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ITU/BDT Arab Regional Workshop on 4G Wireless Systems - Tunisia 2010

ITU/BDTArab Regional Workshopon 4GWirelessSystems LTETechnology Session5:LTETechnology Perofrmance Evaluation


Speakers Date M.Lazhar BELHOUCHET M HakimEBDELLI M. 27 29January 2010

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ITU/BDT Arab Regional Workshop on 4G Wireless Systems - Tunisia 2010

Agenda

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FrequencyBandsandTypicaldeploymentareas Layer1PeakBitRates TerminalCategories ReferenceSensitivity LinkBudgets Propagationmodel Uplinklinkbudget Downlinklinkbudgets ComparisonbetweenGSM/HSPA/LTE Latency LTERefarmingtoGSMSpectrum Capacity i Dimensioning i i i
LTETechnology Perofrmance Evaluation

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ITU/BDT Arab Regional Workshop on 4G Wireless Systems - Tunisia 2010

Introduction
Performanceevaluation:LTEcapabilitiesfromtheendusers p p pointofview andfromtheoperators Theoperatorisinterestedinthenetworkefficiency:
howmanycustomerscanbeserved, howmuchdatacanbeprovidedandhowmanybasestationsitesare required.

The Th end duserapplication li i performance f depends d d on:


availablebitrate, latencyand seamlessmobility

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FrequencyBands

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ITU/BDT Arab Regional Workshop on 4G Wireless Systems - Tunisia 2010

FrequencyBands:Typicaldeploymentareas
Europe:
Band7:The2.6GHzauctionshavebeenrunninginafewcountriesduring2007and 2008,andcontinueduring2009/2010. Band8:iscurrentlyusedmostlybyGSM.Thebandisattractivefromacoverage pointofviewduetothelowerpropagationlosses.ThebandcanbereusedforLTE orforHSPA. Band3:isalsousedbyGSM,butinmanycasesBand3isnotasheavilyusedby GSMasBand8.ThatmakesrefarmingforLTEsimpler.

Digitaldividend USA:Bands4,12,13,14and17.Bands2and5canbeusedforLTErefarming. Japan:Bands1,9,11and18. LTEdeploymentsgloballywilluseseveraldifferentfrequencybandsfromthe start.


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LTETechnology Perofrmance Evaluation

PERFORMANCEEVALUATION

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Layer1PeakBitRates
Peak bit rate [ Mb / s ] = Number of symbols per SubFrame bits *( ) * Number of SubCarriers 1 ms Hz

controlandreferencesignaloverheads:
PDCCH:takesonesymboloutof14symbols.ThatistheminimumpossiblePDCCH allocation Theresultingcontroloverheadis7 allocation. 7.1% 1%(=1/14) 1/14). DownlinkReferenceSignals(RS)dependontheantennaconfiguration:Single streamtransmissionuses2RSoutof14inevery3rdsubcarrier,2 2MIMO4 symbolsand4 4MIMO6symbols. symbols Theoverheadvariesbetween4.8% 4 8%and14.3%. 14 3% OtherdownlinksymbolsOverhead:synchronizationsignal,PBCH,PCFICH,andone groupofPHICH.TheoverheaddependsontheBWrangingfrombelow1%at20 MHztoapproximately9%at1.4 1 4MHz MHz. Uplinkreferencesignalstake1symboloutof7symbolsresultinginanoverheadof 14.3%=1/7. www.cert.tn

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Layer1PeakBitRates Cont.
BWRB/Subcarriers Modulation Bits/ / MIMOusage 1.4MHz andcoding symbol 6/72 QPSK1/2 16QAM1/2 16QAM3/4 64QAM3/4 64QAM1/1 64QAM3/4 64QAM Q 1/1 / 64QAM1/1 1 2 3 4.5 6 9 12 24 Singlestream Singlestream Singlestream Singlestream Singlestream 2 2MIMO 2 2MIMO 4 4MIMO 0.9 1.7 2.6 3.9 5.2 7.8 10.4 20.7 3.0MHz 15/180 2.2 4.3 6.5 9.7 13.0 19.4 25.9 51.8 5.0MHz 25/300 3.6 7.2 10.8 16.2 21.6 32.4 43.2 86.4 10MHz 50/600 7.2 14.4 21.6 32.4 43.2 64.8 86.4 172.8 15MHz 75/900 10.8 21.6 32.4 48.6 64.8 97.2 129.6 259.2 20MHz 100/1200 14.4 28.8 43.2 64.8 86.4 129.6 172.8 345.6

Downlink p peak bit rates ( (Mbps) p )


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Layer1PeakBitRates Cont.
BWRB/Subcarriers Modulation andcoding QPSK1/2 16QAM1/2 16QAM3/4 16QAM1/1 64QAM3/4 64QAM1/1 Bits/ MIMOusage 1.4 1 4MHz 3.0 3 0MHz 5.0 5 0MHz 10MHz 15MHz 20MHz symbol 6/72 15/180 25/300 50/600 75/900 100/1200 1 2 3 4 4.5 6 Singlestream Singlestream Singlestream Singlestream Singlestream Singlestream 0.9 1.7 2.6 35 3.5 3.9 5.2 2.2 4.3 6.5 86 8.6 9.7 13.0 3.6 7.2 10.8 14 4 14.4 16.2 21.6 7.2 14.4 21.6 28 8 28.8 32.4 43.2 10.8 21.6 32.4 43 2 43.2 48.6 64.8 14.4 28.8 43.2 57 6 57.6 64.8 86.4

Uplink peak bit rates (Mbps)

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TerminalCategories
Category1 Category2 Category3 Category4 Category5 Peak ratedownlink (approximately) Peak rateuplink (approximately) MaxbitsreceivedwithinTTI MaxbitstransmittedwithinTTI RFbandwidth Modulationdownlink Modulationuplink Receiverdiversity MIMOdownlink 10Mbps 5Mbps 10296 5160 20MHz 64QAM 16QAM Yes Optional 50Mbps 100Mbps 150Mbps 300Mbps 25Mbps 51024 25456 20MHz 64QAM 16QAM Yes 2 2 50Mbps 102048 51024 20MHz 64QAM 16QAM Yes 2 2 50Mbps 149776 51024 20MHz 64QAM 16QAM Yes 2 2 75Mbps 299552 75376 20MHz 64QAM 64QAM Yes 4 4

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ReferenceSensitivity
Thereferencesensitivity levelistheminimummean receivedsignalstrength appliedtoantennaportsat whichthereissufficientSINR forthespecifiedmodulation schemetomeetaminimum throughputrequirementof 95%ofthemaximum possible.
kTB:thermalnoiselevel,inunitsof dBm,inthespecifiedbandwidth(B), NF:noisefigureforthereceiver, SINRisthesignaltointerferenceplus noiserequirementforthechosen modulationandcodingscheme, IMistheimplementationmargin 3dBrepresentsthediversitygain.

Re fSens = KTB + NF + SINR + IM 3(dBm)


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ReferenceSensitivity
EUTRAreferencesensitivity
70.00 75.00 80.00 85.00 dBm 90.00 95.00 100.00 105.00 110.00 1.4 3 5 BandWidth[MHz] QPSK1/8 QPSK2/3 16QAM Q 3/4 / QPSK1/5 QPSK3/4 16QAM Q 4/5 / QPSK1/4 QPSK4/5 64QAM Q 2/3 / QPSK1/3 16QAM1/2 64QAM Q 3/4 / QPSK1/2 16QAM2/3 64QAM Q 4/5 / 10 15 20

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LinkBudgets
Thelinkbudgetcalculationsestimatethemaximumallowed g attenuationbetweenthemobileandthebasestation signal antenna.Themaximumpathlossallowsthemaximumcell rangetobeestimatedwithasuitablepropagationmodel. Thecellrangegivesthenumberofbasestationsitesrequired tocoverthetargetgeographicalarea.

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LinkBudgets Propagationmodel
Apropagationmodeldescribestheaveragesignal propagation, p p g ,anditconvertsthemaximumallowed propagationlosstothemaximumcellrange. Itdependson:
Environment:urban,rural,denseurban,suburban,open,forest,sea Distance Frequency atmosphericconditions Indoor/outdoor

Examples:Freespace,WalfishIkegami,OkumuraHata, g y ,Lee, ,Young g LongleyRice,


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LinkBudgets PropagationmodelCont.
HataModelforUrbanAreas:
Lu = 69.55 + 26.16 * log( f ) 13.82 * log(hB ) C H + [44.9 6.55 * log(hB )] * log(d )

Forsmallormediumsizedcity,
C H = 0.8 + (1.1* log( f ) 0.7) * hM 1.56 * log( f )

Forlargecities,
8.29 * (log(1.54 *h M ))2 1.1, if 150 f 200 CH = 3.2 * (log(11.75 * hM ))2 4.97, if 200 p f 1500
Parameters Lu hB hM Unit dB m m Significance PathlossinUrbanAreas HeightofbasestationAntenna HeightofmobilestationAntenna Parameters f CH d Unit MHz dB km Significance FrequencyofTransmission Antenna heightcorrectionfactor DistancebetweenBasestationandMS

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LinkBudgets PropagationmodelCont.
Coverageevaluationwillbebasedonthethe Ok OkumuraHata H t propagation ti model d lwith iththe th parametersshownbelow:
Basestationantennaheight(m) Mobileantennaheight(m) Mobileantennagain(dBi) Slowfadingstandarddeviation(dB) Locationprobability Correctionfactor( (dB) ) Indoorloss(dB) Slowfadingmargin(dB) Urban indoor Suburban indoor 30 50 1.5 1.5 0 0 8 8 95% 95% 0 5 20 15 8.8 8.8 Rural outdoor 80 1.5 0 8 95% 15 0 8.8 Rural outdoor fixed 80 5 0 8 95% 15 0 8.8

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Uplinklinkbudgets
Datarate(kbps) Transmitter UE a Maxtxpower(dBm) ( ) b Txantennagain(dBi) c Bodyloss(dB) d EIRP(dBm) Receiver BTS/NodeB/eNB e NodeBnoisefigure(dB) f Thermalnoise(dB) g Receivernoise( (dBm) ) h SINR(dB) i Receiver sensitivity j Interferencemargin(dB) k Cableloss(dB) l Rxantennagain(dBi) m Fast fademargin (dB) n Softhandovergain(dB) M i Maximum path thl loss
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GSMvoice 12.2 33 0 3 30 114 0 0 18 0 0 162

HSPA 64 23 0 0 23 2 108.2 106.2 17.3 123.4 3 0 18 1.8 2 161 6 161.6

LTE 64 23 0 0 23 2 118.4 116.4 7 123.4 1 0 18 0 0 163 4 163.4

Source : LTE for UMTS OFDMA and SC-FDMA Based Radio Access
Harri Holma and Antti Toskala

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Downlinklinkbudgets
a b c d e f g h i j k l m Downlink Datarate(kbps) Transmitter Node B Txpower(dBm) Txantennagain(dBi) Cableloss(dB) EIRP(dBm) Receiver UE UEnoisefigure(dB) Thermalnoise(dB) Receivernoisefloor(dBm) SINR(dB) Receiversensitivity(dBm) Interferencemargin g (dB) ( ) Controlchanneloverhead(%) Rxantennagain(dBi) Bodyloss(dB) M i Maximum path thl loss GSMvoice 12.2 44.5 18 2 60 5 60.5 119.7 104 0 0 0 3 161 5 161.5 HSPA 1024 46 18 2 62 7 108.2 101.2 5.2 106.4 4 20 0 0 163 4 163.4 LTE 1024 46 18 2 62 7 104.5 97.5 9 106.5 4 20 0 0 163 5 163.5 Source : LTE for UMTS OFDMA and SC-FDMA Based Radio Access
Harri Holma and Antti Toskala

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LinkbudgetsComparisonGSM/HSPA/LTE
MaximumpathlossvaluesforGSMvoiceandHSPAandLTEdata
180 175 170 165 dB 160 155 150 145 140 GSMvoice HSPA1Mbps/64kbps Uplink Downlink LTE1Mbps/64kbps

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LinkbudgetsComparisonGSM/HSPA/LTE
TheLTElinkbudgetindownlinkhasseveralsimilaritieswithHSPAandthe maximumpathlossissimilar. The h uplink l kparthas h somedifferences: d ff smaller ll interference f margininLTE,nomacro diversitygaininLTEandnofastfadingmargininLTE. ThelinkbudgetsshowthatLTEcanbedeployedusingexistingGSMandHSPAsites assumingthatthesamefrequencyisusedforLTEasforGSMandHSPA. LTEitselfdoesnotprovideanymajorboostinthecoverage.Thatisbecausethe transmissionpowerlevelsandtheRFnoisefiguresarealsosimilarinGSMand HSPAtechnologies,andthelinkperformanceatlowdataratesisnotmuch differentinLTEthaninHSPA. Thelinkbudgetwascalculatedfor64kbpsuplink,whichislikelynotahighenough dataratefortruebroadbandservice.Ifwewanttoguaranteehigherdataratesin LTE,wemayneedlowfrequencydeployment,additionalsites,activeantenna solutionsorlocalareasolutions.
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CellrangeComparison
Theurbancellrangevariesfrom 0.6kmto1.4kmandsuburban from1.5kmto3.4km. Suchcellrangesarealsotypically foundinexisting gGSMandUMTS networks. Theruralcaseshowsclearly highercellranges:26kmforthe outdoormobilecoverageand evenupto50kmfortherural f dinstallation fixed ll at900MHz.
CellrangeswithOkumuraHata propagationmodel
100

10 Km 1 0.1 900MHz 1800MHz 2100MHz 2600MHz

Urbanindoor Ruraloutdoor

Suburbanindoor Ruraloutdoorfixed

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Differencebetween900MHzand2600MHz
Urban Propagationloss (1) BTSantenna gain BTScable loss (4) UEantenna gain UEsensitivity (7) Total +14dB 3dB (2) +1dB Rural +14dB 0dBc +3dB Ruralfixed wireless +14dB 0dB (3) +3dB 0dB (6) 1dB +16dB

5dB (5) 5dB (5) 1dB +6dB 1dB +11dB

1:AccordingtoOkumuraHata. 2:Shared1.3mantennafor 900/2600 / giving15and d18d dBi gainat900vs2600MHz. 3:2.5mantennagiving18dBigainat 900MHz. 4:Cable1/2.Urban30mandrural 100m. 5:Basedon3GPPRAN4 contributions. 6:Externalfixedantennaassumed. 7:UEsensitivitycanbeupto3dB worseat900MHzbutthe differenceinpracticeisless. www.cert.tn

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CellrangeLimitation
Theearthscurvaturelimitsthemaximumcellrangeto pp y40kmwithan80mhigh g basestationantenna approximately assumingthattheterminalisatgroundlevel. ThemaximumcellrangecanbecalculatedwithEquation below Toachieve100kmcellrange,therequiredantennaheightis 580m!!!
R = 8650 km (Effective earth radius for radio propagation is 4/3 larger than real radius)

R 2 + d 2 = ( R + h) 2 h = R2 + d 2 R
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Latency
Userplanelatencyisrelevantfortheperformanceofmany pp applications. Thereareseveralapplicationsthatdonotrequireaveryhigh datarate,buttheydorequireverylowlatency:voice,real timegaming,interactiveapplications.

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Latency:Endtoenddelaybudget
Delaycomponent Transmissiontimeuplink + downlink Bufferingtime(0.5 transmissiontime) Retransmissions10% Uplink scheduling request Uplink scheduling grant UEdelay d l estimated i d eNodeBdelayestimated Corenetwork Total ld delay l with hpreallocated ll d resources Totaldelaywithscheduling Delayvalue 2ms 2 0.5 1ms=1ms 2 0.1 8ms=1.6ms 0.5 5ms=2.5ms 4ms 4ms 4ms 1ms 13.6ms 20.1ms

Onaverage,thepacketneedstowait for0.5msforthestartofthenext frame frame. Theretransmissionstake8msatbest theassumedretransmission probabilityis10%. Theaveragedelayforsendingthe schedulingrequestis2 2.5 5ms Schedulinggrant:4ms. UEp processing gdelay y:4ms, , eNodeB processingdelay:4ms corenetworkdelay:1ms.
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Endtoendroundtriptimeincludingschedulinglatency
LTEroundtriptime
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20 Core 15 eNB UE Uplinkschedulinggrant 10 Uplinkschedulingrequest Retransmissions Bufferingtime 5 Transmissiontime

0 Delayvalue

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LTERefarmingtoGSMSpectrum
LTEcouldbedeployedintheexistingGSMspectrum like900MHzor1800MHz MHz. TheflexibleLTEbandwidthmakesrefarmingeasier th with than ithWCDMAbecause b LTEcanstart t twith ith1 1.4 4 MHzor3.0MHzbandwidthsandthengrowlater when h th theGSMt traffic ffi h hasd decreased. d

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LTErefarmingtoGSMspectrum Example

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DimensioningCapacity Trafficvolumebasedapproach
Thebusyhourisassumedtocarry 15%ofthedailytraffic the h b busyh houraveragel loading d is50%. Thecalculationshowsthatthetotal sitethroughputpermonthis4600 GB. Tooffer5GBdataforevery subscriberpermonth,thenumberof subscriberspersitewillbe920.

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DimensioningCapacity Dataratebasedapproach
Target:1Mbpspersubscriber. Sinceonlysomeofthe subscribersaredownloadingdata simultaneously,wecanapplyan overbooking gfactor, ,forexample p 20. Itmeansthattheaveragebusy hourdatarateis50kbpsper subscriber. Thenumberofsubscribersper siteusingthisapproachis1050.

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Thanks foryour Attention

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ITU/BDT Arab Regional Workshop on 4G Wireless Systems - Tunisia 2010

LTETechnology Perofrmance Evaluation

ANNEXES

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ITU/BDT Arab Regional Workshop on 4G Wireless Systems - Tunisia 2010

ULlinkbudgetparametersforLTE Parameters1

R f LTE for Ref. f UMTS OFDMA and d SC SC-FDMA FDMA Based B d Radio R di Access A Harri Holma and Antti Toskala
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ITU/BDT Arab Regional Workshop on 4G Wireless Systems - Tunisia 2010

ULlinkbudgetparametersforLTE Parameters2

R f LTE for Ref. f UMTS OFDMA and d SC SC-FDMA FDMA Based B d Radio R di Access A Harri Holma and Antti Toskala
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ITU/BDT Arab Regional Workshop on 4G Wireless Systems - Tunisia 2010

ULlinkbudgetparametersforLTE Parameters3

R f LTE for Ref. f UMTS OFDMA and d SC SC-FDMA FDMA Based B d Radio R di Access A Harri Holma and Antti Toskala
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ITU/BDT Arab Regional Workshop on 4G Wireless Systems - Tunisia 2010

DLlinkbudgetparametersforLTE Parameters1

R f LTE for Ref. f UMTS OFDMA and d SC SC-FDMA FDMA Based B d Radio R di Access A Harri Holma and Antti Toskala
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ITU/BDT Arab Regional Workshop on 4G Wireless Systems - Tunisia 2010

DLlinkbudgetparametersforLTE Parameters2

R f LTE for Ref. f UMTS OFDMA and d SC SC-FDMA FDMA Based B d Radio R di Access A Harri Holma and Antti Toskala
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