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Differential Capacity Fractal Dimension and Water Saturation Fractal Dimension as Parameters for Reservoir Characterization: Shajara Formation

of the Permo-Carboniferous Unayzah Group as a Case Study


K. E. Al-Khidir*, M. S. Benzagouta, A. A. Al-Quraishi** & A. A. Al-Laboun*** * King Saud University , College of Engineering, Petroleum and Natural Gas Engineering Dept. ** King Abdualaziz City for Science and Technology, Oil and Gas Research Institute. *** King Saud University, College of Science, Geology Dept.

The fractal nature of samples collected from the surface type section of the Shajara Formation of the permo-Carboniferous Unayzah Group is derived from the size distribution of pores. This distribution is determined by the application of mercury intrusion capillary pressure technology utilizing autopore. Two different fractal geometry models have been applied to investigate the pore size distribution heterogeneity which is a key parameter in reservoir quality assessment. These two fractal approaches are the negative differential water capacity fractal dimension and water saturation fractal dimension. Based on the applied two fractal regime, in addition to unconformity surfaces, the sandstones of the Shajara Formation is divided herein into three fractal units. The investigated units from top to base are: Upper, Middle and Lower Shajara Water Saturation Fractal Units. The obtained results showed that, the Lower Shajara Water Saturation Unit is characterized by the presence of a high, a medium, and a low permeable zone which reflects a heterogeneous system. It was also found that the fluid flow circulation capacity is positively correlated to the obtained water saturation fractal dimension.

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100 100 10 10 Differential capacity fractal dimension 2.5 2.6 2.7 1 1 2.3 2.4 2.8 2.9

Permeability mD

Permeability mD

ABSTRACT

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Corresponding Author: * K.E. Al-Khidir E-mail :kalkhidir@ksu.edu.sa alkhidir@yahoo.com
10000 10000 1000 1000 2.05 2.1 2.15

Water saturation fractal dimension 2.2 2.25 2.3

Second level
Third level
Fourth level Fifth level
0 -0.5 Log Wi (cm2) -1 -1.5 2 1.5

Figure (8): Permeability versus differential capacity and water saturation fractal Dimensions showing the presence of a high , moderate and a low permeable zone.
Sample No. % K (mD) Differential water Water saturation capacity fractal fractal dimension dimension

Formation Unit

Upper Shajara unit Middle Shajara unit Lower Shajara Unit

Figure (2): Surface type section of the Shajara Formation of the Permo-Carboniferous Unayzah Group Showing The Units Proved by Differential Capacity Fractal Units and Water Saturation Fractal Methods Location: N 26 52 17.4, E 43 36 18.

SJ13 SJ12 SJ11 SJ9 SJ8 SJ7 SJ5 SJ4 SJ3 SJ2 SJ1

25 28 36 31 32 35 31 30 34 35 29

973 1440 1197 1394 1344 1472 55 176 56 1955 1680

2.771 2.819 2.775 2.807 2.801 2.805 2.391 2.537 2.384 2.842 2.838

2.203 2.251 2.194 2.214 2.211 2.211 2.076 2.109 2.075 2.231 2.235

Table (1): Differential water capacity fractal dimension and water saturation fractal dimension of Shajara Formation Reservoirs.

SJ1
y = -2.672ln(x) - 0.5248 R = 0.9962 1 0.5 0 Log (sw%/pc)

SJ1
y = -1.3624x + 2.0916 R = 0.9979

CONCLUSION
The use of determined negative differential water capacity fractal dimension and water saturation fractal dimension and their plots versus permeability has revealed the occurrence of three fractal dimension units characterizing the reservoir quality of the Shajara Formation. The obtained results of the fractal dimension units are positively correlated to the fluid circulation flow capacity (permeability). An increase of permeability match to an increase of fractal dimension. Variation on fractal dimension values reflect their variation on textural characteristics including grain size distribution in addition to their compaction. In other words fractal dimension value increases with increasing grain size and decrease compaction.

MATERIALS & METHODS

-2 -2.5 -3 -3.5 -4 0

Log Hi (cm)

2 2.5 3 3.5

-0.5 Log (pc) -1 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5

0.5

1.5

Figure (3): Differential capacity fractal dimension= 2.838 Water saturation fractal dimension= 2.235 Permeability = 1680 mD , Phi = 29%, for sample SJ1 from the Lower Shajara Member.
0 -0.5 -1 -1.5 -2 -2.5 -3 -3.5 -4 -4.5 -5 0 1 2 3 4 5 Log Hi (cm) Log wi (cm2) 3 2.5

SJ3
y = -3.717ln(x) + 0.7014 R = 0.9954

2 1.5 0.5 0 -0.5 -1 -1.5 -2 0 0.5 1 Log (Sw%/pc) 1

SJ3
y = -2.594ln(x) + 1.3996 R = 0.9897

Figure (1): Auto pore III Apparatus Used for Determination of sample Plugs Pore Size Distribution

Log pc (psi) 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5

Differential capacity is defined as the ratio of volumetric water content to capillary tension head (Globus, A.M. 2006). hi = 2*/*g*ri Where, Hi: capillary tension head. : mercury surface tension : mercury density g: acceleration of gravity ri: pore radius corresponding to each tube. Water saturation capillary pressure model: It is based on the method of Toledo et al (1993) who related water saturation to capillary and fractal dimension as follows: Sw Pc-(3-D) Sw is water saturation. Pc is capillary pressure measures in (psi). D = Fractal dimension Differentiate water saturation with respect to

Figure (4): Differential capacity fractal dimension= 2.384 Water saturation fractal dimension = 2.075 Permeability = 56 mD , Phi = 34% for sample SJ3 from the Lower Shajara Member.
0 -0.5 -1 -1.5 Log wi (cm2) -2 -2.5 -3 -3.5 -4 -4.5 0 1 2 3 4 Log Hi (cm) -1 Log pc (psi) -1.5 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 1.5

SJ4
y = -3.362ln(x) + 0.2481 R = 0.996

SJ4
1 0.5 Log (Sw%/pc) 0 -0.5 y = -2.203ln(x) + 1.0533 R = 0.989

REFERENCES
Al-Khidir,K.E. Al-Quraishi,A.A., Al-Laboun,A.A. Benzagouta,M.S. 2011. Bimodal pore size behavior of the Shajara Formation Reservoirs of the PermoCarboniferous Unayzah Group, Saudi Arabia. J Petrol Explor Prod Technol (2011) 1:19. DOI10.1007/s13202011-0007-5. Al-Khidir, K. E., Benzagouta, M. S., Al-Qurishi A. A., Al-Laboun.A.A. 2012. Characterization of heterogeneity of the Shajara reservoirs of the Shajara formation of the Permo-Carboniferous Unayzah group. Arab J Geosci. DOI 10.1007/s12517-012-0656-9
2.5

Figure (5): Differential capacity fractal dimension= 2.537 Water saturation fractal dimension= 2.109 Permeability = 176 mD , Phi = 30% for sample SJ4 from the Lower Shajara Member.
0 -0.5 -1 Log Wi (cm2) -1.5 -2 -2.5 -3 -3.5 -4 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 -0.5 Log Hi (cm) -1 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 Log pc (psi) y = -2.748ln(x) - 0.4413 R = 0.9946 1 0.5 0 Log (Sw%/pc) 2

SJ7
1.5

SJ7
y = -1.558ln(x) + 0.632 R = 0.9788

capillary pressure to obtain dSw/dPc Pc-(2-D)


If we take logarithm of both sides of equation with removal of proportionality sign , equation becomes Log (dSw/dPc) = (D-2)* Log Pc + C On a log-log plot of the ratio of water saturation to capillary pressure versus capillary pressure a straight line should be obtained whose fractal dimension is equal to slope +2.

Figure (6): Differential capacity fractal dimension= 2.805 Water saturation fractal dimension= 2.211 Permeability = 1472 mD , Phi = 35 for Sample Sj7 from the Middle Shajara Member.
0 -0.5 -1 Log Wi (cm2) -1.5 -2 -2.5 -3 -3.5 -4 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 -1 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 Log Hi (cm) SJ12 y = -2.715ln(x) - 0.4864 R = 0.9965 2 1.5 1 0.5 0 -0.5 Log pc (psi) Log (sw%/pc) SJ12

Globus, A.M.. Fractal Character of Some Physical Parameters of Soils. 2006. ISSN 10642293, Eurasian Soil Science, 2006, Vol. 39, No. 10, pp. 11161126. Pleiades Publishing, Inc., 2006.

y = -1.491ln(x) + 0.6101 R = 0.9825

Toledo PG, Novy RA, Davis HT, Scriven LE (1993) Capillary pressure, water relative permeability, electrical conductivity and capillary dispersion coefficient of fractal porous media at low wetting phase saturations. SPE Adv Technol Ser 2(1):136141

RESULTS & DISCUSSION

Figure (7): Differential capacity fractal dimension= 2.81 Water saturation fractal dimension= 2.251 Permeability = 1440 mD , Phi = 28% for sample SJ12 from the Upper Shajara Member.

Shajara Formation