Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 51

CBI 3321 3323 4261 4263 4264 4711

March 2009
Masonry HoMes
ConstruCtion ManuaL
The look that only solid masonry can deliver
Masonry homes provide New Zealanders with the age
old benefts of solid masonry construction, along with
the strength, simplicity and good looks of a modern
building method.
Many building technologies try to imitate the solid good
looks of masonry construction. Firth masonry provides
the components that deliver the real thing - from solid
walls, to a range of interior and exterior fnishes to suit
every taste. Firth masonry products will provide enduring
quality and looks for a masonry home, all for not much
more than you would pay for a home built using a
lightweight imitation system.
Cool in Summer, warm in Winter
With Firth HotBloc

, the thermal mass of the unit is in


the interior of the house wall. This effectively stores heat
from solar and off peak heating/cooling applications.
Heat from solar gains can be absorbed by the walls
without great changes in the interior temperature. When
the gains stop, the warm walls conduct heat back to the
interior air to make up for the losses, to the outside. The
more mass, the more heat storage and the longer the
indoor temperature can be maintained. In summer the
reverse happens. The masonry is cooled by the night
time temperatures and then as the outside temperature
increases, the inside temperature is maintained by
giving off coolness (absorbing the heat).
Safer, healthier homes
Naturally solid masonry homes are completely fre
resistant and they are also healthier. One of the problems
with well sealed light timber frame houses that rely on
keeping heated or cooled air inside, is the condensation
that builds up from cooking, showering, even breathing
the major beneft with masonry construction is that it is
durable and will not rot. Because comfort temperatures
are achieved through radiant heat from masonry walls,
Firth masonry can provide homes with better ventilation.
This means that the low humidity environment possible
in a masonry home can lead to a lower number of
dust mites and consequently reduce the incidence of
asthma.
Tranquility and peace
The same high density makes masonry homes
comfortable to live in makes it quiet and peaceful inside.
A masonry home is inherently quiet. Its thick solid walls
provide superior built-in sound insulation, without the
expense and effort of additional soundproofng often
needed by timber framed walls.
Finishing touches
In conjunction with the range of low maintenance
landscaping products available from Firth, you can
complete the picture with coloured concrete, exposed
aggregate driveways, pavers and retaining wall options
to suit every home style.
Masonry Construction Manual
tiMeLess eLeganCe , todays teCHnoLogy
Masonry Homes Construction Manual - V1 2008 1
SECTION 1 -
PLANNING AND DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS
1.1 Structural Masonry Homes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
1.2 Design Considerations and
Scope of this Manual . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
1.3 Geotechnical Report . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
1.4 Insulation of Masonry. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
1.5 Engineering. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
1.6 "R" Values . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
1.7 Specification of Firth HotBloc

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
1.8 Modular Layout . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
1.9 Services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
1.10 Suspended Concrete Floors. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
1.11 Internal Walls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
1.12 Openings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
SECTION 2 -
FOOTINGS AND FOUNDATIONS
2.1 Conventional Footings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
2.2 RibRaft

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
SECTION 3 -
WALL INSTALLATION
3.1 Starter Bars . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
3.2 First Course . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
3.3 Running Bond . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
3.4 Tooling of Joints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
3.5 Washouts/Cleanouts. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
3.6 Bond beams and Lintels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
3.7 Temporary Bracing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
3.8 Consideration of Weather . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
SECTION 4 -
BLOCKFILL FOR GROUTING OF MASONRY
4.1 Filling Options. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
4.2 Blockfilling Procedures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
4.3 Vibration of Blockfill . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
4.4 Filling Under Windows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
SECTION 5 -
CONTROL JOINTS
5.1 Location of Joints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
5.2 Reinforcement through Control Joints . . . . . . . . . . 11
5.3 Sealing of Control Joint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
SECTION 6 -
SUSPENDED CONCRETE FLOORS
6.1 Types of Concrete Floors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
6.2 Flooring Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
6.3 Prestressed Flat Slab Flooring System . . . . . . . . . 12
6.4 Rib aqnd Infill Flooring System. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
6.5 Construction Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
6.6 Placing the Units . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
6.7 Temporary Propping. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
6.8 Concrete Topping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
6.9 Topping Reinforcement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
6.10 Services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
6.11 Penetrations in the Floor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
6.12 Balconies. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
6.13 Waterproofing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
SECTION 7 - SERVICES
7.1 Locations of Services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
7.2 Electrical . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
7.3 Plumbing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
7.4 Services on Strapped and Lined Walls . . . . . . . . . . 16
7.5 Future Proofing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
SECTION 8 - STAI RCASES
8.1 Cast-in-situ Staircases. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
8.2 Precast Staircases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
SECTION 9 - ROOF CONNECTION
9.1 Top Plate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
9.2 Metal Straps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
SECTION 10
WINDOW INSTALLATION
Window Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
SECTION 11
WATER PROOFING/COATING SYSTEMS
11.1 Dry Blockwork. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
11.2 Cleaning Blockwork . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
11.3 Application. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
SECTION 12
EXTERNAL COATING SYSTEMS
12.1 Acrylic Paint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
12.2 High-build Elastomeric Coatings . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
12.3 Solid Plaster . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
12.4 Modified Plaster . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
12.5 Clear Sealants. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
12.6 Cement Based Paints. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
SECTION 13
INTERNAL COATING SYSTEMS
13.1 Exposed Blockwork . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
13.2 Paint Finish . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
13.3 Strapped and Lined . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
13.4 Plasterboard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
13.5 Tiling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
13.6 Plaster Finish . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
SECTION 14
CONSTRUCTION DETAILS
Construction Details. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
Contents
2 Masonry Homes Construction Manual - V1 2008
1.1 Structural Masonry Homes
Masonry homes can be some of the most stunning and
comfortable houses on the market, but as with any
building they require careful planning before construction
begins. While it is possible to alter once construction has
started, it usually is more diffcult than with traditional
timber frame construction.
1.2 Design Considerations & Scope of this Manual
This document is intended as a guide only to assist
Architects, Designers and Engineers who are
appropriately experienced and qualifed, in the design of
concrete masonry residential buildings.
Architects, Designers, Engineers and Builders should
be familiar with and make reference to NZS 4229:1999
Concrete Masonry Buildings Not Requiring Specifc
Engineering Design in conjunction with their use of this
Manual. The Architect, Designer and Builder should also
be familiar with the principles for dealing with external
moisture under Compliance Document E2/AS1 issued
by the Department of Building & Housing for timber
frame structures. Though this does not apply directly
to concrete masonry structures, similar principles
are employed. Details for guidance in applying these
principles to masonry construction can be found in two
publications:
Concrete Masonry - a guide to weathertight
construction, available for free download from the
NZ Concrete Masonry Associations website
www.nzcma.org.nz
Weathertight Solutions Volume 4- Masonry, details for
junctions and openings in masonry walls. Available
from BRANZ.
In all cases the Architect or Designer should provide
suffcient detailing within the Plans to be submitted
for Building Consent, so that sound structural and
weathertight construction details are unambiguous to
both Territorial Authorities and the Builder.
This document is also intended as a guide for Builders and
Masons constructing structural blockwork for masonry
homes. It is to be used in conjunction with NZS 4229:1999
Concrete Masonry Buildings Not Requiring Specifc
Engineering Design and NZS 4210:2001 Masonry
Construction Materials and Workmanship. Persons
engaged in the construction of structural masonry homes
should ensure that they comply with the requirements of
Clause 1.5 Workmanship of NZS 4210:2001.
The Builder should ensure that copies of NZS 4229:1999 and
NZS 4210:2001 are available for ready reference on site.
1.3 Geotechnical Report
A geotechnical report on the site is very good insurance
for the future and is strongly recommended prior to
construction. It would provide information about the site
and the support capabilities of the ground.
1.4 Insulation of Masonry
Concrete masonry has inherent thermal storage
properties making it the ideal construction material for
comfort. However, by itself, it does not have the required
insulation to comply with the New Zealand Building Code
(Clause H1).
Firth HotBloc

, shown below, being the premium


Concrete Masonry Unit (CMU) on the market, provides
the simplest means of compliance as the insulation is
built in. It affords the structural strength of standard
masonry (see 1.5 Engineering below) as well as providing
options to exceed the R-values stipulated in the Building
Code for solid construction, refer section 1.6.
Other methods involve adding insulation to the outer
surfaces of the wall (where it can be easily damaged) or
to the interior of the wall (reducing the thermal storage
benefts).
To make the most of the thermal properties of masonry
and concrete, contact the Cement and Concrete
Association to obtain a copy of their booklet Designing
Comfortable Homes.
1.5 Engineering
NZS 4229:1999 Concrete Masonry Buildings not
Requiring Specifc Engineering Design covers the non-
specifc design of residential masonry buildings. (This
is the masonry equivalent of NZS 3604:1999 Timber
Framed Buildings.) This Standard details the bracing
requirements, lintel sizes, footing widths etc. and should
cover most simple buildings.
Outer side of wallg
l Polystyrene Insulation
Figure 1 Firth HotBloc

20 Series Hot-Std
seCtion 1 - PLanning and design Considerations
Masonry Homes Construction Manual - V1 2008 3
Occasionally there will be areas of the house that fall
outside the Standard and a structural engineer will be
required. This does not necessarily mean that the entire
building must be engineer designed simply the areas
that fall outside the scope of the Standard.
When designing a building in Firth Hotbloc

, it is important
to consider the reduction in grout space caused by the
presence of the internal polystyrene biscuit. The 20
Series Hotbloc

typically has a 30mm thick polystyrene


biscuit, and the 25 Series approximately 80mm thick.
When designing using the non specifc design Standard
NZS4229:1999, both the 20 and 25 Series Hotbloc


should be considered equivalent to a 15 Series block
when considering bracing demand, bracing capacity, and
reinforcement required.
1.6 R Values for Firth HotBloc

in Solid Walls as part


of the Building External Envelope
The acceptable solution H1/AS1 of the Building Code
clause H1- Energy effciency, recognizes the benefts
of thermal mass for solid masonry construction by
allowing lower R-values than for non solid (timber frame)
construction.
Schedule Method
Table 2(b) identifes the minimum R-values required if
the schedule method is used. When using this table it is
important to recognize the limitations to use the tables
in particular the area of glazing. The new insulation
requirements of H1 became effective from:
31st October 2007 for zone 3
30th June 2008 for zone 2
30th September 2008 for zone 1
Calculation Method
Lower R-values than are tabled in Table 2(b) of H1/AS1,
can be, however, any reduction in R-value provided in one
element must be compensated by an increase in another
element. The process used to demonstrate equivalence
is referred to as the calculation method and is described
in section 3.2 of NZS4218. 20 Series Hotbloc

can only be
used under the calculation method.
Post September 2008, the R-values required for masonry
walls are:
R0.8 for zone 1
R1.0 for zone 2, however this can be reduced to R0.9 if
R0.31 glazing is used.
R1.2 for zone 3, however this can be reduced to R 1.0 if
R0.31 glazing is used.
20 Series HotBloc

, R0.7 Hot-STD
25 Series HotBloc

, R1.16 Hot-STD
Structural equivalent = 15 series
Structural equivalent = 15 series
The R-values of various HotBloc

solutions are-
R0.7 20 series HotBloc

, fully flled,
R1.16 25 series HotBloc

, fully flled,
R1.2 25 series HotBloc

, fully flled and interior lined


with glue fxed gib board.
Importantly the R-values are obtained without the use of
surface insulation, a unique feature to structural masonry
homes built with Firth HotBloc

.
1.7 Specifcation of Firth HotBloc

in Structural Design
to comply with NZS 4229:1999 and NZS 4230:2004
Architects, designers and engineers may design to
the requirements of NZS 4229:1999 or NZS 4230:2004
Design of Reinforced Masonry Structures, where Firth
HotBloc

is substituted for a conventional block within


the limitations of clause 1.5.
4 Masonry Homes Construction Manual - V1 2008
1.8 Modular Layout
Designing wall dimensions to equal a multiple of the
Concrete Masonry Unit (CMU) being used saves time and
money by eliminating cutting. It also adds predictability
and discipline to both design and construction. As
such, dimensioning the design to ft the module is
recommended. The critical dimensions are wall height,
wall length, opening size and opening position.
The standard CMU is 390mm long, and 190mm high with
an allowance for a 10mm mortar joint on each dimension
(i.e. 400mm long, and 200mm high). When using a
standard HotBloc

a module of 400mm long by 200mm


high is normally adopted. Where necessary, a half block
(190mm long) will be inserted to meet a specifc length
requirement. An example would be to make wall lengths
1200mm rather than 1189mm, as would be common
in timber frame construction. Off-module dimensions
require the blocklayer to cut the blocks, increasing
costs. See the diagram below for an explanation of the
importance of keeping the design to a modular layout.
Just as important is ensuring that the lintels and bond
beams are only 190mm or 390mm deep. This eases
construction and therefore keeps costs down.
1.9 Services
Typically services are placed in ducts in the cores of the
masonry blocks. It is very diffcult to do this after the
walls are flled with blockfll, and as such, the locations
for services need to be fnalised before construction
begins. This rule is relaxed where the masonry walls are
to be strapped and lined with GIB

plasterboard as the
services can be placed within the resulting cavity at any
stage after flling with blockfll.
Another approach for solid flled walls is to leave a
vertical core empty in order to place services within the
wall. The bracing panels will be affected in this area
so this needs to be decided upon before the bracing
calculations are completed.
When using a suspended concrete foor in two-storey
construction, a false ceiling can be taken advantage of
to allow services to be carried within this space. It also
makes sense to position the upper service room over the
lower one to reduce the distance services are required to
travel through the building.
1.10 Suspended Concrete Floors
The most common types of residential suspended
concrete fooring systems are suitable up to 8m spans.
However, this shouldnt limit the design of the building
as there are commercial fooring systems that will easily
span 15m or more if necessary. These can be up to
300mm - 400mm thick and typically require an increase
in wall reinforcement and footing requirements.
The Modular-Correct no cutting required
The Modular Correct
no cutting required
1
4
0
0
2
0
0
0
The Modular-Incorrect shaded portion-cut block
1
3
0
0
1
9
0
0
The Modular Incorrect
shaded portion = cut block
All suspended concrete foor types need to be supported
at the ends of the individual spans by a concrete masonry
wall. Timber should never be used to support these
foors.
1200 800
1100 700
Masonry Homes Construction Manual - V1 2008 5
1.11 Internal Walls
Masonry homes do not need every internal wall
to be masonry. It is common to only use masonry
where necessary due to bracing or other structural
requirements (such as supporting the concrete midfoor)
Options for internal walls are 15 Series Masonry Units or
timber partition walls, this choice maybe infuenced by
the desired fnish required.
1.12 Openings
Masonry lintels consist of a reinforcing cage within a
masonry shell (usually 190mm or 390mm deep). These
can span relatively large distances. For most situations,
masonry lintels will suffce and the tables in NZS
4229:1999 detail the reinforcing requirements. However,
where the lintel falls outside the scope of that Standard,
(i.e. the load acting on the lintel being too great for the
particular span), the lintel can be constructed from cast
insitu reinforced concrete or with a precast beam such
as Interspan. Both of these types will require specifc
engineering design.
6 Masonry Homes Construction Manual - V1 2008
specifc design details, but also contains details that will
assist a designer in carrying out a specifc design of a
RibRaft

foor.
A basic overview and step-by-step construction guide
is provided in the Firth RibRaft

Flooring Solutions
brochure. For an in-depth explanation of the non-specifc
construction and design issues associated with RibRaft


construction see the RibRaft

Manual.
The RibRaft

system is most economic on fat sites but


there is also a range of details available to allow RibRaft


to be used on a sloping site. The use of these alternative
details require specifc design.
The non-specifc design consists of an 85mm thick top
slab supported by a grid of ribs normally 100mm wide
at a maximum spacing of 1200mm x 1200mm centres.
The overall depth is 305mm. Edge beams and ribs under
loadbearing walls are 300mm wide to provide for the
extra load carried by these members. Construction is
directly on levelled ground covered with a DPM (damp
proof membrane).
Polystyrene waffe pods 1100mm square and 220mm
thick are placed directly on levelled ground. These are
arranged in such a way that a reinforced concrete foor
slab with a grid of reinforced concrete ribs and edge
beams is formed when concrete is placed onto them.
Pods may be cut to suit specifc layout architecture and
also to accommodate services.
2.1 Conventional footings
Conventional footings consist either of strip (or ring)
footings or edge-thickened slab. Strip footings are made
up of a small masonry wall (typically one or two courses)
supported on a footing strip in an excavated trench.
This footing strip can vary in width upward from 300mm
depending on the design of the house. Edge thickened
slabs combine the footing strip and slab into one without
the need for a masonry footing wall. The edges of the
concrete foor slab are thickened to support the building
walls. Both types of footings require excavation and are
therefore weather dependent.
Following completion of the excavation of the footings
trench or trenches, the reinforcement steel needs to
be placed in accordance with the job drawings. The
stirrups are then tied to the main bars. NZS 3604 sets
out the minimum cover requirements for steel in various
scenarios.
When the concrete is poured for the footings, it is very
critical that the concrete is placed in such a manner to
avoid segregation (separation) of the concrete or changes
to the location of the reinforcement. For construction
details refer to Section 14.
2.2 RibRaft


This system combines the footing and concrete foor into
one and is one of New Zealands most effective residential
and light commercial fooring solutions.
The RibRaft

Manual can be obtained from Firth through


Firth Information Service on 0800 800 576 or through
www.frth.co.nz. This document covers not only the non-
seCtion 2 - Footings and Foundations
Masonry Homes Construction Manual - V1 2008 7
3.1 Starter Bars
Starter bars are the steel reinforcing bars that connect
the masonry wall to the foor. The number of bars and
their location is defned by the construction drawings or
NZS 4229:1999. The starter bars should be central to the
grouted cavity. When using HotBloc

consideration must
be made of the polystyrene thickness. It is important to
confrm that the starter bars are in the correct location
before pouring the concrete and then again once the
concrete has been placed, but before the concrete
sets. This allows any bars that were moved during the
concrete placing to be corrected. If the bars are not
located accurately then they will not ft correctly into
the block cores which then would affect the structural
performance of the wall. Unless specifcally instructed
by the Architect or Engineer, it is not acceptable to crank
the bars on site to their correct alignment.
For internal walls, correction of a bar location is a simple
process of grinding the bar off fush with the slab then
drilling and epoxying a starter bar in the correct location.
An engineer should be involved to ensure that the
procedure is undertaken correctly.
3.2 First Course
Laying Surface
Surfaces for the blocks to be laid upon must be level,
clean but slightly rough. This roughness is necessary
to create a good bond between the mortar and base.
Usually the fnish achieved with a wood foat is adequate.
It is uncommon but if the foor is fnished too smooth,
roughness can be achieved with a scabbling gun (a
compressed air gun with steel fngers) to chip the
surface of the concrete. Once an adequate surface has
been prepared the frst course of blocks can be laid. It is
common for a bond beam block to be inverted and placed
at the site of the starter bars for the frst course to allow
easy construction of the washouts.
HotBloc

HotBloc

with its integral insulation is installed virtually


the same as a traditional CMUs. The only difference is
that the polystyrene biscuit is to be placed towards the
outside face of the wall and the position of the starter
bars needs to be modifed to ensure they are central in
the grouted cavity.
Mortar
Laying the frst course should be done ensuring all blocks
are level. The frst course mortar joint maybe up to 20mm
to achieve levelling. All subsequent mortar joints shall be
10mm 3mm as per NZS 4210:2001.
All mortar either site mixed or premixed must meet a 28
day compressive strength of not less than 12.5MPa.
3.3 Running Bond
The CMUs should be laid in straight uniform courses
unless specifed in the construction drawings. Running
bond is the strongest type of laying confguration. This is
where the blocks are offset horizontally by one half block
from one course to the next. Other bond patterns are used
to achieve particular aesthetics but unless specifcally
engineered, running bond should be used.
Wall Reinforcement
The reinforcement requirement for the wall is specifed
in NZS 4229:1999 or by Specifc Design and is usually
detailed in the construction drawings.
Vertical Reinforcement
The vertical bars need to be tied to the starter bars with
at least 600mm lapping.
Note that where Firth HotBloc

is being laid then the


vertical reinforcement must be placed central to the
remaining grout space (the polystyrene biscuit will take
up some space normally flled with grout in a conventional
CMU) and not central to the overall block width.
Horizontal Reinforcement
The horizontal steel is placed in a course of knock-in
bond beam or depressed web CMUs. To ensure correct
placement within the wall cavity, the horizontal steel is
then tied to the vertical steel.
3.4 Tooling of Joints
Another aspect of masonry construction that is
commonly overlooked (particularly when a plaster fnish
is required) is tooling of the mortar joints, this is when
a special tool is used to compress mortar into the joint.
Tooling is important as it contributes to the structural
strength and water resistance properties of the wall.
Tooling to a depth of 6mm is allowable. The
reconsolidation of the joint after the initial water loss
is seen as being vital. When a plastered fnish is to be
applied, it is common to strike the mortar joint fush
to make a smooth surface for the plasterer. The joint
should still be tooled.
Often tooling is carried out too early. The mortar should
be thumb nail hard before tooling. After tooling and
when the mortar is suffciently set, the work should be
lightly brushed down with a soft bristle brush to remove
seCtion 3 - WaLL instaLLation
8 Masonry Homes Construction Manual - V1 2008
any particles of mortar sticking to the block face. Rubbing
the face of the blockwork with a cut-off piece of masonry
will also remove any overhang of mortar.
the formwork in place with wire ties around the base of
the vertical steel. This will allow the blockfll to fnish
fush with the outside face of the blocks. It is important to
ensure that the formwork is braced adequately to prevent
blow out under grout pressure. Often small gaps are left
in the formwork at the washouts to allow the blockfll to
fow out. These are to confrm that the blockfll has fully
flled the wall and are plugged once confrmation has
been made.
For exposed blockwork or architectural masonry,
however, it is recommended to remove the entire face
shell of a block rather than cut a section of the face.
Following cleaning out and inspection, the face can then
be mortared back in place and braced before blockflling
commences.
3.6 Bond beams and Lintels
Masonry
The two most common bond beams or masonry lintel
types are either 190mm or 390mm deep. The 190mm
deep version is simply one course of CMUs and most
commonly only used as a bond beam below concrete
mid-foors. The 390mm deep version is formed using
two courses of knock-in bond beam or depressed web
CMUs, with the top one inverted to create a larger cavity
for the reinforcement steel. The steel is placed in before
the top course is laid.
Where non-standard dimensions are required, it is usual
to place other courses in between the two standard bond
beam courses. This however, does affect the placement
of the steel.
Reinforcement
The steel is formed into a cage made up of the top bar(s)
and the bottom bar(s) separated by the stirrups (or links).
The cage is placed and tied to the vertical steel where
appropriate and the top bond beam course is laid.
For non-standard bond beams, the stirrups are tied to
the bottom bar(s) and this is placed into the bottom bond
Stage 1
Unit
Unit
As laid wet
Stage 2
Unit
Unit
Evaporation of water from
mortar creates crack
Stage 3
Unit
Unit
Tooling in semi-hard condition
remoulds the mortar and
eliminates the crack
Tooling of joints
Sometimes tooling of the joints pushes mortar into the
block cavity (see picture above, right). This either falls
to the bottom or hangs on and causes an intrusion. The
intrusions may partially block off the cavity and not allow
the blockfll to reach the lower parts of the wall. This is
very likely where horizontal steel is placed in the wall. As
such the mortar intrusions must be removed while still
workable.
Any mortar that has fallen to the bottom of the wall will
interfere with the bond between the blockfll and starter
bars and the blockfll and the base. For the wall to
perform as designed the base must be clean.
3.5 Washouts/Cleanouts
To enable cleaning of all debris from the base of the wall,
washouts or cleanouts are used. These are openings or
inspection ports at least 100mm height x 75mm width
cut into the face of blocks at the base of the vertical
reinforcement bars. A common method is to use
inverted bond beam blocks at these locations to allow
simple removal of the face shell portions. Inspection of
the steel and concrete junctions can also be made at
these openings to confrm compliance with the relevant
requirements.
Once inspections are complete, the washouts should be
blocked off with formwork. A common method is to hold
Masonry Homes Construction Manual - V1 2008 9
beam course. The intermediate bond beam courses are
then laid, threading the stirrups through. Before the
top course is laid, the top steel bar(s) are tied to the
stirrups.
Where the lintel coincides with the bond beam, the two
are simply combined. If the longitudinal steel requirement
in the lintel exceeds that in the bond beam, then the steel
in the bond beam at this location will be that required
in the lintel and vice versa (the stirrup requirements are
unchanged). In most single storey applications, the bond
beam reinforcement exceeds that required in the lintels
and the only difference is the spacing of the stirrups
over the openings. (However it is crucial to check the job
drawings for reinforcement requirements).
Temporary Supports
Often it is necessary to support lintels with timber
framing (props) until the blockfll has gained suffcient
strength. Refer to the photograph above right.
3.7 Temporary bracing
The need for temporary bracing of the masonry wall
during construction is often overlooked (see photograph
above). An unflled wall is very susceptible to failure from
strong winds. Typically walls over 1m in height are at
signifcant risk. It is important to take some measures to
brace the wall in order to prevent its premature failure.
Typically bracing at 3m centres is recommended in line
on both sides of the wall.
Bracing may also be required to ensure that the pressure
from the blockflling operation does not alter the wall
positions. This is particularly critical on tall narrow
sections of walls. The blockfll procedure creates large
hydrostatic pressures and where there is little blockwork
to resist, it will force blocks to move, some-times even
causing face shells of blocks to be blown out.
3.8 Consideration of Weather
Generally masonry construction should not be carried
out when the air temperature drops below 4C, unless
the following precautions are taken:
(a) Water used for mixing mortar is heated.
(b) Masonry is protected for not less than 24 hours after
laying by covers, blankets, heated enclosures, or the
like to ensure that the mortar can gain suffcient
strength without freezing or harmful effect from cold
winds.
(c) No frozen materials nor materials containing ice
shall be used.
When the air temperature rises above 27C or there is a
drying wind even when the temperature may be lower, it
may be necessary to take some additional precautions:
(a) Lightly dampening the CMUs before laying.
(b) Keeping the mortar moist and not spreading it on the
wall more than two unit lengths ahead of the units
being placed.
(c) Preventing both the mortar and the grout from drying
out so rapidly that it cannot cure properly. This is
most important during the frst 24 hours.
10 Masonry Homes Construction Manual - V1 2008
4.2.1 High lift grouting with expansive admixture
This allows pours up to 3.6m in height and uses an
admixture to provide expansion after placement of
the grout and before initial set occurs. The expansion
compensates for water loss and plastic settlement.
Grout is placed in the cells in a semi continuous operation
allowing for consolidation as work proceeds.
4.2.2 The low lift grouting method
This is similar to the high lift with expansive admixture
method but allows the blockfll to solidify fully before the
next lift is placed. Maximum height of pour is 1.2m per
lift. Again the blockfll should be mechanically vibrated
into place.
4.2.3 High lift with reduced compaction
This is grouting the wall to a maximum height of 2.4m in
a continuous pour, with thorough mechanical vibration
during the pour.
4.3 Vibration of Blockfll
It is strongly recommended that all blockfll be placed
in combination with mechanical vibration. Failing this,
the walls should at least be rodded with a bar 16mm in
diameter or greater to ensure the blockfll has reached
all parts of the wall (see photograph below). Where
services have been installed in the wall, it is critical to
ensure blockfll has made it past these intrusions.
4.4 Filling Under Windows
A simple method for ensuring that the blockfll gets into
the required cores under window openings is to leave
out one or more sill blocks. The pump operator can then
grout from the sill and once complete, the sill blocks can
be mortared back into place.
It is vital that a blockfll mix is used and not a standard
concrete mix. The blockfll is far more fuid and will fow
to all required parts of the wall, whereas the standard
concrete mix is comparatively stiff. As the cores of the
block are relatively small, the standard concrete mix is
prone to blocking the cores and not flling the lower parts
of the wall. Watering down of a standard concrete mix
should never be done, as it reduces the concrete strength
and increases the amount of shrinkage. Firth blockfll
is designed to have the required strength and to fow
easily into the cores to be flled. Grouting must always be
carried out by a competent experienced professional.
4.1 Filling Options
There are two types of grouting that are in common design.
Partial Filling
This is where only the vertical cores containing
reinforcement and the bond beam are flled with blockfll.
All others cores are left empty. This is common where
the weight of the wall is required to be kept to a minimum
usually because of earthquake loads. This is the cheaper
option in terms of materials as less concrete is used but
is more diffcult to achieve on site. There are many
methods for blocking off the cores that are not to be flled.
Two common methods are using the knock-in biscuits
from the bond beam units and laying them over the cores
or using dampcourse laid across the hollow cores in
order to prevent the blockfll entering them.
Solid Filling
This is where the whole wall is flled with blockfll,
creating one solid mass. This is used where the design
specifed for horizontal steel other than in the bond beam
(usually at half-height of the wall), or where the simplest
construction approach is preferred. The hydrostatic
pressures when solid flling a wall can be quite
signifcant, and time should be allowed for the lower half
of the wall to solidify slightly before flling the upper part
of the wall. In the unlikely event of a fre, a solid flled wall
will provide additional protection to the polystyrene in a
HotBloc

unit.
4.2 Blockflling Procedures
Once all the washouts have been blocked off and the
required inspections made, the wall can be flled. A
common practice is to lightly dampen the block cavities
immediately prior to grouting. This is to ensure that the
blockfll is not dried out by the blocks sucking out the
water and therefore reducing its fowing ability. There
are three procedures for grouting as detailed in NZS
4210:2001.
seCtion 4 - BLoCKFiLL For grouting oF Masonry
Masonry Homes Construction Manual - V1 2008 11
Concrete masonry in common with other building
materials, is subject to movements caused by changes
in moisture content and temperature. Since masonry will
have a high moisture content initially, it loses moisture
with time and consequently shrinks. It is usual to include
shrinkage control joints in the design of the concrete
masonry.
5.1 Location of Joints
The spacing of control joints is specifed as a maximum
of 6m in NZS 4229:1999 unless specifc design for
shrinkage has been undertaken. The location of control
joints is infuenced by:
(a) Major changes in wall height
(b) Changes in wall thickness
(c) Wall intersections
(d) Opening locations.
The diagrams below are taken from NZS 4229:1999
5.2 Reinforcement through Control Joints
Reinforcement in lintels and bond beams shall continue
through the control joints but all other horizontal
reinforcement shall be discontinuous at the control joints.
The detail below is as per NZS 4229:1999. This ensures
that any movement in the wall will not be restricted by
the reinforcement.
R16 l appi ng bars 800 l ong,
debonded one si de wi th
grease or pl asti c tape
Debonded l ength of bar
Wall reinforcement
Filler strip and sealant Vertical reinforcement
Figure 13.2 - Control joint detail (see 13.1.13)
Control j oi nts
Figure 13.1 - Location of control joints for shrinkage (see 13.1.1)
5.2m
6
0
0
Less than
6m
Less than
6m
Control j oi nts
Less than
6m
Less than
6m
3.2m max.
3.2m max.
Location of control joints for shrinkage
R16 l appi ng bars 800 l ong,
debonded one si de wi th
grease or pl asti c tape
Debonded l ength of bar
Wall reinforcement
Filler strip and sealant Vertical reinforcement
Figure 13.2 - Control joint detail (see 13.1.13)
Control j oi nts
Figure 13.1 - Location of control joints for shrinkage (see 13.1.1)
5.2m
6
0
0
Less than
6m
Less than
6m
Control j oi nts
Less than
6m
Less than
6m
3.2m max.
3.2m max.
Location of control joints for shrinkage
5.3 Sealing of Control Joints
Control joints will always undergo some movement and
therefore it is necessary on exterior walls to form a
suitable detail to allow for the sealing of the control joint
against weather penetration. The weatherproof coating
will also need particular care over the control joint to
ensure that the expected movement is tolerated.
Note that reputable plaster-coating systems
manufacturers will have a proprietary solution for the
sealing of control joints. It is important to follow the
complete detail of your selected manufacturers plaster
and coating system.
R16 l appi ng bars 800 l ong,
debonded one si de wi th
grease or pl asti c tape
Debonded l ength of bar
Wall reinforcement
Filler strip and sealant Vertical reinforcement
Figure 13.2 - Control joint detail (see 13.1.13)
Control j oi nts
Figure 13.1 - Location of control joints for shrinkage (see 13.1.1)
5.2m
6
0
0
Less than
6m
Less than
6m
Control j oi nts
Less than
6m
Less than
6m
3.2m max.
3.2m max.
seCtion 5 - ControL Joints
Control Joint Detail
12 Masonry Homes Construction Manual - V1 2008
Suspended concrete foors differ from timber foors in
many ways. They are quieter, stronger, provide greater
fre protection, and where large spans are required or
where supporting walls are retaining fll, are usually
cheaper. Most builders are impressed with the speed of
installation of a suspended concrete fooring system.
6.1 Types of Concrete Floors
There are two types of suspended concrete foors. One
being precast and the other being steel tray. Both of
these are placed on the supporting walls and a topping
slab of concrete is then poured. This manual will focus
on precast fooring systems, as they are more common.
For information on the tray type of system, contact
Dimond Industries. The main types of precast fooring
systems used in a structural masonry system are Flat
Slabs, or Rib and Infll systems. They can accommodate
clear spans of up to approximately 8m. Manufacturers
can provide an engineering service as part of the supply
of these units. If there are any technical questions about
these foors, contact your nearest manufacturer or www.
precastnz.org.nz
The precast concrete foors are connected to walls by
starter bars extending from the wall, and cast into the
topping concrete. The fooring units should only be placed
after the Blockfll has been poured and allowed to set.
6.2 Flooring Systems
Both these fooring systems below are designed to
be composite foors made up of prestressed concrete
panels/beams with a concrete topping poured on site. The
units are available in lengths to suit the project design
and must be placed as per the construction drawings
prepared by the supplier. The units are uniquely identifed
for this purpose.
These systems are also designed to span between
supporting walls. As such, the units are deliberately
made discontinuous over concrete walls. The topping is
continuous across the entire foor. Timber walls should
not be load bearing under concrete suspended foors and
should never be used to support either of these fooring
systems.
6.3 Prestressed Flat Slab Flooring System
Prestressed Flat Slabs come as 240mm or 1200mm wide
and 75mm thick (other widths are possible if required).
The topping depth varies from 75mm 130mm. Props
as required on the suppliers drawing must be in place
before the slabs are placed.
Section of Prestressed Concrete Propped Floor
Section of Beam Infll Floor
6.4 Rib and Infll Flooring System
The Rib and Infll system comes as a series of beams
200mm wide by 100mm (usually) placed at 800mm
centres. Timber planks are placed between the beams
to act as permanent formwork for the concrete topping.
Props as required on the suppliers drawing must be in
place before the 200mm wide ribs are placed.
6.5 Construction Considerations
Concrete foor units are heavy, so suitable lifting
equipment will be required, in the form of a crane or a
Hiab. Site access is a consideration, the further away
from the building the crane has to park, the larger it has
to be. However, in most residential situations the sites
can be serviced with a Hiab.
6.6 Placing the Units
It is important to place the fooring units as required
by the precast manufacturers drawings. Seating on
blockwork is important. Too much seating on one end
will mean not enough at the other, causing an overload
of the supporting walls in compression. A good way to
allow easy movement of the units once in place is to
use a plastic bearing strip. This allows the units to be
located accurately before the topping is poured, as the
units can be shifted on the plastic instead of damaging
the blockwork and/or units themselves. Once the topping
is poured everything is locked in place.
seCtion 6 - susPended ConCrete FLoors
Masonry Homes Construction Manual - V1 2008 13
It is important to locate the units next to each other in the
manner detailed in the construction drawings. Flat Slabs
should be butted hard against each other so there is no
gap between units. This will minimise concrete leakage
when the topping is poured. Rib units have a small
amount of tolerance because of the timber infll planks.
However, these timber planks require close alignment to
minimise concrete leakage.
6.7 Temporary Propping
Before erecting, props must be installed at the positions
and precamber levels as shown in the manufacturers
drawings. The props must be levelled to an accuracy of
3mm, must be adequate to safely carry the construction
loads with out settlement and must be well braced in
each direction. The photograph below shows timber
props. These must be designed with suitable top and
bottom bearing plates and bracing.
The props may be removed once the concrete topping has
reached a compressive strength of 15MPa. This is usually
around two weeks. An initial settlement may occur once
the props are removed. The amount of initial and long
term settlement depends on the overall depth and span
of the foor system. The manufacturer can advise what
this long term defection can be.
6.8 Concrete Topping
These fooring systems derive a large portion of their
spanning capabilities from the concrete topping. This
topping varies in thickness from 70mm to 130mm. Until
this topping has gained suffcient strength (14 28 days
after pouring) some propping will be necessary. Refer
to the construction drawings prepared by the precast
manufacturer, for the location of the propping.
The perimeter boxing can be placed once the units are
located accurately. This can be set to a height so that
it can be used as screed railing. It is essential to cure
the topping correctly to ensure it reaches the required
strength. Insuffcient curing of the foor may result in
greater defections than designed for.
6.9 Topping Reinforcement
The fooring units are cast with pretensioning reinforcing
strands. The reinforcement requirements in the topping
will be detailed on the precast manufacturers drawings,
as will any extra bars for cantilevered balconies etc. It is
important that the reinforcement mesh is supported on
mesh chairs to ensure correct location within the topping.
Any supplementary reinforcement should be tied to the
mesh either under or on top, depending on the thickness
of the topping.
The reinforcement from the lower storey wall needs to be
tied into the topping. For walls that are supporting units
on both sides, the starter bars should bend alternate
directions. Refer to the photograph below.
14 Masonry Homes Construction Manual - V1 2008
6.10 Services
It is possible to place services in the topping. Usually
this is limited to 40mm diameter waste pipes. A thicker
topping to accommodate the pipes will normally be used
(up to 20mm thicker).
6.12 Balconies
It is beyond the scope of this document to provide detailing
for balconies.
Balconies are to be specifcally designed by the precast
foor manufacture and engineer.
6.13 Waterproofng
Any suspended foor exposed to the weather will require
waterproofng on the surface to prevent penetration of
moisture to a habitable room or garage below. Refer to
the manufacturer for details.
Installation of services into a masonry home is a simple
exercise. Exactly the same planning is required as for a
conventional timber frame building. Changes are diffcult
to achieve after the grouting of masonry walls.
6.11 Penetrations in the Floor
When penetrations are required in the foor due to
services, the precast manufacturer must be informed
before the units are made, this ensures that the
pretensioning strands are unaffected. It is not
recommended that the units are cut on site unless
specifcally instructed by the precast manufacturer.
Masonry Homes Construction Manual - V1 2008 15
7.1 Locations of Services
Methods of installing plumbing and electrical lines
depend on whether they are run through, within or
alongside the concrete masonry wall. Penetrations are
necessary primarily to allow services to pass directly
through the wall. Lines that run parallel to the wall can
reside either within the masonry cores themselves or in
the cavity created if the wall is to be strapped and lined.
Any openings required in the face shell shall be formed
with drills and saws. The use of hammers can crack
adjacent block faces and/or disturb mortar joints, both of
which can then leak.
Penetrations
Holes penetrating straight through a concrete masonry
wall can be created as the wall is assembled or after
assembly. During construction holes are left in the
designated locations by cutting sections of the blocks
before they are laid. An alternative is to drill through the
wall after wall assembly. The advantage of this is that
the blocklaying is uninterrupted and allows for delays
in deciding precise locations for the penetrations. With
either method, it is important to avoid the masonry webs
and to seal around the holes before blockflling.
Services within Masonry Cores
If the interior of the wall is to be plastered or left exposed,
the services must be placed within the cores of the wall.
Provision must be made for the services as the masonry
is installed. Either the blocklayer or the service installer
will make cut-outs in the block face shells where the
electrical fush boxes and other service mounts will be
fxed. After the wall is completed, the electrician will pull
wires, install boxes and other fxtures. In partially flled
masonry, good planning will see the services installed in
a hollow core of the block wall.
7.2 Electrical
The location of all electrical fttings needs to be confrmed
prior to grouting. Electrical cable is usually run through
PVC conduit that has been placed inside the block wall
prior to grouting. It is not good practice to place more
than one conduit within a single vertical core that is to be
flled with grout.
The length of conduit and the number of bends should be
kept to a minimum so as to not affect the installation of
the cables within the conduit. With long, twisting conduits
the friction can make it diffcult to pull the wires/cables
through.
The locations of the fush boxes should be marked out
on the masonry wall prior to grouting. Then the face
shell of the masonry block is cut out or drilled out and
the conduit is placed within the core of the masonry wall
extending out the wall at the location of the fush box.
The hole is then sealed around the conduit and the wall
is then grouted. Once the wall is grouted, the face of the
masonry unit can be cut for the installation of the fush
box.
In this photograph, the fush box is visible in the fnished
wall. Switchplate fxing is identical to that on a timber
frame wall.
7.3 Plumbing
Consideration needs to be given to upstairs bathroom
facilities and their location relative to external walls.
seCtion 7 - serViCes
16 Masonry Homes Construction Manual - V1 2008
Where necessary it is possible to leave a core of the
masonry blocks empty during pouring so that the
waste pipes can be run inside the blockwork. This gives
excellent noise dampening properties. This needs to be
coordinated with the Architect or Engineer to ensure that
the structural performance of the wall is unaffected.
For upstairs bathrooms and toilets located away from
external walls, plumbing needs to be routed to these
When the wall is to be strapped and lined, the services
can simply be placed in the cavity between the masonry
and the lining. This is very similar to that in traditional
timber frame construction.
7.5 Future Proofng
Data cabling offers many advantages over conventional
electrical cabling. With this type of system, the entire
houses lights, curtains, alarm systems, and heating can
be controlled from one point.
Installation of data cables is very similar to electrical
cables but there are a few minor points to consider:
Where any data cables run parallel to electrical cables,
maintain at least 300mm separation. This is to stop
any electromagnetic interference of the transmission
of data as with any type of construction.
When data and electrical cables have to cross, make
sure they are at right angles to each other.
In some situations, data cabling can reduce the number of
wires required to manage the houses electrical systems.
Traditional cabling requires an individual wire for each
electrical item to be controlled. With data cabling, a
single control panel is capable of controlling the entire
house.
walls. With a Prestressed Flat Slab foor the pipes can
be placed within a false ceiling as it is not practical to
run the large diameter toilet waste pipes in the concrete
foor. Rib and Infll foors can have an advantage in this
situation, as the beams create a natural 100mm deep
space when using a plasterboard ceiling. The pipes must
run parallel to the Rib Infll beams, as it is not possible to
core through a beam without compromising strength.
7.4 Services on Strapped and Lined Walls
Masonry Homes Construction Manual - V1 2008 17
One of the benefts of solid structural masonry
construction is the lack of foot impact noise from
concrete suspended foors and the all round quietness
provided by the downstairs concrete walls. This effect
can be continued with a concrete staircase. There are
a number of options available for the type of concrete
staircase used and how it is installed.
8.1 Cast-in-situ Staircases
A cast-in-situ staircase is where the staircase shape
is boxed on site, the steel is placed, and concrete is
poured. A stiff concrete mix is used to ensure that the
concrete does not slump to the bottom. Advantages with
this system are that the staircase can be installed at any
stage of the construction and any inaccuracies in wall or
foor construction can be easily accommodated.
This type of construction works well when staircases
have short spans or there is an unusual shape to be
formed. It is important to ensure that the surface of the
staircase is fnished smooth enough to be used bare even
if the stairs are to be covered, as it is easier to make the
concrete smooth before it has cured, grinding off the
surplus dags can be an expensive exercise.
8.2 Precast Staircases
Precast staircases can be an economic solution when
longer spans are required. This type of staircase offers
great speed of construction and can also be made with
a fnished (exposed) surface. A greater accuracy in
construction of the supporting walls is required.
One type of staircase is called monolithic, where the
staircase is cast in one large unit. It is wise to consider
the site access with this type, as the staircase requires
heavy lifting equipment to install. Good construction
planning can allow installation at the same time as the
suspended concrete foor, requiring a crane to visit the
site only once. Usually starter bars cast into the staircase
extend from the ends of the staircase, to tie into the
topping concrete of the suspended concrete foor.
Another type of precast staircase is made up of separate
components beams which support individual risers
and treads, and can be installed at virtually any stage
once the supporting walls have been grouted. As the
components are relatively lightweight, most often they
can be manhandled into place.
seCtion 8 - stairCases
18 Masonry Homes Construction Manual - V1 2008
The two most popular methods of roof connection are
by top plate and metal strap. Either one can be used
in almost any circumstance. The top plate requires
more material, but leaves greater fexibility for the roof
members to be placed. It also leaves a nailing surface
along the top of the wall, which is useful if a trim is to be
installed. Metal straps can provide a stronger connection
and for high-wind areas are often compulsory. They also
leave the concrete masonry surface uninterrupted to the
roofine (good for plastering).
9.1 Top Plate
This is the most common approach where a wooden
plate is installed along the top of the wall and the roofng
members attach to it conventionally. Anchor bolts hold
the plate in place. These bolts are suspended in the bond
beam prior to the wall being flled and upon grouting they
lock into place. The top plates are drilled and screwed
into place. As with any timber/masonry connection, the
top plate needs to be protected from moisture by DPC or
similar.
9.2 Metal straps
Metal straps or hurricane straps can also connect the wall
to the roofng members. The straps are positioned in the
blockfll at the design locations of the roofng members.
The roof is built on top of the wall with each strap nailed
to its representative member.
In general the most critical aspect of masonry
construction is the installation of windows. If a house is
going to leak, it is most likely to be caused by inadequate
sealing around window frames. Masonry homes are just
as prone to leaking around windows as any other home if
incorrect installation techniques are used.
The Architect or Designer should carefully select a sealing
and coating system from a reputable manufacturer. The
directions of that manufacturer should be carefully
followed, at all times.
The four Ds for weather tightness design are,
defection, drainage, drying and durability. Penetrations
through masonry walls may employ the Ds by-
1. defection are building elements that shelter the wall
or divert water away from critical junctions such as
eaves, drip moulds and sealants.
2. drainage is achieved by ensuring that any water that
gets in is drained back out generally through an
unsealed joint along the bottom.
3. The unsealed bottom edge allows some circulation of
air to aid drying.
4. Air seals installed around the inside edges of the
openings restrict the passage of air through joints and
prevent water being carried to the interior.
Details which employ these principles are summarized
in two publications-
Concrete Masonry- a guide to weathertight
construction, available for free download from the
NZ Concrete Masonry Associations website
www.nzcma.org.nz
Weathertight Solutions Volume 4- Masonry, details for
junctions and openings in masonry walls. Available
from BRANZ.
An illustration of a typical construction sequence is as
follows.
Flush any block joints around the window opening with
mortar. This removes any recesses in the surface that
would require excess sealant to be applied.
seCtion 9 - rooF ConneCtion
seCtion 10 - WindoW instaLLation
Masonry Homes Construction Manual - V1 2008 19
Apply a waterproofng membrane around head, jamb,
and sill. This waterproofng membrane should cover the
entire thickness of the wall and be extended a minimum
of 50mm on the exterior face around the penetration.
Ensure that the window frame is located accurately and
square in the opening. This will ensure a uniform gap
around the frame for further application of sealant.
A: Once the window is fxed and square install backing
rod and foam airseal to the interior of the jonery.
Fit joinery leaving a 5mm gap between the window frame
and masonry rebate.
B: apply a fexible seal to the gap between the top and
sides of window frame and masonry wall. Do not seal
along the bottom of the window frame.
With the paint system, it is very important that the
paint coat is applied over the fexible sealant up to the
joinery. This provides one extra defence against moisture
ingress. The Architect or Designer should fully detail the
weatherproofng procedures for window openings.
Ensure that all paint, sealants and coatings are
compatible. The use of one selected, reputable
manufacturers products and system is strongly
recommended.
20 Masonry Homes Construction Manual - V1 2008
External waterproofng systems are one of the most
critical aspects of the construction and also have a large
visual impact. Coating of a masonry home is a simple
process but there are a few areas that need special
attention before applying the coating.
11.1 Dry Blockwork
Before coating, the blockwork must be dry. AS/NZS
2311:2000 provides a guideline for recommended
drying times for recently constructed masonry. The
recommended times are 8 weeks for solid-flled
construction and 4 weeks for partial-flled construction.
Wet concrete masonry units shrink when drying. This
movement is minute but is still signifcant if a brittle
coating (such as plaster) is applied to wet blocks.
Cracking is likely to occur in the plaster due to the block
movement.
The following conditions have the most infuence on
shrinking:
Masonry units stored on site and not covered are laid
wet.
Signfcant rainfall occurring during blocklaying
(especially during winter).
Insuffcient time to allow drying prior to applying the
coating.
Once suffcient drying has occurred the exterior coating
should be applied as soon as practical to prevent further
moisture entering the masonry.
11.2 Cleaning Blockwork
Ensure the blockwork is clean and free from surplus
mortar/grout. All mortar joints should be free from
dags and blocks should have smooth clean surfaces. A
common practice is to brush the surface of the wall down
with a wire brush or rub a piece of masonry on it to clean
the wall.
11.3 Application
It is strongly recommended that an accredited applicator
of the coating chosen for the job is hired. They have the
know how and can deal with problems, if they arise,
better than anyone. The accredited applicator normally
has the manufacturers guarantee as support should
anything go wrong.
It is vitally important to follow the coating manufacturers
application instructions. Incorrect application may lead
to the coating not providing the waterproofng expected.
In multicoated systems, do not change from one brand to
another from one layer to the next. Each manufacturer
will have ensured that reaction occurs with the mixing of
their products. This cannot always be guaranteed when
products from different manufacturers are mixed.
Firth does not claim to be the expert in the application
of coatings on masonry. It is strongly recommended
that the manufacturer of the preferred coating(s) be
consulted for advice in this area.
seCtion 11 - WaterProoFing/Coating systeMs
Masonry Homes Construction Manual - V1 2008 21
12.1 Acrylic Paint
Good quality acrylic paint acts as a moisture barrier but
not a vapour barrier. This allows the blocks to breathe
removing any trapped water vapour while at the same time
stopping moisture from rain from entering the blocks.
Paint like this has no rendering ability so it is usually
applied over a skim coat of sand-cement plaster but can
be applied directly to blockwork if that look is desired.
If this type of coating is to be used, it is recommended
that three coats be applied, or in accordance with the
manufacturers specifcation.
12.2 High-build Elastomeric Coatings
High-build elastomeric coatings are similar to a very
thick acrylic paint. Using the latest paint and polymer
technology they offer a coating system that can have a
variety of looks, ranging from conventional paint look
to a textured plaster fnish. These are recommended
as a coating system for masonry, as they have a great
amount of fexibility and can cope with small amounts of
movement that may occur.
12.3 Solid Plaster
Sand-cement plaster is the traditional method of coating
masonry and it is usually coated with one of the above
treatments for waterproofng.
The frst treatment for the dry masonry surface is the
application of a scratch or splatter coat. This is a sand-
cement slurry that is splattered onto the wall, creating a
rougher surface for the main plaster coat to bond to. The
plaster needs to adhere to the wall or there is potential
for what is called drummy plaster to occur. This is a
condition where the plaster coat has not broken but has
de-bonded from the masonry and when tapped it makes
a slight hollow sound. After this preparation coat, it is
common for two or three coats of plaster to be trowelled
on. It is even possible to spray the plaster on which
speeds up the process. The top coat of the plaster can be
coloured to match the paint just like an undercoat.
There is a wide range of surface fnishes available. This
can range from an undulating fnish (achieving a rough
country look) to straight plaster fnishes (the smoothest
type of fnish available). The undulating plaster is usually
the most cost effective, as it requires less labour to
create. Other thinner coating systems cannot achieve
this undulating appearance.
12.4 Modifed Plaster
These are typically acrylic-based proprietary coating
systems developed for use on masonry structures. They
are designed to provide a substantial look while offering
protection from ingress of moisture. They are applied in a
similar manner to solid plaster, but refer to the relevant
manufacturer for their recommendations.
12.5 Clear Sealants
Other types of coatings basically rely on their inherent
thickness and elasticity to provide long term protection.
But thick coatings are easily seen, defeating the purpose
of using a clear sealant that uncoated look. Refer to the
clear sealant manufacturer for suitability, application and
maintenance information.
12.6 Cement Based Paints
It is not recommend to use cement-based paints directly
on blockwork. These paints are very brittle and once
wall movement occurs, cracking of the coating is almost
inevitable.
seCtion 12 - eXternaL Coating systeMs
22 Masonry Homes Construction Manual - V1 2008
The choice of internal linings is basically limitless. As it
has almost no impact on the structure, any type of fnish
can be accommodated.
13.1 Exposed Blockwork
Exposed blockwork (fair faced) has found new favour
with the architectural community. This is the cheapest
option. Internally there is no issue with leaving the
blockwork uncoated as the waterproofng is provided
from the outside. Where a fair faced fnish is desired in a
wet area such as a bathroom, a suitable sealing system
may be selected. Refer to the sealant manufacturers
recommendations prior to use.
13.2 Paint Finish
Where strapping and lining is used the thermal mass of
the masonry wall is isolated from the interior and the heat
storage capacity of solid construction is compromised.
Guidance on R-values required for strapped and lined
construction can be found in the Firth publication,
Masonry Insulation Solutions.
13.4 Plasterboard
Blockwork with GIB

plasterboard glued directly to the


masonry is a quick and economic method of coating
the walls. This gives the GIB

plasterboard wall a
much more solid feel as there is no cavity and ensures
that that thermal mass befts of solid construction are
maintained.
This method does rely on a well maintained external
waterproof coating.
Consult your GIB

plasterboard supplier to determine


when the glue fxed GIB

plasterboard method should be


used.
Paint over bare blockwork is a relatively low cost solution.
This provides a uniform colour to the wall and still allows
the mortar joints to be seen. It is important that the walls
are as dry as possible before applying the paint. If any
excess moisture is trapped, it is likely to bubble the paint
over time. In order to hide the block lines, a high-build
elastomeric coating with a levelling coat can be used.
13.3 Strapped and Lined
This method involves fxing strapping to the block wall and
fxing GIB

plasterboard to it. The cavity can be utilised


as service channels. This method may also incorporate
insultation, however with HotBloc

there is no need to
use this type of construction for insulation. Strapping
and lining comes into its own is that it allows relatively
easy installation of electrical services at a later date if
the owner wishes to upgrade the services.
seCtion 13 - internaL Coating systeMs
Masonry Homes Construction Manual - V1 2008 23
13.5 Tiling
The basic requirements for tiling do not change from wet
areas to dry areas but there are some requirements that
need to be followed in order to get a quality job. The basic
requirements are:
Blockwork needs to be fush-jointed in order to
provide a fat surface for tile adhesive application or an
adhesive designed for application directly to blockwork
needs to be used.
If tiling over a control joint in the blockwork, a control
joint in the tiles must also be provided, as any movement
that occurs in the block wall will be refected in the
tiling.
It is of utmost importance to ensure that blockwork
is dry before application of tiles as any shrinkage
movement will refect cracks in the surface due to
their brittle nature.
13.6 Plaster fnish
The same procedure applies as for the application of
external plaster. First a splatter coat is applied followed
by the topcoat(s).
24 Masonry Homes Construction Manual - V1 2008
This section illustrates typical construction details.
Other sources of information include
NZS 4229 which provides details on retaining walls,
foundations, bond beams and wall to foor and wall to
roof details.
Weathertight Solution Volume 4 produced by BRANZ.
This document provides numerous illustrations of
details to ensure weathertightness. This document is
available from BRANZ as a hard copy or a CD containing
CAD drawings.
seCtion 14 - ConstruCtion detaiLs
Masonry Homes Construction Manual - V1 2008 25
G r a d e 3 0 0 4 0 b a r d i a
G r a d e 5 0 0 7 0 b a r d i a
3
0
0
3 0 5 m m
I
n
t
e
r
i
o
r

p
l
a
s
t
e
r
/
f
i
n
i
s
h

a
s
s
p
e
c
i
f
i
e
d
H
o
r
i
z
o
n
t
a
l

r
e
i
n
f
o
r
c
e
m
e
n
t
G
r
o
u
t

1
7
.
5

M
P
a
(
e
x
c
e
p
t

s
e
a

s
p
r
a
y

z
o
n
e
s

2
5

M
P
a
)
V
e
r
t
i
c
a
l

r
e
i
n
f
o
r
c
e
m
e
n
t

c
e
n
t
r
a
l
t
o

t
h
e

r
e
s
u
l
t
a
n
t

g
r
o
u
t

c
a
v
i
t
y
H
D
1
2
6
6
5

m
e
s
h
F
i
r
t
h

R
a
f
t
S
a
n
d

b
l
i
n
d
i
n
g
V
a
p
o
u
r

b
a
r
r
i
e
r
F
i
r
t
h

R
i
b
R
a
f
t


p
o
l
y
s
t
y
r
e
n
e

p
o
d

i
n
s
t
a
l
l
a
t
i
o
n

i
n
a
c
c
o
r
d
a
n
c
e

t
o

F
i
r
t
h

R
i
b
R
a
f
t


c
o
n
s
t
r
u
c
t
i
o
n

d
e
t
a
i
l
s
N
o
t
e
s
:
x
R
e
f
e
r

t
o

N
Z
S

4
2
2
9

o
r

s
p
e
c
i
f
i
c

d
e
s
i
g
n

f
o
r
m
a
s
o
n
r
y

w
a
l
l

r
e
i
n
f
o
r
c
e
m
e
n
t

d
e
t
a
i
l
s
.
x
R
e
f
e
r

t
o

s
p
e
c
i
f
i
c

d
e
s
i
g
n

f
o
r

d
i
m
e
n
s
i
o
n

&
r
e
i
n
f
o
r
c
i
n
g

o
f

R
i
b
R
a
f
t


f
l
o
o
r

s
y
s
t
e
m
.
F
i
r
t
h

H
o
t
B
l
o
c

P
o
l
y
s
t
y
r
e
n
e

i
n
s
u
l
a
t
i
o
n
E
x
t
e
r
i
o
r

p
l
a
s
t
e
r
/
f
i
n
i
s
h

a
s

s
p
e
c
i
f
i
e
d
w
i
t
h

a
p
p
l
i
e
d

w
a
t
e
r
p
r
o
o
f

c
o
a
t
i
n
g
G
r
o
u
n
d
c
l
e
a
r
a
n
c
e
p
e
r

E
2
/
A
S
1
2
H
D
1
2
m i n . l a p
w
w
w
.
f
i
r
t
h
.
c
o
.
n
z
D
i
s
c
l
a
i
m
e
r
:

T
h
i
s

i
n
f
o
r
m
a
t
i
o
n

i
s

i
n
t
e
n
d
e
d

s
o
l
e
l
y

a
s

a

g
u
i
d
e

f
o
r

u
s
e

o
f

F
i
r
t
h
p
r
o
d
u
c
t
s
.

B
e
f
o
r
e

u
s
i
n
g

a

F
i
r
t
h

p
r
o
d
u
c
t

y
o
u

s
h
o
u
l
d

e
n
s
u
r
e

t
h
a
t

t
h
e

p
r
o
d
u
c
t

i
s
s
u
i
t
a
b
l
e

f
o
r

u
s
e

i
n

t
h
e

s
p
e
c
i
f
i
c

a
p
p
l
i
c
a
t
i
o
n
.

N
o
t
h
i
n
g

i
n

t
h
i
s

i
n
f
o
r
m
a
t
i
o
n
c
o
n
s
t
i
t
u
t
e
s

a

s
t
a
t
e
m
e
n
t

o
f

f
i
t
n
e
s
s

f
o
r

p
a
r
t
i
c
u
l
a
r

p
u
r
p
o
s
e

-

a
p
p
r
o
p
r
i
a
t
e

e
x
p
e
r
t
a
d
v
i
c
e

s
h
o
u
l
d

a
l
w
a
y
s

b
e

o
b
t
a
i
n
e
d
.

F
i
r
t
h

m
a
k
e
s

n
o

w
a
r
r
a
n
t
y

r
e
g
a
r
d
i
n
g

t
h
e

u
s
e
o
f

t
h
i
s

i
n
f
o
r
m
a
t
i
o
n

w
i
t
h

n
o
n
-
F
i
r
t
h

p
r
o
d
u
c
t
.


2
0
0
9

.

T
h
e

c
o
p
y
r
i
g
h
t

o
f

t
h
i
s

d
o
c
u
m
e
n
t

i
s
t
h
e

p
r
o
p
e
r
t
y

o
f

F
i
r
t
h

a
n
d

s
h
a
l
l

n
o
t

b
e
r
e
p
r
o
d
u
c
e
d
,

c
o
p
i
e
d
,

l
o
a
n
e
d

o
r

d
i
s
p
o
s
e
d

o
f
d
i
r
e
c
t
l
y
,

o
r

i
n
d
i
r
e
c
t
l
y
,

n
o
r

u
s
e
d

f
o
r

a
n
y
p
u
r
p
o
s
e

o
t
h
e
r

t
h
a
n

t
h
a
t

f
o
r

w
h
i
c
h

i
t

i
s
s
p
e
c
i
f
i
c
a
l
l
y

f
u
r
n
i
s
h
e
d

w
i
t
h
o
u
t

p
r
i
o
r

c
o
n
s
e
n
t
.
F
o
r

T
e
c
h
n
i
c
a
l

A
d
v
i
c
e
:


P
h
.

0
8
0
0

8
0
0

5
7
6
F
i
r
t
h

R
i
b
R
a
f
t

F
l
o
o
r

S
y
s
t
e
m

S
t
a
n
d
a
r
d

E
d
g
e

B
e
a
m

D
e
t
a
i
l
S
l
a
b

F
o
u
n
d
a
t
i
o
n

W
i
t
h

I
n
s
u
l
a
t
i
o
n

1
0
0
1
0
0
_
s
t
a
n
d
a
r
d
_
e
d
g
e
.
d
w
g
F
e
b
r
u
a
r
y

2
0
0
9
S
c
a
l
e

1
:
1
0
S
t
a
n
d
a
r
d

E
d
g
e

B
e
a
m

D
e
t
a
i
l
D
e
t
a
i
l
:
1
0
0
_
s
t
a
n
d
a
r
d
_
e
d
g
e
26 Masonry Homes Construction Manual - V1 2008
G r a d e 3 0 0 4 0 b a r d i a
G r a d e 5 0 0 7 0 b a r d i a
S e e N o t e
S e e N o t e
S
e
e

N
o
t
e
S
e
e

N
o
t
e
O
p
t
i
o
n
a
l

a
d
d
i
t
i
o
n
a
l

l
a
y
e
r

o
f
i
n
s
u
l
a
t
i
o
n
7
5
m
m

m
i
n
i
m
u
m

g
r
a
n
u
l
a
r

f
i
l
l
D
a
m
p

p
r
o
o
f

m
e
m
b
r
a
n
e
D
1
2

t
i
e
s

@

6
0
0

c
t
r
s
.
(
l
a
p

6
0
0

m
i
n
.
)
C
o
n
c
r
e
t
e

(
1
7
.
5

M
P
a
)
R
e
i
n
f
o
r
c
i
n
g

m
e
s
h
1
0
0
m
m

s
l
a
b
V
e
r
t
i
c
a
l

r
e
i
n
f
o
r
c
e
m
e
n
t

c
e
n
t
r
a
l

t
o
c
a
v
i
t
y
G
r
o
u
t

1
7
.
5

M
P
a
(
E
x
c
e
p
t

s
e
a

s
p
r
a
y

z
o
n
e
s

2
5
M
P
a
)
I
n
t
e
r
i
o
r

p
l
a
s
t
e
r
/
f
i
n
i
s
h

a
s
s
p
e
c
i
f
i
e
d
N
o
t
e
:
R
e
f
e
r

t
o

N
Z
S

4
2
2
9
:
1
9
9
9

o
r

s
p
e
c
i
f
i
c
d
e
s
i
g
n

f
o
r

d
i
m
e
n
s
i
o
n
,

r
e
i
n
f
o
r
c
i
n
g
,

a
n
d
g
r
o
u
n
d

c
l
e
a
r
a
n
c
e
s
G
r
o
u
n
d
C
l
e
a
r
a
n
c
e
p
e
r

E
2
/
A
S
1
T
y
p
e

2
0
.
4
5

b
l
o
c
k
s

m
u
s
t

b
e

l
a
i
d
w
i
t
h
i
n

f
i
n
i
s
h
e
d

f
l
o
o
r

l
e
v
e
l
t
o
l
e
r
a
n
c
e
s
E
x
t
e
r
i
o
r

p
l
a
s
t
e
r
/
f
i
n
i
s
h

a
s
s
p
e
c
i
f
i
e
d

w
i
t
h

a
p
p
l
i
e
d
w
a
t
e
r
p
r
o
o
f
i
n
g
P
o
l
y
s
t
y
r
e
n
e
F
i
r
t
h

H
o
t
B
l
o
c

m i n . l a p
D
1
2
w
w
w
.
f
i
r
t
h
.
c
o
.
n
z
D
i
s
c
l
a
i
m
e
r
:

T
h
i
s

i
n
f
o
r
m
a
t
i
o
n

i
s

i
n
t
e
n
d
e
d

s
o
l
e
l
y

a
s

a

g
u
i
d
e

f
o
r

u
s
e

o
f

F
i
r
t
h
p
r
o
d
u
c
t
s
.

B
e
f
o
r
e

u
s
i
n
g

a

F
i
r
t
h

p
r
o
d
u
c
t

y
o
u

s
h
o
u
l
d

e
n
s
u
r
e

t
h
a
t

t
h
e

p
r
o
d
u
c
t

i
s
s
u
i
t
a
b
l
e

f
o
r

u
s
e

i
n

t
h
e

s
p
e
c
i
f
i
c

a
p
p
l
i
c
a
t
i
o
n
.

N
o
t
h
i
n
g

i
n

t
h
i
s

i
n
f
o
r
m
a
t
i
o
n
c
o
n
s
t
i
t
u
t
e
s

a

s
t
a
t
e
m
e
n
t

o
f

f
i
t
n
e
s
s

f
o
r

p
a
r
t
i
c
u
l
a
r

p
u
r
p
o
s
e

-

a
p
p
r
o
p
r
i
a
t
e

e
x
p
e
r
t
a
d
v
i
c
e

s
h
o
u
l
d

a
l
w
a
y
s

b
e

o
b
t
a
i
n
e
d
.

F
i
r
t
h

m
a
k
e
s

n
o

w
a
r
r
a
n
t
y

r
e
g
a
r
d
i
n
g

t
h
e

u
s
e
o
f

t
h
i
s

i
n
f
o
r
m
a
t
i
o
n

w
i
t
h

n
o
n
-
F
i
r
t
h

p
r
o
d
u
c
t
.


2
0
0
9

.

T
h
e

c
o
p
y
r
i
g
h
t

o
f

t
h
i
s

d
o
c
u
m
e
n
t

i
s
t
h
e

p
r
o
p
e
r
t
y

o
f

F
i
r
t
h

a
n
d

s
h
a
l
l

n
o
t

b
e
r
e
p
r
o
d
u
c
e
d
,

c
o
p
i
e
d
,

l
o
a
n
e
d

o
r

d
i
s
p
o
s
e
d

o
f
d
i
r
e
c
t
l
y
,

o
r

i
n
d
i
r
e
c
t
l
y
,

n
o
r

u
s
e
d

f
o
r

a
n
y
p
u
r
p
o
s
e

o
t
h
e
r

t
h
a
n

t
h
a
t

f
o
r

w
h
i
c
h

i
t

i
s
s
p
e
c
i
f
i
c
a
l
l
y

f
u
r
n
i
s
h
e
d

w
i
t
h
o
u
t

p
r
i
o
r

c
o
n
s
e
n
t
.
F
o
r

T
e
c
h
n
i
c
a
l

A
d
v
i
c
e
:


P
h
.

0
8
0
0

8
0
0

5
7
6
F
i
r
t
h

H
o
t
B
l
o
c
S
t
r
i
p

F
o
o
t
i
n
g

D
e
t
a
i
l

1
0
2
1
0
2
_
s
t
r
i
p
_
f
o
o
t
i
n
g
.
d
w
g
F
e
b
r
u
a
r
y

2
0
0
9
S
c
a
l
e

1
:
1
0
S
t
r
i
p

F
o
o
t
i
n
g

D
e
t
a
i
l
D
e
t
a
i
l
:
1
0
2
_
s
t
r
i
p
_
f
o
o
t
i
n
g

Masonry Homes Construction Manual - V1 2008 27


G r a d e 3 0 0 4 0 b a r d i a
G r a d e 5 0 0 7 0 b a r d i a
m i n . l a p
S e e
N o t e S e e N o t e
S
e
e

N
o
t
e
N
o
t
e
R
e
f
e
r

t
o

N
Z
S

4
2
2
9

o
r

s
p
e
c
i
f
i
c

d
e
s
i
g
n

f
o
r

d
i
m
e
n
s
i
o
n
,

r
e
i
n
f
o
r
c
i
n
g
,

a
n
d

g
r
o
u
n
d

c
l
e
a
r
a
n
c
e
s
S
e
e

N
o
t
e
2
0
0

x

2
0
0

h
a
u
n
c
h
7
5
m
m

m
i
n
i
m
u
m

g
r
a
n
u
l
a
r

f
i
l
l
D
a
m
p

p
r
o
o
f

m
e
m
b
r
a
n
e
I
n
t
e
r
i
o
r

p
l
a
s
t
e
r
/
f
i
n
i
s
h

a
s
s
p
e
c
i
f
i
e
d
H
o
r
i
z
o
n
t
a
l

r
e
i
n
f
o
r
c
e
m
e
n
t
G
r
o
u
t

1
7
.
5

M
P
a
(
e
x
c
e
p
t

s
e
a

s
p
r
a
y

z
o
n
e
s

2
5
M
P
a
)
V
e
r
t
i
c
a
l

r
e
i
n
f
o
r
c
e
m
e
n
t

c
e
n
t
r
a
l

t
o

c
a
v
i
t
y
1
0
0
m
m

s
l
a
b
R
e
i
n
f
o
r
c
i
n
g

m
e
s
h
C
o
n
c
r
e
t
e

(
1
7
.
5

M
P
a
)
F
i
r
t
h

H
o
t
B
l
o
c

P
o
l
y
s
t
y
r
e
n
e
E
x
t
e
r
i
o
r

p
l
a
s
t
e
r
/
f
i
n
i
s
h

a
s

s
p
e
c
i
f
i
e
d
w
i
t
h

a
p
p
l
i
e
d

w
a
t
e
r
p
r
o
o
f

c
o
a
t
i
n
g
F
i
n
i
s
h
e
d
f
l
o
o
r

l
e
v
e
l
G
r
o
u
n
d
c
l
e
a
r
e
n
c
e
p
e
r

E
2
/
A
S
1
D
1
2
D
1
2

t
i
e
s

@

6
0
0
c
t
r
s
.
(
l
a
p

6
0
0

m
i
n
.
)
w
w
w
.
f
i
r
t
h
.
c
o
.
n
z
D
i
s
c
l
a
i
m
e
r
:

T
h
i
s

i
n
f
o
r
m
a
t
i
o
n

i
s

i
n
t
e
n
d
e
d

s
o
l
e
l
y

a
s

a

g
u
i
d
e

f
o
r

u
s
e

o
f

F
i
r
t
h
p
r
o
d
u
c
t
s
.

B
e
f
o
r
e

u
s
i
n
g

a

F
i
r
t
h

p
r
o
d
u
c
t

y
o
u

s
h
o
u
l
d

e
n
s
u
r
e

t
h
a
t

t
h
e

p
r
o
d
u
c
t

i
s
s
u
i
t
a
b
l
e

f
o
r

u
s
e

i
n

t
h
e

s
p
e
c
i
f
i
c

a
p
p
l
i
c
a
t
i
o
n
.

N
o
t
h
i
n
g

i
n

t
h
i
s

i
n
f
o
r
m
a
t
i
o
n
c
o
n
s
t
i
t
u
t
e
s

a

s
t
a
t
e
m
e
n
t

o
f

f
i
t
n
e
s
s

f
o
r

p
a
r
t
i
c
u
l
a
r

p
u
r
p
o
s
e

-

a
p
p
r
o
p
r
i
a
t
e

e
x
p
e
r
t
a
d
v
i
c
e

s
h
o
u
l
d

a
l
w
a
y
s

b
e

o
b
t
a
i
n
e
d
.

F
i
r
t
h

m
a
k
e
s

n
o

w
a
r
r
a
n
t
y

r
e
g
a
r
d
i
n
g

t
h
e

u
s
e
o
f

t
h
i
s

i
n
f
o
r
m
a
t
i
o
n

w
i
t
h

n
o
n
-
F
i
r
t
h

p
r
o
d
u
c
t
.


2
0
0
9

.

T
h
e

c
o
p
y
r
i
g
h
t

o
f

t
h
i
s

d
o
c
u
m
e
n
t

i
s
t
h
e

p
r
o
p
e
r
t
y

o
f

F
i
r
t
h

a
n
d

s
h
a
l
l

n
o
t

b
e
r
e
p
r
o
d
u
c
e
d
,

c
o
p
i
e
d
,

l
o
a
n
e
d

o
r

d
i
s
p
o
s
e
d

o
f
d
i
r
e
c
t
l
y
,

o
r

i
n
d
i
r
e
c
t
l
y
,

n
o
r

u
s
e
d

f
o
r

a
n
y
p
u
r
p
o
s
e

o
t
h
e
r

t
h
a
n

t
h
a
t

f
o
r

w
h
i
c
h

i
t

i
s
s
p
e
c
i
f
i
c
a
l
l
y

f
u
r
n
i
s
h
e
d

w
i
t
h
o
u
t

p
r
i
o
r

c
o
n
s
e
n
t
.
F
o
r

T
e
c
h
n
i
c
a
l

A
d
v
i
c
e
:


P
h
.

0
8
0
0

8
0
0

5
7
6
F
i
r
t
h

H
o
t
B
l
o
c
E
d
g
e

T
h
i
c
k
e
n
e
d

S
l
a
b

D
e
t
a
i
l

1
0
3
1
0
3
_
e
d
g
e
_
t
h
i
c
k
e
n
e
d
.
d
w
g
F
e
b
r
u
a
r
y

2
0
0
9
S
c
a
l
e

1
:
1
0
E
d
g
e

T
h
i
c
k
e
n
e
d

S
l
a
b

D
e
t
a
i
l
D
e
t
a
i
l
:
1
0
3
_
e
d
g
e
_
t
h
i
c
k
e
n
e
d

28 Masonry Homes Construction Manual - V1 2008


N
o
t
e
:

r
e
f
e
r

t
o

N
Z
S

4
2
2
9

o
r

s
p
e
c
i
f
i
c

d
e
s
i
g
n

f
o
r

m
a
s
o
n
r
y

r
e
i
n
f
o
r
c
i
n
g
B
l
o
c
k

w
a
l
l

g
r
o
u
t
e
d

t
o

t
h
i
s

l
e
v
e
l

b
e
f
o
r
e
p
l
a
c
i
n
g

p
r
e
c
a
s
t

f
l
o
o
r
i
n
g
P
r
e
c
a
s
t

f
l
o
o
r
i
n
g
V
a
r
i
e
s

w
i
t
h

s
p
a
n

a
n
d

l
o
a
d
i
n
g
M
e
s
h

s
i
z
e

a
p
p
r
o
p
r
i
a
t
e

t
o

t
o
p
p
i
n
g

t
h
i
c
k
n
e
s
s
B
o
x

a
n
d

f
o
r
m

u
p
s
t
a
n
d

f
o
r


w
a
l
l

a
b
o
v
e

a
s
r
e
q
u
i
r
e
d
V
e
r
t
i
c
a
l

r
e
i
n
f
o
r
c
i
n
g

c
e
n
t
r
a
l

t
o

c
a
v
i
t
y
I
n
t
e
r
i
o
r

p
l
a
s
t
e
r
/
f
i
n
i
s
h

a
s

s
p
e
c
i
f
i
e
d
E
x
t
e
r
i
o
r

p
l
a
s
t
e
r
/
f
i
n
i
s
h

a
s

s
p
e
c
i
f
i
e
d

w
i
t
h

a
p
p
l
i
e
d
w
a
t
e
r
p
r
o
o
f

c
o
a
t
i
n
g
P
o
l
y
s
t
y
r
e
n
e
F
i
r
t
h

H
o
t
B
l
o
c

S
t
a
r
t
e
r
s

D
1
2
@
6
0
0

c
t
s
.
(
l
a
p

6
0
0

m
i
n
.
)
H
o
t
B
l
o
c


b
o
n
d
-
b
e
a
m
O
p
t
i
o
n
a
l

s
u
r
f
a
c
e
w
a
t
e
r

c
h
a
n
n
e
l
B
a
s
e

c
o
u
r
s
e
G
r
a
n
u
l
a
r

d
r
a
i
n
a
g
e

m
e
t
a
l
M
e
m
b
r
a
n
e

p
r
o
t
e
c
t
i
o
n
C
o
n
t
i
n
u
o
u
s

d
a
m
p
-
p
r
o
o
f
m
e
m
b
r
a
n
e

t
o

w
a
l
l

a
n
d

u
n
d
e
r
f
l
o
o
r
F
i
l
t
e
r

f
r
a
b
r
i
c
C
o
n
c
r
e
t
e

m
a
s
o
n
r
y
S
l
o
t
t
e
d

d
r
a
i
n

t
o

f
a
l
l

t
o

o
u
t
f
a
l
l
d
r
a
i
n
1
0
0
m
m

r
e
b
a
t
e
C
o
n
c
r
e
t
e

f
l
o
o
r

s
l
a
b

a
n
d

f
o
o
t
i
n
g
r
e
i
n
f
o
r
c
i
n
g

n
o
t

s
h
o
w
n

f
o
r

c
l
a
r
i
t
y
D
a
m
p
-
p
r
o
o
f

m
e
m
b
r
a
n
e
S
i
t
e

c
o
n
c
r
e
t
e
(
t
i
d
y

s
l
a
b
)
B
e
d
d
i
n
g
:

M
o
r
t
a
r

s
e
a
t
i
n
g

f
o
r

p
r
e
c
a
s
t

f
l
o
o
r
i
n
g
7
5
m
m

e
n
d

S
e
a
t
i
n
g
I
n
t
e
r
i
o
r

p
l
a
s
t
e
r
/
f
i
n
i
s
h

a
s
s
p
e
c
i
f
i
e
d
w
w
w
.
f
i
r
t
h
.
c
o
.
n
z
D
i
s
c
l
a
i
m
e
r
:

T
h
i
s

i
n
f
o
r
m
a
t
i
o
n

i
s

i
n
t
e
n
d
e
d

s
o
l
e
l
y

a
s

a

g
u
i
d
e

f
o
r

u
s
e

o
f

F
i
r
t
h
p
r
o
d
u
c
t
s
.

B
e
f
o
r
e

u
s
i
n
g

a

F
i
r
t
h

p
r
o
d
u
c
t

y
o
u

s
h
o
u
l
d

e
n
s
u
r
e

t
h
a
t

t
h
e

p
r
o
d
u
c
t

i
s
s
u
i
t
a
b
l
e

f
o
r

u
s
e

i
n

t
h
e

s
p
e
c
i
f
i
c

a
p
p
l
i
c
a
t
i
o
n
.

N
o
t
h
i
n
g

i
n

t
h
i
s

i
n
f
o
r
m
a
t
i
o
n
c
o
n
s
t
i
t
u
t
e
s

a

s
t
a
t
e
m
e
n
t

o
f

f
i
t
n
e
s
s

f
o
r

p
a
r
t
i
c
u
l
a
r

p
u
r
p
o
s
e

-

a
p
p
r
o
p
r
i
a
t
e

e
x
p
e
r
t
a
d
v
i
c
e

s
h
o
u
l
d

a
l
w
a
y
s

b
e

o
b
t
a
i
n
e
d
.

F
i
r
t
h

m
a
k
e
s

n
o

w
a
r
r
a
n
t
y

r
e
g
a
r
d
i
n
g

t
h
e

u
s
e
o
f

t
h
i
s

i
n
f
o
r
m
a
t
i
o
n

w
i
t
h

n
o
n
-
F
i
r
t
h

p
r
o
d
u
c
t
.


2
0
0
9

.

T
h
e

c
o
p
y
r
i
g
h
t

o
f

t
h
i
s

d
o
c
u
m
e
n
t

i
s
t
h
e

p
r
o
p
e
r
t
y

o
f

F
i
r
t
h

a
n
d

s
h
a
l
l

n
o
t

b
e
r
e
p
r
o
d
u
c
e
d
,

c
o
p
i
e
d
,

l
o
a
n
e
d

o
r

d
i
s
p
o
s
e
d

o
f
d
i
r
e
c
t
l
y
,

o
r

i
n
d
i
r
e
c
t
l
y
,

n
o
r

u
s
e
d

f
o
r

a
n
y
p
u
r
p
o
s
e

o
t
h
e
r

t
h
a
n

t
h
a
t

f
o
r

w
h
i
c
h

i
t

i
s
s
p
e
c
i
f
i
c
a
l
l
y

f
u
r
n
i
s
h
e
d

w
i
t
h
o
u
t

p
r
i
o
r

c
o
n
s
e
n
t
.
F
o
r

T
e
c
h
n
i
c
a
l

A
d
v
i
c
e
:


P
h
.

0
8
0
0

8
0
0

5
7
6
F
i
r
t
h

H
o
t
B
l
o
c
B
a
s
e
m
e
n
t

1
0
4
1
0
4
_
b
a
s
e
m
e
n
t
.
d
w
g
F
e
b
r
u
a
r
y

2
0
0
9
S
c
a
l
e

1
:
2
0
B
a
s
e
m
e
n
t
D
e
t
a
i
l
:
1
0
4
_
b
a
s
e
m
e
n
t

Masonry Homes Construction Manual - V1 2008 29


T
o
p

p
l
a
t
e

a
s

s
p
e
c
i
f
i
e
d

b
y

N
Z
S
4
2
2
9

o
r

s
p
e
c
i
f
i
c

d
e
s
i
g
n
L
i
n
t
e
l

r
e
i
n
f
o
r
c
i
n
g

t
o
N
Z
S

4
2
2
9

o
r

s
p
e
c
i
f
i
c
d
e
s
i
g
n

t
o

N
Z
S

4
2
3
0
R
e
i
n
f
o
r
c
i
n
g

e
a
c
h

s
i
d
e

o
f
o
p
e
n
i
n
g
.

R
e
f
e
r

t
o


N
Z
S

4
2
2
9
.
D
.
P
.
C
.
P
o
l
y
s
t
y
r
e
n
e

i
n

F
i
r
t
h

H
o
t
B
l
o
c

t
o

b
e

p
l
a
c
e
d

t
o

t
h
e

e
x
t
e
r
n
a
l
f
a
c
e
w
w
w
.
f
i
r
t
h
.
c
o
.
n
z
D
i
s
c
l
a
i
m
e
r
:

T
h
i
s

i
n
f
o
r
m
a
t
i
o
n

i
s

i
n
t
e
n
d
e
d

s
o
l
e
l
y

a
s

a

g
u
i
d
e

f
o
r

u
s
e

o
f

F
i
r
t
h
p
r
o
d
u
c
t
s
.

B
e
f
o
r
e

u
s
i
n
g

a

F
i
r
t
h

p
r
o
d
u
c
t

y
o
u

s
h
o
u
l
d

e
n
s
u
r
e

t
h
a
t

t
h
e

p
r
o
d
u
c
t

i
s
s
u
i
t
a
b
l
e

f
o
r

u
s
e

i
n

t
h
e

s
p
e
c
i
f
i
c

a
p
p
l
i
c
a
t
i
o
n
.

N
o
t
h
i
n
g

i
n

t
h
i
s

i
n
f
o
r
m
a
t
i
o
n
c
o
n
s
t
i
t
u
t
e
s

a

s
t
a
t
e
m
e
n
t

o
f

f
i
t
n
e
s
s

f
o
r

p
a
r
t
i
c
u
l
a
r

p
u
r
p
o
s
e

-

a
p
p
r
o
p
r
i
a
t
e

e
x
p
e
r
t
a
d
v
i
c
e

s
h
o
u
l
d

a
l
w
a
y
s

b
e

o
b
t
a
i
n
e
d
.

F
i
r
t
h

m
a
k
e
s

n
o

w
a
r
r
a
n
t
y

r
e
g
a
r
d
i
n
g

t
h
e

u
s
e
o
f

t
h
i
s

i
n
f
o
r
m
a
t
i
o
n

w
i
t
h

n
o
n
-
F
i
r
t
h

p
r
o
d
u
c
t
.


2
0
0
9

.

T
h
e

c
o
p
y
r
i
g
h
t

o
f

t
h
i
s

d
o
c
u
m
e
n
t

i
s
t
h
e

p
r
o
p
e
r
t
y

o
f

F
i
r
t
h

a
n
d

s
h
a
l
l

n
o
t

b
e
r
e
p
r
o
d
u
c
e
d
,

c
o
p
i
e
d
,

l
o
a
n
e
d

o
r

d
i
s
p
o
s
e
d

o
f
d
i
r
e
c
t
l
y
,

o
r

i
n
d
i
r
e
c
t
l
y
,

n
o
r

u
s
e
d

f
o
r

a
n
y
p
u
r
p
o
s
e

o
t
h
e
r

t
h
a
n

t
h
a
t

f
o
r

w
h
i
c
h

i
t

i
s
s
p
e
c
i
f
i
c
a
l
l
y

f
u
r
n
i
s
h
e
d

w
i
t
h
o
u
t

p
r
i
o
r

c
o
n
s
e
n
t
.
F
o
r

T
e
c
h
n
i
c
a
l

A
d
v
i
c
e
:


P
h
.

0
8
0
0

8
0
0

5
7
6
F
i
r
t
h

H
o
t
B
l
o
c
S
a
m
p
l
e

R
e
s
i
d
e
n
t
i
a
l

C
o
n
s
t
r
u
c
t
i
o
n

2
0
0
2
0
0
_
s
a
m
p
l
e
_
r
e
s
i
d
e
n
t
.
d
w
g
F
e
b
r
u
a
r
y

2
0
0
9
S
c
a
l
e

1
:
1
0
S
a
m
p
l
e

R
e
s
i
d
e
n
t
i
a
l

C
o
n
s
t
r
u
c
t
i
o
n
D
e
t
a
i
l
:
2
0
0
_
s
a
m
p
l
e
_
r
e
s
i
d
e
n
t

30 Masonry Homes Construction Manual - V1 2008


C
o
n
t
i
n
u
o
u
s

h
o
r
i
z
o
n
t
a
l

s
t
e
e
l

a
n
d

t
i
e
s

i
n
c
o
n
c
r
e
t
e

f
i
l
l
e
d

b
o
n
d
-
b
e
a
m
3
9
0
m
m

d
e
e
p

l
i
n
t
e
l

r
e
i
n
f
o
r
c
e

t
o
N
Z
S

4
2
2
9

o
r

s
p
e
c
i
f
i
c

d
e
s
i
g
n
F
i
r
t
h

H
o
t
B
l
o
c

w
w
w
.
f
i
r
t
h
.
c
o
.
n
z
D
i
s
c
l
a
i
m
e
r
:

T
h
i
s

i
n
f
o
r
m
a
t
i
o
n

i
s

i
n
t
e
n
d
e
d

s
o
l
e
l
y

a
s

a

g
u
i
d
e

f
o
r

u
s
e

o
f

F
i
r
t
h
p
r
o
d
u
c
t
s
.

B
e
f
o
r
e

u
s
i
n
g

a

F
i
r
t
h

p
r
o
d
u
c
t

y
o
u

s
h
o
u
l
d

e
n
s
u
r
e

t
h
a
t

t
h
e

p
r
o
d
u
c
t

i
s
s
u
i
t
a
b
l
e

f
o
r

u
s
e

i
n

t
h
e

s
p
e
c
i
f
i
c

a
p
p
l
i
c
a
t
i
o
n
.

N
o
t
h
i
n
g

i
n

t
h
i
s

i
n
f
o
r
m
a
t
i
o
n
c
o
n
s
t
i
t
u
t
e
s

a

s
t
a
t
e
m
e
n
t

o
f

f
i
t
n
e
s
s

f
o
r

p
a
r
t
i
c
u
l
a
r

p
u
r
p
o
s
e

-

a
p
p
r
o
p
r
i
a
t
e

e
x
p
e
r
t
a
d
v
i
c
e

s
h
o
u
l
d

a
l
w
a
y
s

b
e

o
b
t
a
i
n
e
d
.

F
i
r
t
h

m
a
k
e
s

n
o

w
a
r
r
a
n
t
y

r
e
g
a
r
d
i
n
g

t
h
e

u
s
e
o
f

t
h
i
s

i
n
f
o
r
m
a
t
i
o
n

w
i
t
h

n
o
n
-
F
i
r
t
h

p
r
o
d
u
c
t
.


2
0
0
9

.

T
h
e

c
o
p
y
r
i
g
h
t

o
f

t
h
i
s

d
o
c
u
m
e
n
t

i
s
t
h
e

p
r
o
p
e
r
t
y

o
f

F
i
r
t
h

a
n
d

s
h
a
l
l

n
o
t

b
e
r
e
p
r
o
d
u
c
e
d
,

c
o
p
i
e
d
,

l
o
a
n
e
d

o
r

d
i
s
p
o
s
e
d

o
f
d
i
r
e
c
t
l
y
,

o
r

i
n
d
i
r
e
c
t
l
y
,

n
o
r

u
s
e
d

f
o
r

a
n
y
p
u
r
p
o
s
e

o
t
h
e
r

t
h
a
n

t
h
a
t

f
o
r

w
h
i
c
h

i
t

i
s
s
p
e
c
i
f
i
c
a
l
l
y

f
u
r
n
i
s
h
e
d

w
i
t
h
o
u
t

p
r
i
o
r

c
o
n
s
e
n
t
.
F
o
r

T
e
c
h
n
i
c
a
l

A
d
v
i
c
e
:


P
h
.

0
8
0
0

8
0
0

5
7
6
F
i
r
t
h

H
o
t
B
l
o
c
T
y
p
i
c
a
l

L
i
n
t
e
l

&

B
o
n
d

B
e
a
m

2
0
1
2
0
1
_
t
y
p
i
c
a
l
_
l
i
n
t
e
l
.
d
w
g
F
e
b
r
u
a
r
y

2
0
0
9
S
c
a
l
e

1
:
1
0
T
y
p
i
c
a
l

L
i
n
t
e
l

&

B
o
n
d

B
e
a
m
D
e
t
a
i
l
:
2
0
1
_
t
y
p
i
c
a
l
_
l
i
n
t
e
l

Masonry Homes Construction Manual - V1 2008 31


N
o
t
e
s
:
1
.
R
e
i
n
f
o
r
c
e
m
e
n
t

n
o
t

s
h
o
w
n

f
o
r

c
l
a
r
i
t
y
2
.
F
i
x

r
a
f
t
e
r

t
o

t
o
p

p
l
a
t
e

w
i
t
h

a
p
p
r
o
v
e
d

m
e
c
h
a
n
i
c
a
l

f
i
x
3
.
R
e
f
e
r

c
l
a
u
s
e

E
2
/
A
S
1

s
e
c
t
i
o
n

8

o
f

t
h
e

N
Z

B
u
i
l
d
i
n
g

C
o
d
e

f
o
r

f
u
l
l

w
e
a
t
h
e
r
t
i
g
h
t
n
e
s
s
d
e
t
a
i
l
i
n
g

o
f

t
h
e

r
o
o
f

s
t
r
u
c
t
u
r
e

a
n
d

e
a
v
e
s
I
n
t
e
r
i
o
r

p
l
a
s
t
e
r
/
f
i
n
i
s
h

a
s
s
p
e
c
i
f
i
e
d
C
e
i
l
i
n
g
I
n
s
u
l
a
t
i
o
n
P
o
l
y
s
t
y
r
e
n
e

i
n
s
u
l
a
t
i
o
n
H
o
l
d
i
n
g

b
o
l
t
s
D
.
P
.
C
.
S
e
a
l
a
n
t
B
i
r
d
s
m
o
u
t
h
2
0
0
x
5
0

t
i
m
b
e
r

p
l
a
t
e
E
x
t
e
r
i
o
r

p
l
a
s
t
e
r
/
f
i
n
i
s
h

a
s

s
p
e
c
i
f
i
e
d
w
i
t
h

a
p
p
l
i
e
d

w
a
t
e
r
p
r
o
o
f

c
o
a
t
i
n
g
F
i
r
t
h

H
o
t
B
l
o
c

R
o
o
f
i
n
g

u
n
d
e
r
l
a
y
S
e
l
e
c
t
e
d

t
r
i
m
w
w
w
.
f
i
r
t
h
.
c
o
.
n
z
D
i
s
c
l
a
i
m
e
r
:

T
h
i
s

i
n
f
o
r
m
a
t
i
o
n

i
s

i
n
t
e
n
d
e
d

s
o
l
e
l
y

a
s

a

g
u
i
d
e

f
o
r

u
s
e

o
f

F
i
r
t
h
p
r
o
d
u
c
t
s
.

B
e
f
o
r
e

u
s
i
n
g

a

F
i
r
t
h

p
r
o
d
u
c
t

y
o
u

s
h
o
u
l
d

e
n
s
u
r
e

t
h
a
t

t
h
e

p
r
o
d
u
c
t

i
s
s
u
i
t
a
b
l
e

f
o
r

u
s
e

i
n

t
h
e

s
p
e
c
i
f
i
c

a
p
p
l
i
c
a
t
i
o
n
.

N
o
t
h
i
n
g

i
n

t
h
i
s

i
n
f
o
r
m
a
t
i
o
n
c
o
n
s
t
i
t
u
t
e
s

a

s
t
a
t
e
m
e
n
t

o
f

f
i
t
n
e
s
s

f
o
r

p
a
r
t
i
c
u
l
a
r

p
u
r
p
o
s
e

-

a
p
p
r
o
p
r
i
a
t
e

e
x
p
e
r
t
a
d
v
i
c
e

s
h
o
u
l
d

a
l
w
a
y
s

b
e

o
b
t
a
i
n
e
d
.

F
i
r
t
h

m
a
k
e
s

n
o

w
a
r
r
a
n
t
y

r
e
g
a
r
d
i
n
g

t
h
e

u
s
e
o
f

t
h
i
s

i
n
f
o
r
m
a
t
i
o
n

w
i
t
h

n
o
n
-
F
i
r
t
h

p
r
o
d
u
c
t
.


2
0
0
9

.

T
h
e

c
o
p
y
r
i
g
h
t

o
f

t
h
i
s

d
o
c
u
m
e
n
t

i
s
t
h
e

p
r
o
p
e
r
t
y

o
f

F
i
r
t
h

a
n
d

s
h
a
l
l

n
o
t

b
e
r
e
p
r
o
d
u
c
e
d
,

c
o
p
i
e
d
,

l
o
a
n
e
d

o
r

d
i
s
p
o
s
e
d

o
f
d
i
r
e
c
t
l
y
,

o
r

i
n
d
i
r
e
c
t
l
y
,

n
o
r

u
s
e
d

f
o
r

a
n
y
p
u
r
p
o
s
e

o
t
h
e
r

t
h
a
n

t
h
a
t

f
o
r

w
h
i
c
h

i
t

i
s
s
p
e
c
i
f
i
c
a
l
l
y

f
u
r
n
i
s
h
e
d

w
i
t
h
o
u
t

p
r
i
o
r

c
o
n
s
e
n
t
.
F
o
r

T
e
c
h
n
i
c
a
l

A
d
v
i
c
e
:


P
h
.

0
8
0
0

8
0
0

5
7
6
F
i
r
t
h

H
o
t
B
l
o
c
S
l
o
p
i
n
g

S
o
f
f
i
t

a
n
d

C
e
i
l
i
n
g

3
0
0
3
0
0
_
s
l
o
p
i
n
g
_
s
o
f
f
i
t
.
d
w
g
F
e
b
r
u
a
r
y

2
0
0
9
S
c
a
l
e

1
:
1
0
S
l
o
p
i
n
g

S
o
f
f
i
t

a
n
d

C
e
i
l
i
n
g
D
e
t
a
i
l
:
3
0
0
_
s
l
o
p
i
n
g
_
s
o
f
f
i
t

32 Masonry Homes Construction Manual - V1 2008


2
0
0
x
5
0

t
i
m
b
e
r

p
l
a
t
e
I
n
s
u
l
a
t
i
o
n
.
C
e
i
l
i
n
g
I
n
t
e
r
i
o
r

p
l
a
s
t
e
r
/
f
i
n
i
s
h

a
s
s
p
e
c
i
f
i
e
d
P
o
l
y
s
t
y
r
e
n
e

i
n
s
u
l
a
t
i
o
n
H
o
l
d
i
n
g

b
o
l
t
s
S
e
a
l
a
n
t
E
x
t
e
r
i
o
r

p
l
a
s
t
e
r
/
f
i
n
i
s
h

a
s

s
p
e
c
i
f
i
e
d
w
i
t
h

a
p
p
l
i
e
d

w
a
t
e
r
p
r
o
o
f

c
o
a
t
i
n
g
F
i
r
t
h

H
o
t
b
l
o
c

R
o
o
f
i
n
g

u
n
d
e
r
l
a
y
S
e
l
e
c
t
e
d

t
r
i
m
N
o
t
e
s
:
1
.
R
e
i
n
f
o
r
c
e
m
e
n
t

n
o
t

s
h
o
w
n

f
o
r

c
l
a
r
i
t
y
2
.
F
i
x

t
r
u
s
s

t
o

t
o
p

p
l
a
t
e

w
i
t
h

a
p
p
r
o
v
e
d

m
e
c
h
a
n
i
c
a
l

f
i
x
3
.
R
e
f
e
r

c
l
a
u
s
e

E
2
/
A
S
1

s
e
c
t
i
o
n

8

o
f

t
h
e

N
Z

B
u
i
l
d
i
n
g

C
o
d
e

f
o
r

f
u
l
l

w
e
a
t
h
e
r
t
i
g
h
t
n
e
s
s
d
e
t
a
i
l
i
n
g

o
f

t
h
e

r
o
o
f

s
t
r
u
c
t
u
r
e

a
n
d

e
a
v
e
s
w
w
w
.
f
i
r
t
h
.
c
o
.
n
z
D
i
s
c
l
a
i
m
e
r
:

T
h
i
s

i
n
f
o
r
m
a
t
i
o
n

i
s

i
n
t
e
n
d
e
d

s
o
l
e
l
y

a
s

a

g
u
i
d
e

f
o
r

u
s
e

o
f

F
i
r
t
h
p
r
o
d
u
c
t
s
.

B
e
f
o
r
e

u
s
i
n
g

a

F
i
r
t
h

p
r
o
d
u
c
t

y
o
u

s
h
o
u
l
d

e
n
s
u
r
e

t
h
a
t

t
h
e

p
r
o
d
u
c
t

i
s
s
u
i
t
a
b
l
e

f
o
r

u
s
e

i
n

t
h
e

s
p
e
c
i
f
i
c

a
p
p
l
i
c
a
t
i
o
n
.

N
o
t
h
i
n
g

i
n

t
h
i
s

i
n
f
o
r
m
a
t
i
o
n
c
o
n
s
t
i
t
u
t
e
s

a

s
t
a
t
e
m
e
n
t

o
f

f
i
t
n
e
s
s

f
o
r

p
a
r
t
i
c
u
l
a
r

p
u
r
p
o
s
e

-

a
p
p
r
o
p
r
i
a
t
e

e
x
p
e
r
t
a
d
v
i
c
e

s
h
o
u
l
d

a
l
w
a
y
s

b
e

o
b
t
a
i
n
e
d
.

F
i
r
t
h

m
a
k
e
s

n
o

w
a
r
r
a
n
t
y

r
e
g
a
r
d
i
n
g

t
h
e

u
s
e
o
f

t
h
i
s

i
n
f
o
r
m
a
t
i
o
n

w
i
t
h

n
o
n
-
F
i
r
t
h

p
r
o
d
u
c
t
.


2
0
0
9

.

T
h
e

c
o
p
y
r
i
g
h
t

o
f

t
h
i
s

d
o
c
u
m
e
n
t

i
s
t
h
e

p
r
o
p
e
r
t
y

o
f

F
i
r
t
h

a
n
d

s
h
a
l
l

n
o
t

b
e
r
e
p
r
o
d
u
c
e
d
,

c
o
p
i
e
d
,

l
o
a
n
e
d

o
r

d
i
s
p
o
s
e
d

o
f
d
i
r
e
c
t
l
y
,

o
r

i
n
d
i
r
e
c
t
l
y
,

n
o
r

u
s
e
d

f
o
r

a
n
y
p
u
r
p
o
s
e

o
t
h
e
r

t
h
a
n

t
h
a
t

f
o
r

w
h
i
c
h

i
t

i
s
s
p
e
c
i
f
i
c
a
l
l
y

f
u
r
n
i
s
h
e
d

w
i
t
h
o
u
t

p
r
i
o
r

c
o
n
s
e
n
t
.
F
o
r

T
e
c
h
n
i
c
a
l

A
d
v
i
c
e
:


P
h
.

0
8
0
0

8
0
0

5
7
6
F
i
r
t
h

H
o
t
B
l
o
c
H
o
r
i
z
o
n
t
a
l

S
o
f
f
i
t

A
n
d

C
e
i
l
i
n
g

3
0
1
3
0
1
_
h
o
r
i
z
o
n
t
a
l
_
s
o
f
f
.
d
w
g
F
e
b
r
u
a
r
y

2
0
0
9
S
c
a
l
e

1
:
1
0
H
o
r
i
z
o
n
t
a
l

S
o
f
f
i
t

A
n
d

C
e
i
l
i
n
g
D
e
t
a
i
l
:
3
0
1
_
h
o
r
i
z
o
n
t
a
l
_
s
o
f
f

Masonry Homes Construction Manual - V1 2008 33


I
n
t
e
r
i
o
r

p
l
a
s
t
e
r
/
f
i
n
i
s
h

a
s
s
p
e
c
i
f
i
e
d
C
e
i
l
i
n
g
I
n
s
u
l
a
t
i
o
n
2
0
0
x
5
0

t
i
m
b
e
r

p
l
a
t
e
S
e
a
l
a
n
t
D
.
P
.
C
.
H
o
l
d
i
n
g

b
o
l
t
s
E
x
t
e
r
i
o
r

p
l
a
s
t
e
r

f
i
n
i
s
h

a
s

s
p
e
c
i
f
i
e
d
w
i
t
h

a
p
p
l
i
e
d

w
a
t
e
r
p
r
o
o
f
i
n
g
F
i
r
t
h

H
o
t
B
l
o
c
R
o
o
f
i
n
g

u
n
d
e
r
l
a
y
S
e
l
e
c
t
e
d

t
r
i
m
P
o
l
y
s
t
y
r
e
n
e

i
n
s
u
l
a
t
i
o
n
N
o
t
e
s
:
1
.
R
e
i
n
f
o
r
c
e
m
e
n
t

n
o
t

s
h
o
w
n

f
o
r

c
l
a
r
i
t
y
2
.
F
i
x

t
r
u
s
s
/
r
a
f
t
e
r

t
o

t
o
p

p
l
a
t
e

w
i
t
h

a
p
p
r
o
v
e
d

m
e
c
h
a
n
i
c
a
l

f
i
x
3
.
R
e
f
e
r

c
l
a
u
s
e

E
2
/
A
S
1

s
e
c
t
i
o
n

8

o
f

t
h
e

N
Z

B
u
i
l
d
i
n
g

C
o
d
e

f
o
r

f
u
l
l

w
e
a
t
h
e
r
t
i
g
h
t
n
e
s
s
d
e
t
a
i
l
i
n
g

o
f

t
h
e

r
o
o
f

s
t
r
u
c
t
u
r
e

a
n
d

e
a
v
e
s
w
w
w
.
f
i
r
t
h
.
c
o
.
n
z
D
i
s
c
l
a
i
m
e
r
:

T
h
i
s

i
n
f
o
r
m
a
t
i
o
n

i
s

i
n
t
e
n
d
e
d

s
o
l
e
l
y

a
s

a

g
u
i
d
e

f
o
r

u
s
e

o
f

F
i
r
t
h
p
r
o
d
u
c
t
s
.

B
e
f
o
r
e

u
s
i
n
g

a

F
i
r
t
h

p
r
o
d
u
c
t

y
o
u

s
h
o
u
l
d

e
n
s
u
r
e

t
h
a
t

t
h
e

p
r
o
d
u
c
t

i
s
s
u
i
t
a
b
l
e

f
o
r

u
s
e

i
n

t
h
e

s
p
e
c
i
f
i
c

a
p
p
l
i
c
a
t
i
o
n
.

N
o
t
h
i
n
g

i
n

t
h
i
s

i
n
f
o
r
m
a
t
i
o
n
c
o
n
s
t
i
t
u
t
e
s

a

s
t
a
t
e
m
e
n
t

o
f

f
i
t
n
e
s
s

f
o
r

p
a
r
t
i
c
u
l
a
r

p
u
r
p
o
s
e

-

a
p
p
r
o
p
r
i
a
t
e

e
x
p
e
r
t
a
d
v
i
c
e

s
h
o
u
l
d

a
l
w
a
y
s

b
e

o
b
t
a
i
n
e
d
.

F
i
r
t
h

m
a
k
e
s

n
o

w
a
r
r
a
n
t
y

r
e
g
a
r
d
i
n
g

t
h
e

u
s
e
o
f

t
h
i
s

i
n
f
o
r
m
a
t
i
o
n

w
i
t
h

n
o
n
-
F
i
r
t
h

p
r
o
d
u
c
t
.


2
0
0
9

.

T
h
e

c
o
p
y
r
i
g
h
t

o
f

t
h
i
s

d
o
c
u
m
e
n
t

i
s
t
h
e

p
r
o
p
e
r
t
y

o
f

F
i
r
t
h

a
n
d

s
h
a
l
l

n
o
t

b
e
r
e
p
r
o
d
u
c
e
d
,

c
o
p
i
e
d
,

l
o
a
n
e
d

o
r

d
i
s
p
o
s
e
d

o
f
d
i
r
e
c
t
l
y
,

o
r

i
n
d
i
r
e
c
t
l
y
,

n
o
r

u
s
e
d

f
o
r

a
n
y
p
u
r
p
o
s
e

o
t
h
e
r

t
h
a
n

t
h
a
t

f
o
r

w
h
i
c
h

i
t

i
s
s
p
e
c
i
f
i
c
a
l
l
y

f
u
r
n
i
s
h
e
d

w
i
t
h
o
u
t

p
r
i
o
r

c
o
n
s
e
n
t
.
F
o
r

T
e
c
h
n
i
c
a
l

A
d
v
i
c
e
:


P
h
.

0
8
0
0

8
0
0

5
7
6
F
i
r
t
h

H
o
t
B
l
o
c
G
a
b
l
e

E
n
d

C
o
n
n
e
c
t
i
o
n

3
0
2
3
0
2
_
g
a
b
l
e
_
e
n
d
_
c
o
n
.
d
w
g
F
e
b
r
u
a
r
y

2
0
0
9
S
c
a
l
e

1
:
1
0
G
a
b
l
e

E
n
d

C
o
n
n
e
c
t
i
o
n
D
e
t
a
i
l
:
3
0
2
_
g
a
b
l
e
_
e
n
d
_
c
o
n

34 Masonry Homes Construction Manual - V1 2008


I
n
s
u
l
a
t
i
o
n
S
a
r
k
e
d

c
e
i
l
i
n
g
I
n
t
e
r
i
o
r

p
l
a
s
t
e
r
/
f
i
n
i
s
h

a
s
s
p
e
c
i
f
i
e
d
H
o
l
d
i
n
g

b
o
l
t
s
D
.
P
.
C
.
S
e
a
l
a
n
t
B
i
r
d
s
m
o
u
t
h
T
i
m
b
e
r

p
l
a
t
e
E
x
t
e
r
i
o
r

p
l
a
s
t
e
r
/
f
i
n
i
s
h

a
s

s
p
e
c
i
f
i
e
d
w
i
t
h

a
p
p
l
i
e
d

w
a
t
e
r
p
r
o
o
f

c
o
a
t
i
n
g
F
i
r
t
h

H
o
t
B
l
o
c

R
o
o
f
i
n
g

u
n
d
e
r
l
a
y
P
o
l
y
s
t
y
r
e
n
e

i
n
s
u
l
a
t
i
o
n
N
o
t
e
s
:
1
.
R
e
i
n
f
o
r
c
e
m
e
n
t

n
o
t

s
h
o
w
n

f
o
r

c
l
a
r
i
t
y
2
.
F
i
x

r
a
f
t
e
r

t
o

t
o
p

p
l
a
t
e

w
i
t
h

a
p
p
r
o
v
e
d

m
e
c
h
a
n
i
c
a
l

f
i
x
3
.
R
e
f
e
r

c
l
a
u
s
e

E
2
/
A
S
1

s
e
c
t
i
o
n

8

o
f

t
h
e

N
Z

B
u
i
l
d
i
n
g

C
o
d
e

f
o
r

f
u
l
l

w
e
a
t
h
e
r
t
i
g
h
t
n
e
s
s
d
e
t
a
i
l
i
n
g

o
f

t
h
e

r
o
o
f

s
t
r
u
c
t
u
r
e

a
n
d

e
a
v
e
s
w
w
w
.
f
i
r
t
h
.
c
o
.
n
z
D
i
s
c
l
a
i
m
e
r
:

T
h
i
s

i
n
f
o
r
m
a
t
i
o
n

i
s

i
n
t
e
n
d
e
d

s
o
l
e
l
y

a
s

a

g
u
i
d
e

f
o
r

u
s
e

o
f

F
i
r
t
h
p
r
o
d
u
c
t
s
.

B
e
f
o
r
e

u
s
i
n
g

a

F
i
r
t
h

p
r
o
d
u
c
t

y
o
u

s
h
o
u
l
d

e
n
s
u
r
e

t
h
a
t

t
h
e

p
r
o
d
u
c
t

i
s
s
u
i
t
a
b
l
e

f
o
r

u
s
e

i
n

t
h
e

s
p
e
c
i
f
i
c

a
p
p
l
i
c
a
t
i
o
n
.

N
o
t
h
i
n
g

i
n

t
h
i
s

i
n
f
o
r
m
a
t
i
o
n
c
o
n
s
t
i
t
u
t
e
s

a

s
t
a
t
e
m
e
n
t

o
f

f
i
t
n
e
s
s

f
o
r

p
a
r
t
i
c
u
l
a
r

p
u
r
p
o
s
e

-

a
p
p
r
o
p
r
i
a
t
e

e
x
p
e
r
t
a
d
v
i
c
e

s
h
o
u
l
d

a
l
w
a
y
s

b
e

o
b
t
a
i
n
e
d
.

F
i
r
t
h

m
a
k
e
s

n
o

w
a
r
r
a
n
t
y

r
e
g
a
r
d
i
n
g

t
h
e

u
s
e
o
f

t
h
i
s

i
n
f
o
r
m
a
t
i
o
n

w
i
t
h

n
o
n
-
F
i
r
t
h

p
r
o
d
u
c
t
.


2
0
0
8

.

T
h
e

c
o
p
y
r
i
g
h
t

o
f

t
h
i
s

d
o
c
u
m
e
n
t

i
s
t
h
e

p
r
o
p
e
r
t
y

o
f

F
i
r
t
h

a
n
d

s
h
a
l
l

n
o
t

b
e
r
e
p
r
o
d
u
c
e
d
,

c
o
p
i
e
d
,

l
o
a
n
e
d

o
r

d
i
s
p
o
s
e
d

o
f
d
i
r
e
c
t
l
y
,

o
r

i
n
d
i
r
e
c
t
l
y
,

n
o
r

u
s
e
d

f
o
r

a
n
y
p
u
r
p
o
s
e

o
t
h
e
r

t
h
a
n

t
h
a
t

f
o
r

w
h
i
c
h

i
t

i
s
s
p
e
c
i
f
i
c
a
l
l
y

f
u
r
n
i
s
h
e
d

w
i
t
h
o
u
t

p
r
i
o
r

c
o
n
s
e
n
t
.
F
o
r

T
e
c
h
n
i
c
a
l

A
d
v
i
c
e
:


P
h
.

0
8
0
0

8
0
0

5
7
6
F
i
r
t
h

H
o
t
B
l
o
c
S
a
r
k
e
d

C
e
l
i
n
g

O
v
e
r

R
a
f
t
e
r
s

3
0
3
3
0
3
_
s
a
r
k
e
d
_
c
e
i
l
i
n
g
.
d
w
g
1
7

O
c
t
o
b
e
r

2
0
0
8
S
c
a
l
e

1
:
1
0
S
a
r
k
e
d

C
e
l
i
n
g

O
v
e
r

R
a
f
t
e
r
s
D
e
t
a
i
l
:
3
0
3
_
s
a
r
k
e
d
_
c
e
i
l
i
n
g
35 Masonry Homes Construction Manual - V1 2008
T
i
m
b
e
r

p
l
a
t
e
S
e
a
l
a
n
t
D
.
P
.
C
.
H
o
l
d
i
n
g

b
o
l
t
s
P
o
l
y
s
t
y
r
e
n
e

i
n
s
u
l
a
t
i
o
n
I
n
t
e
r
i
o
r

p
l
a
s
t
e
r
/
f
i
n
i
s
h

a
s
s
p
e
c
i
f
i
e
d
C
e
i
l
i
n
g
I
n
s
u
l
a
t
i
o
n
E
x
t
e
r
i
o
r

p
l
a
s
t
e
r

f
i
n
i
s
h

a
s

s
p
e
c
i
f
i
e
d
w
i
t
h

a
p
p
l
i
e
d

w
a
t
e
r
p
r
o
o
f

c
o
a
t
i
n
g
F
i
r
t
h

H
o
t
B
l
o
c

R
o
o
f
i
n
g

u
n
d
e
r
l
a
y
S
e
l
e
c
t
e
d

t
r
i
m
N
o
t
e
s
:
1
.
R
e
i
n
f
o
r
c
e
m
e
n
t

n
o
t

s
h
o
w
n

f
o
r

c
l
a
r
i
t
y
2
.
F
i
x

t
r
u
s
s

t
o

t
o
p

p
l
a
t
e

w
i
t
h

a
p
p
r
o
v
e
d

m
e
c
h
a
n
i
c
a
l

f
i
x
3
.
R
e
f
e
r

c
l
a
u
s
e

E
2
/
A
S
1

s
e
c
t
i
o
n

8

o
f

t
h
e

N
Z

B
u
i
l
d
i
n
g

C
o
d
e

f
o
r

f
u
l
l

w
e
a
t
h
e
r
t
i
g
h
t
n
e
s
s
d
e
t
a
i
l
i
n
g

o
f

t
h
e

r
o
o
f

s
t
r
u
c
t
u
r
e

a
n
d

e
a
v
e
s
w
w
w
.
f
i
r
t
h
.
c
o
.
n
z
D
i
s
c
l
a
i
m
e
r
:

T
h
i
s

i
n
f
o
r
m
a
t
i
o
n

i
s

i
n
t
e
n
d
e
d

s
o
l
e
l
y

a
s

a

g
u
i
d
e

f
o
r

u
s
e

o
f

F
i
r
t
h
p
r
o
d
u
c
t
s
.

B
e
f
o
r
e

u
s
i
n
g

a

F
i
r
t
h

p
r
o
d
u
c
t

y
o
u

s
h
o
u
l
d

e
n
s
u
r
e

t
h
a
t

t
h
e

p
r
o
d
u
c
t

i
s
s
u
i
t
a
b
l
e

f
o
r

u
s
e

i
n

t
h
e

s
p
e
c
i
f
i
c

a
p
p
l
i
c
a
t
i
o
n
.

N
o
t
h
i
n
g

i
n

t
h
i
s

i
n
f
o
r
m
a
t
i
o
n
c
o
n
s
t
i
t
u
t
e
s

a

s
t
a
t
e
m
e
n
t

o
f

f
i
t
n
e
s
s

f
o
r

p
a
r
t
i
c
u
l
a
r

p
u
r
p
o
s
e

-

a
p
p
r
o
p
r
i
a
t
e

e
x
p
e
r
t
a
d
v
i
c
e

s
h
o
u
l
d

a
l
w
a
y
s

b
e

o
b
t
a
i
n
e
d
.

F
i
r
t
h

m
a
k
e
s

n
o

w
a
r
r
a
n
t
y

r
e
g
a
r
d
i
n
g

t
h
e

u
s
e
o
f

t
h
i
s

i
n
f
o
r
m
a
t
i
o
n

w
i
t
h

n
o
n
-
F
i
r
t
h

p
r
o
d
u
c
t
.


2
0
0
9

.

T
h
e

c
o
p
y
r
i
g
h
t

o
f

t
h
i
s

d
o
c
u
m
e
n
t

i
s
t
h
e

p
r
o
p
e
r
t
y

o
f

F
i
r
t
h

a
n
d

s
h
a
l
l

n
o
t

b
e
r
e
p
r
o
d
u
c
e
d
,

c
o
p
i
e
d
,

l
o
a
n
e
d

o
r

d
i
s
p
o
s
e
d

o
f
d
i
r
e
c
t
l
y
,

o
r

i
n
d
i
r
e
c
t
l
y
,

n
o
r

u
s
e
d

f
o
r

a
n
y
p
u
r
p
o
s
e

o
t
h
e
r

t
h
a
n

t
h
a
t

f
o
r

w
h
i
c
h

i
t

i
s
s
p
e
c
i
f
i
c
a
l
l
y

f
u
r
n
i
s
h
e
d

w
i
t
h
o
u
t

p
r
i
o
r

c
o
n
s
e
n
t
.
F
o
r

T
e
c
h
n
i
c
a
l

A
d
v
i
c
e
:


P
h
.

0
8
0
0

8
0
0

5
7
6
F
i
r
t
h

H
o
t
B
l
o
c
S
l
o
p
i
n
g

S
o
f
f
i
t

W
i
t
h

H
o
r
i
z
o
n
t
a
l

T
r
u
s
s
e
s

3
0
4
3
0
4
_
s
l
o
p
i
n
g
_
s
o
f
f
i
t
.
d
w
g
F
e
b
r
u
a
r
y

2
0
0
9
S
c
a
l
e

1
:
1
0
S
l
o
p
i
n
g

S
o
f
f
i
t

W
i
t
h

H
o
r
i
z
o
n
t
a
l

T
r
u
s
s
e
s
D
e
t
a
i
l
:
3
0
4
_
s
l
o
p
i
n
g
_
s
o
f
f
i
t

Masonry Homes Construction Manual - V1 2008 36


I
n
s
u
l
a
t
i
o
n
.
C
e
i
l
i
n
g
S
e
l
e
c
t
e
d

t
r
i
m
D
.
P
.
C
.
I
n
t
e
r
i
o
r


p
l
a
s
t
e
r
/
f
i
n
i
s
h

a
s
s
p
e
c
i
f
i
e
d
P
o
l
y
s
t
y
r
e
n
e

i
n
s
u
l
a
t
i
o
n
H
o
l
d
i
n
g

b
o
l
t
s
B
o
x

s
o
f
f
i
t

a
l
t
e
r
n
a
t
i
v
e
.
S
e
a
l
a
n
t
7
5
x
5
0

n
o
g
2
0
0
x
5
0

t
i
m
b
e
r

p
l
a
t
e
E
x
t
e
r
i
o
r

p
l
a
s
t
e
r
/
f
i
n
i
s
h

a
s

s
p
e
c
i
f
i
e
d
w
i
t
h

a
p
p
l
i
e
d

w
a
t
e
r
p
r
o
o
f

c
o
a
t
i
n
g
F
i
r
t
h

H
o
t
B
l
o
c

R
o
o
f
i
n
g

u
n
d
e
r
l
a
y
N
o
t
e
s
:
1
.
R
e
i
n
f
o
r
c
e
m
e
n
t

n
o
t

s
h
o
w
n

f
o
r

c
l
a
r
i
t
y
2
.
F
i
x

t
r
u
s
s

t
o

t
o
p

p
l
a
t
e

w
i
t
h

a
p
p
r
o
v
e
d

m
e
c
h
a
n
i
c
a
l

f
i
x
3
.
R
e
f
e
r

c
l
a
u
s
e

E
2
/
A
S
1

s
e
c
t
i
o
n

8

o
f

t
h
e

N
Z

B
u
i
l
d
i
n
g

C
o
d
e

f
o
r

f
u
l
l

w
e
a
t
h
e
r
t
i
g
h
t
n
e
s
s
d
e
t
a
i
l
i
n
g

o
f

t
h
e

r
o
o
f

s
t
r
u
c
t
u
r
e

a
n
d

e
a
v
e
s
w
w
w
.
f
i
r
t
h
.
c
o
.
n
z
D
i
s
c
l
a
i
m
e
r
:

T
h
i
s

i
n
f
o
r
m
a
t
i
o
n

i
s

i
n
t
e
n
d
e
d

s
o
l
e
l
y

a
s

a

g
u
i
d
e

f
o
r

u
s
e

o
f

F
i
r
t
h
p
r
o
d
u
c
t
s
.

B
e
f
o
r
e

u
s
i
n
g

a

F
i
r
t
h

p
r
o
d
u
c
t

y
o
u

s
h
o
u
l
d

e
n
s
u
r
e

t
h
a
t

t
h
e

p
r
o
d
u
c
t

i
s
s
u
i
t
a
b
l
e

f
o
r

u
s
e

i
n

t
h
e

s
p
e
c
i
f
i
c

a
p
p
l
i
c
a
t
i
o
n
.

N
o
t
h
i
n
g

i
n

t
h
i
s

i
n
f
o
r
m
a
t
i
o
n
c
o
n
s
t
i
t
u
t
e
s

a

s
t
a
t
e
m
e
n
t

o
f

f
i
t
n
e
s
s

f
o
r

p
a
r
t
i
c
u
l
a
r

p
u
r
p
o
s
e

-

a
p
p
r
o
p
r
i
a
t
e

e
x
p
e
r
t
a
d
v
i
c
e

s
h
o
u
l
d

a
l
w
a
y
s

b
e

o
b
t
a
i
n
e
d
.

F
i
r
t
h

m
a
k
e
s

n
o

w
a
r
r
a
n
t
y

r
e
g
a
r
d
i
n
g

t
h
e

u
s
e
o
f

t
h
i
s

i
n
f
o
r
m
a
t
i
o
n

w
i
t
h

n
o
n
-
F
i
r
t
h

p
r
o
d
u
c
t
.


2
0
0
9

.

T
h
e

c
o
p
y
r
i
g
h
t

o
f

t
h
i
s

d
o
c
u
m
e
n
t

i
s
t
h
e

p
r
o
p
e
r
t
y

o
f

F
i
r
t
h

a
n
d

s
h
a
l
l

n
o
t

b
e
r
e
p
r
o
d
u
c
e
d
,

c
o
p
i
e
d
,

l
o
a
n
e
d

o
r

d
i
s
p
o
s
e
d

o
f
d
i
r
e
c
t
l
y
,

o
r

i
n
d
i
r
e
c
t
l
y
,

n
o
r

u
s
e
d

f
o
r

a
n
y
p
u
r
p
o
s
e

o
t
h
e
r

t
h
a
n

t
h
a
t

f
o
r

w
h
i
c
h

i
t

i
s
s
p
e
c
i
f
i
c
a
l
l
y

f
u
r
n
i
s
h
e
d

w
i
t
h
o
u
t

p
r
i
o
r

c
o
n
s
e
n
t
.
F
o
r

T
e
c
h
n
i
c
a
l

A
d
v
i
c
e
:


P
h
.

0
8
0
0

8
0
0

5
7
6
F
i
r
t
h

H
o
t
B
l
o
c
T
r
u
s
s

R
o
o
f

F
i
x
i
n
g

W
i
t
h

T
o
p

P
l
a
t
e

3
0
5
3
0
5
_
t
r
u
s
s
_
r
o
o
f
_
f
i
x
.
d
w
g
F
e
b
r
u
a
r
y

2
0
0
9
S
c
a
l
e

1
:
1
0
T
r
u
s
s

R
o
o
f

F
i
x
i
n
g

W
i
t
h

T
o
p

P
l
a
t
e
D
e
t
a
i
l
:
3
0
5
_
t
r
u
s
s
_
r
o
o
f
_
f
i
x

37 Masonry Homes Construction Manual - V1 2008


A
p
p
l
y

p
r
o
p
r
i
e
t
a
r
y

w
a
t
e
r
p
r
o
o
f
i
n
g
m
e
m
b
r
a
n
e

t
o

b
l
o
c
k
w
o
r
k

p
r
i
o
r

t
o
p
l
a
s
t
e
r
C
h
a
s
e

c
u
t

(
s
e
e

f
l
a
s
h
i
n
g

d
e
t
a
i
l
)
W
a
t
e
r
p
r
o
o
f

m
e
m
b
r
a
n
e

o
n
p
l
y
w
o
o
d

b
a
s
e
T
i
m
b
e
r

j
o
i
s
t
D
.
P
.
C
.
I
n
t
e
r
i
o
r

p
l
a
s
t
e
r
/
f
i
n
i
s
h

a
s
s
p
e
c
i
f
i
e
d
N
o
t
e
:

R
e
i
n
f
o
r
c
e
m
e
n
t

n
o
t

s
h
o
w
n

f
o
r

c
l
a
r
i
t
y
.
I
n
t
e
r
n
a
l

G
u
t
t
e
r

D
e
t
a
i
l
F
i
r
t
h

H
o
B
l
o
c

H
i
g
h

b
u
i
l
d

a
c
r
y
l
i
c
p
a
i
n
t

s
y
s
t
e
m
P
l
a
s
t
e
r
W
a
t
e
r
p
r
o
o
f
m
e
m
b
r
a
n
e

d
r
e
s
s
e
d
a
n
d

c
h
a
s
e
d

i
n
t
o
m
o
r
t
a
r

b
e
d
F
l
a
s
h
i
n
g

D
e
t
a
i
l
C
h
a
s
e

c
u
t
M
a
s
o
n
r
y

u
n
i
t
s
F
l
e
x
i
b
l
e

p
a
i
n
t
a
b
l
e

s
e
a
l
e
r
T
o
p

f
l
a
s
h
i
n
g
D
P
C
B
e
v
e
l
l
e
d

t
o
p

p
l
a
t
e

t
o

p
r
o
v
i
d
e

f
a
l
l
B
u
i
l
d
i
n
g

w
r
a
p
7
0
m
m

c
o
v
e
r

f
r
o
m
b
l
o
c
k

t
o
p
P
o
l
y
s
t
y
r
e
n
e
i
n
s
u
l
a
t
i
o
n
E
x
t
e
r
i
o
r

p
l
a
s
t
e
r
/
f
i
n
i
s
h

a
s
s
p
e
c
i
f
i
e
d

w
i
t
h

a
p
p
l
i
e
d
w
a
t
e
r
p
r
o
o
f

c
o
a
t
i
n
g
w
w
w
.
f
i
r
t
h
.
c
o
.
n
z
D
i
s
c
l
a
i
m
e
r
:

T
h
i
s

i
n
f
o
r
m
a
t
i
o
n

i
s

i
n
t
e
n
d
e
d

s
o
l
e
l
y

a
s

a

g
u
i
d
e

f
o
r

u
s
e

o
f

F
i
r
t
h
p
r
o
d
u
c
t
s
.

B
e
f
o
r
e

u
s
i
n
g

a

F
i
r
t
h

p
r
o
d
u
c
t

y
o
u

s
h
o
u
l
d

e
n
s
u
r
e

t
h
a
t

t
h
e

p
r
o
d
u
c
t

i
s
s
u
i
t
a
b
l
e

f
o
r

u
s
e

i
n

t
h
e

s
p
e
c
i
f
i
c

a
p
p
l
i
c
a
t
i
o
n
.

N
o
t
h
i
n
g

i
n

t
h
i
s

i
n
f
o
r
m
a
t
i
o
n
c
o
n
s
t
i
t
u
t
e
s

a

s
t
a
t
e
m
e
n
t

o
f

f
i
t
n
e
s
s

f
o
r

p
a
r
t
i
c
u
l
a
r

p
u
r
p
o
s
e

-

a
p
p
r
o
p
r
i
a
t
e

e
x
p
e
r
t
a
d
v
i
c
e

s
h
o
u
l
d

a
l
w
a
y
s

b
e

o
b
t
a
i
n
e
d
.

F
i
r
t
h

m
a
k
e
s

n
o

w
a
r
r
a
n
t
y

r
e
g
a
r
d
i
n
g

t
h
e

u
s
e
o
f

t
h
i
s

i
n
f
o
r
m
a
t
i
o
n

w
i
t
h

n
o
n
-
F
i
r
t
h

p
r
o
d
u
c
t
.


2
0
0
9

.

T
h
e

c
o
p
y
r
i
g
h
t

o
f

t
h
i
s

d
o
c
u
m
e
n
t

i
s
t
h
e

p
r
o
p
e
r
t
y

o
f

F
i
r
t
h

a
n
d

s
h
a
l
l

n
o
t

b
e
r
e
p
r
o
d
u
c
e
d
,

c
o
p
i
e
d
,

l
o
a
n
e
d

o
r

d
i
s
p
o
s
e
d

o
f
d
i
r
e
c
t
l
y
,

o
r

i
n
d
i
r
e
c
t
l
y
,

n
o
r

u
s
e
d

f
o
r

a
n
y
p
u
r
p
o
s
e

o
t
h
e
r

t
h
a
n

t
h
a
t

f
o
r

w
h
i
c
h

i
t

i
s
s
p
e
c
i
f
i
c
a
l
l
y

f
u
r
n
i
s
h
e
d

w
i
t
h
o
u
t

p
r
i
o
r

c
o
n
s
e
n
t
.
F
o
r

T
e
c
h
n
i
c
a
l

A
d
v
i
c
e
:


P
h
.

0
8
0
0

8
0
0

5
7
6
F
i
r
t
h

H
o
t
B
l
o
c
I
n
t
e
r
n
a
l

G
u
t
t
e
r

O
n

P
a
r
a
p
e
t

W
a
l
l

4
0
1
4
0
1
_
i
n
t
e
r
n
a
l
_
g
u
t
t
e
r
.
d
w
g
F
e
b
r
u
a
r
y

2
0
0
9
S
c
a
l
e

1
:
1
0
I
n
t
e
r
n
a
l

G
u
t
t
e
r

O
n

P
a
r
a
p
e
t

W
a
l
l
D
e
t
a
i
l
:
4
0
1
_
i
n
t
e
r
n
a
l
_
g
u
t
t
e
r

Masonry Homes Construction Manual - V1 2008 38


A
p
p
l
y

p
r
o
p
r
i
e
t
a
r
y

w
a
t
e
r
p
r
o
o
f
i
n
g
m
e
m
b
r
a
n
e

t
o

b
l
o
c
k
w
o
r
k

p
r
i
o
r

t
o
p
l
a
s
t
e
r
C
h
a
s
e

c
u
t

(
s
e
e

d
e
t
a
i
l
)
M
e
t
a
l

f
l
a
s
h
i
n
g

n
o
t
e
:

s
t
a
i
n
l
e
s
s
m
a
y

b
e

r
e
q
u
i
r
e
d
,

s
e
e

N
Z
S

3
6
0
4
d
u
r
a
b
i
l
i
t
y

s
e
c
t
i
o
n
T
i
m
b
e
r

j
o
i
s
t
D
.
P
.
C
.
I
n
t
e
r
i
o
r

p
l
a
s
t
e
r
/
f
i
n
i
s
h

a
s
s
p
e
c
i
f
i
e
d
N
o
t
e
:

R
e
i
n
f
o
r
c
e
m
e
n
t

n
o
t

s
h
o
w
n

f
o
r

c
l
a
r
i
t
y
.
P
a
r
a
p
e
t

W
a
l
l

D
e
t
a
i
l
F
i
r
t
h

H
o
t
B
l
o
c

P
o
l
y
s
t
y
r
e
n
e
i
n
s
u
l
a
t
i
o
n
H
i
g
h

b
u
i
l
d

a
c
r
y
l
i
c
p
a
i
n
t

s
y
s
t
e
m
P
l
a
s
t
e
r
F
l
a
s
h
i
n
g
F
l
a
s
h
i
n
g

D
e
t
a
i
l
C
h
a
s
e

c
u
t
M
a
s
o
n
r
y

u
n
i
t
s
F
l
e
x
i
b
l
e

p
a
i
n
t
a
b
l
e

s
e
a
l
e
r
7 5 m i n
2
0
T
o
p

f
l
a
s
h
i
n
g
D
P
C
B
e
v
e
l
l
e
d

t
o
p

p
l
a
t
e

t
o

p
r
o
v
i
d
e

f
a
l
l
B
u
i
l
d
i
n
g

w
r
a
p
7
0
m
m

c
o
v
e
r

f
r
o
m
b
l
o
c
k

t
o
p
R
o
o
f
i
n
g

u
n
d
e
r
l
a
y

t
u
r
n
e
d
u
p

b
e
h
i
n
d

f
l
a
s
h
i
n
g
E
x
t
e
r
i
o
r

p
l
a
s
t
e
r
/
f
i
n
i
s
h

a
s
s
p
e
c
i
f
i
e
d

w
i
t
h

a
p
p
l
i
e
d
w
a
t
e
r
p
r
o
o
f

c
o
a
t
i
n
g
w
w
w
.
f
i
r
t
h
.
c
o
.
n
z
D
i
s
c
l
a
i
m
e
r
:

T
h
i
s

i
n
f
o
r
m
a
t
i
o
n

i
s

i
n
t
e
n
d
e
d

s
o
l
e
l
y

a
s

a

g
u
i
d
e

f
o
r

u
s
e

o
f

F
i
r
t
h
p
r
o
d
u
c
t
s
.

B
e
f
o
r
e

u
s
i
n
g

a

F
i
r
t
h

p
r
o
d
u
c
t

y
o
u

s
h
o
u
l
d

e
n
s
u
r
e

t
h
a
t

t
h
e

p
r
o
d
u
c
t

i
s
s
u
i
t
a
b
l
e

f
o
r

u
s
e

i
n

t
h
e

s
p
e
c
i
f
i
c

a
p
p
l
i
c
a
t
i
o
n
.

N
o
t
h
i
n
g

i
n

t
h
i
s

i
n
f
o
r
m
a
t
i
o
n
c
o
n
s
t
i
t
u
t
e
s

a

s
t
a
t
e
m
e
n
t

o
f

f
i
t
n
e
s
s

f
o
r

p
a
r
t
i
c
u
l
a
r

p
u
r
p
o
s
e

-

a
p
p
r
o
p
r
i
a
t
e

e
x
p
e
r
t
a
d
v
i
c
e

s
h
o
u
l
d

a
l
w
a
y
s

b
e

o
b
t
a
i
n
e
d
.

F
i
r
t
h

m
a
k
e
s

n
o

w
a
r
r
a
n
t
y

r
e
g
a
r
d
i
n
g

t
h
e

u
s
e
o
f

t
h
i
s

i
n
f
o
r
m
a
t
i
o
n

w
i
t
h

n
o
n
-
F
i
r
t
h

p
r
o
d
u
c
t
.


2
0
0
9

.

T
h
e

c
o
p
y
r
i
g
h
t

o
f

t
h
i
s

d
o
c
u
m
e
n
t

i
s
t
h
e

p
r
o
p
e
r
t
y

o
f

F
i
r
t
h

a
n
d

s
h
a
l
l

n
o
t

b
e
r
e
p
r
o
d
u
c
e
d
,

c
o
p
i
e
d
,

l
o
a
n
e
d

o
r

d
i
s
p
o
s
e
d

o
f
d
i
r
e
c
t
l
y
,

o
r

i
n
d
i
r
e
c
t
l
y
,

n
o
r

u
s
e
d

f
o
r

a
n
y
p
u
r
p
o
s
e

o
t
h
e
r

t
h
a
n

t
h
a
t

f
o
r

w
h
i
c
h

i
t

i
s
s
p
e
c
i
f
i
c
a
l
l
y

f
u
r
n
i
s
h
e
d

w
i
t
h
o
u
t

p
r
i
o
r

c
o
n
s
e
n
t
.
F
o
r

T
e
c
h
n
i
c
a
l

A
d
v
i
c
e
:


P
h
.

0
8
0
0

8
0
0

5
7
6
F
i
r
t
h

H
o
t
B
l
o
c
P
a
r
a
p
e
t

W
a
l
l

W
a
t
e
r
p
r
o
o
f
i
n
g

4
0
0
4
0
0
_
p
a
r
a
p
e
t
_
w
a
l
l
.
d
w
g
F
e
b
r
u
a
r
y

2
0
0
9
S
c
a
l
e

1
:
1
0
P
a
r
a
p
e
t

W
a
l
l

W
a
t
e
r
p
r
o
o
f
i
n
g
D
e
t
a
i
l
:
4
0
0
_
p
a
r
a
p
e
t
_
w
a
l
l

39 Masonry Homes Construction Manual - V1 2008


7
5
m
m

e
n
d A
p
p
l
y

p
r
o
p
r
i
e
t
a
r
y

w
a
t
e
r
p
r
o
o
f
i
n
g
m
e
m
b
r
a
n
e

t
o

b
l
o
c
k
w
o
r
k

p
r
i
o
r

t
o
p
l
a
s
t
e
r
V
e
r
t
i
c
a
l

r
e
i
n
f
o
r
c
i
n
g
C
h
a
s
e

c
u
t

(
s
e
e

d
e
t
a
i
l
)
A
p
p
l
y

p
r
o
p
r
i
e
t
a
r
y

w
a
t
e
r
p
r
o
o
f
i
n
g
m
e
m
b
r
a
n
e

t
o

c
o
n
c
r
e
t
e

s
u
r
f
a
c
e
a
n
d

b
l
o
c
k
w
o
r
k

u
p
s
t
a
n
d
7
5
m
m

p
r
e
c
a
s
t
f
l
o
o
r
i
n
g
B
l
o
c
k

w
a
l
l

g
r
o
u
t
e
d

t
o

t
h
i
s

l
e
v
e
l
b
e
f
o
r
e

p
l
a
c
i
n
g

p
r
e
c
a
s
t

f
l
o
o
r
i
n
g
.
I
n
t
e
r
i
o
r

p
l
a
s
t
e
r
/
f
i
n
i
s
h

a
s
s
p
e
c
i
f
i
e
d
D
1
2

s
t
a
r
t
e
r
s

@

6
0
0

c
t
r
s
.
(
l
a
p

6
0
0

m
i
n
.
)
F
i
r
t
h

H
o
t
B
l
o
c


b
o
n
d
-
b
e
a
m
.
P
o
l
y
s
t
y
r
e
n
e

i
n
s
u
l
a
t
i
o
n
H
i
g
h

b
u
i
l
d

a
c
r
y
l
i
c
p
a
i
n
t

s
y
s
t
e
m
P
l
a
s
t
e
r
W
a
t
e
r
p
r
o
o
f
m
e
m
b
r
a
n
e
d
r
e
s
s
e
d

a
n
d
c
h
a
s
e
d

i
n
t
o

m
o
r
t
a
r
b
e
d
M
a
s
o
n
r
y
u
n
i
t
s
C
h
a
s
e

c
u
t
F
l
e
x
i
b
l
e

p
a
i
n
t
a
b
l
e
s
e
a
l
e
r
P
r
e
c
a
s
t

f
l
o
o
r
i
n
g

D
e
c
k

W
a
t
e
r
p
r
o
o
f
i
n
g

D
e
t
a
i
l
F
l
a
s
h
i
n
g

D
e
t
a
i
l
T
o
p

f
l
a
s
h
i
n
g
D
P
C
B
e
v
e
l
l
e
d

t
o
p

p
l
a
t
e

t
o

p
r
o
v
i
d
e

f
a
l
l
B
u
i
l
d
i
n
g

w
r
a
p
7
0
m
m

c
o
v
e
r

f
r
o
m
b
l
o
c
k

t
o
p
E
x
t
e
r
i
o
r

p
l
a
s
t
e
r
/
f
i
n
i
s
h

a
s
s
p
e
c
i
f
i
e
d

w
i
t
h

a
p
p
l
i
e
d
w
a
t
e
r
p
r
o
o
f

c
o
a
t
i
n
g
M
o
r
t
a
r

s
e
a
t
i
n
g

f
o
r
p
r
e
c
a
s
t

f
l
o
o
r
i
n
g
w
w
w
.
f
i
r
t
h
.
c
o
.
n
z
D
i
s
c
l
a
i
m
e
r
:

T
h
i
s

i
n
f
o
r
m
a
t
i
o
n

i
s

i
n
t
e
n
d
e
d

s
o
l
e
l
y

a
s

a

g
u
i
d
e

f
o
r

u
s
e

o
f

F
i
r
t
h
p
r
o
d
u
c
t
s
.

B
e
f
o
r
e

u
s
i
n
g

a

F
i
r
t
h

p
r
o
d
u
c
t

y
o
u

s
h
o
u
l
d

e
n
s
u
r
e

t
h
a
t

t
h
e

p
r
o
d
u
c
t

i
s
s
u
i
t
a
b
l
e

f
o
r

u
s
e

i
n

t
h
e

s
p
e
c
i
f
i
c

a
p
p
l
i
c
a
t
i
o
n
.

N
o
t
h
i
n
g

i
n

t
h
i
s

i
n
f
o
r
m
a
t
i
o
n
c
o
n
s
t
i
t
u
t
e
s

a

s
t
a
t
e
m
e
n
t

o
f

f
i
t
n
e
s
s

f
o
r

p
a
r
t
i
c
u
l
a
r

p
u
r
p
o
s
e

-

a
p
p
r
o
p
r
i
a
t
e

e
x
p
e
r
t
a
d
v
i
c
e

s
h
o
u
l
d

a
l
w
a
y
s

b
e

o
b
t
a
i
n
e
d
.

F
i
r
t
h

m
a
k
e
s

n
o

w
a
r
r
a
n
t
y

r
e
g
a
r
d
i
n
g

t
h
e

u
s
e
o
f

t
h
i
s

i
n
f
o
r
m
a
t
i
o
n

w
i
t
h

n
o
n
-
F
i
r
t
h

p
r
o
d
u
c
t
.


2
0
0
8

.

T
h
e

c
o
p
y
r
i
g
h
t

o
f

t
h
i
s

d
o
c
u
m
e
n
t

i
s
t
h
e

p
r
o
p
e
r
t
y

o
f

F
i
r
t
h

a
n
d

s
h
a
l
l

n
o
t

b
e
r
e
p
r
o
d
u
c
e
d
,

c
o
p
i
e
d
,

l
o
a
n
e
d

o
r

d
i
s
p
o
s
e
d

o
f
d
i
r
e
c
t
l
y
,

o
r

i
n
d
i
r
e
c
t
l
y
,

n
o
r

u
s
e
d

f
o
r

a
n
y
p
u
r
p
o
s
e

o
t
h
e
r

t
h
a
n

t
h
a
t

f
o
r

w
h
i
c
h

i
t

i
s
s
p
e
c
i
f
i
c
a
l
l
y

f
u
r
n
i
s
h
e
d

w
i
t
h
o
u
t

p
r
i
o
r

c
o
n
s
e
n
t
.
F
o
r

T
e
c
h
n
i
c
a
l

A
d
v
i
c
e
:


P
h
.

0
8
0
0

8
0
0

5
7
6
F
i
r
t
h

H
o
t
B
l
o
c
P
r
e
c
a
s
t

F
l
o
o
r
i
n
g

D
e
c
k

W
a
t
e
r
p
r
o
o
f
i
n
g

D
e
t
a
i
l

4
0
2
4
0
2
_
p
r
e
c
a
s
t
_
d
e
c
k
.
d
w
g
1
7

O
c
t
o
b
e
r

2
0
0
8
S
c
a
l
e

1
:
1
0
P
r
e
c
a
s
t

F
l
o
o
r
i
n
g

D
e
c
k

W
a
t
e
r
p
r
o
o
f
i
n
g

D
e
t
a
i
l
D
e
t
a
i
l
:
4
0
2
_
p
r
e
c
a
s
t
_
d
e
c
k
Masonry Homes Construction Manual - V1 2008 40
C
h
a
s
e

c
u
t

(
s
e
e

d
e
t
a
i
l
)
M
e
t
a
l

f
l
a
s
h
i
n
g

n
o
t
e
:

s
t
a
i
n
l
e
s
s
m
a
y

b
e

r
e
q
u
i
r
e
d
,

s
e
e

N
Z
S

3
6
0
4
d
u
r
a
b
i
l
i
t
y

s
e
c
t
i
o
n
D
.
P
.
C
.
P
l
a
s
t
e
r
/
f
i
n
i
s
h

a
s

s
p
e
c
i
f
i
e
d
N
o
t
e
:
x
R
e
i
n
f
o
r
c
e
m
e
n
t

n
o
t

s
h
o
w
n

f
o
r

c
l
a
r
i
t
y
.
x
B
o
l
t

d
e
t
a
i
l
s

a
s

p
e
r

N
Z
S
4
2
2
9
P
a
r
a
p
e
t

W
a
l
l

D
e
t
a
i
l
F
i
r
t
h

H
o
t
B
l
o
c

P
o
l
y
s
t
y
r
e
n
e

i
n
s
u
l
a
t
i
o
n

(
n
o
t
r
e
q
u
i
r
e
d

i
f

a
n

i
n
t
e
r
i
o
r

w
a
l
l
)
H
i
g
h

b
u
i
l
d

a
c
r
y
l
i
c
p
a
i
n
t

s
y
s
t
e
m
P
l
a
s
t
e
r
F
l
a
s
h
i
n
g
F
l
a
s
h
i
n
g

D
e
t
a
i
l
C
h
a
s
e

c
u
t
M
a
s
o
n
r
y

u
n
i
t
s
F
l
e
x
i
b
l
e

p
a
i
n
t
a
b
l
e

s
e
a
l
e
r
7 5 m i n
2
0
R
o
o
f
i
n
g

u
n
d
e
r
l
a
y

t
u
r
n
e
d
u
p

b
e
h
i
n
d

f
l
a
s
h
i
n
g
R
o
o
f

c
l
a
d
d
i
n
g
P
u
r
l
i
n
R
a
f
t
e
r
I
n
t
e
r
i
o
r

p
l
a
s
t
e
r
/
f
i
n
i
s
h

a
s
s
p
e
c
i
f
i
e
d
F
i
r
t
h

H
o
t
B
l
o
c

P
o
l
y
s
t
y
r
e
n
e

i
n
s
u
l
a
t
i
o
n
E
x
t
e
r
i
o
r

p
l
a
s
t
e
r
/
f
i
n
i
s
h

a
s

s
p
e
c
i
f
i
e
d

w
i
t
h
a
p
p
l
i
e
d

w
a
t
e
r
p
r
o
o
f

c
o
a
t
i
n
g
S
e
e

n
o
t
e
w
w
w
.
f
i
r
t
h
.
c
o
.
n
z
D
i
s
c
l
a
i
m
e
r
:

T
h
i
s

i
n
f
o
r
m
a
t
i
o
n

i
s

i
n
t
e
n
d
e
d

s
o
l
e
l
y

a
s

a

g
u
i
d
e

f
o
r

u
s
e

o
f

F
i
r
t
h
p
r
o
d
u
c
t
s
.

B
e
f
o
r
e

u
s
i
n
g

a

F
i
r
t
h

p
r
o
d
u
c
t

y
o
u

s
h
o
u
l
d

e
n
s
u
r
e

t
h
a
t

t
h
e

p
r
o
d
u
c
t

i
s
s
u
i
t
a
b
l
e

f
o
r

u
s
e

i
n

t
h
e

s
p
e
c
i
f
i
c

a
p
p
l
i
c
a
t
i
o
n
.

N
o
t
h
i
n
g

i
n

t
h
i
s

i
n
f
o
r
m
a
t
i
o
n
c
o
n
s
t
i
t
u
t
e
s

a

s
t
a
t
e
m
e
n
t

o
f

f
i
t
n
e
s
s

f
o
r

p
a
r
t
i
c
u
l
a
r

p
u
r
p
o
s
e

-

a
p
p
r
o
p
r
i
a
t
e

e
x
p
e
r
t
a
d
v
i
c
e

s
h
o
u
l
d

a
l
w
a
y
s

b
e

o
b
t
a
i
n
e
d
.

F
i
r
t
h

m
a
k
e
s

n
o

w
a
r
r
a
n
t
y

r
e
g
a
r
d
i
n
g

t
h
e

u
s
e
o
f

t
h
i
s

i
n
f
o
r
m
a
t
i
o
n

w
i
t
h

n
o
n
-
F
i
r
t
h

p
r
o
d
u
c
t
.


2
0
0
9

.

T
h
e

c
o
p
y
r
i
g
h
t

o
f

t
h
i
s

d
o
c
u
m
e
n
t

i
s
t
h
e

p
r
o
p
e
r
t
y

o
f

F
i
r
t
h

a
n
d

s
h
a
l
l

n
o
t

b
e
r
e
p
r
o
d
u
c
e
d
,

c
o
p
i
e
d
,

l
o
a
n
e
d

o
r

d
i
s
p
o
s
e
d

o
f
d
i
r
e
c
t
l
y
,

o
r

i
n
d
i
r
e
c
t
l
y
,

n
o
r

u
s
e
d

f
o
r

a
n
y
p
u
r
p
o
s
e

o
t
h
e
r

t
h
a
n

t
h
a
t

f
o
r

w
h
i
c
h

i
t

i
s
s
p
e
c
i
f
i
c
a
l
l
y

f
u
r
n
i
s
h
e
d

w
i
t
h
o
u
t

p
r
i
o
r

c
o
n
s
e
n
t
.
F
o
r

T
e
c
h
n
i
c
a
l

A
d
v
i
c
e
:


P
h
.

0
8
0
0

8
0
0

5
7
6
F
i
r
t
h

H
o
t
B
l
o
c
C
r
o
s
s
-
s
e
c
t
i
o
n

W
a
l
l

T
o

R
o
o
f

J
u
n
c
t
i
o
n

4
0
3
4
0
3
_
c
r
o
s
s
-
s
e
c
t
i
o
n
.
d
w
g
F
e
b
r
u
a
r
y

2
0
0
9
S
c
a
l
e

1
:
1
0
C
r
o
s
s
-
s
e
c
t
i
o
n

W
a
l
l

T
o

R
o
o
f

J
u
n
c
t
i
o
n
D
e
t
a
i
l
:
4
0
3
_
c
r
o
s
s
-
s
e
c
t
i
o
n

41 Masonry Homes Construction Manual - V1 2008


5 m m m i n g a p
5
m
m

m
i
n

g
a
p
L
e
a
v
e

4
-
5
m
m

g
a
p

b
e
t
w
e
e
n
a
l
u
m
i
n
i
u
m

a
n
d

p
l
a
s
t
e
r

a
n
d

s
e
a
l
w
i
t
h

a
p
p
r
o
v
e
d

s
e
a
l
a
n
t
(
H
e
a
d

a
n
d

s
t
i
l
e
s

o
n
l
y
)
R
e
b
a
t
e
d

b
l
o
c
k
E
x
t
e
r
i
o
r

p
l
a
s
t
e
r
/
f
i
n
i
s
h

a
s
s
p
e
c
i
f
i
e
d

w
i
t
h

a
p
p
l
i
e
d

w
a
t
e
r
p
r
o
o
f

c
o
a
t
i
n
g
P
r
o
p
r
i
e
t
a
r
y

w
a
t
e
r
p
r
o
o
f
i
n
g
s
y
s
t
e
m

t
o

a
l
l

r
e
v
e
a
l
s

p
r
i
o
r

t
o
w
i
n
d
o
w

i
n
s
t
a
l
l
a
t
i
o
n
P
r
o
t
r
u
d
i
n
g

s
i
l
l

b
l
o
c
k
I
n
t
e
r
n
a
l

f
i
n
i
s
h

a
s

s
p
e
c
i
f
i
e
d
5 m m m i n g a p
J
a
m
b

l
i
n
e
r
W
i
n
d
o
w
E
c
o

f
o
a
m

b
e
n
e
a
t
h

s
i
l
l
L
e
a
v
e

4
-
5
m
m

g
a
p

b
e
t
w
e
e
n
a
l
u
m
i
n
i
u
m

a
n
d

p
l
a
s
t
e
r
1
0
m
m

m
i
n

c
o
v
e
r
P
a
c
k
i
n
g
F
o
r

p
l
a
s
t
e
r

f
i
n
i
s
h
,

f
o
r
m

a

d
r
i
p
e
d
g
e
E
c
o
f
o
a
m
B
a
c
k
i
n
g

r
o
d
B
a
c
k
i
n
g

r
o
d
5 0
A
p
p
l
i
e
d

w
a
t
e
r
p
r
o
o
f

m
e
m
b
r
a
n
e
5 0
A
p
p
l
i
e
d

w
a
t
e
r
p
r
o
o
f

m
e
m
b
r
a
n
e
A
l
u
m
i
n
u
m

a
n
g
l
e

2
0
m
m

x

2
0
m
m
w
w
w
.
f
i
r
t
h
.
c
o
.
n
z
D
i
s
c
l
a
i
m
e
r
:

T
h
i
s

i
n
f
o
r
m
a
t
i
o
n

i
s

i
n
t
e
n
d
e
d

s
o
l
e
l
y

a
s

a

g
u
i
d
e

f
o
r

u
s
e

o
f

F
i
r
t
h
p
r
o
d
u
c
t
s
.

B
e
f
o
r
e

u
s
i
n
g

a

F
i
r
t
h

p
r
o
d
u
c
t

y
o
u

s
h
o
u
l
d

e
n
s
u
r
e

t
h
a
t

t
h
e

p
r
o
d
u
c
t

i
s
s
u
i
t
a
b
l
e

f
o
r

u
s
e

i
n

t
h
e

s
p
e
c
i
f
i
c

a
p
p
l
i
c
a
t
i
o
n
.

N
o
t
h
i
n
g

i
n

t
h
i
s

i
n
f
o
r
m
a
t
i
o
n
c
o
n
s
t
i
t
u
t
e
s

a

s
t
a
t
e
m
e
n
t

o
f

f
i
t
n
e
s
s

f
o
r

p
a
r
t
i
c
u
l
a
r

p
u
r
p
o
s
e

-

a
p
p
r
o
p
r
i
a
t
e

e
x
p
e
r
t
a
d
v
i
c
e

s
h
o
u
l
d

a
l
w
a
y
s

b
e

o
b
t
a
i
n
e
d
.

F
i
r
t
h

m
a
k
e
s

n
o

w
a
r
r
a
n
t
y

r
e
g
a
r
d
i
n
g

t
h
e

u
s
e
o
f

t
h
i
s

i
n
f
o
r
m
a
t
i
o
n

w
i
t
h

n
o
n
-
F
i
r
t
h

p
r
o
d
u
c
t
.


2
0
0
9

.

T
h
e

c
o
p
y
r
i
g
h
t

o
f

t
h
i
s

d
o
c
u
m
e
n
t

i
s
t
h
e

p
r
o
p
e
r
t
y

o
f

F
i
r
t
h

a
n
d

s
h
a
l
l

n
o
t

b
e
r
e
p
r
o
d
u
c
e
d
,

c
o
p
i
e
d
,

l
o
a
n
e
d

o
r

d
i
s
p
o
s
e
d

o
f
d
i
r
e
c
t
l
y
,

o
r

i
n
d
i
r
e
c
t
l
y
,

n
o
r

u
s
e
d

f
o
r

a
n
y
p
u
r
p
o
s
e

o
t
h
e
r

t
h
a
n

t
h
a
t

f
o
r

w
h
i
c
h

i
t

i
s
s
p
e
c
i
f
i
c
a
l
l
y

f
u
r
n
i
s
h
e
d

w
i
t
h
o
u
t

p
r
i
o
r

c
o
n
s
e
n
t
.
F
o
r

T
e
c
h
n
i
c
a
l

A
d
v
i
c
e
:


P
h
.

0
8
0
0

8
0
0

5
7
6
F
i
r
t
h

H
o
t
B
l
o
c
W
i
n
d
o
w

H
e
a
d

A
n
d

S
i
l
l

D
e
t
a
i
l

5
0
1
5
0
1
_
w
i
n
d
o
w
_
h
e
a
d
.
d
w
g
F
e
b
r
u
a
r
y

2
0
0
9
S
c
a
l
e

1
:
5
W
i
n
d
o
w

H
e
a
d

A
n
d

S
i
l
l

D
e
t
a
i
l
D
e
t
a
i
l
:
5
0
1
_
w
i
n
d
o
w
_
h
e
a
d

Masonry Homes Construction Manual - V1 2008 42


C
o
n
c
r
e
t
e

s
l
a
b
N
o
t
e
:

R
e
i
n
f
o
r
c
e
m
e
n
t

n
o
t

s
h
o
w
n

f
o
r

c
l
a
r
i
t
y
.
F
i
r
t
h

H
o
t
B
l
o
c

5 1 0
S
e
l
e
c
t
e
d

a
l
u
m
i
n
i
u
m

s
l
i
d
i
n
g

d
o
o
r
s
e
c
t
i
o
n
S
e
l
e
c
t
e
d

t
i
m
b
e
r

s
i
l
l

b
o
a
r
d
C
o
m
p
r
e
s
s
i
b
l
e

c
e
l
l

f
o
a
m

a
i
r

s
e
a
l
R
e
b
a
t
e

t
o

s
u
i
t
s
i
l
l

p
r
o
f
i
l
e
A
p
p
l
i
e
d

w
a
t
e
r
p
r
o
o
f

m
e
m
b
r
a
n
e
(
p
a
i
n
t

c
o
a
t
i
n
g
)

w
i
t
h

5
0
m
m

c
o
v
e
r
t
o

b
l
o
c
k

f
a
c
e
5 0
5
m
m

m
i
n
1
5


s
l
o
p
e

t
o

s
i
l
l
T
i
l
e
d

s
i
l
l
S
e
a
l
a
n
t
R
e
b
a
t
e
d

b
l
o
c
k
E
x
t
e
r
i
o
r

p
l
a
s
t
e
r
/
f
i
n
i
s
h

a
s
s
p
e
c
i
f
i
e
d

w
i
t
h

a
p
p
l
i
e
d
w
a
t
e
r
p
r
o
o
f

c
o
a
t
i
n
g
w
w
w
.
f
i
r
t
h
.
c
o
.
n
z
D
i
s
c
l
a
i
m
e
r
:

T
h
i
s

i
n
f
o
r
m
a
t
i
o
n

i
s

i
n
t
e
n
d
e
d

s
o
l
e
l
y

a
s

a

g
u
i
d
e

f
o
r

u
s
e

o
f

F
i
r
t
h
p
r
o
d
u
c
t
s
.

B
e
f
o
r
e

u
s
i
n
g

a

F
i
r
t
h

p
r
o
d
u
c
t

y
o
u

s
h
o
u
l
d

e
n
s
u
r
e

t
h
a
t

t
h
e

p
r
o
d
u
c
t

i
s
s
u
i
t
a
b
l
e

f
o
r

u
s
e

i
n

t
h
e

s
p
e
c
i
f
i
c

a
p
p
l
i
c
a
t
i
o
n
.

N
o
t
h
i
n
g

i
n

t
h
i
s

i
n
f
o
r
m
a
t
i
o
n
c
o
n
s
t
i
t
u
t
e
s

a

s
t
a
t
e
m
e
n
t

o
f

f
i
t
n
e
s
s

f
o
r

p
a
r
t
i
c
u
l
a
r

p
u
r
p
o
s
e

-

a
p
p
r
o
p
r
i
a
t
e

e
x
p
e
r
t
a
d
v
i
c
e

s
h
o
u
l
d

a
l
w
a
y
s

b
e

o
b
t
a
i
n
e
d
.

F
i
r
t
h

m
a
k
e
s

n
o

w
a
r
r
a
n
t
y

r
e
g
a
r
d
i
n
g

t
h
e

u
s
e
o
f

t
h
i
s

i
n
f
o
r
m
a
t
i
o
n

w
i
t
h

n
o
n
-
F
i
r
t
h

p
r
o
d
u
c
t
.


2
0
0
9

.

T
h
e

c
o
p
y
r
i
g
h
t

o
f

t
h
i
s

d
o
c
u
m
e
n
t

i
s
t
h
e

p
r
o
p
e
r
t
y

o
f

F
i
r
t
h

a
n
d

s
h
a
l
l

n
o
t

b
e
r
e
p
r
o
d
u
c
e
d
,

c
o
p
i
e
d
,

l
o
a
n
e
d

o
r

d
i
s
p
o
s
e
d

o
f
d
i
r
e
c
t
l
y
,

o
r

i
n
d
i
r
e
c
t
l
y
,

n
o
r

u
s
e
d

f
o
r

a
n
y
p
u
r
p
o
s
e

o
t
h
e
r

t
h
a
n

t
h
a
t

f
o
r

w
h
i
c
h

i
t

i
s
s
p
e
c
i
f
i
c
a
l
l
y

f
u
r
n
i
s
h
e
d

w
i
t
h
o
u
t

p
r
i
o
r

c
o
n
s
e
n
t
.
F
o
r

T
e
c
h
n
i
c
a
l

A
d
v
i
c
e
:


P
h
.

0
8
0
0

8
0
0

5
7
6
F
i
r
t
h

H
o
t
B
l
o
c
S
l
i
d
i
n
g
/
F
r
e
n
c
h

D
o
o
r

D
e
t
a
i
l
s
O
n

C
o
n
v
e
n
t
i
o
n
a
l

F
o
o
t
i
n
g

5
0
3
5
0
3
_
s
l
i
d
i
n
g
_
f
r
e
n
c
h
.
d
w
g
F
e
b
r
u
a
r
y

2
0
0
9
S
c
a
l
e

1
:
5
S
l
i
d
i
n
g
/
F
r
e
n
c
h

D
o
o
r

D
e
t
a
i
l
s
D
e
t
a
i
l
:
5
0
3
_
s
l
i
d
i
n
g
_
f
r
e
n
c
h

43 Masonry Homes Construction Manual - V1 2008


5 m m m i n g a p
5
m
m

m
i
n

g
a
p
L
e
a
v
e

4
-
5
m
m

g
a
p

b
e
t
w
e
e
n
a
l
u
m
i
n
i
u
m

a
n
d

p
l
a
s
t
e
r

a
n
d

s
e
a
l
w
i
t
h

a
p
p
r
o
v
e
d

s
e
a
l
a
n
t
(
H
e
a
d

a
n
d

s
t
i
l
e
s

o
n
l
y
)
R
e
b
a
t
e
d

b
l
o
c
k
E
x
t
e
r
i
o
r

p
l
a
s
t
e
r
/
f
i
n
i
s
h

a
s
s
p
e
c
i
f
i
e
d

w
i
t
h

a
p
p
l
i
e
d

w
a
t
e
r
p
r
o
o
f

c
o
a
t
i
n
g
P
r
o
p
r
i
e
t
a
r
y

w
a
t
e
r
p
r
o
o
f
i
n
g
s
y
s
t
e
m

t
o

a
l
l

r
e
v
e
a
l
s

p
r
i
o
r

t
o
w
i
n
d
o
w

i
n
s
t
a
l
l
a
t
i
o
n
P
r
o
t
r
u
d
i
n
g

s
i
l
l

b
l
o
c
k
I
n
t
e
r
n
a
l

f
i
n
i
s
h

a
s

s
p
e
c
i
f
i
e
d
5 m m m i n g a p
W
i
n
d
o
w
E
c
o

f
o
a
m

b
e
n
e
a
t
h

s
i
l
l
L
e
a
v
e

4
-
5
m
m

g
a
p

b
e
t
w
e
e
n
a
l
u
m
i
n
i
u
m

a
n
d

p
l
a
s
t
e
r
1
0
m
m

m
i
n

c
o
v
e
r
P
a
c
k
i
n
g
F
o
r

p
l
a
s
t
e
r

f
i
n
i
s
h
,

f
o
r
m

a

d
r
i
p
e
d
g
e
E
c
o
f
o
a
m
B
a
c
k
i
n
g

r
o
d
B
a
c
k
i
n
g

r
o
d
A
p
p
l
i
e
d

w
a
t
e
r
p
r
o
o
f

m
e
m
b
r
a
n
e
A
p
p
l
i
e
d

w
a
t
e
r
p
r
o
o
f

m
e
m
b
r
a
n
e
A
l
u
m
i
n
u
m

a
n
g
l
e

2
0
m
m

x

2
0
m
m
w
w
w
.
f
i
r
t
h
.
c
o
.
n
z
D
i
s
c
l
a
i
m
e
r
:

T
h
i
s

i
n
f
o
r
m
a
t
i
o
n

i
s

i
n
t
e
n
d
e
d

s
o
l
e
l
y

a
s

a

g
u
i
d
e

f
o
r

u
s
e

o
f

F
i
r
t
h
p
r
o
d
u
c
t
s
.

B
e
f
o
r
e

u
s
i
n
g

a

F
i
r
t
h

p
r
o
d
u
c
t

y
o
u

s
h
o
u
l
d

e
n
s
u
r
e

t
h
a
t

t
h
e

p
r
o
d
u
c
t

i
s
s
u
i
t
a
b
l
e

f
o
r

u
s
e

i
n

t
h
e

s
p
e
c
i
f
i
c

a
p
p
l
i
c
a
t
i
o
n
.

N
o
t
h
i
n
g

i
n

t
h
i
s

i
n
f
o
r
m
a
t
i
o
n
c
o
n
s
t
i
t
u
t
e
s

a

s
t
a
t
e
m
e
n
t

o
f

f
i
t
n
e
s
s

f
o
r

p
a
r
t
i
c
u
l
a
r

p
u
r
p
o
s
e

-

a
p
p
r
o
p
r
i
a
t
e

e
x
p
e
r
t
a
d
v
i
c
e

s
h
o
u
l
d

a
l
w
a
y
s

b
e

o
b
t
a
i
n
e
d
.

F
i
r
t
h

m
a
k
e
s

n
o

w
a
r
r
a
n
t
y

r
e
g
a
r
d
i
n
g

t
h
e

u
s
e
o
f

t
h
i
s

i
n
f
o
r
m
a
t
i
o
n

w
i
t
h

n
o
n
-
F
i
r
t
h

p
r
o
d
u
c
t
.


2
0
0
9

.

T
h
e

c
o
p
y
r
i
g
h
t

o
f

t
h
i
s

d
o
c
u
m
e
n
t

i
s
t
h
e

p
r
o
p
e
r
t
y

o
f

F
i
r
t
h

a
n
d

s
h
a
l
l

n
o
t

b
e
r
e
p
r
o
d
u
c
e
d
,

c
o
p
i
e
d
,

l
o
a
n
e
d

o
r

d
i
s
p
o
s
e
d

o
f
d
i
r
e
c
t
l
y
,

o
r

i
n
d
i
r
e
c
t
l
y
,

n
o
r

u
s
e
d

f
o
r

a
n
y
p
u
r
p
o
s
e

o
t
h
e
r

t
h
a
n

t
h
a
t

f
o
r

w
h
i
c
h

i
t

i
s
s
p
e
c
i
f
i
c
a
l
l
y

f
u
r
n
i
s
h
e
d

w
i
t
h
o
u
t

p
r
i
o
r

c
o
n
s
e
n
t
.
F
o
r

T
e
c
h
n
i
c
a
l

A
d
v
i
c
e
:


P
h
.

0
8
0
0

8
0
0

5
7
6
F
i
r
t
h

H
o
t
B
l
o
c
W
i
n
d
o
w

H
e
a
d

A
n
d

S
i
l
l

D
e
t
a
i
l

5
0
2
5
0
2
_
w
i
n
d
o
w
_
h
e
a
d
.
d
w
g
F
e
b
r
u
a
r
y

2
0
0
9
S
c
a
l
e

1
:
5
W
i
n
d
o
w

H
e
a
d

A
n
d

S
i
l
l

D
e
t
a
i
l
D
e
t
a
i
l
:
5
0
2
_
w
i
n
d
o
w
_
h
e
a
d

Masonry Homes Construction Manual - V1 2008 44


N
o
t
e
:

r
e
i
n
f
o
r
c
e
m
e
n
t

n
o
t

s
h
o
w
n

f
o
r

c
l
a
r
i
t
y
.
B
e
a
d

o
f

f
l
e
x
i
b
l
e
p
a
i
n
t
a
b
l
e

s
e
a
l
e
r
S
t
o
p
D
o
o
r
9
0
x
2
0

d
o
o
r

f
r
a
m
e

w
e
d
g
e
&
f
i
x
e
d
u
n
d
e
r

b
y

d
o
o
r

s
t
o
p
A
r
c
h
i
t
r
a
v
e
P
l
a
n
t
e
d

s
t
o
p
I
n
t
e
r
i
o
r

p
l
a
s
t
e
r
/
f
i
n
i
s
h

a
s
s
p
e
c
i
f
i
e
d
D
.
P
.
C
.
F
i
r
t
h

1
5

S
e
r
i
e
s

B
l
o
c
k
E
x

2
0
0
x
5
0

t
i
m
b
e
r

m
a
c
h
i
n
e
d

t
o
1
8
0
m
m
R
a
m
s
e
t

f
i
x
i
n
g
s
I
n
t
e
r
i
o
r

p
l
a
s
t
e
r
/
f
i
n
i
s
h

a
s
s
p
e
c
i
f
i
e
d
I
n
t
e
r
i
o
r

T
i
m
b
e
r

J
a
m
b

D
e
t
a
i
l
I
n
t
e
r
i
o
r

T
i
m
b
e
r

H
e
a
d

D
e
t
a
i
l
w
w
w
.
f
i
r
t
h
.
c
o
.
n
z
D
i
s
c
l
a
i
m
e
r
:

T
h
i
s

i
n
f
o
r
m
a
t
i
o
n

i
s

i
n
t
e
n
d
e
d

s
o
l
e
l
y

a
s

a

g
u
i
d
e

f
o
r

u
s
e

o
f

F
i
r
t
h
p
r
o
d
u
c
t
s
.

B
e
f
o
r
e

u
s
i
n
g

a

F
i
r
t
h

p
r
o
d
u
c
t

y
o
u

s
h
o
u
l
d

e
n
s
u
r
e

t
h
a
t

t
h
e

p
r
o
d
u
c
t

i
s
s
u
i
t
a
b
l
e

f
o
r

u
s
e

i
n

t
h
e

s
p
e
c
i
f
i
c

a
p
p
l
i
c
a
t
i
o
n
.

N
o
t
h
i
n
g

i
n

t
h
i
s

i
n
f
o
r
m
a
t
i
o
n
c
o
n
s
t
i
t
u
t
e
s

a

s
t
a
t
e
m
e
n
t

o
f

f
i
t
n
e
s
s

f
o
r

p
a
r
t
i
c
u
l
a
r

p
u
r
p
o
s
e

-

a
p
p
r
o
p
r
i
a
t
e

e
x
p
e
r
t
a
d
v
i
c
e

s
h
o
u
l
d

a
l
w
a
y
s

b
e

o
b
t
a
i
n
e
d
.

F
i
r
t
h

m
a
k
e
s

n
o

w
a
r
r
a
n
t
y

r
e
g
a
r
d
i
n
g

t
h
e

u
s
e
o
f

t
h
i
s

i
n
f
o
r
m
a
t
i
o
n

w
i
t
h

n
o
n
-
F
i
r
t
h

p
r
o
d
u
c
t
.


2
0
0
9

.

T
h
e

c
o
p
y
r
i
g
h
t

o
f

t
h
i
s

d
o
c
u
m
e
n
t

i
s
t
h
e

p
r
o
p
e
r
t
y

o
f

F
i
r
t
h

a
n
d

s
h
a
l
l

n
o
t

b
e
r
e
p
r
o
d
u
c
e
d
,

c
o
p
i
e
d
,

l
o
a
n
e
d

o
r

d
i
s
p
o
s
e
d

o
f
d
i
r
e
c
t
l
y
,

o
r

i
n
d
i
r
e
c
t
l
y
,

n
o
r

u
s
e
d

f
o
r

a
n
y
p
u
r
p
o
s
e

o
t
h
e
r

t
h
a
n

t
h
a
t

f
o
r

w
h
i
c
h

i
t

i
s
s
p
e
c
i
f
i
c
a
l
l
y

f
u
r
n
i
s
h
e
d

w
i
t
h
o
u
t

p
r
i
o
r

c
o
n
s
e
n
t
.
F
o
r

T
e
c
h
n
i
c
a
l

A
d
v
i
c
e
:


P
h
.

0
8
0
0

8
0
0

5
7
6
F
i
r
t
h

G
r
e
y

M
a
s
o
n
r
y
I
n
t
e
r
i
o
r

D
o
o
r

J
a
m
b
/
h
e
a
d

D
e
t
a
i
l
s

5
0
5
5
0
5
_
i
n
t
e
r
i
o
r
_
d
o
o
r
.
d
w
g
F
e
b
r
u
a
r
y

2
0
0
9
S
c
a
l
e

1
:
5
I
n
t
e
r
i
o
r

D
o
o
r

J
a
m
b
/
h
e
a
d

D
e
t
a
i
l
s
D
e
t
a
i
l
:
5
0
5
_
i
n
t
e
r
i
o
r
_
d
o
o
r
45 Masonry Homes Construction Manual - V1 2008
S
e
l
e
c
t
e
d

I
n
t
e
r
i
o
r

f
i
n
i
s
h
R
e
b
a
t
e

b
l
o
c
k
E
c
o
f
o
a
m

a
r
o
u
n
d

a
l
l

s
i
d
e
s

o
f
m
e
t
e
r

b
o
x

t
o

f
o
r
m

a
i
r
s
e
a
l
M
e
t
a
l

m
e
t
e
r

b
o
x
B
a
c
k
i
n
g

r
o
d
F
i
r
t
h

c
o
n
c
r
e
t
e

m
a
s
o
n
r
y
M
e
t
e
r

B
o
x

A
t

H
e
a
d
(
n
o
t

t
o

s
c
a
l
e
)
(
n
o
t

t
o

s
c
a
l
e
)
2
-
5
m
m

g
a
p

b
e
w
e
e
n

a
n
g
l
e

a
n
d
D
P
C
.

D
o

n
o
t

s
e
a
l

a
t

b
o
t
t
o
m
M
e
t
a
l

a
n
g
l
e
M
o
d
i
f
i
e
d

s
i
l
i
c
o
n

s
e
a
l
a
n
t
b
e
t
w
e
e
n

a
n
g
l
e

a
n
d

D
P
C
f
o
r

h
e
a
d

a
n
d

s
i
d
e
s
C
r
o
s
s
-
f
a
l
l

5

W
a
t
e
r

p
r
o
o
f

c
o
a
t
i
n
g
E
c
o
f
o
a
m

c
o
n
t
i
n
u
o
u
s

t
o

a
l
l

s
i
d
e
s
B
a
c
k
i
n
g

r
o
d

c
o
n
t
i
n
u
o
u
s

t
o

a
l
l
s
i
d
e
s
A
p
p
l
i
e
d

w
a
t
e
r
p
r
o
o
f
i
n
g
m
e
m
b
r
a
n
e
M
e
t
a
l

m
e
t
e
r

b
o
x
E
x
t
e
r
i
o
r

p
l
a
s
t
e
r
/
f
i
n
i
s
h

a
s
s
p
e
c
i
f
i
e
d
w
w
w
.
f
i
r
t
h
.
c
o
.
n
z
D
i
s
c
l
a
i
m
e
r
:

T
h
i
s

i
n
f
o
r
m
a
t
i
o
n

i
s

i
n
t
e
n
d
e
d

s
o
l
e
l
y

a
s

a

g
u
i
d
e

f
o
r

u
s
e

o
f

F
i
r
t
h
p
r
o
d
u
c
t
s
.

B
e
f
o
r
e

u
s
i
n
g

a

F
i
r
t
h

p
r
o
d
u
c
t

y
o
u

s
h
o
u
l
d

e
n
s
u
r
e

t
h
a
t

t
h
e

p
r
o
d
u
c
t

i
s
s
u
i
t
a
b
l
e

f
o
r

u
s
e

i
n

t
h
e

s
p
e
c
i
f
i
c

a
p
p
l
i
c
a
t
i
o
n
.

N
o
t
h
i
n
g

i
n

t
h
i
s

i
n
f
o
r
m
a
t
i
o
n
c
o
n
s
t
i
t
u
t
e
s

a

s
t
a
t
e
m
e
n
t

o
f

f
i
t
n
e
s
s

f
o
r

p
a
r
t
i
c
u
l
a
r

p
u
r
p
o
s
e

-

a
p
p
r
o
p
r
i
a
t
e

e
x
p
e
r
t
a
d
v
i
c
e

s
h
o
u
l
d

a
l
w
a
y
s

b
e

o
b
t
a
i
n
e
d
.

F
i
r
t
h

m
a
k
e
s

n
o

w
a
r
r
a
n
t
y

r
e
g
a
r
d
i
n
g

t
h
e

u
s
e
o
f

t
h
i
s

i
n
f
o
r
m
a
t
i
o
n

w
i
t
h

n
o
n
-
F
i
r
t
h

p
r
o
d
u
c
t
.


2
0
0
9

.

T
h
e

c
o
p
y
r
i
g
h
t

o
f

t
h
i
s

d
o
c
u
m
e
n
t

i
s
t
h
e

p
r
o
p
e
r
t
y

o
f

F
i
r
t
h

a
n
d

s
h
a
l
l

n
o
t

b
e
r
e
p
r
o
d
u
c
e
d
,

c
o
p
i
e
d
,

l
o
a
n
e
d

o
r

d
i
s
p
o
s
e
d

o
f
d
i
r
e
c
t
l
y
,

o
r

i
n
d
i
r
e
c
t
l
y
,

n
o
r

u
s
e
d

f
o
r

a
n
y
p
u
r
p
o
s
e

o
t
h
e
r

t
h
a
n

t
h
a
t

f
o
r

w
h
i
c
h

i
t

i
s
s
p
e
c
i
f
i
c
a
l
l
y

f
u
r
n
i
s
h
e
d

w
i
t
h
o
u
t

p
r
i
o
r

c
o
n
s
e
n
t
.
F
o
r

T
e
c
h
n
i
c
a
l

A
d
v
i
c
e
:


P
h
.

0
8
0
0

8
0
0

5
7
6
F
i
r
t
h

H
o
t
B
l
o
c
M
e
t
e
r

B
o
x

5
0
6
5
0
6
_
m
e
t
e
r
_
b
o
x
.
d
w
g
F
e
b
r
u
a
r
y

2
0
0
9
S
c
a
l
e

1
:
5
M
e
t
e
r

B
o
x
D
e
t
a
i
l
:
5
0
6
_
m
e
t
e
r
_
b
o
x

Masonry Homes Construction Manual - V1 2008 46


F
i
r
t
h

H
o
t
B
l
o
c

P
i
p
e

l
a
i
d

t
o

f
a
l
l

t
o

o
u
t
s
i
d
e

i
f
p
o
s
s
i
b
l
e
I
n
t
e
r
i
o
r

f
i
n
i
s
h

a
s

s
p
e
c
i
f
i
e
d
F
l
e
x
i
b
l
e

s
e
a
l
a
n
t

t
o
p
e
r
i
m
e
t
e
r

o
f

h
o
l
e
P
i
p
e

t
o

s
l
o
p
e

d
o
w
n

t
o

t
h
e
o
u
t
s
i
d
e
P
i
p
e

p
e
n
e
t
r
a
t
i
o
n

t
o
b
e

s
e
a
l
e
d

w
i
t
h

t
a
p
e
t
o

b
u
i
l
d
i
n
g

w
r
a
p
W
a
t
e
r
p
r
o
o
f

c
o
a
t
i
n
g
G
a
s
k
e
t

s
l
e
e
v
e

f
o
r

p
i
p
e
s

u
p

t
o
4
0
m
m

d
i
a
m
e
t
e
r
E
x
t
e
r
i
o
r

p
l
a
s
t
e
r
/
f
i
n
s
h

a
s
s
p
e
c
i
f
i
e
d
w
w
w
.
f
i
r
t
h
.
c
o
.
n
z
D
i
s
c
l
a
i
m
e
r
:

T
h
i
s

i
n
f
o
r
m
a
t
i
o
n

i
s

i
n
t
e
n
d
e
d

s
o
l
e
l
y

a
s

a

g
u
i
d
e

f
o
r

u
s
e

o
f

F
i
r
t
h
p
r
o
d
u
c
t
s
.

B
e
f
o
r
e

u
s
i
n
g

a

F
i
r
t
h

p
r
o
d
u
c
t

y
o
u

s
h
o
u
l
d

e
n
s
u
r
e

t
h
a
t

t
h
e

p
r
o
d
u
c
t

i
s
s
u
i
t
a
b
l
e

f
o
r

u
s
e

i
n

t
h
e

s
p
e
c
i
f
i
c

a
p
p
l
i
c
a
t
i
o
n
.

N
o
t
h
i
n
g

i
n

t
h
i
s

i
n
f
o
r
m
a
t
i
o
n
c
o
n
s
t
i
t
u
t
e
s

a

s
t
a
t
e
m
e
n
t

o
f

f
i
t
n
e
s
s

f
o
r

p
a
r
t
i
c
u
l
a
r

p
u
r
p
o
s
e

-

a
p
p
r
o
p
r
i
a
t
e

e
x
p
e
r
t
a
d
v
i
c
e

s
h
o
u
l
d

a
l
w
a
y
s

b
e

o
b
t
a
i
n
e
d
.

F
i
r
t
h

m
a
k
e
s

n
o

w
a
r
r
a
n
t
y

r
e
g
a
r
d
i
n
g

t
h
e

u
s
e
o
f

t
h
i
s

i
n
f
o
r
m
a
t
i
o
n

w
i
t
h

n
o
n
-
F
i
r
t
h

p
r
o
d
u
c
t
.


2
0
0
9

.

T
h
e

c
o
p
y
r
i
g
h
t

o
f

t
h
i
s

d
o
c
u
m
e
n
t

i
s
t
h
e

p
r
o
p
e
r
t
y

o
f

F
i
r
t
h

a
n
d

s
h
a
l
l

n
o
t

b
e
r
e
p
r
o
d
u
c
e
d
,

c
o
p
i
e
d
,

l
o
a
n
e
d

o
r

d
i
s
p
o
s
e
d

o
f
d
i
r
e
c
t
l
y
,

o
r

i
n
d
i
r
e
c
t
l
y
,

n
o
r

u
s
e
d

f
o
r

a
n
y
p
u
r
p
o
s
e

o
t
h
e
r

t
h
a
n

t
h
a
t

f
o
r

w
h
i
c
h

i
t

i
s
s
p
e
c
i
f
i
c
a
l
l
y

f
u
r
n
i
s
h
e
d

w
i
t
h
o
u
t

p
r
i
o
r

c
o
n
s
e
n
t
.
F
o
r

T
e
c
h
n
i
c
a
l

A
d
v
i
c
e
:


P
h
.

0
8
0
0

8
0
0

5
7
6
F
i
r
t
h

H
o
t
B
l
o
c
P
i
p
e

P
e
n
e
t
r
a
t
i
o
n

5
0
7
5
0
7
_
p
i
p
e
_
p
e
n
e
t
r
a
t
e
.
d
w
g
F
e
b
r
u
a
r
y

2
0
0
9
S
c
a
l
e

1
:
5
P
i
p
e

P
e
n
e
t
r
a
t
i
o
n
D
e
t
a
i
l
:
5
0
7
_
p
i
p
e
_
p
e
n
e
t
r
a
t
e

47 Masonry Homes Construction Manual - V1 2008


B
l
o
c
k

w
o
r
k

a
b
o
v
e

w
i
t
h

w
a
l
l
r
e
i
n
f
o
r
c
e
m
e
n
t

c
o
n
t
i
n
u
e
d

t
h
r
o
u
g
h
f
l
o
o
r

i
f

r
e
q
u
i
r
e
d
M
e
s
h

s
i
z
e

a
p
p
r
o
p
r
i
a
t
e

t
o
t
o
p
p
i
n
g

t
h
i
c
k
n
e
s
s
V
a
r
i
e
s

w
i
t
h

s
p
a
n

a
n
d

l
o
a
d
i
n
g
7
5

p
r
e
c
a
s
t

f
l
o
o
r
i
n
g
B
l
o
c
k

g
r
o
u
t
e
d

t
o

t
h
i
s

l
e
v
e
l

p
r
i
o
r
t
o

p
l
a
c
i
n
g

p
r
e
c
a
s
t

f
l
o
o
r
i
n
g
I
n
t
e
r
i
o
r

p
l
a
s
t
e
r
/
f
i
n
i
s
h

a
s
s
p
e
c
i
f
i
e
d
A
l
l

r
e
i
n
f
o
r
c
i
n
g

t
o

e
n
g
i
n
e
e
r
i
n
g
d
e
s
i
g
n
B
o
n
d

b
e
a
m
2
5
m
m

m
i
n
.

C
o
v
e
r
B
e
n
d

s
t
a
r
t
e
r
s

a
l
t
e
r
n
a
t
i
v
e
l
y

i
n
t
o
t
o
p
p
i
n
g
M
o
r
t
a
r

s
e
a
t
i
n
g

f
o
r
p
r
e
c
a
s
t

f
l
o
o
r
i
n
g
w
w
w
.
f
i
r
t
h
.
c
o
.
n
z
D
i
s
c
l
a
i
m
e
r
:

T
h
i
s

i
n
f
o
r
m
a
t
i
o
n

i
s

i
n
t
e
n
d
e
d

s
o
l
e
l
y

a
s

a

g
u
i
d
e

f
o
r

u
s
e

o
f

F
i
r
t
h
p
r
o
d
u
c
t
s
.

B
e
f
o
r
e

u
s
i
n
g

a

F
i
r
t
h

p
r
o
d
u
c
t

y
o
u

s
h
o
u
l
d

e
n
s
u
r
e

t
h
a
t

t
h
e

p
r
o
d
u
c
t

i
s
s
u
i
t
a
b
l
e

f
o
r

u
s
e

i
n

t
h
e

s
p
e
c
i
f
i
c

a
p
p
l
i
c
a
t
i
o
n
.

N
o
t
h
i
n
g

i
n

t
h
i
s

i
n
f
o
r
m
a
t
i
o
n
c
o
n
s
t
i
t
u
t
e
s

a

s
t
a
t
e
m
e
n
t

o
f

f
i
t
n
e
s
s

f
o
r

p
a
r
t
i
c
u
l
a
r

p
u
r
p
o
s
e

-

a
p
p
r
o
p
r
i
a
t
e

e
x
p
e
r
t
a
d
v
i
c
e

s
h
o
u
l
d

a
l
w
a
y
s

b
e

o
b
t
a
i
n
e
d
.

F
i
r
t
h

m
a
k
e
s

n
o

w
a
r
r
a
n
t
y

r
e
g
a
r
d
i
n
g

t
h
e

u
s
e
o
f

t
h
i
s

i
n
f
o
r
m
a
t
i
o
n

w
i
t
h

n
o
n
-
F
i
r
t
h

p
r
o
d
u
c
t
.


2
0
0
8

.

T
h
e

c
o
p
y
r
i
g
h
t

o
f

t
h
i
s

d
o
c
u
m
e
n
t

i
s
t
h
e

p
r
o
p
e
r
t
y

o
f

F
i
r
t
h

a
n
d

s
h
a
l
l

n
o
t

b
e
r
e
p
r
o
d
u
c
e
d
,

c
o
p
i
e
d
,

l
o
a
n
e
d

o
r

d
i
s
p
o
s
e
d

o
f
d
i
r
e
c
t
l
y
,

o
r

i
n
d
i
r
e
c
t
l
y
,

n
o
r

u
s
e
d

f
o
r

a
n
y
p
u
r
p
o
s
e

o
t
h
e
r

t
h
a
n

t
h
a
t

f
o
r

w
h
i
c
h

i
t

i
s
s
p
e
c
i
f
i
c
a
l
l
y

f
u
r
n
i
s
h
e
d

w
i
t
h
o
u
t

p
r
i
o
r

c
o
n
s
e
n
t
.
F
o
r

T
e
c
h
n
i
c
a
l

A
d
v
i
c
e
:


P
h
.

0
8
0
0

8
0
0

5
7
6
P
r
e
c
a
s
t

F
l
o
o
r
i
n
g
P
r
e
c
a
s
t

F
l
o
o
r
i
n
g

I
n
t
e
r
m
e
d
i
a
t
e

S
u
p
p
o
r
t

6
0
1
6
0
1
_
p
r
e
c
a
s
t
_
i
n
t
e
r
m
.
d
w
g
1
7

O
c
t
o
b
e
r

2
0
0
8
S
c
a
l
e

1
:
1
0
P
r
e
c
a
s
t

F
l
o
o
r
i
n
g

I
n
t
e
r
m
e
d
i
a
t
e

S
u
p
p
o
r
t
D
e
t
a
i
l
:
6
0
1
_
p
r
e
c
a
s
t
_
i
n
t
e
r
m
Masonry Homes Construction Manual - V1 2008 48
IMPORTANT NOTICE
This Manual has been prepared by Fletcher Concrete & Infrastructure Limited trading as Firth as part of its Firth
Industries Division (Firth), solely to provide general information on Masonry Construction and not as specifc advice
to any particular recipient or person. Notwithstanding the contents of this Manual, Masonry Construction should be
undertaken in accordance with the New Zealand Building Code, all relevant statutory and regulatory requirements and
all relevant New Zealand Standards. Any person contemplating the construction of a structural masonry home should
carry out their own investigations and inquiries as to their specifc requirements.
The information contained in this Manual is believed to be correct at the time it was prepared but no representation
or warranty, expressed or implied (other than as may be implied by law) is made by Firth, its offcers, employees or
agents as to its accuracy, reliability or completeness.
To the fullest extent permitted by law, Firth excludes all liability for:
any negligent misstatement, error or omission in relation to the information and/or recommendations contained in
this Manual; and
any damages, losses, costs, or expenses including, without limitation, direct, indirect, special or consequential
damages (including but not limited to damages arising from negligence) arising from or in connection to with any
access to, use of or reliance on the contents of this manual.
Further, successful Masonry Construction is dependent upon numerous factors outside Firths control for example,
quality of workmanship, particular design requirements and non-Firth products etc. Firth will not be liable in relation
to any of these factors.
Firth is not under any obligation to update any information and/or recommendations contained in this Manual or to
notify any person should any such information and/or recommendations cease to be correct after the date this Manual
is published.
If you are using this Manual for business purposes, you agree that the provisions of the Consumer Guarantees Act
1993 will not apply, to the extent that contracting out is permitted by that Act.
HotBloc

and RibRaft

are registered trademarks of Fletcher Building Ltd or its subsidiaries.


References
Various portions of this Manual were prepared with the assistance of CCANZ, NCMA, and NZCMA. The three documents
used were The New Zealand Concrete Masonry Manual from the Cement and Concrete Association of New Zealand,
ResTek2 from the National Concrete Masonry Association from the USA and Concrete Masonry a Guide to
Weathertight Construction produced by BRANZ and funded by the Department of Building and Housing, Building
Research and NZCMA Inc.

0800 800 576


www. fi rth. co. nz
Available in
www.masterspec.co.nz
March 2009 Chalis FIR20412
For more on Firths
contribution to building a
sustainable tomorrow today,
visit www.firth.co.nz or call
us on 0800 800 576
for our free brochure.
nEnvironmentally compliant manufacturing plants
n Surplus water and some aggregates recycled
n Low transport impacts
n Leftover concrete returned from construction sites
n Passive solar heated thermal mass makes completed buildings
more energy-efficient
4
4
4
4
4
sustainaBiLity
: tHe FirtH ConCrete & ConCrete Masonry sustainaBiLity LiFeCyCLe
n Most wash water returned from construction sites
n Highly durable, low maintenance buildings and no rot
n High degree of noise control
n Inherent fire resistance
n Overall longer effective building life
n Demolished concrete can be recycled as hard fill or aggregate
4
4
4
4
4
4