Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 4

Early life and education Schubert was born in Himmelpfortgrund (now a part of Alsergrund), Vienna, on 31 January 1797.

His father, Franz Theodor Schubert, the son of a Moravian peasant, was a parish schoolmaster; his mother, Elisabeth (Vietz), was the daughter of a Silesian master locksmith, and had also been a housemaid for a Viennese family prior to her marriage. Of Franz Theodor's fourteen children (one illegitimate ch ild was born in 1783),[1] nine died in infancy; five survived. Their father was a well-known teacher, and his school in Lichtental, a part of Vienna's ninth dis trict, was well attended.[2] He was not a musician of fame or with formal traini ng, but he taught his son some elements of music.[3] The house in which Schubert was born, today Nussdorfer Strasse 54, in the ninth district of Vienna. At the age of five, Schubert began receiving regular instruction from his father and a year later was enrolled at his father's school. His formal musical educat ion also started around the same time. His father continued to teach him the bas ics of the violin,[3] and his brother Ignaz gave him piano lessons.[4] At the ag e of seven, Schubert began receiving lessons from Michael Holzer, the organist a nd choirmaster of Lichtental Church. Holzer's lessons seem to have mainly consis ted of conversations and expressions of admiration[5] and the boy gained more fr om his acquaintance with a friendly joiner's apprentice who used to take him to a neighboring pianoforte warehouse where he had the opportunity to practice on b etter instruments.[6] He also played the viola in the family string quartet, wit h brothers Ferdinand and Ignaz on violin and his father on the cello. Schubert w rote many of his early string quartets for this ensemble.[7] Schubert first came to the attention of Antonio Salieri, then Vienna's leading m usical authority, in 1804, when his vocal talent was recognized.[7] In October 1 808, he became a pupil at the Stadtkonvikt (Imperial seminary) through a choir s cholarship. At the Stadtkonvikt, Schubert was introduced to the overtures and sy mphonies of Mozart.[8] His exposure to these pieces and various lighter composit ions, combined with his occasional visits to the opera set the foundation for hi s greater musical knowledge.[9] One important musical influence came from the so ngs of Johann Rudolf Zumsteeg, who was an important Lied composer of the time, w hich, his friend Joseph von Spaun reported, he "wanted to modernize".[10] Schube rt's friendship with Spaun began at the Stadtkonvikt and endured through his lif etime. In those early days, the more well-to-do Spaun furnished the impoverished Schubert with manuscript paper.[9] Meanwhile, his genius began to show in his compositions. Schubert was occasional ly permitted to lead the Stadtkonvikt's orchestra, and Salieri decided to begin training him privately in musical composition and theory in these years.[11] It was the first germ of that amateur orchestra for which, in later years, many of his compositions were written. During the remainder of his stay at the Stadtkonv ikt he wrote a good deal of chamber music, several songs, some miscellaneous pie ces for the pianoforte and, among his more ambitious efforts, a Kyrie (D.31) and Salve Regina (D.27), an octet for wind instruments (D.72/72a, said to commemorate the 1812 death of his mother),[12] a cantata for guitar and male voices (D.110, i n honor of his father's birthday in 1813), and his first symphony (D.82).[13] Mass No.2 in G, D.167 Kyrie MENU 0:00

Gloria MENU 0:00

Credo MENU 0:00

Sanctus MENU 0:00

Benedictus MENU 0:00

Agnus Dei MENU 0:00

Performance by the MIT Concert Choir Problems listening to these files? See media help. [edit] Teacher at his father's school At the end of 1813, he left the Stadtkonvikt, and returned home for studies at t he Normalhauptschule to train as a teacher. In 1814, he entered his father's sch ool as teacher of the youngest students. For over two years, the young man endur ed the drudgery of the work, which he performed with very indifferent success.[1 4] There were, however, other interests to compensate. He continued to receive p rivate lessons in composition from Salieri, who did more for Schubert's musical training than any of his other teachers. Salieri and Schubert would part ways in 1817.[11] In 1814, Schubert met a young soprano named Therese Grob, the daughter of a loca l silk manufacturer. Several of his songs (Salve Regina and Tantum Ergo) were co mposed for her voice, and she also performed in the premiere of his first Mass ( D.105) in September[15] 1814.[14] Schubert intended to marry Grob, but was hinder ed by the harsh marriage consent law of 1815,[16] which required the ability to show the means to support a family.[17] In November 1816, after failing to gain a position at Laibach, Schubert sent Grob's brother Heinrich a collection of son gs, which were retained by her family into the 20th century.[18] One of Schubert's most prolific years was 1815. He composed over 20,000 bars of music, more than half of which was for orchestra, including nine church works, a symphony, and about 140 Lieder.[19] In that year, he was also introduced to Ans elm Httenbrenner and Franz von Schober, who would become his lifelong friends. An other friend, Johann Mayrhofer, was introduced to him by Spaun in 1814.[20] Mayn ard Solomon suggested that Schubert was erotically attracted to men,[21] a thesi s that has, at times, been heatedly debated.[22] Musicologist and Schubert exper t Rita Steblin claimed that he was "chasing women".[23] [edit] Supported by friends Significant changes happened in 1816. Schober, a student of good family and some means, invited Schubert to room with him at his mother's house. The proposal wa s particularly opportune, for Schubert had just made the unsuccessful applicatio n for the post of Kapellmeister at Laibach, and he had also decided not to resum e teaching duties at his father's school. By the end of the year, he became a gu est in Schober's lodgings. For a time, he attempted to increase the household re sources by giving music lessons, but they were soon abandoned, and he devoted hi mself to composition. "I compose every morning, and when one piece is done, I be gin another."[24] During this year, he focused on orchestral and choral works, a lthough he also continued to write Lieder (songs).[25] Much of this work was unp ublished, but manuscripts and copies circulated among friends and admirers.[26] Vogl and Schubert In early 1817, Schober introduced Schubert to Johann Michael Vogl, a prominent b aritone twenty years Schubert's senior. Vogl, for whom Schubert went on to write a great many songs, became one of Schubert's main proponents in Viennese musica l circles. He also met Joseph Httenbrenner (brother to Anselm), who also played a role in promoting Schubert's music.[27] These, and an increasing circle of frie nds and musicians, became responsible for promoting, collecting, and, after his death, preserving his work.[28] In late 1817, Schubert's father gained a new position at a school in Rossau (not far from Lichtental). Schubert rejoined his father and reluctantly took up teac hing duties there. In early 1818, he was rejected for membership in the prestigi ous Gesellschaft der Musikfreunde, something that might have furthered his music al career.[29] However, he began to gain more notice in the press, and the first public performance of a secular work, an overture performed in February 1818, r eceived praise from the press in Vienna and abroad.[30] Schubert spent the summer of 1818 as music teacher to the family of Count Johann

Karl Esterhzy at their chteau in Zseliz (then in Hungary, now in Slovakia). His d uties were relatively light (teaching piano and singing to the two daughters, Ma rie and Karoline), and the pay was relatively good. As a result, he happily cont inued to compose during this time. It may have been at this time that he wrote o ne of his now world-famous compositions, the Marche militaire No. 1 in D major. Marie and Karoline both being his piano students, and the original score of "Mar che Militaire" being a piano duet, lend credence to this view. On his return fro m Zseliz, he took up residence with his friend Mayrhofer.[29] The respite at Zse liz led to a succession of compositions for piano duet.[31] During the early 1820s, Schubert was part of a close-knit circle of artists and students who had social gatherings together that became known as "Schubertiaden" . The tight circle of friends with which Schubert surrounded himself was dealt a blow in early 1820. Schubert and four of his friends were arrested by the Austr ian police, who (in the aftermath of the French Revolution and Napoleonic Wars) were on their guard against revolutionary activities and suspicious of any gathe ring of youth or students. One of Schubert's friends, Johann Senn, was put on tr ial, imprisoned for over a year, and then permanently forbidden to enter Vienna. The other four, including Schubert, were "severely reprimanded", in part for "i nveighing against [officials] with insulting and opprobrious language".[32] Whil e Schubert never saw Senn again, he did set some of his poems, "Selige Welt" and "Schwanengesang", to music. The incident may have played a role in a falling-ou t with Mayrhofer, with whom he was living at the time.[33] He was nicknamed "Schwmmerl" by his friends, which Gibbs describes as translating to "Tubby" or "Little Mushroom". Schubert, at 1,52 m height, was not quite five feet tall. "Schwammerl" is Austrian (and other) dialect for mushroom; the umlau t makes it a diminutive.