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H&Q: 1 of 22 Hansen & Quinn Greek Study Guide Introduction (Hansen & Quinn) Accent: Recessive and Persistent

General rules (Introduction) o No matter how many syllables a word may have, the accent can only appear over the last three syllables. o The syllable names o ultima = last syllable o penult = second to last syllable o antepenult = next to last syllable o Acute accent o appears over all three syllables o appears over long and short vowels and diphthongs o Restrictions: Can appear over the ultima only when a paus follows, i.e. at the end of a sentence or before a comma or semicolon Cannot appear over the penult when it is accented and contains a long vowel or a diphthong and the ultima contains a short vowel. Can appear over the antepenult only when the contains a short vowel o Grave accent: o appears only over the ultima o appears over short vowels or long vowels and diphthongs o Restrictions Must replace an acute accent over the ultima when another word follows directly without a pause and cannot appear otherwise. o Circumflex accent o appears only over the ultima and the penult. o appears only over long vowels or diphthongs o Restrictions: Must appear over the penult when the penult is accented and containsa long vowel or diphthong and the ultima contains a short vowel. Cannot appear over the penult when the ultimate contains a long vowel or a diphthong.

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Recessive: for verbs (pg 9) Recessive accent means that the accent goes back as far as permitted by the rules of accentuation. o If the ultima contains a short vowel, the accent can go back as far as the anipenult. o If there is a long ultima, it prevents the accent from going beyond the penult and also prevents the accent on the penult from being a circumflex. o If there are only two syllables and the first one is long or a diphthong and the last one is short, then the accent is a circumflex over the penult o If there are only two syllables and the first one is long or a diphthong and the second one is long, the accent is acute over the penult. Persistent: for nouns and adjectives Persistent accent tries to stay over the same vowel or diphthong unless forced to chanbe by the rules of accentuation. o If the accent is over the penult when the ultima is short, it may remain over the penult when it becomes long. However, if the original accent is a circumflex and the ultima becomes long, it must change to acute. o If the accent is over the antepenult and the ultima becomes long, the accent must move over the penult o If the accent is over the penult in a two syllable word (whether the ultima is long or short) and the word adds a syllable, it may stay there so long as the new ultima is long (but if it is a circumflex it must change to acute). If the new ultima is long, it must move forward to the penult. Chapters (Hansen & Quinn) Summery of the Greek Case System (Chapter 1) o Nominative: subject, predicate nominative, naming things o Genitive: of (as in the English possessive), away from, out of

H&Q: 3 of 22 o Dative: to, for (indirect object); by, with (often instrumental); in, at (often locative-place or time when) o Accusative: direct object, motion toward, duration/length of a space or time o Vocative: shows that a noun is being addressed directly by the speaker Relationships between the cases: ACCUSATIVE DATIVE on Motion to/into in under GENITIVE Motion away from/out of

Special uses of the cases: Genitive: Partitive Genitive (Chapter 6): genitive of the part of the whole. Genitive of Time Within Which (Chapter 6): Translated into "during" or "within which" Dative: Dative of Time at Which (Chapter 6): Time at which or when. Translate as "on" Accusative: Accusative of Extent of Time (Chapter 6): This explains the duration of time. Translate as "for" Accusative of Extent of space (Chapter 6): This indicates distance travelled. Translate as the number or "for". Declensions (Chapter 1, 4, 6) To decline any noun, take the genitive singular, remove the genitive singular ending to get the stem, and then add the proper set of endings to the stem. The accent, however, is persistent based on the nominative singular. In terms of accent, the final diphthongs - and - are short. In first and second declension, when a noun has an acute accent on the ultima in the nominative, the accent is changed to a circumslex in the genitive and dative, in both the singular and the plural (e.g , , and , , where the final 's are long) First Declension Nouns (a few rare contract paradigms in Greek Paradigm Handbook page 4) - (fem) - (fem) - (fem) - (fem) - (masc) - (masc) Nom - - - - - - Gen - - - - - - Dat - - long - - long - - Acc - - - - - - Voc - - - - -, - Nom - - - - - - Gen - - - - - -

H&Q: 4 of 22 Dat Acc Voc - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

First Declension Examples - (fem) - (fem) - (fem) - (fem) - (masc) - (masc) Nom Gen Dat long Acc Voc Nom Gen Dat Acc Voc In nouns that have a stem ending in , , , the endings of the nominative, dative, and accusative singular have instead of . The vocative singular of these nouns have instead of . For accenting, the accent over the genitive plural in the first declension is always a circumflex. it does not obey the regular rules of accent. Second declension nouns Nom Gen Dat Acc Voc Nom Gen Dat Acc Voc Second Declension Examples Nom Gen Dat Acc Voc Nom Gen Dat - (masc) - (neut) - (masc/fem) - - - - - - - - - - - (neut) - - - - - - - - - -

H&Q: 5 of 22 Acc Voc

In all neuter nouns, the accusative and the vocative are the same as the nominative in both the singular and the plural. The nominative, accusative, and the vocative plural of all neuter nous is -. The accent on the vocative singular , , is irregular (), but for other words, the accent stays on the ultima in the vocative. The accent over the genitive plural, unlike in the feminine first declension, follows the regular rules of accent rather than being accented. Third Declension Nouns: Consonant Stems (Chapter 6) The accent is persistent. But third declension nouns with monosyllabic stems accent the ultima in the genitive and dative, singular and plural; genitive plural takes a circumflex. The masculine and feminine nouns are identical in the vocative and nominative singular when either (1) the nominative singular ends in - or - or (2) when the nominative singular ends in - or - and accents the ultima (e.g. ). Otherwise, the vocative singular consists of the stem alone with any final dental dropped (e.g. ). Endings-- Consonant Stem (Chapter 6) M/F N Nom --------------------------Gen - - Dat - - Acc -/- * ------------Voc - ------------Nom - - Gen - - Dat -() -() Acc - - Voc - - *Stems which end in -,-. or -, and which do not accent this iota, drop the final consonant from the stem and employ the ending -. e.g. , but . The Definite Article The masculine and feminine nominative, both singular and plural, have neither the initial which appears in the rest of the forms nor an accent. such words without accent which are pronounced closely with the folliwng word are called proclitics. The accent changes from acute to circumflex in the genitive and dative, both singular and plural. Masculine Feminine Neuter Nom Gen Dat Acc

H&Q: 6 of 22 Voc Nom Gen Dat Acc Voc long

Uses of the article: Possibilities: 1. It points to a particular individual or group 2. The article is used with generic classes 3. The article is used with abstract nouns 4. Used with the names of famous or previously mentioned persons 5. Sometimes the article can be used in place of a possessive pronoun (clerified by context) 6. The article is often not used in Greek with words that refer to something unique and well known Relative Pronoun (Chapter 6): relative pronoun refers to the antecedent in the independent clause and agrees in gender and number, but the case is dependent on its gramatical function Masculine Feminine Neuter Nom Gen Dat Acc Nom Gen Dat Acc long Note (Chapter 6): Relative pronoun plus often has causal force. Adjectives (Chapter 4) Like nouns, the accent of adjectives is persistent and is given by the neuter nominative singular adjectives of the first and second declension, when accented on the ultima, take a circumflex in the genitive and dative, singular and plural. However, the accent in the feminine genitive plural unlike that of first declension nouns does not shift to the ultima but follows the regular rules of accent. Adjectives must agree with the noun in gender, number, and case. Three Termination Adjectives-- 212 (Chapter 4): - (masc) 2 Nom - Gen - Dat - Acc - Voc - Nom - - (fem) 1 - - - - - - - (neut) 2 - - - - - -

H&Q: 7 of 22 Gen Dat Acc Voc - - - - - - - - - (fem) 1 - - - - - (neut) 2

e.g. , , (good) - (masc) 2 Nom - Gen - Dat - Acc - Voc - Nom Gen Dat Acc Voc

Two Termination Adjectives-- Second Declension (Chapter 4): - (masc/fem) - (neut) Nom - - Gen - - Dat - - Acc - - Voc - - Nom - - Gen - - Dat - - Acc - - Voc - - e.g. , (unjust) Nom Gen Dat Acc Voc Nom Gen Dat Acc Voc - (masc) - (neut)

H&Q: 8 of 22 Substantive Uses of Adjectives and Articles (Chapter 5) For the adjective, the substantive can be used when any adjective has the general meaning of man, woman, ore thing. In general, to seems that the singular uses require an article, while the plural do not. Substantive articles, are either women, men, or things. They often go along with .... Notes on Word Order (Chapter 1, 2, 4) Attributive Position (Chapter 2): Any words which limit or depend upon a noun (e.g. genitives, prepositional phrases, and adjectives) and which are preceded by an article which agrees with the noun in gender, number an case, are in attributive position. This can occur in three ways: 1. Modifiers can appear between the article and the noun with which it agrees, e.g. (the words of the brother) 2. Sometimes the article is repeated after the noun and the modifiers follow the second article, e.g (the words of the brother) 3. Sometimes even, the article does not appear before the noun but only after it, e.g. (the words of the brother) Predicate Position (Chapter 4): An adjective which agrees with a noun accompanied by the article, but which itself is not preceded by the article, is in the predicate position. The phrase consisting of the noun and article becomes the subject and the predicate adjective of a complete sentence. To translate, use the linking verb "is". This is called a nominal sentence. This can also be done with a noun with a presumed linking verb. One noun will include the definite article, but this noun-article can go first or second. Brief Note on SOV (Chapter 1): Greek word order is arbitrary. However, SOV is usual unless a particular order is needed for emphasis. Verbs Overview (Chapter 2) Noun-Verb Agreement: All nouns as subjects of verbs must be nominative and agree with the noun in person and number. However, neuter plural nouns often take singular verbs. Most verbs have: 1. Person 2. Number 3. Tense-- can convey information about time and in moods other than the indicative conveys only information about aspect. Possible aspects are simple, progressive, repeated, and completed. Unless the verb form is an iterative, the progressive and repeated aspects are the same. a. Greek has 7 tenses in the indicative mood: i. Present tense (progressive/repeated) ii. Future tense (simple or progressive/repeated) iii. Perfect tense (completed) iv. Pluperfect tense (completed)

H&Q: 9 of 22 v. Future Perfect (completed) vi. Imperfect (progressive/repeated) vii. aorist (simple) 4. Voice: active, middle (usually active with special personal involvement, except for deponents and certain verbs where it may be translated passively), and passive 5. Mood: the type of statement a person is making a. Indicative mood-- factual statements and questions b. Subjunctive mood-- hortatory, potential, etc c. Optative mood-- wish, prayer, etc d. Imperative Mood-- give a command Principle Parts: 1. First person singular present indicative active: Present/imperfect -- 2. First Person Singular Future Indicative Active: Future Active/Middle-- 3. First Person Singular Aorist Indicative Active: Aorist Active/Middle-- 4. First Person Singular Perfect Indicative Active: Perfect Active, Pluperfect Active, Future Perfect Active -- 5. First Person Singular Perfect Indicative Passive: Perfect Middle/Passive, Pluperfect Middle/Passive, Future Perfect Middle/Passive-- 6. First Person Singular Aorist Indicative Passive: Aorist Passive, Future Passive- Present Indicative Active (Chapter 2): take off the first person ending from the first principle part and add the appropriate ending to the stems. Stems are not accented until they are inflected. Singular Plural First Person - - Second Person - - Third Person - -() e.g. First Person Second Person Third Person Singular Plural ()

Imperfect Indicative Active (Chapter 2): take off the first person ending from the first principle part and add the appropriate ending to the stems and add a temporal augment () to the stem. Stems are not accented until they are inflected. Singular Plural First Person - - Second Person - - Third Person -() - e.g. First Person Singular Plural

H&Q: 10 of 22 Second Person Third Person ()

Future Indicative Active (Chapter 2): take off the first person ending from the second principle part and add the appropriate ending to the stems. Stems are not accented until they are inflected. Singular Plural First Person - - Second Person - - Third Person - -() e.g. First Person Second Person Third Person Singular Plural ()

orist Indicative Active (Chapter 2): take off the first person ending from the third principle part and add the appropriate ending to the stems and add a temporal augment () to the stem. Stems are not accented until they are inflected. Singular Plural First Person - - Second Person - - Third Person -() - e.g. First Person Second Person Third Person Singular () Plural

Perfect Indicative Active (Chapter 3): take off the first person ending from the fourth principle part and add the appropriate ending to the stems. Stems are not accented until they are inflected. Singular Plural First Person - - Second Person - - Third Person -() -() e.g. First Person Second Person Third Person Singular () Plural ()

H&Q: 11 of 22 Pluperfect Indicative Active (Chapter 3): take off the first person ending from the fourth principle part and add the appropriate ending to the stems and add a temporal augment. Stems are not accented until they are inflected. Singular Plural First Person - - Second Person - - Third Person -() -() e.g. First Person Second Person Third Person Singular () Plural () Pluperfect () Future Perfect* -------------------------

Thematic Active Indicative Verb Summery (Chapter 2, 3) Present Imperfect Future Aorist Perfect 1 2 3 1 2 3 ( ) () ( ) () ()

( ( ) )

*The Future Perfect (Smyth 584) is formed periphrastically (future of + perfect participle) for all verbs with the exception of (I set) which yields the perfect form (I stand) and yields the future perfect (perfect stem + + future personal endings) meaning "I shall stand." The other is from (I die) with the perfect (I am dead) and yields the future perfect meaning "I shall be dead." However, it appears that any verb can be formed simply with the fourth principle part - personal ending + (which usually melds with the to form ) + future endings. For a summery of the paraphrastic form, see Greek Paradigm Handbook page 100. The Subjunctive and Optatitve (Chapter 3): They show the speaker views an action as non factual. Subjunctive and optative have only aspect-- they do not show tense. The only tenses that appear in the subjunctive are aorist (simple aspect), present (progressive/repeated aspect), and perfect (completed aspect). There is no future subjunctive. The Perfect Subjunctive (Chapter 3): the perfect subjunctive is created periphrastically with in the subjunctive and the perfect participle (H&Q 734). It looks from Smyth 1860 that it can also be formed by adding the subjunctive endings to the perfect stem. See below for the nonparaphrastic construction. Independent Uses of the Subjunctive (Chapter 5): Hortatory, deliberative, prohibative.

H&Q: 12 of 22 Hortatory Subjunctive: expresses emphatically the will of the speaker. Translate at "Let Us" and has a negative with . Deliberative Subjunctive: expresses uncertainty about what he or she is going to do. Translate as "am I to"/"are we to". Negative is . Prohibitive Subjunctive: With the negative the second person of the aorist subjunctive (but not the present subjunctive) expresses prohibition. This is called the prohibitive subjunctive. Positive commands are expressed in the imperative mood. Present Subjunctive Active: (Chapter 3) Take the first principle part and remove the personal endings. Then add the appropriate ending to the stem. Stems are not accented until they are inflected. Singular Plural First Person - - Second Person - - Third Person - -() e.g. First Person Second Person Third Person Singular Plural ()

Aorist Subjunctive Active: (Chapter 3) Take the third principle part and remove the personal ending and the temporal augment (as the aorist subjunctive does not indicate time). Then add the appropriate ending to the stem. Stems are not accented until they are inflected. Singular Plural First Person - - Second Person - - Third Person - -() e.g. First Person Second Person Third Person Singular Plural ()

Perfect Subjunctive Active: (Greek Paradigm Handbook page 92) Take the fourth principle part and remove the personal endings. Then add the appropriate ending to the stem. Stems are not accented until they are inflected. Singular Plural First Person - - Second Person - - Third Person - -() e.g.

H&Q: 13 of 22 Singular Plural () Aorist () Perfect ()

First Person Second Person Third Person

Subjunctive Summery For Thematic Verbs Present First Person Second Person Third Person First Person Second Person Third Person ()

Present Optative Active: (Chapter 3) Take the first principle part and remove the personal endings. Then add the appropriate ending to the stem. Stems are not accented until they are inflected. Singular Plural First Person - - Second Person - - Third Person - - Note: for the purposes of accentuation, the final - in the optative third person singular counts as long rather than short. e.g. Singular Plural First Person Second Person Third Person Aorist Optative Active: (Chapter 3) Take the third principle part and remove the personal ending and the temporal augment (as the aorist subjunctive does not indicate time). Then add the appropriate ending to the stem. Stems are not accented until they are inflected. Singular Plural First Person - - Second Person - - Third Person -/-() -/- Note: The final - in the third person singular of the aorist optative active counts as long for the purposes of accentuation. e.g. Singular Plural First Person Second Person

H&Q: 14 of 22 Third Person /() /

Perfect pative Active: (Greek Paradigm Handbook page 92) Take the fourth principle part and remove the personal endings. Then add the appropriate ending to the stem. Stems are not accented until they are inflected. Singular Plural First Person -/- - Second Person -/- - Third Person -/- - e.g. First Person Second Person Third Person Singular / / / Plural

Future Optative Active: (Greek Paradigm Handbook page 76) Take the second principle part and remove the personal ending. Then add the appropriate ending to the stem. Stems are not accented until they are inflected. Singular Plural First Person - - Second Person - - Third Person - - Note: The final - in the third person singular of the aorist optative active counts as long for the purposes of accentuation. e.g. Singular Plural First Person o o Second Person o o Third Person o o The Infinitive (Chapter 2, 3, 5 Greek paradigm handbook): Infinitives have only tense (which indicates aspect) and voice. In the infinitive, the syllable preceding the ending - is always accented. If an infinitive ending is accented, it does not obey the rules of accent. Uses of the infinitive (chapter 2, ): Some verbs take a complementary infinitive such as (I command accusative to infinitive). Present Active Infinitive: Take the first person singular of the first principle part and remove the ending. Then add -, e.g. . Present Middle/Passive Infinitive (Chapter 5): Take the first person singular of the first principle part and remove the ending. Then add -, e.g. .

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Aorist Active Infinitive: Take the first person singular of the third principle part and remove the ending and the temporal augment. The accent is always on the penult. The add -, e.g. . Aorist Middle Infinitive (Chapter 7): Take the third principle part, remove the temporal augment, and add the ending -, e.g. . Aorist Passive Infinitive (Chapter 5): Take the sixth principle part and remove the personal endings and temporal augment. Then add -, e.g. . Perfect Active Infinitive: Take the first person singular of the fourth principle part and remove the ending. The add -, e.g. . Perfect Middle/Passive Infinitive (Chapter 5): Take the fifth principle part and remove the personal ending and add - , e.g. . Future Active Infinitive (Greek Paradigm Handbook page 77): Take the first person singular of the second principle part and remove the ending. Then add -, e.g. . The Articular Infinitive (Chapter 5): The infinitive is the direct object of the verb under certain circumstances. e.g. . The infinitive can also stand in for an English gerund. The Middle System (Chapter 7) The nominative is doing the action, but the action always returns to the nominative. Most middle forms are identical to the passive forms. However, the aorist and future tense of the middle voice are different than the passive. Future Indicative Middle (Chapter 7): Singular First Person - Second Person -/ Third Person - e.g. First Person Second Person Third Person Singular / Plural Plural - - -

Aorist Indicative Middle (Chapter 7): Take the third principle part Singular Plural First Person - - Second Person - - Third Person - -

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e.g. First Person Second Person Third Person Singular Plural Plural - - - Plural

Aorist Subjunctive Middle (Chapter 7): Singular First Person - Second Person - Third Person - e.g. First Person Second Person Third Person Singular

Aorist Optative Middle (Chapter 7) Singular First Person - Second Person - Third Person - e.g. First Person Second Person Third Person Singular

Plural - - - Plural

The Passive System (Chapter 5) Present Indicative Passive: (Chapter 5) take the first principle part and remove the personal ending, then add the primary tense passive endings: Singular Plural First Person - - Second Person -/ - Third Person - - e.g. First Person Second Person Singular / Plural

H&Q: 17 of 22 Third Person

Present Subjunctive Passive (Chapter 5): take the first principle part and remove the personal ending, then add the present subjunctive passive endings. Singular Plural First Person - - Second Person - - Third Person - - e.g. First Person Second Person Third Person Singular Plural

Present ptative Passive (Chapter 5): take the first principle part and remove the personal ending, then add the present optative passive endings. Singular Plural First Person - - Second Person - - Third Person - - e.g. First Person Second Person Third Person Singular Plural

Imperfect Indicative Passive (Chapter 5): take the first principle parts and remove the personal ending, then add the secondary tense passive endings: Singular Plural First Person - - Second Person - - Third Person - - e.g. First Person Second Person Third Person Singular Plural

Aorist Indicative Passive (Chapter 5): take the sixth principle parts and remove the personal ending, then add the secondary tense passive endings: Singular Plural First Person - -

H&Q: 18 of 22 Second Person Third Person e.g. First Person Second Person Third Person Singular Plural - - - -

Aorist Subjunctive Passive (Chapter 5): take the sixth principle parts and remove the personal ending and the temporal augment, then add the subjunctive endings: Singular Plural First Person - - Second Person - - Third Person - -() e.g. First Person Second Person Third Person Singular Plural

Aorist Optative Passive (Chapter 5): take the sixth principle parts and remove the personal ending and the temporal augment, then add the appropriate endings: Singular Plural First Person - - / - Second Person - - / - Third Person - - / - e.g. First Person Second Person Third Person Singular Plural / / /

Future Indicative Passive (Chapter 5): take the sixth principle part and remove the temporal augment and the personal ending. Then add the suffix -- and add the primary tense passive endings. Singular Plural First Person - - Second Person -/ - Third Person - - e.g.

H&Q: 19 of 22 Singular Plural

First Person Second Person Third Person

Perfect Indicative Passive (Chapter 5): Take the fifth principle part and remove the personal ending, then add the primary tense passive endings without the thematic voewl. Singular Plural First Person - - Second Person - - Third Person - - e.g. First Person Second Person Third Person Singular Plural

**NOTE: Perfect subjuntive and optative middle passive are made paraphrastically with the perfect middle/passive participle and the subjunctive or optative of . Pluperfect Indicative Passive (Chapter 5): Take the fifth principle part and remove the personal ending, then add the secondary tense passive endings without the thematic voewl. Singular Plural First Person - - Second Person - - Third Person - - e.g. First Person Second Person Third Person Sequence of Moods: (Chapter 3) Primary Tenses: those that refer to the present and future (present, future, future perfect, perfect). Takes the subjunctive mood and the tense shows aspect. Secondary Tenses: those that refer to past time (imperfect, aorist, pluperfect). Takes the optative mood and the tense shows aspect. Sequence of Tenses: In complex sentences, certain kinds of dependent clauses will have a verb in either the subjunctive or the optative mood, depending on whether the main verb of the sentence is either a primary or secondary tense of the indicative and therefore triggers either primary or secondary sequence, respectively. Singular Plural

H&Q: 20 of 22 Purpose Clauses: (Chapter 3) Purpose Clause Words: , , all mean "in order that." can be added to (after) any of these indicating a negation which can translated as "in order that...not" or "lest." Translating the sequence of Tenses: Primary sequence should be translated with "may," while secondary sequence should be translated with "might." Conditional Sentences: (Chapter 4, chart appendix 750-751): a conditional sentence consists of two statements: an assumption (protasis) and a conclusion (apotasis). Future More Vivid: Protasis: (if) + subjunctive, Apotasis: future indicative, Translation: does/will do Future Less Vivid: Protasis: (if) + optatitive, Apotasis: optative + , Translation: should/would Present General: Protasis: (if) + subjunctive, Apotasis: present indicative, Translation: does/does Present Contrafactual: (if) + imperfect indicative, Apotasis: imperfect indicative + , Translation: were doing/would be doing Past General: Protasis: (if) + optatitive, Apotasis: imperfect indicative, Translation: did/did Past Contrafactual: (if) + aorist, Apotasis: aorist + , Translation: had done/would have done Protasis (negative ) , [, , ] + present or perfect indicative: is doing, has done [, , + ] or e.g., + subjunctive: does , [, , ] + imperfect indicative: were doing , [, , ] + any past indicative: did, was doing, had done [, , + ] or e.g., + optative: did , [, , ] + aorist indicative: had done or + imperfect indicative: had been doing, had done (habitually) , [, , ] + future indicative: does [, , + ] or e.g., + subjunctive: does Apodosis (negative ) Present or perfect indicative: is doing, has done Present indicative: does imperfect indicative + : would be doing Any past indicative: did, was doing, had done Imperfect indicative: did Aorist indicative + : would have done imperfect indicative + : would have been doing, would have done (habitually) future indicative: will do Future indicative: will do

Present Simple Present General Present Contrafactual Past Simple Past General Past Contrafactual

Future Most Vivid Future More Vivid

H&Q: 21 of 22 Future Less Vivid , [, , ] + optatitve: should do optative + : would do

Questions (Chapter 2): o indicates a question, although a question can also simply be indicated by the question mark (;). means "of course," "evidently," etc. "Big" , i.e. with a circumflex is + , where is the original question word. o Questions can also be indicated by simply adding " " to the end of a sentence, an exact parallel to the English "or not" Prepositions (Various Chapters, flashcards, James Morewood 56-59) , , (chapter 1): All are proclitic. Meanings in italics in the chart. In compound verbs: (James Morwood, 56-59) -- "up", "up to" --"thoroughly", "right through", "parting" "entirely" -- "in", "into", "to" , -- "out of", "thoroughly" -- "upon", "over", "against", "after" -- "down", "against", intensifier -- "after", sharing, changing -- "beside" -- "all around", "exceedingly", "very" -- "forward", "on behalf of", "before" -- "to", "against", "besides" -- "together," "together with" -- "over", "greatly", "on behalf of" -- "under", "gradually", "in an underhand way", "secretly", "slightly" Italics indicate primary meaning Genitive Dative Accusative Together with, at the same time as Concerning, for the About, concerning, Round about, near sake of for the sake of Upon Up along, over, though, among, throughout Instead of, opposite, in return for From, away from, off, after, by reason of Through, by means On account of, of, during thanks to Into, to, for

H&Q: 22 of 22 (purpose), against, up to, as far as, until, in regard to, toward, at (with time) , Out of, from On, by, in the time of Under, down from, down into, against With, together with, among From (the side of) In, on, near, among, at, in the time of Upon, on, pertaining to, on the condition that, because of To, onto, forward, for, against, over Down, on over, according to, throughout, entire after At (the side of), chez, by the side of, with, near Around, about, concerning To (the side of), beside, contrary to, beyond, during, to the presence of Around, concerning, round about, near

Concerning, about Before, in front of, on behalf of, in preference to, rather than In the eyes of, in the name of, by, on the side of, characteristic of Over, above, on behalf of By (+gen of personal agent), under

Near, in addition to, close by, at With, in company with Under, under the power of, subject to

Toward, with a view to, in proportion to, against

Over, beyond (of motion or measure) Under (with motion), toward (with time), about, at (with time) To (with people)