern and Western Africa. African slaves in Portugal were granted the same rights as those of white bondspersons in Europe. Slavery under the early Europeans was mild. At its height, early Portuguese slavery required no more than about one thousand importations per year. The discovery and conquest of the New World started the modern version of slavery. Many Native Americans were enslaved and worked to death. African slaves were then imported. The person credited with the first use of slaves in the New World was Bishop Bartholomew las Casas. Slavery was them transformed from a minor element in African-European commerce to the basis of its very existence. The European slave trade in the New World allowed slave traders to make fortunes in the trade of human flesh. Africans themselves took part in the slave trade in order to obtain firearms and European goods. Even those African rulers who did not agree or want to support slave trade

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were forced to participate in order to remain on the throne and keep their subjects from becoming captives. Slave raids were carried on by various communities as far as 300 miles inland. Thus, the Africans were manipulated by the Europeans to engage in the selling of their countrymen in order to save themselves from a similar fate. Portugal held the monopoly on slave trade only for a short period. Other nations ultimately vied for control. Spain, the Netherlands, and eventually England took control of the slave trade. European profits from the trade were enormous. The profit on a round trip voyage ranged anywhere from 50 to 100 percent. The slavery business was so profitable that by the 1780s merchants that also included Americans were transporting approximately 150,000 Africans a year to the New World. The triangular trade is another term for slave trade. Sugar and molasses from the West Indies were sent to New England where they were made into rum. The rum was then sent to Africa and bartered for slaves. The last part of the trade was known as the Middle Passage. New World Voyage Before slaves were brought to the New World via the Middle Passage, slave raiders would attack villages or simply steal unsuspecting Africans who could bring a good price. All of the captives were marched to the slave markets on the west coast of Africa. Here they were sold to agents who in turn sold them to captains of slave ships. The Africans were held in fortresses until the captains were able to secure a full shipload. Two such fortresses were Goree Island (on the coast of Senegal) and Elmina Castle (on the coast of Ghana). Both structures are still standing today. There were two schools of thought on the slavery vessels. The tight packers crammed in slaves in the hope of getting as many to the New World alive as possible. The loose packers put their faith in the fact that the fewer slaves one carried, the better the conditions, and therefore one could expect to get a greater number to the New World alive. However, many captains thought that the conditions of slaves crossing the Atlantic on any ship, whether loosely or tightly packed, were deplorable and inhumane. Slaves were bunched together in the hull of the ship in spaces that were large enough only to allow them to lie prone. They were forced to wear chains and stay below deck the majority of the trip which took from 40 to 60 days to complete. Schools of sharks followed the ships, waiting for dead slaves to be thrown overboard or for some slave to simply end the misery by jumping off the ship. It is estimated that fifty million Africans were victims of the slave trade but that only fifteen million actually reached the New World. The others failed to survive the slave raids and the Middle Passage. For those that survived transport, the suffering had just begun.

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Impact of Slave Trade The impact of slave trade on Africa is incalculable. Slave trade: disrupted the political and economic systems of Africa fostered warfare among African tribes disrupted African social patterns separated families destroyed cultural traditions was brutal and inhumane stripped Africans of individual worth and dignity

After explaining the information about the slave trade, have students view the video Roots, Part I. Have students pay special attention to the impacts of slavery on Africa given in the notes and find examples of these impacts in the movie and list them. At the completion of the movie, students should be asked to discuss in an essay the impact of slavery on Africa as portrayed in the movie. Reproduce the timeline: Atlanta Slave Trade and discuss how Great Britain, the United States and Spain treated the slave trade. Integration with Core Subject(s) LA: Critical thinking skills Connection(s) Enrichment: Have students do further research on the Middle Passage. Fine Arts: Ask students to create a drawing depicting slaves being captured in Africa. Home: Remediation: Technology: Assessment Informal assessment will occur in the discussion of African slave trade. Formal assessment will occur in the grading of the homework essay. Homework

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Have students write an essay based upon the movie Roots, Part I entitled The Negative Impact of Slavery on African Culture and Institutions. Tell students that examples from the movie to support their essays must be presented in the essay. Teacher Notes The teacher may access the Internet to generate more information on Chinua Achebe. http://www.cocc.edu/cagatucci/classes/hum211/studwrtg.htm Things Fall Apart by Chinua Achebe http://www.emory.edu/ENGLISH/Bahri/Ngugi.html

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STRUCTURED CURRICULUM LESSON PLAN Day: 098 Subject: World Studies Grade Level: 9

Correlations (SG,CAS,CFS): 16A; 16D; 17A ITBS/TAP: Geography/Political Science Physical features of Earth Interactions of people with environment Economic interdependence people/nations Political interdependence people/nations ISAT: Read and interpret maps, charts, graphs, and cartoons Demonstrate knowledge of world and United States geography

Unit Focus/Foci Africa Instructional Focus/Foci Geography of Africa: partitioning of Africa by European powers Materials Classroom textbooks Teacher-made materials Chalkboard or overhead projector Maps/globes Notebooks Journals Portfolios Copies of The White Mans Burden, The Black Mans Burden Educational Strategies/Instructional Procedures Introduce imperialism by referring to the Industrial Revolution. Reinforce the fact that this event facilitated the need of nations to acquire raw materials for their new industries. Explain that Imperialism is the quest for colonial empires that occurred between 1870 and 1915. Imperialism facilitates the control of one country over the political economic/and or cultural life of another country or region.

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Write on the chalkboard or use the overhead projector to form the following blank column headings, Economic, Social, Political: Economic Raw materials Increase land holidays Make money exporting African products Invest capital Social 1. Spread Christianity 2. Bring the superior European culture to the Africans Political 1. To establish colonies under European rule

1. 2. 3. 4.

Ask students to list motives that led to the onset of imperialism in the appropriate boxes. Explain to the students that on February 26, 1885, the Europeans decided at the Berlin Conference how Africa was to be divided. This began the scramble for Africa. However, no Africans were invited to attend this conference. The treaty signed by the European countries included: 1. 2. 3. 4. European countries were free to colonize any area of Africa Each nation had to notify others when occupying new areas of Africa Treaties with African Kings were accepted as valid titles to African territories European countries were supposed to: a) protect Africans in their moral and material being b) suppress slavery and the slave trade c) educate the nations

Distribute a blank map of Africa with political divisions. Instruct students to label the presentday countries of Africa using the map in their textbooks or the classroom atlas. Consult any map that shows the partitions of Africa and shows what European power had control over the presentday nations by labeling them as follows: B- Belgium, Bri- British, F- French, G- German, I Italian, S- Spain, P Portuguese. Integration with Core Subject(s) Critical thinking skills Connection(s) Enrichment: Have students research the role of Christianity in the partitions of Africa. Fine Arts: Home: Remediation: Students who need support in reading and completing maps should be given help by their peers who have mastered this skill. Technology: Have students access the Internet and generate a two-page report on Livingstone, Stanley, or Rhodes and submit the paper for extra credit.

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Assessment A formal assessment will occur upon the completion of the map exercise measuring the ability of the students to read and analyze maps. Homework Have students read the White Mans Burden and the Blackmans Burden. Teacher Notes Maps of present-day Africa and the partitions of Africa can be found in any general updated World History text. The White Mans Burden, by Rudyard Kipling, McClures Magazine Feb. 1899 The White Mans Burden, Detroit Journal, Feb. 1899 (cartoon) Lightening the White Mans Burden, Pears Soap advertisement, McClures Magazine, Oct. 1899 What is the White Mans Burden? By David Greene Haskins, Jr. (poem) Take Up the White Mans Burden, and Read His Old Reward, Life, March 16, 1899 (cartoon) Opinions on The White Mans Burden, by William Dean Howells, New York Sun, April 30, 1899 (interview) The White Mans Burden, by Frank Beard, The Rams Horn (Chicago). 1899 (cartoon) Weve Taken Up the White Mans Burden, New York World, July, 1899 (poem) By Whose Command? By E.C. Tompkins, Save the Republic, 1899 (poem) Cling to the White Mans Burden, by Virginia M. Butterfield, The Public Age, 1899 (poem) Taking Up the First Installment of the White Mans Burden, St. Paul Pioneer Press, 1900 (cartoon) http://www.boondocksnet.com/kipling/index.html http://www.geocities.com/athens/aegean/1457/

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STRUCTURED CURRICULUM LESSON PLAN Day: 099-100 Subject: World Studies Grade Level: 9

Correlations (SG,CAS,CFS): 18A; 18D ITBS/TAP: Geography/Economics Physical features of Earth Interactions of people with environment Economic interdependence of people/nations Political interdependence of people/nations ISAT: Understand and analyze events, trends, personalities, and movements shaping history Distinguish fact from opinion and relevant from irrelevant information

Unit Focus/Foci Africa Instructional Focus/Foci Social implications of imperialism: The White Mans Burden Materials Classroom textbooks Teacher-made materials Copies of The White Mans Burden, The Black Mans Burden Educational Strategies/Instructional Procedures Analyzing the work by Kipling, ask the students the general meaning of the poem. Ask students how they view Kiplings motive for writing the poem. After students have given their responses, have them analyze these specific passages: Stanza 1, line 8, Half devil and half child Stanza 2, line 7, 8 to seek anothers profit and work anothers gain Stanza 3, lines 2, 3, 4 the savage wars of peace, fill full the mouth of famine, and bid the sickness cease Contrasting Kipling, have students analyze the meaning of The Black Mans Burden. Have the students analyze these specific passages: Stanza 1, line 4 they need the sweat of the black mans brow for the white mans dividend Stanza 2, line 3, 4 wherever the red gold glitters, wherever the diamond shines, Go forth upon compulsion, and labor in the mines Stanza 3, line 4 when the long grey mother calls for toil, and the Lord has made it cheap

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After completing the analyzation exercise, instruct students to write a paragraph describing in their own words, The White Mans Burden and a paragraph describing The Black Mans Burden. Integration with Core Subject(s) LA: Critical thinking and writing skills, analyzation skills Connection(s) Enrichment: Ask students to write a poem in answer to Kiplings The White Mans Burden. Fine Arts: Home: Remediation: Create groups of students of varied abilities and have them discuss the two poems. Technology: Assessment Formal assessment will occur on the short essays measuring the students understanding of The White Mans Burden and The Black Mans Burden in imperialism. Homework Have students use an encyclopedia, textbook or the Internet to research the significance of the following people to African imperialism and write a short descriptive paragraph of each to be submitted for a grade. David Livingstone Henry M. Stanley Cecil Rhodes King Leopold of Belgium Teacher Notes Make sure you have enough copies of both selections.

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The White Mans Burden By Rudyard Kipling Take up the White Mans burden Send forth the best ye breed Go, bind your sons to exile To serve your captives need; To wair, in heavy harness, On fluttered folk and wild Your new-caught sullen peoples, Half devil and half child. Take up the White Mans burden In patience to abide, To veil the threat of terror And check the show of pride; By open speech and simple, An hundred times made plain, To seek anothers profit And work anothers gain. Take up the White Mans burden The savage wars of peace Fill full the mouth of Famine, And bid the sickness cease: And when your goal is nearest (The end for others sought) Watch sloth and heathen folly Bring all your hope to nought. Take up the White Mans burden No iron rule of kings, But toil of serf and sweeper The tale of common things. The ports ye shall not enter, The roads ye shall not tread, Go, make them with your living And mark them with your dead. Vocabulary Wair: Scottish for war. Famine: a widespread and serious shortage, especially of food. Folly: a foolish or senseless act, idea Nought: zero or nothing

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Take up the White Mans burden. And reap his old reward-The blame of those ye better The hate of the those ye guardThe cry of hosts ye humour (Ah, slowly!) toward the light:-Why brought ye us from bondage, Our loved Egyptian night? Take up the White Mans Burden Ye dare not stoop to less-Nor call too loud on Freedom To cloak your weariness. By all ye will or whisper, By all ye leave or do, The silent sullen peoples Shall weigh your God and you. Take up the White Mans burden! Have done with childish daus-The lightly proffered laurel. The easy ungrudged praise: Comes now, to search your manhood. Through all the thankless years, Cold, edged with dear-brought wisdom, The judgment of your peers. Vocabulary: Sullen: resentfully silent or angry. Laurel: to be content with what one has already achieved. Ungrudged: being without envy or reluctance.

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The White Man's Burden And its Critics The teacher shares the following information with students: The White Man's Burden, according to McClure's Magazine, February, 1899 was penned during a period of serious debate about imperialism and its place in the United States. Seemingly, this person mixed warnings with exhortation; out of this developed the phrase " white man's burden" which is a euphemism for imperialism. The impact by the poem had longlasting effects. Mark Twain reportedly stated: " The White Man's Burden has been sung, who will sing the brown man's?" By 1903 the poem was also used to criticize how the United States acquired the Panama Canal Zone. Reviewing the motives for imperialism , explain to the students that in Africa the religious motive, though not the guiding or primary motive of the imperialists, was used to open Africa to imperialism by sending missionaries who attempted to undermine the culture of Africans to precede the imperialist governments. The teacher will introduce and explain the significance of the following to African imperialism: David Livingstone Henry M. Stanley Berlin Conference Cecil Rhodes King Leopold of Belgium

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The Black Mans Burden By the London Speaker Take up the black mans burden! Child of an alien blood, Drawer of Albus water and hewr of Albus wood, From the shores of the blue Zambesi to the foam of the further end They need the sweat of the black mans brow for the white mans dividend. By the dread of the Yellow Peril, by the slang of the Seventh Sea. By the godly cant and the royal rant of the race that set you free, Wherever the red gold glitters, wherever the diamond shines, Go forth, upon compulsion, and labour in the mines. The winds of the West have heard it, the stars of the South replied. When the Lords of the Outer Marches went forth on a fruitless ride, That the son of the swarthy Kaffir must wake from an idle sleep When the lone grey Mother calls for toil, and the Lord has made it cheap. Foster-sons of the Empire, wards of the baked Karoo, This is the law of the Mother makes and her sword shall prove it true: Wherever the red gold glitters, wherever the diamond shines. Take up the black mans burden and labour in the mines.

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STRUCTURED CURRICULUM LESSON PLAN Day: 101 Subject: World Studies Grade Level: 9

Correlations (SG,CAS,CFS): 17A1 ITBS/TAP: Geography Physical features of Earth Interactions of people with environment ISAT: Demonstrate an understanding of important historical events Demonstrate knowledge of geography interactions of people with environment Unit Focus/Foci Africa Instructional Focus/Foci Imperialism and literature: Things Fall Apart Materials Classroom textbooks Teacher-made test Chalkboard Educational Strategies/Instructional Procedures Have students read selections from Things Fall Apart provided in this lesson. After completing the reading of each excerpt and generating class discussion, summarize the work of Achebe by stating that the Igbo village Umuofia fell apart because: 1. the villages spirituality disintegrated because of the Christian Mission 2. the mission was the channel by which a new government enmeshed itself into Umuofia and challenged customs and laws that held the villages together. Lead students into a discussion concerning Christianity versus the traditional African religions. Students should be able to see that Christianity negated the traditions and beliefs of the African religions. Instruct students to write their interpretations of the title Things Fall Apart from their reading of the excerpt.

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Integration with Core Subject(s) LA: Reading, listening and critical thinking skills Understand explicit, factual information/identify important facts specifically stated in the context Connection(s) Enrichment: Have students read Things Fall Apart. Fine Arts: Home: Remediation: Technology: Have students use the Internet to research the culture of Africans before the onset of imperialism. Assessment The teacher may choose an informal assessment activity that will occur during the class discussion. Homework Instruct students to find sources on African religions and compare the beliefs of the African religion to Christianity. Teacher Notes The teacher may access the Internet to generate more information on Chinua Achebe. http://www.cocc.edu/cagatucci/classes/hum211/studwrtg.htm Imperialism The Fine Art of Conquering the World http://www.smplanet.com/imperialism/toc.html William Jennings Bryan: The Paralyzing Influence of Imperialism http://www/mtholyoke.edu/acad/intrel/bryan.htm

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Overview of Albert Chinualumogu Achebe Albert Chinualumogu Achebe was born on November 16, 1930, in Ogibi, Nigeria to Isaiah Okafo and Janet N. Achebe. He attended University College in Ibodan (1948-1953) and matriculated at London University, where in 1953 he received a Bachelor of Arts degree in Broadcasting at the British Broadcasting Corporation in London, England. Chinua Achebe was one of the founders of a new literature, which drew from traditional literature and orature as well as from present day works. Since that time critics have labeled him one of the finest Nigerian novelist universally. Many African writers had to struggle for acceptance within the ranks of the English-language novelists, however, this was not the case with Achebe because he had a unique ability of avoiding intimidating the English literature trends. There was a European notion that art in its purest form need not justify itself to anyone nor be accountable to anyone. Achebe, in his book of essays entitled Morning Yet on Creation Day, stayed with the African tradition which embraced the theory that myths and stories were created for a human purpose and that art is, and always was, at the service of man. Therefore, according to Achebe, Any good story, any good novel, should have a message and a purpose. Achebe has been credited with being the first Nigerian writer to successfully make a European art form transmutable into African literature. In Achebes work entitled Things Fall Apart, the title was taken from a well-known poem by an Irish poet named William Butler Yeats: Things fall apart; the center cannot hold; Mere anarchy is loose upon the world, The blood-dimmed tide is loosed, and everywhere The ceremony of innocence is drowned Ironically Yeats describes the chaos he believes would occur in the year 2000. Although Achebe describes the African societal breakdown brought about by 19th century colonialism, he keeps his literature in the vein of Ibo traditions before the arrival of the white man.

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Things Fall Apart By Chinua Achebe (1959) The setting for this story takes place in Nigeria sometime during the 1800s. A great wrestler named Okonkwo becomes an elder of his clan. His father was of the lower echelon of society and was constantly in debt because of his low life existence. It is believed that because of the way his father was, and the behaviors he exhibited there was a negative influence on Okonkwo, who would not allow his immediate family to disrespect him, therefore, he beat his wife and children often. A man from an adjacent village killed a young virgin and a small boy. The village from which the man originated sent a virgin and a little boy as replacements so that there would not be a war; the two children resided in Okonkwos house and he became quite fond of them. As time goes by there is a decree that the boy must die; this is handed down by the local oracle. One night soon thereafter the boy was taken on a hunting trip late at night by some clansmen and Okonkwo; the boy never returned to the village after that. Next, Okonkwos rifle goes off accidentally while there is a clan festival and he kills a clan member. In retribution the village banishes Okonkwo and his family from the village for seven years; they now reside in his mothers village. During their seven-year hiatus the white man comes to Okonkwos village. It is a misnomer to believe that upon the arrival of the white man everything became wonderful. According to the white man Okonkwos people had been worshipping the wrong Gods. Consequently, the villagers were introduced to a strange new religion. This new religion was called Christianity; at first only the lowlifes embraced the religion and the clan didnt mind losing those unsavory elements. Eventually the elders also became attracted to the new religion and this action did not sit well with the villagers. After the church was destroyed and then rebuilt Okonkwo and other clan leadership requested an audience with the colonial Governor and demanded that the church be removed entirely. Angered at this suggestion the Governor jails them in order to show them who the new boss really is. The moral of this story is: The coming of the white man does not inevitably bring freedom, happiness or peace to everyone. Sometimes people are doing quite well on their own and should be left to their own devices.

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Another novelist and playwright with whom we should familiarize ourselves is Ngugi Wa Thiongo (born in 1938 and educated in England), a Kenyan writer who descended from the Gikuyu and is a prolific writer who believes that language and culture cannot be separated. His theory is that English in Africa is a cultural bomb which erases memories of history and cultural. His primary goal is to preserve individual groups. Most notably are his works concerning Kenyan independence. Among his writings are the following publications: Weep Not, Child (1964), The River Between (1965), Petals of Blood (1977), I Will Marry When I Want (1977), Decolonising the Mind (1986), A grain of Wheat, Detained, Homecoming, and Secret Lives, Devil on the Cross, and Matagari. His plays are The Black Hermit and Trial of Dedan Kiathi.

Okonkwos Story Since it is difficult to empathize with a whole people, Achebe tells the story from the vantage point of a single character, Okonkwo. This man, known as Roaring Flame, is an imposing figure: He was tall and huge, and his bushy eyebrows and wide nose gave him a very severe look. Years before the events of the book, he became famous by winning a legendary wrestling match. As the book opens, Okonkwo is a wealthy and respected man. Like the protagonist of a Greek tragedy, however, Okonkwo carries within himself the seeds of his own destruction. Although he dominates those around him, ruling his household with a heavy hand, he is secretly plagued by fear, the fear of failure and of weakness. He is desperate to prove that he is better than his father, Unoka. A drunkard and debtor, Unoka was unable to care for his family. He dragged around the village mournfully, except when he was drinking or playing on his flute. Okonkwo, therefore, strives to be everything his father was not: strong, manly, prosperous, respected. Naturally, he wants his own son, Nwoye, to follow in his footsteps. Ironically, however, Nwoye is in some ways more like his grandfather Unoka: Nwoye knew that it was right to be masculine and to be violent, but somehow he still preferred the stories that his mother used to tell This difference in temperament leads to serious conflicts between Okonkwo and his son. In ordinary circumstances , Okonkwos hidden fears and brooding anger might not have led him to a tragic end. He has the misfortune, however, of living in extraordinary times. Okonkwo witnesses the coming of Europeans, an event that calls into question all the deepest assumptions of Ibo culture. Being an angry, inflexible man, Okonkwo cannot survive this encounter between different ways of life.

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Achebes Magic In one scene from this novel a swarm of locusts descends on an African village: And then appeared on the horizon a slowly-moving mass like a boundless sheet of clouds drifting towards Umuofia. Soon it covered half the sky, and the solid mass was now broken by tiny eyes of light shining stardust. It was a tremendous sight, full of power and beauty. At night the villagers go out and gather locusts, whose wings are weighed down with dew. Regarded as a great delicacy, these rarely appearing insects are dried in the sun and then eaten with solid palm oil.

Taken out of context, this feasting on locusts may seem alien, even repugnant, to American readers. By the time they reach this episode of the novel, however, they will probably be thinking more like Ibo tribe members than like Americans. Achebes feat of magic is to initiate readers into African village life. They become so familiar with the rhythms and rituals of Umuofia that the great wrestling match and the Feast of the New Yam convey the same excitement as the World Series and Thanksgiving.

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STRUCTURED CURRICULUM LESSON PLAN Day: 102 Subject: World Studies Grade Level: 9

Correlations (SG,CAS,CFS): 14C1 ITBS/TAP: Geography Physical features of Earth ISAT: Read and interpret maps, charts, graphs, and cartoons Understand and analyze movements shaping history Interactions of people with environment Unit Focus/Foci Africa Instructional Focus/Foci African resistance towards imperialism Materials Classroom textbooks Teacher-made materials Educational Strategies/Instructional Procedures Overview of Shaka and Menelik II It is a well known fact that the continent of Africa produced many well known Africa kings and queens, as well as emperors, et cetera; among those were Shaka and Menelik II. Shaka, born in 1787, was a Zulu Chieftain whose life was tumultuous. His wife's name was Nandi and her ferocious temper got them expelled from the royal court; this act humiliated Shaka. Later, his bravery allowed him to rise in Dingiswayo's army. Shaka, however, had determined that he would rule all of Africa. Becoming very well organized enabled Shaka to conquer chiefdoms and add the territories to his ever-growing kingdom. Vigorous training was a necessity and military towns were established. The rule of the day included perfection and discipline. While soldiers were enlisted they had to remain celibate and if this rule was violated they were put to death. Furthermore, if any soldier exhibited fear he was killed. Shaka devised complicated battle formations which confused and outflanked his enemies in battle. Since he considered the Zulus method of warriors throwing down there spears and

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retreating cowardly, he himself designed a short handled stabbing spear called an " assegai" which allowed his men to stand behind shields and get closer to their enemies; this tactic was advantageous in battle. Under Shaka's tutelage many tribes in the South African region were unified and this action directly prevented Europe from dominating Africa during Shaka's lifetime. Unfortunately, at age 42 Shaka's own brother violently stabbed him to death and threw his body to the vultures (a large scavenging bird of prey.) A second noteworthy African was Menelik II (1884-1913) who was emperor of Ethiopia from 1889 until 1909. Under his leadership semi-independent countries were transferred into the kingdom of Shoa, where he ruled in Ethiopia. Most notably, he helped crush the slave trade. Menelik II ruled from 1865 to 1896 and during that time he followed no central government; he was a ruler unto himself. He was addressed by several titles, King of Shoa and the Gallas, and also as Emperor of Ethiopia. His reign ended in December, 1913. He really wanted to gain control so that eventually he would have supreme power as well as the imperial crown. Share the following background information with students by either reading aloud or writing on the chalkboard: There was a general belief that Westerners were superior to other people. Many Europeans looked down on traditional African culture and believed that Africans were backward and uncivilized. Some believed Africans lived in hovels while whites lived in mansions. Traditionally, Africans couldnt go to restaurants, movies house, stores, et cetera. If Africans traveled on a boat it was on the lowest level. Now students will describe in writing, using their notebooks or journals, how Africans resisted European imperialism. Students may consult their textbooks or notes. (Allow about ten minutes for this activity.) After the students have completed the above mentioned assignment the teacher may share the following information: Africans did not just sit idly by and accept colonial rule. King Leopold established a Congo Free State. Many people became diseased and died; others were imprisoned or tortured to death. Approximately half (1.6 million) of the people died. Nationalism came into existence; educated young Africans catapulted their countrymen forward and became less enslaved. Most recently Africans won the right to vote in a democratic process. The newspapers showed places where thousands of Africans stood in excruciatingly long lines to exercise their right to vote. Students will use a constructed response format and write an answer to the following statement: Tell what modern weapons and/ or techniques helped the Europeans prevail over the African nations.

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Integration with Core Subject(s) LA: Identify common themes and main idea Identify important facts specifically stated in the text

Connection(s) Enrichment: Fine Arts: Home: Encourage students to discover if someone in their family has information about the struggle for Equal Rights in South Africa. Remediation: Technology: Have students access the Internet and generate a one-page report on how Ethiopia preserved its independence. Assessment As an informal assessment activity, have students give reasons why Ethiopia preserved its independence. Homework Have students write a short biography of Shaka or Menelik II. Teacher Notes Students will practice essay-writing and test-taking skills using an instrument created by the teacher. Involve students in the integration of other core subjects such as language arts, math, and science.

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STRUCTURED CURRICULUM LESSON PLAN Day: 103-104 Subject: World Studies Grade Level: 9

Correlations (SG,CAS,CFS): 16A; 16B; 16C; 16D; 18A; 18C ITBS/TAP: Economics/Political Science Role of government in the economy Economic interdependence people/nations Political interdependence people/nations ISAT: Understand and analyze events, trends, personalities, and movements shaping history Demonstrate knowledge of social concepts and movements shaping history Unit Focus/Foci Africa Instructional Focus/Foci Imperialism in Africa: social, economic, and political consequences Materials Classroom textbooks Teacher-made materials Chalkboard or overhead projector Educational Strategies/Instructional Procedures Using discussions, and note taking, analyze the social, economic, and political consequences of imperialism on Africa and Africans. Stress the fact that socially the Europeans attempted to rid Africans of their culture and coerce them to accept the culture of the Europeans. Economically Africans became dependent on the Europeans for their livelihood, and natural resources were taken with no compensation to the Africans. Politically each nation ruled its colonies differently. Great Britain was considered to have the most lenient rule whereas Belgium had the harshest rules. Explain that Africans did resist imperialism but were not able to overcome it. Ask students to explain reasons why Africans could not keep themselves from being subjugated by the Europeans. Some answers might include, but are not limited to: the lack of technology, the lack of unity among African cultures, and the conversion of Africans to Christianity. Discuss reasons why Ethiopia and Liberia were able to remain untouched by imperialism. Students answer should include that Ethiopia was able to defeat the etabans at the Battle of

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Aduwa in 1896 and Liberia was under the protection of the United States since it was settled by free blacks from the United States in 1822. Using the chalkboard or overhead write Social Changes in Africa. List the following having students discuss each. Urbanization Africans moved from the rural areas and tribal life to live in the cities leaving their traditional ways. Education Education provided for a rise in the African elite who played a leading role in the nationalist movement. Religion Christianity helped accelerated the process of Westernization in Africans came to regard their own traditions such as polytheism and polygamy as pagan and rejected them African independent church known as Ethiopianist church raise as a movement against European domination of the churches in African. Have students make two lists: positive affects of Imperialism and negative affects of Imperialism. They there are to write a short essay on whether Imperialism was in general a positive move or a negative move for Africa. Integration with Core Subject(s) LA: Critical thinking and writing skills Connection(s) Enrichment: Encourage students to read other novels by African writers that depict the consequences of imperialism in Africa and on Africans. The following are suggested for understanding the attitudes of Africans during imperialism; these include but are not limited to: No Longer at Ease and Man of the People by Chinua Achebe, The River Between by Ngugi Wa Thiongo, Black Child by Camara Laye. Fine Arts: Home: Remediation: Technology: Have students access the Internet and generate a one -page report. Assessment Formal assessment will occur on the homework assignment measuring the students understanding of the ramifications of the changes that occurred in Africa due to colonialism

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and imperialism. Homework Homework will be given at the discretion of the teacher. Teacher Notes Consult general World History textbooks for information on the social, political, and economic implications of imperialism and colonialism in Africa. Stress the social changes that the Africans faced. Things Fall Apart is an excellent source to use when teaching social changes. A quiz on Imperialistic Africa at this point is suggested. Prepare a quiz for tomorrows class.

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STRUCTURED CURRICULUM LESSON PLAN Day: 105 Subject: World Studies Grade Level: 9

Correlations (SG,CAS,CFS): 17A1; 17D1; 17D2 ITBS/TAP: Geography Interactions with people with environments ISAT: Demonstrate knowledge of world and United States geography Read and interpret maps, chart, graphs, and cartoons Unit Focus/Foci Africa Instructional Focus/Foci Independence in Africa Materials Classroom textbooks Teacher-made materials Notebooks Journals Portfolios Colored pencils Teacher-made quiz Educational Strategies/Instructional Procedures Direct students to open their textbooks to the section on independence in Africa, and analyze the map. Distribute duplicated copies of Independence in Africa map. Instruct students to label all the nations of Africa outlined on the duplicated maps, as well as any additional locations indicated by the teacher. After labeling the duplicated maps, students are to select three colors that will be used to indicate Independent Nations before 1945, Independent Nations between 1945-1965, and Independent Nations from 1966 to the present. Using colored pencils or highlighters, students are to shade the African nations according to the three time periods indicated.

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Students are also to create a map key for these time periods in the area provided on the duplicated maps. Completed maps are to be attached in the students notebooks/journals/portfolios. Integration with Core Subject(s) LA: MA: SC: Apply information from text to new situation, depicting information in new form Evaluate and apply units of measurement Earths surface Connection(s) Enrichment: Challenge students to research the background of nations such as Algeria, Kenya, Angola, or Mozambique. Since these nations did not achieve independence peacefully, students are to prepare a two-page class report on each nations struggle toward independence. Fine Arts: Home: As a home connection activity the student and his/her parent(s) will determine if any family members have visited an African nation and what experiences they had there. Remediation: Technology: Assessment Formal assessment will occur as students demonstrate their geographic skills while completing their map assignment. Formal assessment will occur in the grading of the homework. Homework Assign each student a modern African country. Instruct them to write a one-two page report on how their assigned country obtained its independence. Teacher Notes Students will need to use three colored pencils or highlighters in order to complete the duplicated maps.

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STRUCTURED CURRICULUM LESSON PLAN Day: 106-107 Subject: World Studies Grade Level: 9

Correlations (SG,CAS,CFS): 14A1; 14B2; 14C1; 15B1; 15B2; 16A1; 16D1; 18A2; 18B1; 18B2 ITBS/TAP: Economics/Political Science Political independence of people and nations Basic economic concepts ISAT: Understand and analyze comparative political and economic systems, particularly in the United States

Unit Focus/Foci Africa Instructional Focus/Foci Africa in transition Materials Classroom textbooks Teacher-made materials Educational Strategies/Instructional Procedures Have students turn their textbooks to the section on Africa in transition; have students read selections. Divide the class into six cooperative learning groups of four to five members. Assign two groups to each of the statements listed below. Each group must accept or reject their assigned statements using information researched about events in Africa since independence. Students must provide specific examples in their reports to support their conclusions. 1. Africa is suffering from both political and economic instability. 2. Colonialism failed to prepare African nations for independence. 3. African nations have been politically repressed. Integration with Core Subject(s) LA: MA: SC: Draw conclusions, make inferences, deduce meanings not explicitly stated Solve problems involving logical relationships Science inquiry methods

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Connection(s) Enrichment: Challenge students to research the United Nations agencies involved in Africa. Based on the research, ask students to create a chart showing what the agencies are, where they are working, and what programs they support. Fine Arts: Home: As a home connection activity the student and his/her parent(s) will discuss similarities in the struggle for African nations to achieve independence and the American Revolution against Britain. Remediation: Technology: Use the Internet to generate a one-page report on the United Nations involvement in Africa. Assessment Formal assessment will occur during the cooperative learning activity; the group will be monitored as a team to determine the teams effectiveness. Homework Have students read handouts concerning the union of South Africa and Apartheid. Teacher Notes Remind students of assignments they have not submitted. Allow students three days to complete unfinished assignments.

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STRUCTURED CURRICULUM LESSON PLAN Day: 108-110 Subject: World Studies Grade Level: 9

Correlations (SG,CAS,CFS): 17A1; 17D1; 17D2 ITBS/TAP: Geography Interaction of people with environments ISAT: Demonstrate knowledge of world and United States geography Read and Interpret maps, charts, graphs, and cartoons Unit Focus/Foci Africa Instructional Focus/Foci Union of South Africa/Apartheid Materials Classroom textbooks Teacher-made materials Notebooks Journals Portfolios Video: Cry, The Beloved Country Educational Strategies/Instructional Procedures Begin the lesson by writing the words segregation and apartheid on the chalkboard. Explain that apartheid existed in the union of South Africa and segregation existed in the United States of America. Using the information found at http://www.learner.org/exhibits/southafrica/apartheid.html http://www.learner.org/exhibits/southafrica/europeans.html http://www.learner.org/exhibits/southafrica/resistance.html http://www.learner.org/exhibits/southafrica/rights.html

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Students Name ______________________________Date _______________________

Title of Movie/Video:

Copyright:

Major Characters:

Minor Characters:

Setting:

Synopsis of Movie/Video:

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The Legislative Implementation of Apartheid Dismantling Apartheid 1990-94 Discuss the rise of apartheid in South Africa and allow students to write notes in their notebooks. Distribute a copy of apartheid legislative to students. Home students read and verbally evaluate the apartheid laws in effect. Allow students time to watch the video Cry the Beloved County. There are two versions; one was made in 1951 starring Sidney Poitier. The newest remake is the better version. It will take a minimum of two days to complete. After completion of the film, students will write an essay about the movie.

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Apartheid Legislation South Africa Act 1909 Established the South African Union and concentrated power in an all-white parliament. Mines and Works Act 1911 and 1926 Imposed color ban on certain jobs, a white salary was to be higher than a black at all times. Natives Land Acts 1912 and 1936 Allocated just 13% of total land area to black use. Natives (Urban Areas) Act 1923 Provided for residential segregation in cities. The blacks had to carry special papers to be allowed to stay in the cities. Native Laws Amendment Act 1937 Extended the long-established system of pass laws. (800,000 arrested each year for violations). Prohibition of Mixed Marriages Act 1949 Banned marriages between races. Population Registration Act 1950 Forced all South Africans to register as Black, White, Asian or Colored. Group Areas Act 1950 Extended laws on racial segregation of residential areas and pass laws. Immorality Act 1950 Banned sexual relations between people from different racial groups. Criminal Law Amendment Act 1953 Imposed stiff penalties (fines, prison, flogging) for protest or incitement to protest. Reservation of Separate Amenities Act 1953 Introduced segregation to buses, parks, et cetera. Bantu Education Act 1953 Enforced racial segregation of schools. Natives Resettlement Act 1954 Empowered the government to forcibly resettle blacks (About 4 million people were forced to move from their homes.) Industrial Conciliation Act 1956 Empowered the Minister of Labor to reserve any job on a racial basis and to dissolve racially mixed trade unions. Separate Representation of Colored Voters Act 1956 Removed franchise from coloreds. Promotion of Bantu Self-government Act 1959 Removed the limited black representation in the parliament and created separate black homelands. Bantu Homelands Citizenship Act 1970 Made every black a citizen of a homeland. Constitutional Act 1983 Set up a tricameral parliament with separate chambers for whites, colored and Asians, while denying representation for blacks. (This created a bureaucratic monster with 11 parliaments with 1190 members, 5 heads of State, 10 prime ministers and over 200 cabinet ministers with 1.7 million employees in over 150 ministries.) The National Party was putting in place increasingly repressing frameworks of laws to keep the blacks down, and ensure the continued domination of whites. For over 40 years, the government resisted both internal and international pressure, before the winds of change started blowing across South Africa.

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Integration with Core Subject(s) LA: MA: SC: Identify authors viewpoint Solve problems involving patterns Science inquiry methods Connection(s) Enrichment: Using the Internet students are to research the life and career of Nelson Mandela and Martin L. King, Jr. comparing their leadership of their civil rights movement. Fine Arts: Have students read Nelson Mandelas Inauguration address and create a poster using the ideals set forth in his address. Home: As a home connection activity the student and his/her parent(s) will discuss the similarities of South African apartheid and segregation policies in the United States. Remediation: Technology: Have students generate a comparison chart, comparing the African National Congress in South Africa and the Southern Christian leadership conference in the United States. Assessment Informal assessment will occur after the completion of the map assignment as students demonstrate their geographic skills. Formal assessment will occur on the unit test, which contains questions from this lesson. Homework Have students write an essay giving their reactions to the portrayal of Apartheid specific examples from the movie. Teacher Notes

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