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JOURNAL OF THE AUSTRALIAN INSTITUTE OF STEEL CONSTRUCTION

A.C.N. 000 973 839

STEEL
CONSTRUCTION
COSTING OF STEELWORK FROM FEASIBILITY THROUGH TO COMPLETION

VOLUME 30 NUMBER 2 JUNE 1996


ISSN 0049-2205
Print Post Approved pp 255003/01614

$7.00

AISC MEMBERS
THE BEST IN STEEL FABRICATION
AISC disseminates information on up-to-date steel design and fabrication technology, and this information flows to its detailer and fabricator members. When considering fabricated steelwork it makes sense to deal with those detailers and fabricators who share the institutes resources. Their names, addresses and telephone numbers are listed below.

For detailing of steelwork


NEW SOUTH WALES
T & S Bates Pty Ltd PO Box 308, Engadine NSW 2233 . . . . . (02) 520 6096

VICTORIA
Bayside B W E Pty Ltd 7 Bowen Crescent, Melbourne 3004 . . (03) 9867 6066 Bayside Drafting (Aust) Pty Ltd Cnr Skye Road & Farrell Street, Frankston 3199 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (03) 9781 4011 BDS Technical Services Level 1, 240 Bay Street, Brighton 3186 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (03) 9596 6500

QUEENSLAND
BDS Technical Services 80 Tribune Street, South Brisbane 4101 . (07) 3844 8093 G & D Drafting Pty Ltd PO Box 928, Cleveland 4163 . . . . . . . . (07) 3252 5124 QEI Pty Ltd 361-363 Montague Road, West End 4101 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (07) 3844 2772 Steelcad Drafting Pty Ltd 4/27 Birubi Street, Coorparoo 4151 . . . (07) 3847 3799 Steeltech Steel Detailers Pty Ltd 24 Curzon Street, Tennyson 4105 . . . . (07) 3848 6464

WESTERN AUSTRALIA
Perth Drafting Company (WA) 48 Kishorn Road, Applecross 6153 . . . . (09) 364 8288 Steelplan Drafting Services 15/885 Albany Highway, East Victoria Park 6101 . . . . . . . . . . . . . (09) 362 2599

For fabricated steelwork See page 48


AUSTRALIAN INSTITUTE OF STEEL CONSTRUCTION

While every effort has been made and all reasonable care taken to ensure the accuracy of the material contained herein the Authors, Editors and Publishers of this Publication shall not be held to be liable or responsible in any way whatsoever and expressly disclaim any liability or responsibility for any loss or damage costs or expenses howsoever incurred by any person whether the purchaser of this work or otherwise including but without in any way limiting any loss or damage costs or expenses incurred as a result of or in connection with the reliance whether whole or partial by any person as aforesaid upon any part of the contents of this publication. Should expert assistance be required, the services of a competent professional person should be sought.

EDITORIAL
It has long been recognised that the costing of structural steelwork cannot be accurately determined by rates based on $/tonne, weight/square metre, etc i.e. by weight concepts alone. The costs associated with various connection types, materials procurement and the value adding processes of detailing, fabrication, coating, transportation and erection are essentially process dependent. Current design optimization techniques generally utilise the steel weight criterion which does not necessarily produce minimum cost solutions. However, rational methods of costing have not been readily available. The paper contained in this issue of Steel Construction entitled Costing of Steelwork from Feasibility through to Completion considers a new method of costing steelwork. The method examines costs associated with each process and breaks it up into costs related to steel supply, fabrication, surface treatment and erection. The paper also illustrates the methodology by several case studies. As the new costing method is published in the journal for further industry comment, the authors would welcome any feedback on its details and application. Additionally, readers should note that the regular Steel Construction Current Cost Indicators which was generally based on a $/tonne method has been withdrawn. This has been due to various reasons the primary one being its inconsistency with the preferred new costing method.
STEEL CONSTRUCTION is published quarterly by the Australian Institute of Steel Construction a national body whose purpose is to promote the use of fabricated steel through engineering, research and the dissemination of knowledge. Its services, which are available free of charge to corporate members, include technical information and advice and a library which contains local and overseas publications. For details regarding AISC services, readers may contact the Institutes offices:

Editor: Arun Syam


CONTRIBUTIONS
Contributions of original papers on steel design, research and allied technical matters are invited from readers of Steel Construction, for publication in the journal. The editor also invites readers to submit letters, comments and discussions on papers appearing in Steel Construction.

AISC CONTACTS AISC OFFICES


SYDNEY
Level 13, 99 Mount Street North Sydney NSW 2060 (P.O. Box 6366, North Sydney NSW 2059) Telephone (02) 9929 6666 Facsimile (02) 9955 5406

ACT & SOUTHERN NSW


Mr Robert Thompson Telephone (06) 281 1711

ILLAWARRA
Mr Ken Wilyman Telephone (042) 28 4133

BRISBANE
State Manager Queensland Telephone (07) 3371 3633

NEWCASTLE & NORTHERN NSW Mr Jos Zaragoza Telephone (02) 9929 6666 SOUTH AUSTRALIA
Mr Les Nash Telephone (08) 302 3330

MELBOURNE
State Manager Victoria Telephone (03) 9699 8138

PERTH
State Manager Western Australia Telephone (09) 367 0617

TASMANIA
Mr Graham OByrne Telephone (003) 31 7044

STEEL CONSTRUCTION VOLUME 30 NUMBER 2, JUNE 1996

AISC MEMBERS
THE BEST IN STEEL FABRICATION
AISC disseminates information on up-to-date steel design and fabrication technology, and this information flows to its detailer and fabricator members. When considering fabricated steelwork it makes sense to deal with those detailers and fabricators who share the institutes resources. Their names, addresses and telephone numbers are listed below.

For detailing of steelwork


NEW SOUTH WALES
T & S Bates Pty Ltd PO Box 308, Engadine NSW 2233 . . . . . (02) 520 6096

VICTORIA
Bayside B W E Pty Ltd 7 Bowen Crescent, Melbourne 3004 . . (03) 9867 6066 Bayside Drafting (Aust) Pty Ltd Cnr Skye Road & Farrell Street, Frankston 3199 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (03) 9781 4011 BDS Technical Services Level 1, 240 Bay Street, Brighton 3186 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (03) 9596 6500

QUEENSLAND
BDS Technical Services 80 Tribune Street, South Brisbane 4101 . (07) 3844 8093 G & D Drafting Pty Ltd PO Box 928, Cleveland 4163 . . . . . . . . (07) 3252 5124 QEI Pty Ltd 361-363 Montague Road, West End 4101 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (07) 3844 2772 Steelcad Drafting Pty Ltd 4/27 Birubi Street, Coorparoo 4151 . . . (07) 3847 3799 Steeltech Steel Detailers Pty Ltd 24 Curzon Street, Tennyson 4105 . . . . (07) 3848 6464

WESTERN AUSTRALIA
Perth Drafting Company (WA) 48 Kishorn Road, Applecross 6153 . . . . (09) 364 8288 Steelplan Drafting Services 15/885 Albany Highway, East Victoria Park 6101 . . . . . . . . . . . . . (09) 362 2599

For fabricated steelwork See page 48


AUSTRALIAN INSTITUTE OF STEEL CONSTRUCTION

While every effort has been made and all reasonable care taken to ensure the accuracy of the material contained herein the Authors, Editors and Publishers of this Publication shall not be held to be liable or responsible in any way whatsoever and expressly disclaim any liability or responsibility for any loss or damage costs or expenses howsoever incurred by any person whether the purchaser of this work or otherwise including but without in any way limiting any loss or damage costs or expenses incurred as a result of or in connection with the reliance whether whole or partial by any person as aforesaid upon any part of the contents of this publication. Should expert assistance be required, the services of a competent professional person should be sought.

COSTING OF STEELWORK FROM FEASIBILITY THROUGH TO COMPLETION


K.B. Watson, S. Dallas and N. van der Kreek BHP Structural Steel Development Group T. Main Trevor Main & Associates

1. INTRODUCTION
A considerable amount of effort is devoted during the design process to optimizing the design to achieve a minimum cost solution. The measure traditionally used to judge the economy of the design is the quantity of steel in the structure expressed as a weight per square metre of floor area or per cubic metre of cubic content (Hart Henn & Sontag (1)). Therefore, the optimization of a design has meant the minimization of the quantity of material in a project. This has permeated all facets of design, construction and research. For steel structures, the current method of costing steelwork on the basis of a rate per tonne has lead to this concentration on minimum mass solutions. Yet Girardier (2) indicates that the material cost represents only 40% of the total cost of the steel frame. The remaining 60% of the cost represents the value added in fabrication and erection which has been very difficult to accurately quantify. This latter component has often been neglected in design. For example, the cost of stiffening a penetration can add considerably to the cost a beam, yet it is often not considered worthwhile to carry out a design to determine the level of stiffening required. By comparison, a considerable time is typically spent minimizing the size of the member. Various proposals (Australian Institute of Steel Construction (3), Hogan and Firkins (4)) have been made to remedy this situation and some worthwhile general principles have been developed. These have included advice such as: weld in the fabrication shop, bolt on site; adopt simply supported connections not continuous. Whilst these qualitative principles will generally apply, they do not allow the particular situation to be adequately investigated. There has also been some industry skepticism on whether the benefits of adopting good design principles were being passed on to the client in the form of lower prices. In fact, it was frequently perceived that good design was costing more, as the design was often heavier and hence on a rate per tonne basis it would cost more. Firkins and Hemphill (5) advised on work hours per tonne for various types of work and whilst this was a refinement, it translated into a rate per tonne. It was an average rate and did not allow details to be costed with sufficient accuracy to allow comparisons to be undertaken. This method has the additional disadvantage that it is very dependent on the experience of the estimator in the particular type of work. To help give a better understanding of the total cost of 2

steelwork, Watson and Buchhorn (6) developed concepts for costing steelwork in which components of the cost were taken into account. The concepts proposed were similar to those practices adopted by the professional fabricators. The method was further developed (Watson, Dallas & Main (7); Main, Watson & Dallas (8) and Watson & Dallas (9)) into a practical and rational method of costing steelwork. During this period extensive consultations were undertaken with all sections of the Australian construction industry which lead to the method being refined and extended to cover most types of steel construction. The steel construction industry has been very supportive of these developments as the system reduces the contractual risks to the fabricator and also reduces the cost of tendering by providing a format consistent with the fabricators method of estimating. Tizani, Davies, Nethercot and Smith (10) have been developing knowledge based engineering systems to carry out comparative costing on different space frame systems. Their approach is similar to that discussed in this paper. This paper explains the method and uses case studies to illustrate the insight that can be achieved into factors influencing costs. Extensive tables of indicative unit rates are given so that most structures can be costed. The application of the method at various stages of the design and construction process is demonstrated with particular attention being given to extending the method to cover early stages of design. Indicative sizes and costing are given for portal frame industrial buildings, carpark, office and retail floors to assist with costing at the early stages of design. The proposed method presented has not yet been fully extended to cover all plate structures such as bins and silos. However the principles can readily be applied to such structures.

2. THE CURRENT METHOD


When pricing a job, fabricators determine the cost of the supply of materials, the number of hours involved in fabricating steelwork, and the costs for surface treatment and erection. These costs are then summed and divided by the total number of tonnes to determine a rate per tonne to be included in the tender documents. Therefore the rates represent an average across the total job and do not prove very useful in determining the cost of variations or refining designs. The format of the breakup is guided by the Australian Standard AS1181- 1982 (11) for civil engineerSTEEL CONSTRUCTION VOLUME 30 NUMBER 2, JUNE 1996

Table 1. Typical range of tonnage rates. Item Steel supply Shop detailing Fabrication Surface treatment Transport to site Erection TOTAL Cost ($) / tonne 900 50 200 050 150 1,300 500 2,000 750 200 700 Variation (times lowest cost) 1.4 10.0 10.0 4.0 4.7 4.0

1,350 - 5,450

ing projects and the Institute of Quantity Surveyors and Master Builders Construction and Housing Associations (12) Standard Method of Measurement (SMM5) for building projects. Table 1 shows that there is a great variation in cost of steelwork on a dollars per tonne basis. The variation reflects the complexity of the work to fabricate and erect. To overcome this wide spread, rates have been developed and published (Cordell (13), Rawlinsons (14)) for various types of work. Poulos (15) investigated the costs of three different portal frame designs for a 2,000 square metre building with a span of 30 metres. The results are summarised in Table 2 and show a 36% variation in tonnage rates over the three designs. This illustrates that even for standard structures the current method cannot give accurate and reliable costing of projects. Whilst the conservative design increased the tonnage by 12% over that required for the good design, the total cost of the frames increased by only 6%. This was because only the steel supply component of the cost increased as there was no difference in the cost of the shop drawings, fabrication, transport and erection. However, for the skinny design a corresponding decrease in the mass of steel from the good design increased the cost of the frame by 15%. This increase was caused by more complicated knee connections, additional fly bracing and additional costs in erecting flimsy members. Therefore the current method, which leads to minimising weight can result in more costly designs.

give a more reliable and accurate method provide a continuity of approach from initial project costing through to fabricators detailed costing provide a clearer focus on the elements that will have a significant effect on the final cost allow reliable determination of cost of contract variations provide a methodology which is simple to understand. In order to achieve these goals, the costs are divided into four components: steel supply, fabrication, surface treatment and erection. Costs represent rates received from fabricators and as such, they do not include the builders margin. The indicative costs given in Appendix A are applicable for projects where the steelwork cost (supply, fabrication and erection) is greater than $150,000. The current hourly labour rate adopted for the tables is $40.00.

3.1 Steel Supply


Steel supply covers the supply of all materials including hot rolled, welded, cold formed and tubular sections, plate, as well as items such as bolts and shear studs. (Refer Appendix A1 for tables.) Sections are costed on a rate per metre basis. This brings the costing of hot rolled sections into line with cold formed sections, such as purlins and tubular sections, which have been traditionally been sold on a per metre basis. Another advantage of this method is that it allows a very quick comparison to be undertaken on different sections capable of carrying the same load. Plate is costed on a rate per square metre basis. This gives a more realistic measure than dollars per tonne and allows for any changes in the cost of steel with thickness to be highlighted as shown in Figure 1. Wastage has not been allowed for in the rates given as it can be minimised in the design process. For instance,

3. PROPOSED NEW METHOD OF COSTING


As accurate costing is one of the essential features necessary to design and construct economical structures, it was decided to develop a rational costing method which will overcome these deficiencies. The goals of the new method are to:

Table 2. Comparison of costs for different designs for 2,000 square metre portal frame building (span 30m). Design Description Frame Mass (tonnes) Cost ($) $ / tonne

Good Design Conservative Design Skinny Design

20.2 22.6 18.0

45,646 48,530 52,679

2,260 2,147 2,927

STEEL CONSTRUCTION VOLUME 30 NUMBER 2, JUNE 1996

Fig 1. Steel Supply Plate Pricing there is often the opportunity to eliminate wastage, or at least minimise it, by designing with standard lengths in mind (Refer Appendix B and BHP Steel (16) for details of standard lengths), or by providing sufficient time in the project programme for the steel to be supplied cut to the specified length by the manufacturer. Wastage is typically 2-5% for a project. By combining the requirements for a number of smaller projects the wastage level can be minimised to similar levels to that of larger projects.

3.2.2 End Connections


It is proposed that all the hours associated with a connection are allocated to the supported member. Appendix A2.1 gives tables of rates for commonly used standard connections.

3.2.3 Work Along a Member


This covers work along a member which is not associated with connection to another member. Examples include purlin and other cleats, penetrations, architectural connections. Refer to Appendix A2.2 for rates.

3.2 Fabrication 3.2.1 Introduction


Fabrication covers each activity after the delivery of steel to the fabricator to the delivery of steel to site. It includes: shop detailing; fabrication of end connections, items along a member, compound members; and transport. Surface treatment is covered as a separate item in Section 3.3. It is proposed that all costing be activity based. The time required to undertake each activity is therefore used. This has the advantage that it is relatively constant across Australia and is not subject to significant fluctuations with the changing economic times. With relatively expensive machines, like beam lines, the cost has been converted into equivalent work hours to include capitalised costs and hence simplify the method. Consumables, minor equipment, overheads and profits are included in the hourly rate. The hourly rate is readily obtainable and allows costs to be updated to reflect the local economic situation. It was found that a high level of accuracy can generally be achieved by providing rates for three different section weight ranges. The fabricator will cost the job in finer detail when tendering on a project. Fabrication rates are given in Appendix A2.

3.2.4 Compound Members


Compound members are members built up from individual components and include three plate members, trough and box girders, box columns, trusses, vierendeel trusses and battened columns. These members form two different categories: Members whose costs of fabrication are related to their length. Examples of these include three plate members and box columns. The cost of fabricating these members is given as a rate per metre. Table A2.2.4 gives the rates for fabricating a three plate girder. The costs of fabricating trusses, vierendeel trusses and battened columns are dependent largely on the costs associated with each joint. Examples of fabrication costs for different types of trusses are given in Table A2.2.5.

3.2.5 Other Fabrication Items


It is not possible to fully cover every detail in tables such as given in Appendices A2.1 and A2.2. To assist in developing costs for details not covered, some elemental costs are STEEL CONSTRUCTION VOLUME 30 NUMBER 2, JUNE 1996

included in Appendix A2.3. These costs may need to be supplemented with advice from fabricators. The costs given in Appendix A2.1 and A2.2 are complete costs for the fabrication of the item and hence already include the costs given in Appendix A2.3.

included in the surface treatment cost.

3.3 Surface Treatment


Surface treatment covers all forms of treatment to the steel and includes painting, galvanising, fire spray, intumescent paint and fire rated board systems. A rate per square metre of applied treatment has been adopted as the appropriate measurement. Differences in handling, thickness of zinc in galvanising and thickness of fire spray due to changing surface to mass ratio have been allowed for by giving rates for three different mass per metre categories as shown in Appendix A3. For the fire rated board systems, the projected area will generally be applicable. Appendix C gives the surface areas for standard sections which makes the proposed method very simple to apply.

3.2.6 Shop Detailing


Watson et. al. (7) referenced the cost of shop drawings back to the number of hours of fabrication. The ratio varied from 1 hour of shop detailing for every 4 hours of fabrication for portal frame work, to parity for complex work involving significant variations. Main et. al. (8) gave guidance on the number of hours required to draw marking plans, individual members, components and carry out checking. The estimator is then required to determine the number of drawings. The time to prepare shop drawings is dependent on the quality of the contract drawings, the complexity of the project and the amount of repetition. There has been a decline in the quality of contract drawings as fee pressure has intensified. This is usually a false economy, as the shop detailer must fill in the gaps in information, and this results in significantly increasing the costs of shop detailing. Where members are identical, the costs of detailing are significantly reduced as the member is only drawn once. Minor differences in details add to the cost, as they must be noted on drawings or the members redrawn. When several people are working on a project, there should be common detailing across the whole project, otherwise members will be required to be redrawn needlessly. Due to difficulties in determining the number of identical and similar members early in the design process, it is recommended that a method of relating the cost of detailing to the cost of fabrication be used at this stage (refer Table A2.4.1). As the design is finalised, the estimate can be refined if it is based on the number of shop drawings (refer Table A2.4.2).

3.4 Erection
The key determinant in the cost of erecting steelwork is the number of lifts that are required. Once the crane size is determined based on the dual requirements of lifting radius and mass of component, it costs virtually the same to lift a very light member as a heavy member. The cost of erecting bigger sections has been increased to allow for the extra time for the end connections and to plumb the steelwork. Appendix A4 gives typical costs per member for portal frames and multi-storey buildings. For other types of projects it is recommended that the costs be derived using the same methodology. This is illustrated by the bridge example in section 3.5.2.

4. CASE STUDIES 4.1 Case Study No. 1 Portal Frame


The costing of an internal bay of a 2000 square metre warehouse with portal frames at 9 metre centres and 6 metre eaves is given in Appendix D1. This shows that approximately 60% of the cost of the building is in the purlins and sheeting. However, the time spent in optimising designs of portal frames has generally been on minimising the tonnage in the frame which represents only 20% of the cost of the building. As was shown in section 3, this effort can be counter productive and lead to more expensive designs. An alkyd primer (red oxide zinc phosphate) paint system was chosen as providing adequate corrosion protection. This paint system is usually applied in the fabrication shop. However, if an inorganic zinc silicate system was adopted, the steel would normally have to be transported to a specialist contractor to be grit blasted and painted. The total cost of painting would have increased four fold with the use of inorganic zinc silicate. It is normal practice for the fabricator to be responsible for the supply of cranes on industrial projects and therefore this has been allowed for in the costing. This costing method allows the determination of the most economical spacings of the portal frames and purlins.

3.2.7 Transport
The cost of transport is directly related to the number of truck loads of steel, the size of the loads and time taken to load, transport and unload the steel. Hence the cost is related to both the weight and volume of steel and to a lesser extent the distance from the site. Table A2.5.1 gives the rate per member to transport beam and stick type steelwork. The total typical travel time for a city delivery is 9 hours per load which is composed of the following components: time from depot to fabrication shop (1.0 hour); time to load steelwork on truck ( 2.5 hours); fabrication shop to site (1.5 hours); waiting time at site and the time to unload steelwork (3 hours); travel time back to depot (1 hour). This highlights the significant time and subsequent cost savings that could be made by palletising fabricated steelwork. Transport costs for other types of work can be calculated using the above principles. When transporting bulky items such as three dimensional trusses, the volume will determine the number of items that can be carried on a truck. If the steel is galvanised or painted at an external shop, the cost of transport is almost doubled as the steel is transported twice, once to the galvanisers or paint shop and then to site. It is recommended that this additional cost be STEEL CONSTRUCTION VOLUME 30 NUMBER 2, JUNE 1996

4.2 Case Study No. 2 Multi Storey Building


5

Fig 2. Floor Layout

A ten level office building with a floor plate of 1000 square metres net per floor was chosen to investigate the costing method (refer Figure 2). A conventional layout with beams spanning from the perimeter to the core was prepared (refer Figure D2.1). A 120mm deep slab on 1.0mm Bondek II spanned 2.8 metres between the steel beams. The floor structure was required to accommodate a major air conditioning (A/C) duct around the reinforced concrete core. A steel depth limit of 300mm was adopted in this area to maintain a reasonable plenum height (the height from underside of ceiling to the top of slab above). Also, the A/C duct layout and flexibility requirements indicated web penetrations at third points in the typical secondary beams B1 and B7. Other internal beams were specified to have small circular penetrations at third points for services. The floor beams were designed in accordance with the soon to be released composite beam standard AS2327.1-1996 (17). Beams were cambered for their self weight and the concrete slab weight. The initial design, referred to as Design A, had an overall steel beam intensity of 31kg/sq.m. This scheme involved stiffened web penetrations in B1 and B7 which were 460UB67.1 beams. Alternatively, adopting 530UB82.0 beams in these locations eliminated the need for stiffening at the web penetrations. This scheme had a beam steel intensity of 35kg/sq.m and is referred to as Design B. Appendix D2 gives a full costing of beams for Design A and the varied beams in Design B, using the proposed method

of costing. The results are summarised in Table 3. When costing according to the proposed method, the steel frame cost of Design B is slightly lower even though it is heavier than Design A. However traditional methods of costing based on a constant dollars per tonne rate would have quickly ruled out Design B, as it was heavier. For Design A, the stiffener supply and fabrication costs at the penetrations totalled $190 per penetration compared to $32 for Design B with its unstiffened penetrations. When the extra beam supply and firespray costs associated with a 530UB82.0 were also included, a similar overall cost resulted. Steel cost includes supply, shop detailing, fabrication, fire-spray, transport and erection of structural steelwork. The fire spray cost for both schemes represented about 20% of the total steel-frame cost. Bennetts and Thomas (18) showed that on the 40 storey, 140 William Street, office building in Melbourne that if a reliable fire sprinkler system was installed and the passive fire protection removed, the building would be safer than a building meeting the building regulations. The fire spray on this building was subsequently not reapplied during the refurbishment. The shop detailing was costed by estimating the number of drawings. It was decided that each beam type would be kept identical throughout the 10 floors. Consequently, the shop detailing cost represented less than 1% of the total steelwork cost. However if changes were made such as having different end connection on some members, changing penetration sizes throughout the floor and between floors, the cost of shop details could increase to about 5% of the total steel cost. The plenum height is influenced by a variety of factors such as the depth and layout of the mechanical services, the depth of the beam/slab at beam notches and the depth of the lights. Even though some beams were increased in depth in Design B, it would not generally require a greater plenum height than Design A. Therefore facade costs were not included in the cost comparison. Also, crane costs have not been included since for this type of project the crane is normally provided by the builder.

4.3 Case Study No 3. 34.5 m span Bridge


The structures used in the previous examples have significant repetition and similarity between projects and hence industry rates could be developed. This comment particularly applies to site activities. Accordingly for more complex projects, or for projects with less repetition, the published rates may need to be supplemented with rates developed from first principles. A simply supported skewed bridge spanning 34.5 metres is used to demonstrate the application of the method.

Table 3. Cost Comparison of Designs. Item Design A Design B

Steel Frame Intensity


Steel Floor Frame Cost *

31 kg/sq m
$86.60 /sq m

35 kg/sq m
$85.50 /sq m

* Costs exclude columns, steel decking and the reinforced concrete slab, which would be similar for the two layouts.

STEEL CONSTRUCTION VOLUME 30 NUMBER 2, JUNE 1996

4.3.1 Bridge Design


The bridge is shown in Appendix D3 and is skewed at 15 to the road alignment. The bridge spans 34.5 metres with a width of 12.6 metres and consists of four composite plate I-beams, each weighing approximately 25 tonnes, at a spacing of 3.5 metres. Grade 350 steel has been adopted for the top flange and as the bridge is designed in accordance with Victorian conditions, Grade 350L15 has been used for the bottom flange. The web is Grade 250. The plate lengths were chosen to minimise the number of splices within the length of the beam. The concrete deck is composed of precast formwork acting compositely with the insitu concrete. The surface treatment specified for the project was Class 2.5 blast together with 75m of inorganic zinc silicate. This has been found to provide a very good life as well as being an economical solution.

(d) Erection A layout of the site was prepared and it was determined that it was necessary to lift 25 tonnes at a radius of 20 metres. A number of crane hire companies were then contacted to determine suitable mobile cranes. A 150 tonne crawler crane was required to enable a single crane lift. For such large cranes the mobilisation and demobilisation costs form a large component of the total cost of the erection where there is a small number of members to be lifted into place. It was determined that the crane would be required to be on site for a total of a week. A rigging crew of 3 was allowed. (e) Accuracy of estimate To confirm the accuracy of the method and rates, a number of fabricators were asked to price the bridge. Detailed pricing by the fabricators was found to be in close agreement with those given in Appendix D3.

4.3.2 Costing Of The Bridge


Appendix D3 shows the estimated costs of the supply, fabrication, surface treatment and erection of the beams, intermediate and abutment cross frames. (a) Steel Supply The areas of plate and the lengths of sections were calculated and the appropriate rates applied. During this process the various length, width and thickness combinations of plates were investigated to minimise the number of welded splices and ensure the required combination was available (Refer Appendix B). For bridges, it is usually necessary to order the required combination rather than rely on standard plates which have a maximum length of 12 metres and are mainly available in Grade 250. A smaller range of Grade 350 standard plate is also stocked by distributors. A 5% wastage factor was allowed for trimming the plates and for the waste involved in profiling the web to provide the specified camber. This could have been refined by investigating in more detail the exact size of plates required. (b) Fabrication The fabrication costs of the beams and cross frames were quickly and simply obtained from the relevant tables. The mass per metre of the beam was greater than given in the table for the fabrication of gussets (or stiffeners). After consultation with some fabricators, it was agreed that the highest rate in the table would be appropriate. Bridge design drawings generally contain sufficient information so that shop drawings are not required. The transport of the 35 metre long beams required special consideration as they were significantly over length and would therefore require pilot vehicles and semi trailers with steerable rear bogies. A specialist transport company was contacted and it was determined that it would be feasible and most economical to transport two beams and the cross bracing per truck. It was also determined that one load would be scheduled per day. A budget price was then developed and used as the basis of costing. (c) Surface Treatment The surface areas were readily determined and the appropriate rates for inorganic zinc silicate applied.

4.3.3 Comparison With Traditional Design


This method allows the designer to assess the impact of different structural arrangements to be determined with accuracy. For example the beam spacing of 3.5 metres is compared with the traditional spacing of steel beams of 1.8 to 2.5 metres (Rapattoni (19)). The reduced spacing increased the number of beams from 4 to 6. Haywood (20) indicates the steel quantity would be slightly increased with the traditional beam spacing. Appendix D3 illustrates that the fabrication, surface treatment and time related erection cost are proportional to the number of beams. Therefore the cost of these items would increase by approximately 50%. This would increase overall cost of the steelwork for the bridge by about 20%.

5. APPLICATION OF METHOD AT DIFFERENT STAGES OF PROJECT 5.1 Stage 1 Pre-design Costing


At this stage of a project the information is often very sketchy and the aim of the study is to determine whether the project is worth proceeding with. Therefore the inputs are the variables affecting the cost and revenue from the project. For example on an office development the key variable is the amount of floor space. Hence it is important to have reliable costs per square metre of office space. These costs can be derived from previous projects using the methodology presented in Section 3. A database from previous similar projects would allow this information to be built up. Perara and Bennett (21) reviewed methods of modeling data from previous projects to predict the cost of the project. The models can be categorised as three types: Parametric Cost Models, Regression Models, and Probabilistic Models. There are also public sources of such information published on a regular basis such as Cordells(13) and Rawlinsons(14). A number of pre-design rates for industrial buildings, office and retail floors are given in Appendix E. The order of accuracy of estimate at this time would be 20%.

STEEL CONSTRUCTION VOLUME 30 NUMBER 2, JUNE 1996

5.2 Stage 2 Indicative Costing


Once a layout is prepared, no matter how preliminary, the method of costing proposed in Section 3 can be applied. Initial sizing can be based on experience, previous similar designs, or design aids such as those given in Appendix E. The types of connections will be generally known at this stage. This can be as general as whether the connection is rigid or pinned. The accuracy of the estimate can be improved when the preliminary sizing is undertaken by the structural engineer. This step is necessary when the team has limited experience with a particular form of construction. Design aids to assist in the preparation of preliminary sizing include: Design Capacity Tables (22)(23) for steel members Steel Construction Journal December 1995 (24) for composite members Portal frame design guidance and charts (25) (26) Composite Steel Highway Bridge design guidance and charts (20). All non-standard connections should be reviewed to ensure that practical connections can be developed. The supply of bolts, cleats and wastage at this stage can be allowed for by applying a percentage increase on the main steel members. It is suggested that 5% be allowed for simply supported construction and 10% for continuous construction. The order of accuracy at this stage is 10%.

6. STANDARD METHOD OF MEASUREMENTS


The Victorian Fabricators Sub-Committee of the Australian Institute of Steel Construction (27) have developed a draft revision for amending the SMM5 (12) to incorporate the new method. This has been trialed on a project and found to be very workable. As it largely involved changing the presentation of the document rather than fundamentally changing how quantities are taken off, it took the same time as preparing a conventional bill. This document is currently being circulated for industry comment prior to making a formal submission on changing the standard. The Australian Standard AS 1181 (11) was issued in 1982 and gives only limited guidance for steel construction. It is time that consideration be given to updating this standard.

7. COMPUTERISATION
During the development of the costing method, spreadsheets have been used extensively to assist in quickly evaluating different options. Spreadsheets have the advantage that they can be simply modified to suit a particular projects requirements. Two different sets of proforma sheets have been used in Appendix D. These may be used as a template for speadsheets or for manual calculations. The first set (Appendix D1 and D2) is suitable where there is a large number of members in the structure and relatively little work per member. The second set (Appendix D3) is suitable where there are relatively few members, but with a significant amount of work on the members. The second proforma sheets may also be used to develop costs for more complicated members and the results then fed into the first set of sheets. At the more sophisticated level a number of database systems (eg. Costcalc, WinEst Pro) are in use in the larger companies. Discussions with the vendors indicate that these systems can be relatively easily changed to accommodate the new method of costing. One interesting development is the linking of design and drafting systems into costing systems. There are a number of instances where the Computer Aided Drafting System has been linked to the costing system. This saves a considerable amount of time, but probably more importantly the number of errors.

5.3 Stage 3 Detailed Costing


At the end of the detailed engineering, all the information is available to accurately (5%) determine the cost of the structure using the method. This is illustrated in the case studies (Section 4 and Appendix D). During all stages of the design, considerable benefit to the project can be obtained by having detailed discussions with the fabricator and other specialists. The proposed costing method assists in this by providing a common language for all project participants.

5.4 Tender
The new method will greatly assist the fabricator, in comparison to the current method, during the tender process as it is presented in a form that assists preparation of the tender. The time taken for the preparation of the Bill of Quantities is the same as that for the current method, as the new method doesnt significantly change the process of taking off the quantities, instead it changes the way the information is presented. For the full benefit to be obtained from the new method, the Bill of Quantities must form part of the contract. This in the longer term will lead to significant savings for the client as it will substantially reduce the cost of tendering.

8. CONCLUSIONS
A rational new approach has been presented which has been shown to give improved reliability and accuracy in costing steelwork. It provides a common language that can be used by all participants at every stage of the design and construction of the structure. The new approach is based on dividing the costing exercise into four components: Steel supply - cost per metre for sections - cost per square metre for plate Fabrication - cost per item of work Surface treatment - cost per square metre of treatment Erection - cost per lift.

5.5 Cost Control Including Variations


As the method is activity based, it lends itself to controlling costs during a project. It allows the cost of variations to be easily determined and has been used successfully on a number of projects to help resolve disputes on variations. This saves a considerable amount of time and therefore costs, in administering a contract. 8

STEEL CONSTRUCTION VOLUME 30 NUMBER 2, JUNE 1996

The method has been shown to be simple to apply at all stages of a project from pre-design, design, tendering through to contract administration. It has proven to provide a valuable tool in the economical design and construction of steel structures.

9. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
The Authors would like to thank those colleagues who have commented on the previous work which has added considerably to the development of the new method. In particular, special thanks are given to fabricators who have cooperated in supplying rates given in the appendices.

10. REFERENCES
1. HART, F.,W. HENN, H. SONTAG, Multi-Storey Buildings in Steel. 2nd Edition Ed B. Godfrey, University Press, Cambridge. 1985. 2. GIRARDIER, E.V. Design for stabilityof the industry. Structural Stability and Design, Kitipornchai, Hancock & Bradford (eds) 1995 Balkema, Rotterdam. 3. Australian Institute of Steel Construction (1992). Economical Structural Steelwork (Third Edition). 4. HOGAN,T.J. AND A. FIRKINS. (1986). Economical Design and Construction of Medium Rise Commercial Buildings using Structural Steel. Proceedings of the Pacific Structural Steel Conference. New Zealand Heavy Engineering Reasearch Association. Vol 1. pp 243-263. 5. FIRKINS, A. AND R. HEMPHILL (1990). Fabrication Cost of Structural Steelwork. Steel Construction Vol 24 No. 2, Australian Institute of Steel Construction. 6. WATSON, K.B. AND D.P. BUCHHORN (1992). A new approach to costing structural steelwork. Proceedings of the Third Pacific Structural Steel Conference, Japanese Society of Steel Construction. pp 437-444. 7. WATSON, K.B., S. DALLAS AND T. MAIN (1994). Costing of Structural Steelwork The Need for a New Approach. Preprints Of Papers Australasian Structural Engineering Conference 1994. The Institution of Engineers, Australia. Vol 2 pp 1039-1046. 8. MAIN. T., K.B. WATSON AND S. DALLAS (1995). A Rational Approach to Costing Steelwork. Construction Economics The Essential Management Tool. The Australian Institute of Building Surveyors 9. WATSON, K.B. AND S. DALLAS (1995). New Method of Costing Steelwork The Way to Economical Structures. Structural Steel: PSSC 95, 4th Pacific Structural Steel Conference. (N.E. Shanmugan & Y.S. Choo (eds)). Vol 1. pp 651-658.Pergamon. 10. TIZANI, W.M.K, G. DAVIES, D.A. NETHERCOT, AND D.A. SMITH (1994). Construction-led design of tubular trusses using a cost model: Knowledge acquisition and representation. Tubular Structures VI Proceedings Sixth International Symposium on Tubular Structures Melbourne Australia. (P. Grundy, P. A. Holgate & B.Wong (eds)). pp. 411-416. A.A Balkema, Rotterdam. 11. STANDARDS AUSTRALIA (1982). AS 1181-1982. Method of measurement of civil engineering works and associated building works. 12. THE INSTITUTE OF QUANTITY SURVEYORS AND MASTER BUILDERS CONSTRUCTION AND HOUSING ASSOCIATION. Standard Method of

Measurement (SMM5). 13. CORDELL BUILDING INFORMATION SERVICES. Cordell Building Cost Guide, Commercial & Industrial (1996) Vol 26 No. 1. 14. RAWLINSONS (1996). Australian Construction Handbook. (The Rawlinson Group (ed)) 15. POULOS, J.(1993). Costing of Fabricated Structural Steelwork De-Mystified. Notes from AISC Technical Evening Melbourne. 16. BHP STEEL. (1994). Hot Rolled and Structural Steel Products. BHP Steel. 17. STANDARDS AUSTRALIA (1996). AS2327.1 Composite construction in structural steel and concrete Simply supported beams. 18. BENNETTS, I.D. AND I.R. THOMAS (1994). Developments in the Design of Buildings for Fire Safety. Preprints Of Papers Australasian Structural Engineering Conference 1994. The Institution of Engineers, Australia. Vol 2 pp 640. 19. RAPATTONI, F. (1996). Steel Road Bridges New Developments and Future Trends. The National Conference of the Institution of Engineers. 20. HAYWOOD, A.C.G. Composite Steel Highway Bridges. British Steel General Steels. 21. PERERA, M.K.M. and D.W. Bennett, Probablistic Regression Models for Construction Cost and Time. Australian Civil Engineering Transactions, The Institution of Engineers, Australia, Vol. 35 No. 2 June 1993, pp171-177. 22. AUSTRALIAN INSTITUTE OF STEEL CONSTRUCTION (1994). Design Capacity Tables for Structural Steel, Vol 1: Open Sections (Second Edition). 23. AUSTRALIAN INSTITUTE OF STEEL CONSTRUCTION (1992). Design Capacity Tables for Structural Steel Hollow Sections. 24. PATRICK, M., P.H. DAYAWANSA, I. EADIE, K.B. WATSON AND N. VAN DER KREEK (1993).Australian Composite Structures Standard AS2327, Part 1: Simply Supported Beams. Steel Construction Vol 29 No. 4, Australian Institute of Steel Construction. 25. WOOLCOCK, S.T., S. KITIPORNCHAI, M.A. BRADFORD (1993). Limit State Design of Portal Frame Buildings. 2nd Edition. Australian Institute of Steel Construction. 26. KITIPORNCHAI, S., L.W. BLINCO, S.E. GRUMMIT (1991). Portal Frame Design Charts. First Edition. Australian Institute of Steel Construction. 27. AUSTRALIAN INSTITUTE OF STEEL CONSTRUCTION VICTORIAN FABRICATOR SUB COMMITTEE.(1996) Proposed Revision to SMM5. 28. AUSTRALIAN INSTITUTE OF STEEL CONSTRUCTION (1985). Standardized Structural Connection (Third Edition).

STEEL CONSTRUCTION VOLUME 30 NUMBER 2, JUNE 1996

APPENDIX A1: STEEL SUPPLY COST General Notes:


1) The rates given include distributors and fabricators margins but do not include an allowance for wastage. Typically, wastage allowance varies between 2 - 5 %. 2) The base grade of hot rolled steel and welded sections is readily available ex-stock from distributors. Higher grade steel must be specifically ordered (typical lead time 8 weeks) and is subject to minimum order quantities. For standard lengths and widths refer to Appendix B. Subject to minimum order quantities and lead times, steel may be ordered to a specific length. This can be useful when the wastage would otherwise be high. 3) Hollow Sections are readily available ex stock from distributors. Non standard lengths must be specifically ordered (typical lead time 5 weeks). For standard lengths and widths refer to Appendix B. 4) Purlins & Girts are readily available cut to specified length. Coating Class Z450 is subject to minimum order quantities.

TABLE A1.1 UNIVERSAL BEAMS & WELDED BEAMS


SECTION kg/m 150 UB 14.0 18.0 180 UB 16.1 18.1 22.2 200 UB 18.2 22.3 25.4 29.8 250 UB 25.7 31.4 37.3 310 UB 32.0 40.4 46.2 GRADE 300 $/m 14 19 16 18 23 19 23 26 31 28 35 41 36 46 52 350 $/m 15 20 17 20 24 20 25 28 33 30 37 44 38 49 56 SECTION kg/m 360 UB 44.7 50.7 56.7 410 UB 53.7 59.7 460 UB 67.1 74.6 82.1 530 UB 82.0 92.4 610 UB 101 113 125 GRADE 300 $/m 51 58 65 62 68 75 84 92 92 104 120 134 148 350 $/m 54 62 69 65 72 80 89 98 98 110 127 142 157 SECTION kg/m 700 WB 115 130 150 173 800 WB 122 146 168 192 900 WB 175 218 257 282 GRADE 300 $/m 159 179 207 239 168 202 232 265 242 301 355 389 400 $/m 168 190 219 253 178 213 245 280 256 318 375 412 SECTION kg/m 1000 WB 215 258 296 322 1200 WB 249 278 317 342 392 423 455 GRADE 300 $/m 297 356 409 445 344 384 438 472 541 584 628 400 $/m 314 377 432 470 364 406 463 499 573 618 665

TABLE A1.2 UNIVERSAL COLUMNS AND WELDED COLUMNS


SECTION kg/m 100 UC 14.8 150 UC 23.4 30.0 37.2 200 UC 46.2 52.2 59.5 250 UC 72.9 89.5 GRADE 300 $/m 19 27 35 43 54 61 70 86 105 350 $/m 20 29 37 46 57 65 74 91 111 SECTION kg/m 310 UC 96.8 118 137 158 GRADE 300 $/m 118 144 168 193 350 $/m 125 152 176 204 SECTION kg/m 350 WC 197 230 258 280 400 WC 144 181 212 270 303 328 361 GRADE 300 $/m 272 318 356 387 199 250 293 373 418 453 498 400 $/m 288 336 377 409 210 264 310 394 443 479 527 SECTION kg/m 500 WC 228 267 290 340 383 414 440 GRADE 300 $/m 315 369 400 469 529 572 607 400 $/m 333 390 424 497 559 605 643

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STEEL CONSTRUCTION VOLUME 30 NUMBER 2, JUNE 1996

APPENDIX A1: STEEL SUPPLY COST (CONTD)


TABLE A1.3 TAPER FLANGE CHANNELS & PARALLEL FLANGE CHANNELS
SECTION GRADE 250 $/m 75 TFC 100 TFC 125 TFC 7 9 13 350 $/m 7 10 14 150 PFC 180 PFC 200 PFC 230 PFC SECTION GRADE 300 $/m 18 23 25 28 350 $/m 19 24 27 29 250 PFC 300 PFC 380 PFC SECTION GRADE 300 $/m 39 45 62 350 $/m 41 48 66

TABLE A1.4 TAPER FLANGE BEAMS


SECTION GRADE 250 $/m 100 TFB 8 350 $/m 8 125 TFB SECTION GRADE 250 $/m 14 350 $/m 14

TABLE A1.5 EQUAL ANGLES


SECTION GRADE 250 $/m 25x25x3 5 6 30x30x3 5 6 40x40x3 5 6 45x45x3 5 6 EA EA EA EA EA EA EA EA EA EA EA EA 1.1 1.6 2.0 1.3 1.9 2.5 1.8 2.6 3.4 2.0 3.0 3.8 350 $/m 1.1 1.7 2.1 1.4 2.0 2.6 1.9 2.8 3.5 2.1 3.1 4.0 50x50x3 5 6 8 55x55x5 6 65x65x5 6 8 10 75x75x5 6 8 10 EA EA EA EA EA EA EA EA EA EA EA EA EA EA SECTION GRADE 250 $/m 2.2 3.3 4.3 5.4 3.7 4.7 4.4 5.6 7.2 8.7 5.1 6.5 8.4 10.1 350 $/m 2.3 3.5 4.5 5.7 3.9 5.0 4.6 5.9 7.6 9.1 5.3 6.9 8.8 10.6 90x90x6 8 10 100x100x6 8 10 12 EA EA EA EA EA EA EA SECTION GRADE 250 $/m 7.9 10.2 12.2 8.8 11.3 13.6 17.0 350 $/m 8.3 10.7 12.9 9.3 11.9 14.4 17.9 125x125x8 10 12 16 150x150x10 12 16 19 200x200x13 16 18 20 26 EA EA EA EA EA EA EA EA EA EA EA EA EA SECTION GRADE 300 $/m 16.0 19.4 24.2 31.3 23.3 29.1 37.7 44.8 48.0 58.4 65.2 72.1 92.1 350 $/m 17.0 20.6 25.7 33.3 24.8 30.9 40.1 47.7 50.6 61.6 68.8 76.0 97.2

TABLE A1.6 UNEQUAL ANGLES


SECTION GRADE 250 $/m 65x50x5 UA 6 UA 8 UA 75x50x5 UA 6 UA 8 UA 4.0 5.1 6.6 4.4 5.6 7.2 350 $/m 4.2 5.4 6.9 4.6 5.9 7.6 100x75x6 8 10 125x75x6 8 10 12 UA UA UA UA UA UA UA SECTION GRADE 250 $/m 7.9 10.2 12.3 9.1 11.7 14.1 17.6 350 $/m 8.4 10.8 13.0 9.6 12.3 14.9 18.5 150x90x8 10 12 16 150x100x10 12 UA UA UA UA UA UA SECTION GRADE 300 $/m 15.6 18.8 23.5 30.4 18.7 23.4 350 $/m 16.5 20.0 25.0 32.2 20.0 25.0

STEEL CONSTRUCTION VOLUME 30 NUMBER 2, JUNE 1996

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APPENDIX A1: STEEL SUPPLY COST (CONTD)


TABLE A1.7 FLATS
WIDTH x THICKNESS mm x mm 50x3 5 6 8 10 12 16 20 25 65x3 5 6 8 10 12 16 20 GRADE 250 $/m 1.3 2.1 2.5 3.3 3.9 4.7 6.2 7.8 9.8 1.8 2.7 3.2 4.3 5.1 6.1 8.1 10.1 350 $/m 1.4 2.2 2.6 3.5 4.1 4.9 6.6 8.2 10.3 1.9 2.8 3.4 4.5 5.3 6.4 8.5 10.7 WIDTH x THICKNESS mm x mm 75x5 6 8 10 12 16 20 25 40 90x5 6 8 10 12 100x5 6 8 10 12 16 20 25 50 GRADE 250 $/m 3.1 3.7 4.7 5.9 7.0 9.4 11.7 14.6 26.2 3.9 4.5 5.6 7.0 8.4 4.4 5.0 6.2 7.8 9.4 12.5 15.6 19.5 43.7 350 $/m 3.2 3.9 4.9 6.2 7.4 9.9 12.3 15.4 27.4 4.1 4.7 5.9 7.4 8.9 4.6 5.2 6.6 8.2 9.9 13.2 16.4 20.5 45.6 WIDTH x THICKNESS mm x mm 110x5 6 8 10 12 130x5 6 8 10 12 16 20 25 150x5 6 8 10 12 16 20 25 50 GRADE 250 $/m 4.8 5.8 7.7 9.6 11.6 5.4 6.4 8.6 10.1 12.1 16.2 20.3 28.3 6.2 7.4 9.4 11.7 14.0 18.7 23.5 29.2 65.5 350 $/m 5.0 6.0 8.0 10.0 12.1 5.6 6.8 9.0 10.7 12.8 17.1 21.3 29.6 6.5 7.8 9.9 12.3 14.8 19.7 24.7 30.8 68.4 WIDTH x THICKNESS mm x mm 180x5 6 10 12 20 200x6 8 10 12 16 20 25 250x5 6 8 10 12 300x5 6 8 10 12 GRADE 250 $/m 7.4 8.9 14.0 16.9 31.5 9.9 13.3 15.6 18.7 25.0 31.2 39.1 10.3 12.4 16.5 20.6 24.9 12.4 14.8 19.8 24.9 29.8 350 $/m 7.8 9.4 14.8 17.8 32.9 10.4 13.9 16.4 19.7 26.3 32.9 41.1 10.8 13.0 17.3 21.6 26.1 13.0 15.6 20.8 26.1 31.2

TABLE A1.8 PLATE


THICKNESS mm 5 6 8 10 12 16 20 GRADE 250 $/sqm 42 50 63 77 92 123 153 350 $/sqm 43 50 64 82 98 131 163 THICKNESS mm 25 28 32 36 40 45 50 GRADE 250 $/sqm 191 221 254 284 317 355 396 350 $/sqm 204 235 270 302 337 378 421 THICKNESS mm 55 60 70 80 90 100 GRADE 250 $/sqm 434 475 596 681 766 851 350 $/sqm 497 543 674 771 869 966

Note: Extra for Prime Plate (Abrasive Clean 2 sides and Prime 2 sides) $3.90/sqm

TABLE A1.9 GRADE L15 PLATE


THICKNESS mm GRADE 250L15 350L15 $/sqm $/sqm THICKNESS mm 25 28 32 36 40 45 50 GRADE 250L15 350L15 $/sqm $/sqm 194 224 257 288 320 392 436 210 241 277 336 374 420 468 THICKNESS mm 55 60 70 80 GRADE 250L15 350L15 $/sqm $/sqm 479 524 652 745 514 562 696 796

8 10 12 16 20

64 78 93 125 155

66 84 101 135 168

Note: Extra for Prime Plate (Abrasive Clean 2 sides and Prime 2 sides) $3.90/sqm

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APPENDIX A1: STEEL SUPPLY COST (CONTD)


TABLE A1.10 FLOOR PLATE
THICKNESS mm 6 8 GRADE 250 $/sqm 51 67 THICKNESS mm 10 12 GRADE 250 $/sqm 85 97

TABLE A1.11 CIRCULAR HOLLOW SECTIONS


SECTION GRADE C250L0 $/m 13.5x2.3 2.9 17.2x2.3 2.9 21.3x2.6 3.2 3.6 26.9x2.6 3.2 4.0 CHS CHS CHS CHS CHS CHS CHS CHS CHS CHS 3.6 4.9 4.0 5.3 2.3 3.2 4.7 2.3 3.4 6.0 33.7x3.2 4.0 4.5 42.4x3.2 4.0 4.9 48.3x3.2 4.0 5.4 60.3x3.6 4.5 5.4 CHS CHS CHS CHS CHS CHS CHS CHS CHS CHS CHS CHS SECTION GRADE C250L0 $/m 3.1 4.3 8.0 3.8 5.5 15.0 4.4 5.7 9.1 6.4 8.5 10.8 76.1x3.6 4.5 5.9 88.9x4.0 5.0 5.9 101.6x4.0 5.0 114.3x4.5 5.4 CHS CHS CHS CHS CHS CHS CHS CHS CHS CHS SECTION GRADE C250L0 $/m 8.5 11.5 17.4 11.0 14.1 21.4 15.0 19.7 16.0 22.8 139.7x5.0 5.4 165.1x5.0 5.4 508.0x6.4 9.5 12.7 610.0x6.4 9.5 12.7 CHS CHS CHS CHS CHS CHS CHS CHS CHS CHS SECTION GRADE C250L0 $/m 22.5 28.3 26.5 33.2 116 171 226 142 210 278

TABLE A1.12 CIRCULAR HOLLOW SECTIONS


SECTION GRADE C350L0 $/m 21.3x2.0 26.9x2.0 2.3 33.7x2.0 2.6 42.4x2.0 2.6 48.3x2.3 2.9 60.3x2.3 2.9 CHS CHS CHS CHS CHS CHS CHS CHS CHS CHS CHS 2.2 2.3 2.6 2.6 3.3 3.4 4.4 4.1 5.1 4.6 5.8 76.1x3.2 88.9x3.2 5.5 114.3x4.8 6.0 168.3x4.8 6.4 7.1 219.1x4.8 6.4 8.2 CHS CHS CHS CHS CHS CHS CHS CHS CHS CHS CHS SECTION GRADE C350L0 $/m 9.1 11.3 12.8 13.3 16.4 22.9 28.4 31.3 30.6 37.5 48.0 273.1x4.8 6.4 9.3 323.9x6.4 9.5 12.7 355.6x6.4 9.5 12.7 CHS CHS CHS CHS CHS CHS CHS CHS CHS SECTION GRADE C350L0 $/m 39.4 48.0 68.3 58.8 84.4 114 64.8 92.3 125 406.4x6.4 9.5 12.7 457.0x6.4 9.5 12.7 CHS CHS CHS CHS CHS CHS SECTION GRADE C350L0 $/m 66.1 109 148 87.5 117 125

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APPENDIX A1: STEEL SUPPLY COST (CONTD)


TABLE A1.13 SQUARE HOLLOW SECTIONS
SECTION GRADE C350L0 C450L0 $/m $/m 20x20x1.6 SHS 25x25x1.6 SHS 2.0 SHS 2.5 SHS 30x30x1.6 SHS 2.0 SHS 35x35x1.6 SHS 2.0 SHS 2.5 SHS 3.0 SHS 40x40x1.6 SHS 2.0 SHS 2.5 SHS 3.0 SHS 4.0 SHS 1.3 1.7 2.3 2.7 2.2 2.7 2.9 3.3 3.3 4.2 3.3 3.4 3.7 4.7 6.2 1.3 1.7 2.3 2.8 2.2 2.8 3.0 3.4 3.4 4.3 3.4 3.5 3.8 4.8 6.4 50x50x1.6 SHS 2.0 SHS 2.5 SHS 3.0 SHS 4.0 SHS 5.0 SHS 65x65x2.0 SHS 2.5 SHS 3.0 SHS 4.0 SHS 5.0 SHS 6.0 SHS SECTION GRADE C350L0 C450L0 $/m $/m 3.6 4.5 4.5 5.2 6.6 9.8 6.7 6.5 7.2 9.9 12.6 15.8 3.7 4.6 4.6 5.4 6.8 10.1 6.9 6.7 7.4 10.2 13.0 16.2 75x75x2.5 SHS 3.0 SHS 3.5 SHS 4.0 SHS 5.0 SHS 6.0 SHS 100x100x3.0 SHS 4.0 SHS 5.0 SHS 6.0 SHS 9.0 SHS SECTION GRADE C350L0 C450L0 $/m $/m 7.4 7.6 9.4 9.4 11.1 16.2 10.2 12.8 14.6 18.7 46.6 7.6 7.9 9.7 9.7 11.5 16.7 10.5 13.2 15.0 19.3 89x89x3.5 SHS 5.0 SHS 6.0 SHS 125x125x4.0 SHS 5.0 SHS 6.0 SHS 9.0 SHS 150x150x5.0 SHS 6.0 SHS 9.0 SHS 200x200x5.0 SHS 6.0 SHS 9.0 SHS 250x250x6.0 SHS 9.0 SHS SECTION GRADE C350L0 $/m 13.6 15.3 19.5 20.5 24.2 31.2 57.1 32.3 40.8 60.9 40.5 51.3 79.0 63.0 97.8

TABLE A1.14 RECTANGULAR HOLLOW SECTIONS


SECTION GRADE C350L0 C450L0 $/m $/m 50x20x1.6 RHS 2.0 RHS 2.5 RHS 3.0 RHS 50x25x1.6 RHS 2.0 RHS 2.5 RHS 3.0 RHS 65x35x2.0 RHS 2.5 RHS 3.0 RHS 3.2 3.5 4.0 4.7 3.3 3.7 4.0 4.9 5.0 4.7 5.8 3.3 3.6 4.1 4.9 3.4 3.8 4.1 5.0 5.1 4.9 6.0 75x25x1.6 RHS 2.0 RHS 2.5 RHS 75x50x2.0 RHS 2.5 RHS 3.0 RHS 4.0 RHS 5.0 RHS 6.0 RHS 100x50x2.0 RHS 2.5 RHS 3.0 RHS SECTION GRADE C350L0 C450L0 $/m $/m 4.6 5.5 5.5 6.4 6.1 6.6 9.0 11.8 15.0 7.1 7.0 7.4 4.7 5.7 5.7 6.5 6.3 6.8 9.2 12.1 15.5 7.3 7.2 7.6 100x50x3.5 RHS 4.0 RHS 5.0 RHS 6.0 RHS 125x75x3.0 RHS 4.0 RHS 5.0 RHS 6.0 RHS 150x50x3.0 RHS 4.0 RHS 5.0 RHS SECTION GRADE C350L0 C450L0 $/m $/m 9.4 9.7 11.8 16.6 11.0 13.9 15.4 20.8 10.2 14.6 15.4 9.7 10.0 12.1 17.1 11.4 14.3 15.9 21.5 10.5 15.1 15.9 150x100x4.0 RHS 5.0 RHS 6.0 RHS 200x100x4.0 RHS 5.0 RHS 6.0 RHS 9.0 RHS 250x150x5.0 RHS 6.0 RHS 9.0 RHS SECTION GRADE C350L0 $/m 20.5 23.6 30.7 24.2 32.3 37.7 60.9 41.6 48.6 79.0

TABLE A1.15 PURLINS & GIRTS


SECTION Z or C Z or C Z or C Z or C 10010 10012 10015 10019 $/m 3.5 3.9 4.3 5.1 SECTION Z or C Z or C Z or C Z or C 15012 15015 15019 15024 $/m 5.2 5.7 6.9 8.4 SECTION Z or C Z or C Z or C Z or C Z or C 20015 20019 20024 25019 25024 $/m 6.9 8.5 10.5 10.2 12.7 SECTION Z or C 30024 Z or C 30030 Z or C 35030 $/m 23.7 29.8 35.0

Note: Coating Class Z200 is used for all section sizes Cost of Bridging $6.05/m Cost of Fascia Purlin BZ350 $21.80/m

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STEEL CONSTRUCTION VOLUME 30 NUMBER 2, JUNE 1996

APPENDIX A1: STEEL SUPPLY COST (CONTD)


TABLE A1.16 STRUCTURAL STEEL DECKING
Base Metal Thickness (BMT) mm 0.60 0.75 1.00 Note: Cost of Edgeform $5/m $/sqm 17.3 20.0 25.0

TABLE A1.17 SHEAR STUDS


Size mm 19dia. x 100 22dia. x 130 $/Stud 1.8 3.0

TABLE A1.18 COLORBOND SANDWICH PANELS


Panel Thickness mm 150 Cost $/sqm 53

Supply includes sealants, etc.

TABLE A1.19 ROOFING & WALLING PROFILES


Base Metal Thickness mm Colorbond Colorbond Zincalume Zincalume Product Names 0.42 0.48 0.42 0.48 Generic Profile Names Sinusoidal $/sqm 10.2 12.4 7.1 8.9 Custon Orb Corrugated Trapezoidal $/sqm 10.2 12.4 7.1 8.9 Trimdek Monoclad Continous Trapezoidal $/sqm 11.7 12.9 8.3 9.7 Spandek Longspan

TABLE A1.20 ROUNDS


Diameter mm 12 16 20 24 30 36 Grade 250 $/m 0.9 1.6 2.4 3.5 4.5 5.5

TABLE A1.21 METRIC COMMERCIAL BOLT (Grade 4.6), NUT & WASHER ASSEMBLY GALVANISED
Diameter Length (mm) 30 50 100 150 300 400 500 M12 $/Assembly 0.35 M16 $/Assembly 0.5 0.6 1.0 1.5 2.0 3.0 3.5 M20 $/Assembly 1.0 1.8 2.5 4.5 5.2 6.5 M24 $/Assembly 2.6 3.3 4.3 6.4 7.6 9.0 M30 $/Assembly 8.0 9.0 11.7 -

TABLE A1.22 HIGH STRENGTH STRUCTURAL BOLT (Grade 8.8), NUT & WASHER ASSEMBLY GALVANISED
Diameter Length (mm) 50 100 150 M16 $/Assembly 1.2 2.0 M20 $/Assembly 1.5 2.3 3.5 M24 $/Assembly 2.7 4.0 6.2 M30 $/Assembly 8.4 11.0 M36 $/Assembly 15.7 17.3

STEEL CONSTRUCTION VOLUME 30 NUMBER 2, JUNE 1996

15

APPENDIX A2.1: FABRICATION CONNECTION COSTS General Notes:


1) All costs given in Appendix A2.1 are based on an hourly rate of $40 which includes overheads, consumables and fabricators margin for medium sized steel projects. (Greater than a $150,000 steel contract for supply, fab. & erect). 2) These costs do not include material supply costs. Refer to Appendix A1 for details. 3) CFW: Continuous Fillet Weld CPBW: Complete Penetration Butt Weld

Hourly Rate $40/hr


TABLE A2.1.1 CONNECTIONS COSTS
Connections Section mass (kg/m) <60.5 60.6 to 160 160.1 to 455 Diagram Web Side Plate Hours 0.8 1.6 3.0 $ 32 64 120 Flexible End Plate Hours 1.0 1.8 3.3 $ 40 72 132 Moment Haunch Hours 6.2 9.5 11.4 $ 248 380 456 Moment Hours 1.6 2.7 5.4 $ 64 108 216 Base Plate Hours 1.5 2.0 3.0 $ 60 80 120

Comments

Cut beam & WSP drill/punch holes CFW to WSP *

Cut beam & FEP drill/punch holes CFW to FEP *

Doubler plate (200x100x16mm) extra $20ea Cut haunch, beam & end plate, drill/punch holes & weld CPBW to Flange & CFW to Web*

Cut, beam & plate drill & weld CFW*

*Note: For further details refer AISC (28)

TABLE A2.1.2 SPLICE CONNECTIONS COSTS


Connections Section mass (kg/m) <60.5 60.6 to 160 160.1 to 455 Diagram 50% Moment Capacity Splice Welded/Bolted Hours 2.5 6.3 12.3 $ 100 252 492 Fully Bolted Hours 3.0 8.3 15.8 $ 120 332 632 100% Moment Capacity Splice Welded/Bolted Hours 3.8 9.0 17.8 $ 152 360 712 Fully Bolted Hours 4.3 11.0 23.8 $ 172 440 952 Hours 1.1 2.4 3.5 $ 44 96 140 Web Splice Plate

Comments

Cut plates & beams, drill/punch holes Web Splice Plate each side. CFW weld for welded/bolted

Cut plates & beams, drill/punch holes Web Splice Plate each side.

Cut plate & beam drill/punch holes. Single web Splice Plate.

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STEEL CONSTRUCTION VOLUME 30 NUMBER 2, JUNE 1996

APPENDIX A2.1: FABRICATION CONNECTION COSTS (CONT)


TABLE A2.1.3 NOTCH END OF BEAM AND COPE COSTS
Section mass (kg/m) <60.5 60.6 to 160 160.1 to 455 Diagram Notch End of Beam Un-Stiffened Hours 0.8 1.4 2.3 $ 32 56 92 Stiffened Hours 2.5 4.1 7.9 $ 100 164 316 Hours 0.3 0.4 0.7 $ 12 16 28 Cope

Comments

Cut notch & beam

Cut notch & beam, stiffener slot & weld CFW

Cut cope only

TABLE A2.1.4 HOLLOW SECTIONS END-CONNECTIONS COSTS


Section mass kg/m < 15 15.1 to 30 30.1 to 60.5 60.6 to 160 Diagram Flattened Hours 0.7 1.0 $ 28 40 Welded T Hours 1.1 1.5 1.8 2.0 $ 44 60 72 80 Slotted End Plate Hours 1.3 2.2 3.4 4.5 $ 52 88 136 180 Capped as a Wedge and Slotted Hours 2.0 3.8 5.5 7.3 $ 80 152 220 292 Gusset Slotted Through Hours 1.3 2.4 3.7 5.1 $ 52 96 148 204

Comments

Cut Section & Press

Cut Section and Cut & CFW weld T

Cut Section & Plate, Slot & CFW weld

Cut Section & Slot & CFW weld

Cut Gusset & Slot & CFW weld

TABLE 2.1.5 BRACING CONNECTION COSTS


Connections Section mass (kg/m) < 60.5 60.6 to 160 Diagram Universal Columns Welded to Slotted Gussets Hours 2.0 5.1 $ 80 204 Connections Section mass (kg/m) < 30 30.1 to 60.5 60.6 to 120 Diagram Equal Angles Bolted to Gussets Hours 0.9 1.3 1.8 $ 36 52 72

Comments

Cut bracing member & Gusset CPBW web to gusset & CFW flanges to gusset CFW gusset to other members

Comments

Cut bracing member & Gusset Drill/Punch holes CFW gusset to other members

STEEL CONSTRUCTION VOLUME 30 NUMBER 2, JUNE 1996

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APPENDIX A2.2: FABRICATION WORK ALONG A MEMBER COSTS General Notes:


1) All costs given in Appendix A2.2 are based on an hourly rate of $40 which includes overheads, consumables and fabricators margin for medium sized steel projects. (Greater than a $150,000 steel contract for supply, fab. & erect). 2) These costs do not include material supply costs. Refer to Appendix A1 for details. 3) CFW: Continuous Fillet Weld CPBW: Complete Penetration Weld

Hourly Rate $40/hr


TABLE A2.2.1 TRUSS WEB MEMBER FABRICATION COSTS
Section mass kg/m < 30 30.1 to 60.5 60.6 to 120 Diagram Hours per web member per joint for cutting, handling, assembly & welding. Angles Hours 0.4 0.7 $ 16 28 RHS/SHS Hours 0.5 1.0 $ 20 40 CHS - Gusset Plate Hours 1.8 3.0 4.2 $ 72 120 168 CHS Profiled Hours 1.6 2.9 3.3 $ 64 116 132 I- Sections Hours 1.4 2.8 4.0 $ 56 112 160

Note: All rates given above are for non overlap except for CHS Profiled joints and may include stiffeners which are added to above costs. Extra for overlap joints 10%. Weld CFW except for the flanges of I-Sections are CPBW in the 60.1 - 120kg/m range only.

TABLE A2.2.2 STIFFENERS FABRICATION COSTS


Stiffeners Section mass (kg/m) <60.5 60.6 to 160 160.1 to 455 Diagram Fitted Stiffener - Butt welded ends Hours 1.4 2.7 4.1 $ 56 108 164 Fitted Stiffener - Fillet welded Hours 1.1 1.6 3.0 $ 44 64 120 Curtailed Stiffener - Both ends Hours 0.7 1.1 1.6 $ 28 44 64 Curtailed Stiffener - Single end Hours 0.8 1.2 1.7 $ 32 48 68

Comments

Cut & weld Flange CPBW* / Web CFW

Cut & weld Flange / Web CFW

Cut & weld Web CFW

Cut & weld Flange / Web CFW

*Note: CPBW costs are based on 10mm thick stiffener. For thicker stiffeners refer to Table A2.3.3 for additional welding costs. CFW are based on 6mm CFW.

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STEEL CONSTRUCTION VOLUME 30 NUMBER 2, JUNE 1996

APPENDIX A2.2: FABRICATION WORK ALONG A MEMBER COSTS (CONTD)


TABLE A2.2.3 PENETRATIONS FABRICATION COSTS
Penetrations Section mass (kg/m) <60.5 60.6 to 160 160.1 to 455 Diagram Circular Hours 0.4 0.5 0.7 $ 16 20 28 Unreinforced Rectangular Hours 0.7 0.8 1.2 $ 28 32 48 Rectangular Hours 2.0 2.4 3.7 $ 80 96 148 Reinforced Rectangular Hours 3.4 4.1 6.1 $ 136 164 244 Rectangular Hours 4.2 5.7 8.5 $ 168 228 340

Note: CFW all around stiffeners

TABLE A2.2.4 THREE PLATE GIRDER FABRICATION COSTS


Section mass kg/m 315 to 455 455.1 to 700 Hours/m 2.5 4.5 Cost $/m 100 180

TABLE A2.2.5 TUBULAR COLUMN FABRICATED COSTS


Dia x Plate Thickness mm 750x12 900x16 1200x20 1200x25 Hours hours/m 2.8 4.5 7.5 9.3 Cost $/m 110 180 300 370

Note: Stripping, handling, assembly, CFW to web/flanges Longitudinal butt welds if required, refer Table A2.3.2 & A2.3.3.

TABLE A2.2.6 CAMBER COSTS


Section mass kg/m <60.5 60.6 to 160 160.1 to 455 Hours/ beam 1.5 2.0 8.0

Note: For lengths up to 12m CPBW used on plate preparation For splice welding of lengths, refer to A2.3.3 for additional costs.

$ 60 80 320

TABLE A2.2.7 PURLIN CLEAT & FLY BRACING CLEAT COSTS


Item Purlin cleat Fly bracing cleat Comments Hours 0.25 0.25 $ 10 10

Note: Camber achieved by Heating or Pressing. For heaviour sections ie. >160.1kg/m, it is generally more economical to profile cut the web.

Cut, drill & weld

TABLE A2.2.8 COVER PLATE


Section mass kg/m <60.5 60.6 to 160 160.1 to 455 Diagram Weld Each Side Hours/m 0.8 1.0 1.1 $/m 32 40 44

Comments

Weld CFW to each side of cover plate

STEEL CONSTRUCTION VOLUME 30 NUMBER 2, JUNE 1996

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APPENDIX A2.3: FABRICATION ELEMENT COST General Notes:


This Appendix has been provided to assist with costing connections or details not otherwise covered in Appendices A2.1 and A2.2 (Connection Costs and Work Along a Member). Costs contained in those Appendices already include (where appropriate) costs provided in this Appendix. Visual inspection of welds is included however ultrasonic weld inspection is extra.

TABLE A2.3.1 CONTINUOUS FILLET WELDS


Leg size tw mm 6 8 10 12 15 See note below GP Weld Short Length Weld 250mm Hours/m 0.3 0.6 0.9 1.2 1.8 $/m 12 24 36 48 72 Long Length Weld >250mm Hours/m 0.2 0.4 0.7 0.9 1.4 $/m 8 16 28 36 56 SP Weld Short Length Weld 250mm Hours/m 0.3 0.7 1.0 1.3 2.0 $/m 12 28 40 52 80 Long Length Weld >250mm Hours/m 0.25 0.50 0.75 1.00 1.50 $/m 10 20 30 40 60

TABLE A2.3.2 INCOMPLETE PENETRATION BUTT WELDS


Plate thick. (t) mm 20 25 28 32 40 45 50 See note below Single V Short Length Weld 250mm Hours/m 2.9 3.5 4.4 5.0 6.5 7.6 9.1 $/m 116 140 176 198 260 304 364 Long Length Weld >250mm Hours/m 2.1 2.5 3.2 3.5 4.5 5.4 6.4 $/m 84 100 128 140 180 216 256 Double V Short Length Weld 250mm Hours/m 3.4 4.2 5.1 5.4 6.6 7.5 8.3 $/m 136 168 204 216 264 300 332 Long Length Weld >250mm Hours/m 2.6 3.3 3.9 4.1 4.9 5.5 6.2 $/m 104 132 156 164 196 220 248

TABLE A2.3.3 COMPLETE PENETRATION BUTT WELDS


Plate thick. (t) mm 12 16 20 25 28 32 40 45 50 See note below Notes for Tables A2.3.1, A2.3.2 & A2.3.3 Multiplying factors to above costs, depending on access: Site welding: 1.3 Overhead welding: 1.5 Vertically welding: 1.2 IPBW depth of penetration is 0.5t Grinding welds flush = 0.4hrs/m = $16/m Note: Edge Preparation is included within the price. LEGEND CFW: CPBW: IPBW: GP: SP: Single V Short Length Weld 250mm Hours/m 1.7 2.9 3.5 5.6 7.1 9.2 13.4 16.0 19.9 $/m 68 116 140 224 284 366 536 640 796 Long Length Weld >250mm Hours/m 1.3 2.1 2.5 4.0 5.0 6.4 9.2 11.0 13.6 $/m 52 84 100 160 200 256 368 440 544 Double V Short Length Weld 250mm Hours/m 1.9 3.1 4.0 5.1 6.0 7.2 9.6 11.1 13.7 $/m 76 124 160 204 240 288 384 442 548 Long Length Weld >250mm Hours/m 1.6 2.4 3.0 3.9 4.5 5.3 6.9 8.0 9.8 $/m 64 96 120 156 180 212 276 318 392

Continuous Fillet Weld Complete Penetration Butt Weld Incomplete Penetration Butt Weld (50% Penetration) General Purpose Structural Purpose

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STEEL CONSTRUCTION VOLUME 30 NUMBER 2, JUNE 1996

APPENDIX A2.3: FABRICATION ELEMENT COST (CONTD)


TABLE A2.3.4 CAST IN PLATE
Plate size mm 300x200x12 300x200x20 Diagram hours 1.5 1.8 $ 60 72

TABLE A2.3.5 SPLIT T


Section Range kg/m < 93 93.1 to 282 Comments Split T Hours/m 0.15 0.10 $/m 6 4

Split T from sections by supplier & fabricator

Cut & weld 4 to 6 deformed bars Angle seat (150x19EA) & stiffener (130x16Pl) Cut & weld $32 extra.

TABLE A2.3.6 SECTION END CUTS


Sections mass (kg/m) <60.5 60.6 to 160 160.1 to 455 Diagram Square Hours/Cut 0.25 0.65 0.90 $/Cut 10 26 36 Single mitre Hours/Cut 0.40 0.95 1.30 $/Cut 16 38 52 End Cut Parallel mitre Hours/Cut 0.30 0.75 1.05 $/Cut 12 30 42 Double mitre unequal Hours/Cut 0.90 2.20 3.05 $/Cut 36 88 122

TABLE A2.3.7 STRIPPING, CROPPING, CUT TO SHAPE & BEVEL CUT


PLATE THICKNESS mm 6 to 10 12 to 20 25 to 28 32 to 50 60 to 80 90 to 100 Comments STRIP PLATE Hours/m 0.10 0.13 0.18 0.20 0.23 0.28 Using 2 torches $/m 4 5 7 8 9 11 CROPPING FLATS Hours/crop 0.03 0.05 $/crop 1.2 2.0 CUT TO SHAPE Hours/m 0.20 0.25 0.33 0.58 0.88 1.25 Manual cut $/m 8 10 13 23 35 50 BEVEL CUT Hours/m 0.15 0.20 0.28 0.43 0.58 0.80 $/m 6 8 11 17 23 32

STEEL CONSTRUCTION VOLUME 30 NUMBER 2, JUNE 1996

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APPENDIX A2.3: FABRICATION ELEMENT COST (CONTD)


TABLE A2.3.8 DRILLING & PUNCHING HOLES
Plate Thickness mm <16.5 16.6 to 32 32.5 to 50 Punching Hours/unit 0.02 $/unit 0.8 Drilling Hours/unit 0.05 0.10 0.15 $/unit 2.0 4.0 6.0

TABLE A2.3.9 DRILLING & PUNCHING SLOTTED HOLES


Plate Thickness mm <16.5 16.6 to 32 32.5 to 50 Punching Hours/unit 0.02 $/unit 0.8 Drilling & Oxy Cutting Hours/unit 0.05 0.30 1.50 $/unit 2.0 12.0 60.0

TABLE A2.3.10 HANDLING & ASSEMBLY


Weight/unit kg <5 5 to 15 15.1 to 30 30.1 to 80 Cleats, Stiffeners, Gussets & Base plates Hours/Unit 0.13 0.25 0.50 0.75 $ 5 10 20 30

TABLE A2.3.11 BRACING WITH RODS


TYPE D-Bracket Turnbuckle Comment Hours/Unit 0.3 0.5 $ 12 20

D-Bracket (Slot hole) Turnbuckle ( weld rod to plate, cut & weld gusset plate, & drill 2 holes).

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STEEL CONSTRUCTION VOLUME 30 NUMBER 2, JUNE 1996

APPENDIX A2.4: DRAWING COSTS General Note:


1) All costs given in Appendix A2 allow fabricators margin for medium sized steel projects (greater than a $150,000 steel contract for supply, fabrication & erect).

Hourly Rate $40/hr


TABLE A2.4.1 INITIAL STEEL DETAILING COST
Shop Drawings Ratio of Fabrication Hours to Shop Drawing Hours Low Rise or Light Portal Frame Portal with mezzanine Complicated work or with variations Fabrication Hours 4 2.5 1 Shop Drawing Hours 1 1 3

TABLE A2.4.2 DETAILED STEEL DETAILING COSTS


Portal Frame Marking Plans: (see note) Shop Drawings: Haunch Member Column Member Repeated Member* Bracing Member -(Angle) -(Rod with D-bracket) Flybracing Mullion door & door head Hours/Drw 20 $/Drw 800 Multi Storey Frame Marking Plans: Floor Plan Repeated Floor Plan* Shop Drawings: Beam Member Column Member Repeated Member* Truss Hours/Drw 20 3 8 5 1.5 $/Drw 800 120 320 200 60 Marking Plans: (see note) Shop Drawings: Profiled CHS Non-profiled Hours/Drw $/Drw

10 5.0 1.5 1.5 0.4 0.7 2.6

400 200 60 60 16 28 104

17 9

680 360

Note: Above rates include checking of drawings * Drawings with minor changes Marking plans typically required:-Holding Down Bolts, Elevations, Roof & Floor Plans, Intersections & Purlin/Girts. ie. Portal Frame = 3 Drawings @ 15 Hours/Drg & Multi Storey Frame = (5 Drg + Floor Plans @ 15 Hours/Drg) Shop Drawings include connections

APPENDIX A2.5: TRANSPORT COSTS General Note:


1) Allow for twice the cost of transportation if surface treatment is applied at a premises other than the fabrication shop. Costs are based on a truck load of steel.

TABLE A2.5.1 TRANSPORTATION COSTS


Transport Section mass(kg/m) <60.5 60.6 to 160 160.1 to 455 Fab Shop To Paint Shop or Site $/member 15 56 225

STEEL CONSTRUCTION VOLUME 30 NUMBER 2, JUNE 1996

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APPENDIX A3: SURFACE TREATMENT COSTS General Note:


1) All costs given in Appendix A3 allow fabricators margin for medium sized steel projects. (Greater than a $150,000 steel contract for supply, fab. & erect).

TABLE A3.1 SURFACE TREATMENT COSTS


Section mass (kg/m) <60.5 60.6 to 160 160.1 to 455 Paint Types Alkyd Primer $/sqm 6 5 4 Alkyd Gloss $/sqm 6 5 4 ZnSi $/sqm 18 16 14 MIO/High Built Epoxy $/sqm 9 8 7 Acrylic Latex $/sqm 8 7 6 Hot Dip Galvanize $/sqm 17 23 33

Note: Alkyd Primer 50microns including hand or power clean, Class 1 Inorganic Zinc Silicate (ZnSi) 75 microns including abrasive blast, Class 2.5 blast. Alkyd Gloss 40microns; MIO 100 microns. For Double Dip Galvanizing, add 30% to above rates (typically required for lengths greater than 12m; check with local galvanizers).

TABLE A3.2 LOOSE CLEATS


Item weight (kg) 0-2.5 2.5-5 5-10 10-15 15-20 > 20 Hot Dip Gal. $/item 1.5 3.0 4.5 6.0 8.0 10 plus

TABLE A3.3 FABRICATED FRAMES OR TRUSSES


TYPE Painting Galvanizing

Multiplication factor to Table A3.1 Section size <50mm 2 Dimensional 3 Dimensional COMMENTS 2.0 2.0 If >50mm use Table A3.1 ALL 1.5 2.0

TABLE A3.4 PASSIVE FIRE PROTECTION COSTS


Section mass Intumescent Vermiculite Fire Rating Level 1 Hr (kg/m) <60.5 60.6 to 160 160.1 to 455 $/sqm 108 106 104 2 Hrs $/sqm 27 23 17 3 Hrs $/sqm 37 35 33

Note: Rates include supply & paint/spray Intumescent Paint inc. ZnSi Class 2.5 blast

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STEEL CONSTRUCTION VOLUME 30 NUMBER 2, JUNE 1996

APPENDIX A4: ERECTION COSTS General Note:


1) All costs given in Appendix A4 allow fabricators / erectors margin for medium sized steel projects (greater than a $150,000 steel contract for supply, fab & erect)

TABLE A4.1 ERECTION COSTS. Rates are for typical portal frames and multi storey buildings.
PLANT COST CRANE Unload & Erect 23 t $110/hr Section mass (kg/m) <60.5 60.6 to 160 160.1 to 455 Purlins Girts Minutes/ Member 20 20 24 7 3 $ per Member 37 37 44 13 6 Capacity 16 t $85/hr $ per Member 28 28 34 10 4 2 x Mobile Scaffolds 6m $4/hr $ per Member 3 3 3 1 0.4 ACCESS EQUIPMENT 2 x Scissor Lifts 6m $14/hr $ per Member 9 9 11 3 1 12m $30/hr $ per Member 20 20 24 7 3 2 x Booms 18m $50/hr $ per Member 33 33 40 12 5 $40/hr $ per Member 40 40 48 14 6 LABOUR COST

Note: Crane rates allow for 1 hour travel per day Full access of crane is assumed Rates allow for three erectors at all times Tightening of bolts is allowed in the rates as appropriate

TABLE A4.2 FIXING STEEL DECK


Base Metal Thickness mm All $/sqm 6

TABLE A4.5 FIXING ROOFING & WALLING PROFILES


Profiles All $/sqm 2.2

Note: Pierced Fixed (includes screws) Concealeded Fixed ($1.1/clip extra)

TABLE A4.3 EDGEFORM


Section depth mm 100 to 150 $/m 7

TABLE A4.6 COLORBOND SANDWICH PANELS


Panel Thickness mm 150 Cost $/sqm 27

Fixing includes Scaffolding, Crane, etc.

TABLE A4.4 WELDING SHEAR STUDS


Size 19mm dia. x 100mm 22mm dia. x 130mm $/Stud 0.90 1.00

STEEL CONSTRUCTION VOLUME 30 NUMBER 2, JUNE 1996

25

APPENDIX B1: STANDARD SECTION LENGTHS

SECTION 6.0 Universal Sections - AS/NZS 3679.1-300 150UB, 180UB, 100UC All other sections Welded Sections AS/NZS 3679.2-300 All sections Parallel Flange Channels - AS/NZS 3679.1-300 380PFC 300PFC 250PFC All other sections Taper Flange BeamsAS/NZS 3679.1-250 All sections Taper Flange Channels - AS/NZS3679.1-250 125TFC 100TFC 75TFC Equal Angles - AS/NZS3679.1-300 200x200EA 150x150EA 125x125EA Equal Angles AS/NZS3679.1-250 100x100EA 90x90EA 75x75EA All other equal angles Unequal AnglesAS/NZS 3679.1-300 150x100UA 150x90UA Unequal AnglesAS/NZS 3679.1-250 125x75UA 100x75UA 75x50UA 65x50UA Flats, Squares, RoundsAS/NZS 3679.1-250 All sections Circular Hollow Sections -AS1163 Grades 250L0 Grade 350L0 RHS/SHS AS1163 All sections 6.5 7.5 8.0

STANDARD LENGTHS (m) 9.0 10.5 12.0 13.5 15.0 16.5 18.0

Note: Other lengths are available subject to lead times and minimum order quantities.

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STEEL CONSTRUCTION VOLUME 30 NUMBER 2, JUNE 1996

APPENDIX B2: STANDARD PLATE LENGTHS (metres)


PLATE SIZE SCHEDULE - AS/NZS 3678 - GRADE 250
Width (mm) 1800 2400 3000 3200 Thickness (mm) 5 6 8 6 10 6 12 6 16 6 20 6 25 6 32 6 40 6 50 6 60 6 6 70 6 6 80 6 6 & 5.2 90 6 100 5.6 4

6&9 6&9 6&9 6&9 6&9 6&9 6&9 6&9 6&9 6&9 6&9 9 9 9 12 9 12 9 12 9 12 9 12 9 12

PLATE SIZE SCHEDULE - AS/NZS 3678 - GRADE 350


Width (mm) 2400 3100 Thickness (mm) 5 9.6 6 9.6 8 9.6 9.6 9.6 10 12 16 9.6 9.6 20 9.6 9.6 25 9.6 32 40 50 7.6 60 70 80 90 100

NOTE: Standard Plates should be ordered for quantities less than 10 tonnes (in any one thickness).

STEEL CONSTRUCTION VOLUME 30 NUMBER 2, JUNE 1996

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APPENDIX B3: NON STANDARD MAXIMUM PLATE LENGTHS (metres)


PLATE SIZE SCHEDULE : AS 3678 - SEE AVAILABILITY BELOW
Width (mm) 1200 1300 1400 1500 1600 1700 1800 1900 2000 2100 2200 2300 2400 2500 2600 2700 2800 2900 3000 3100 3200 3300 Preferred Thickness (mm) 5 6 8 10 12 16 20 25 28 32 36 40 45 50 55 60 70 10 9.0 8.6 8.8 8.5 9.0 9.3 8.8 8.4 8.0 7.6 7.2 6.9 6.6 6.4 6.1 5.9 5.7 5.5 5.3 5.1 5.0 80 8.7 7.8 7.5 7.6 7.4 7.8 8.1 7.7 7.3 6.9 6.6 6.3 6.0 5.8 5.5 5.3 5.1 4.9 4.8 4.6 4.4 4.3 90 7.7 6.8 6.6 6.7 6.4 6.8 7.1 6.7 6.4 6.0 5.7 5.5 5.2 5.0 4.8 4.6 4.4 4.3 4.1 4.0 3.8 3.7 100 6.9 6.1 5.9 6.0 5.6 6.1 6.3 6.0 5.7 5.5 5.1 4.9 4.7 4.5 4.3 4.1 3.9 3.8 3.7 3.5 3.4 3.3

18.3 18.3 Product supplied from Coil Plate 18.3 18.3 min length 2.4 18.3 18.3 max length 9.0 18.3 18.3

18.3 18.3 18.3 18.3 18.3 18.3 17.6 15.7 14.1 12.8 11.7 18.3 18.3 18.3 18.3 18.3 17.8 16.0 14.2 12.8 11.6 10.6 18.3 18.3 18.3 18.3 18.3 17.0 15.4 13.6 12.3 11.1 10.2 18.3 18.3 18.3 18.3 18.3 17.4 15.6 13.8 12.5 11.3 10.3

18.3 18.3 18.3 18.3 18.3 18.3 18.3 18.3 16.8 15.1 13.4 12.0 10.9 10.0 18.3 18.3 18.3 18.3 18.3 18.3 18.3 18.3 17.6 15.8 14.2 12.7 11.5 10.5 18.3 18.3 18.3 18.3 18.3 18.3 18.3 18.3 18.3 16.5 14.6 13.2 12.0 10.9 18.3 18.3 18.3 18.3 18.3 18.3 18.3 18.3 18.3 18.3 17.4 15.6 13.9 12.5 11.3 10.4 18.3 18.3 18.3 18.3 18.3 18.3 18.3 18.3 18.3 18.3 16.6 14.9 13.2 11.8 10.8 18.3 18.3 18.3 18.3 18.3 18.3 18.3 18.3 18.3 17.7 15.8 14.2 12.6 11.2 10.2 18.3 18.3 18.3 18.3 18.3 18.3 18.3 18.3 18.3 16.6 15.0 13.6 12.0 10.8 18.3 18.3 18.3 18.3 18.3 18.3 18.3 18.3 18.2 15.8 14.4 13.0 11.4 10.3 18.3 18.3 18.3 18.3 18.3 18.3 18.3 18.3 17.4 15.2 13.8 12.4 11.0 18.3 18.3 18.3 18.3 18.3 18.3 18.3 18.3 16.8 14.7 13.3 11.9 10.5 18.3 18.3 18.3 18.3 18.3 18.3 18.3 18.2 16.2 14.1 12.8 11.4 10.2 18.3 18.3 18.3 18.3 18.3 18.3 18.3 17.4 15.6 13.6 12.2 11.0 18.3 18.3 18.3 18.3 18.3 18.3 18.3 16.8 15.0 13.2 11.8 10.6 18.3 18.3 18.3 18.3 18.3 18.3 18.3 16.3 14.6 12.6 11.4 10.2 18.3 18.3 18.3 18.3 18.3 18.3 18.3 15.8 14.0 12.2 11.0 18.3 18.3 18.3 18.3 18.3 18.3 18.3 15.2 13.6 11.9 10.6 18.3 18.3 18.3 18.3 18.3 18.3 14.8 13.2 11.5 10.4 18.3 18.3 18.3 18.3 18.3 18.0 14.2 12.8 11.1 10.0 4.0 Minimum Length 9.9 9.6 9.3 9.0 9.7 9.4 9.1 8.8 8.5 8.2 7.9 9.8 9.4 9.1 8.8 8.4 8.1 7.9 7.6 7.3 7.1 9.8 9.3 8.9 8.6 8.2 7.9 7.6 7.4 7.1 6.9 6.6 6.5 9.8 9.5 8.9 8.5 8.2 7.8 7.5 7.2 7.0 6.7 6.5 6.3 6.0 5.9

2.4 Minimum Length

Availability:
Grade AS 1594 AS/NZS 3678-200 AS/NZS 3678-250 AS/NZS 3678-250 L15 AS/NZS 3678-350 AS/NZS 3678-350 L15 Thickness (mm) 5-12 5-12 5-100 8-100 5-80 8-80

NOTES: 1. Plate thickness and width may be ordered to required dimensions as follows (extra charge may apply depending on quantity) Thickness (mm) 5 to 25 25 to 60 60 to 100 Increments(mm) 0.05 1 5 Widths: Increments of 10 mm

2. Minimum order for Non Standard Plate ( in any one thickness ) is 10 tonnes.

28

STEEL CONSTRUCTION VOLUME 30 NUMBER 2, JUNE 1996

APPENDIX C: SURFACE AREA PER METRE FOR SECTIONS General Note:


1) Three sides excludes top face of flange.

TABLE C.1 UNIVERSAL BEAMS


Section 150 UB 14.0 18.0 180 UB 16.1 18.1 22.2 200 UB 18.2 22.3 25.4 29.8 250 UB 25.7 31.4 37.3 310 UB 32.0 40.4 46.2 360 UB 44.7 50.7 56.7 410 UB 53.7 59.7 460 UB 67.1 74.6 82.1 530 UB 82.0 92.4 610 UB 101 113 125 4-Sides sqm/m 0.576 0.584 0.682 0.685 0.691 0.764 0.910 0.912 0.922 0.961 1.06 1.07 1.16 1.24 1.25 1.35 1.36 1.37 1.48 1.49 1.63 1.64 1.65 1.85 1.86 2.07 2.08 2.09 3-Sides sqm/m 0.501 0.509 0.592 0.595 0.601 0.665 0.777 0.779 0.788 0.837 0.914 0.922 1.01 1.07 1.08 1.18 1.19 1.20 1.30 1.31 1.44 1.45 1.45 1.64 1.65 1.84 1.85 1.86

TABLE C.2 WELDED BEAMS


Section 700 WB 115 130 150 173 800 WB 122 146 168 192 900 WB 175 218 257 282 1000 WB 215 258 296 322 1200 WB 249 278 317 342 392 423 455 4-Sides sqm/m 2.36 2.38 2.40 2.51 2.56 2.68 2.70 2.81 2.98 3.20 3.41 3.42 3.17 3.39 3.60 3.62 3.41 3.71 3.92 3.94 4.34 4.35 4.37 3-Sides sqm/m 2.11 2.13 2.15 2.24 2.31 2.40 2.42 2.51 2.68 2.85 3.01 3.02 2.87 3.04 3.20 3.22 3.13 3.36 3.52 3.54 3.84 3.85 3.87

STEEL CONSTRUCTION VOLUME 30 NUMBER 2, JUNE 1996

29

APPENDIX C: SURFACE AREA PER METRE FOR SECTIONS (CONTD)


TABLE C.3 UNIVERSAL COLUMNS
Section 100 UC 14.8 150 UC 23.4 30.0 37.2 200 UC 46.2 52.2 59.5 250 UC 72.9 89.5 310 UC 96.8 118 137 158 4-Sides sqm/m 0.563 0.885 0.899 0.908 1.18 1.19 1.22 1.48 1.50 1.79 1.81 1.82 1.84 3-Sides sqm/m 0.464 0.733 0.746 0.754 0.982 0.989 1.02 1.23 1.24 1.48 1.50 1.51 1.53

TABLE C.4 WELDED COLUMNS


Section 350 WC 197 230 258 280 400 WC 144 181 212 270 303 328 361 500 WC 228 267 290 340 383 414 440 4-Sides sqm/m 2.02 2.03 2.04 2.05 2.33 2.34 2.36 2.38 2.39 2.40 2.38 2.94 2.96 2.97 2.98 2.88 2.90 2.88 3-Sides sqm/m 1.67 1.68 1.69 1.70 1.93 1.94 1.96 1.98 1.99 2.00 1.98 2.44 2.46 2.47 2.48 2.38 2.40 2.38

TABLE C.5 PARALLEL FLANGE CHANNELS


Section 150 PFC 180 PFC 200 PFC 230 PFC 250 PFC 300 PFC 380 PFC sqm/m 0.579 0.638 0.678 0.737 0.834 0.932 1.13

TABLE C.6 TAPER FLANGE CHANNELS


Section 75 TFC 100 TFC 125 TFC sqm/m 0.286 0.374 0.48

TABLE C.7 EQUAL ANGLES


Section 25 30 40 45 50 55 65 75 90 100 125 150 200 x 25 EA x 30 EA x 40 EA x 45 EA x 50 EA x 55 EA x 65 EA x 75 EA x 90 EA x 100 EA x 125 EA x 150 EA x 200 EA sqm/m 0.0953 0.115 0.155 0.175 0.195 0.215 0.255 0.292 0.352 0.392 0.491 0.590 0.788

TABLE C.8 UNEQUAL ANGLES


Section 65 75 100 125 150 150 x 50 UA x 50 UA x 75 UA x 75 UA x 90 UA x 100 UA sqm/m 0.225 0.244 0.342 0.392 0.471 0.491

30

STEEL CONSTRUCTION VOLUME 30 NUMBER 2, JUNE 1996

APPENDIX C: SURFACE AREA PER METRE FOR SECTIONS (CONTD)


TABLE C.9 CIRCULAR HOLLOW SECTIONS
Section 42.4 CHS 48.3 CHS 60.3 CHS 76.1 CHS 88.9 CHS 101.6 CHS 114.3 CHS 139.7 CHS 165.1 CHS 168.3 CHS 219.1 CHS 273.1 CHS 323.9 CHS 355.6 CHS 406.4 CHS 457.0 CHS 508.0 CHS 610.0 CHS sqm/m 0.133 0.152 0.189 0.239 0.279 0.319 0.359 0.439 0.519 0.529 0.688 0.858 1.02 1.12 1.28 1.44 1.60 1.92

TABLE C.10 SQUARE HOLLOW SECTIONS


Section 50 x 50 x 3.0 SHS x 4.0 SHS 65 x 65 x 3.0 SHS 75 x 75 x x x x x x 3.0 SHS 3.3 SHS 3.5 SHS 4.0 SHS 5.0 SHS 6.0 SHS sqm/m 0.190 0.183 0.250 0.290 0.286 0.285 0.283 0.279 0.274 0.341 0.334 0.330 0.390 0.386 0.384 0.383 0.379 0.374 0.361 0.483 0.479 0.474 0.461 0.579 0.574 0.561 0.779 0.774 0.761 0.974 0.961

TABLE C.11 RECTANGULAR HOLLOW SECTIONS


Section 65 x 35 x 3.0 RHS 70 x 50 x 3.0 RHS x 4.0 RHS 100 x 50 x x x x x 3.0 RHS 3.5 RHS 4.0 RHS 5.0 RHS 6.0 RHS sqm/m 0.190 0.240 0.233 0.290 0.285 0.283 0.279 0.274 0.390 0.383 0.379 0.390 0.383 0.379 0.483 0.479 0.474 0.583 0.579 0.574 0.561 0.779 0.774 0.761

89 x 89 x 3.5 SHS x 5.0 SHS x 6.0 SHS 100 x 100 x x x x x x x 125 x 125 x x x x 3.0 SHS 3.3 SHS 3.8 SHS 4.0 SHS 5.0 SHS 6.0 SHS 9.0 SHS 4.0 SHS 5.0 SHS 6.0 SHS 9.0 SHS

125 x 75 x 3.0 RHS x 4.0 RHS x 5.0 RHS 150 x 50 x 3.0 RHS x 4.0 RHS x 5.0 RHS 150 x 100 x 4.0 RHS x 5.0 RHS x 6.0 RHS 200 x 100 x x x x 4.0 RHS 5.0 RHS 6.0 RHS 9.0 RHS

150 x 150 x 5.0 SHS x 6.0 SHS x 9.0 SHS 200 x 200 x 5.0 SHS x 6.0 SHS x 9.0 SHS 250 x 250 x 6.0 SHS x 9.0 SHS

250 x 150 x 5.0 RHS x 6.0 RHS x 9.0 RHS

STEEL CONSTRUCTION VOLUME 30 NUMBER 2, JUNE 1996

31

APPENDIX D1. PORTAL FRAME CASE STUDY


This appendix presents the costing associated with a typical portal frame bay of an industrial building. The design criteria and frame configuration are similar to that in appendix E1 except the eaves height and span are 6m and 25m respectively. Steel sheeting and overall building bracing have not been included in this case study. Waste lengths have been calculated assuming supply from standard lengths. Shop detailing costs were determined in accordance with Table A2.4.1.

SUPPLY COSTS
Items per Member Member Mark Section Grade No. of Members No. Column Rafter and Haunch Purlins Fly Braces 460UB67.1 310UB40.4 300 300 2 2 24 11 Steel Member Supply $/m 75 46 10.5 3.3 Finished Waste Type Length m Length m 6.00 12.24 and 2.5 9.90 0.68 1.26 M24 M24 M12 M12 Bolt Supply $/ Bolt 4.00 4.00 0.35 0.35 No. 4 12 6 1 Plates, Flats No. & Type 230x25 pl 0.48 m Long 180x32 pl 0.83 m Long 100 x 8 FL 0.2 m Long 100 x 8 FL 0.1 m Long Total $ 21.24 37.84 1.24 0.62 180x32 pl 0.52 m Long 23.95 Other Items No. & Type Total $ Total per Member $ 487 846 107 3 SubTotal Member Mark Total $ 974 1,692 2,568 33 $5,267

Z20024 Lapped, G450 2 rows bridging 50 x 50 x 5 EA 250

FABRICATION AND DETAILING COSTS


Work per Member Member Mark Section No. of Camber Members No. Column Rafter and Haunch 460UB67.1 310UB40.4 2 2 11 Hrs Connections Type end 1 Base Pl Bolted Haunch cleat Hrs end 1 2.00 6.20 0.25 BMEP 1.60 4 @ Web Stiff & Fl Doublers 7.6 Type end 2 Hrs end 2 Plates, Flats, Stiffeners, Other No. & Type Total Hrs Fabrication Detailing Member Member Total Mark Total $ 200 1,544 138 $1,882

Notches, Total Total Penetrations, Other per Member per Member No. & Type Total Hrs Hrs 2.0 15.4 0.25 $ 80 616 10 Hrs 0.5 3.9 0.1 $ 20 156 2.5

$ 100 772 13 SubTotal

Fly Braces 50 x 50 x 5 EA

Hourly Rate ($/Hr) 40 Detailing Hours / Fabrication Hours 0.25 Notes: 1. Hrs = Workhours. 2. Fabrication costs are associated with the supported member.

32

STEEL CONSTRUCTION VOLUME 30 NUMBER 2, JUNE 1996

APPENDIX D1. PORTAL FRAME CASE STUDY (CONTD)


SURFACE TREATMENT COSTS
Items per Member Member Mark Section Finished Length m No. of Members No. Treatment Type Alkyd Primer Alkyd Primer Alkyd Primer Surface Treatment Faces Profile Covered Area m2/m 4 4 4 1.63 1.24 0.20 Profile Prep. & Additional Area First Coat Coats m2 $/m2 $/m2 9.8 18.3 0.1 5.00 6.00 6.00 Total per Member $ Member Mark Total $

Column Rafter Fly Braces

460UB67.1 310UB40.4 50x50x5 EA

6.00 12.24 0.68

2 2 11

49 110 1 SubTotal

98 220 11 $329

TRANSPORT COSTS
Transport per Member Member Mark Section Finished No. of Length Members m Column Rafter 460UB67.1 310UB40.4 6.00 12.24 No. 2 2 Transportation to: Paint Shop Site 56 15 Total per Member $ 56 15 SubTotal Member Mark Total $ 112 30 $142

ERECTION COSTS
Items per Member Member Mark Section Finished No. of Crane Length Members m Column Rafter Purlins 460UB67.1 310UB40.4 Z20024 Lapped, 2 rows bridging 6.00 12.24 9.90 No. 2 2 24 $ 37 37 13 Access Labour Equipment $ 9 9 3 $ 40 40 14 Shear Studs No. $ Other $ Erection Member per Mark Member Total $ 86 86 30 SubTotal $ 172 172 720 $1,064

SUMMARY OF COSTS
Items per Member Member Mark Section Grade No. of Members No. Column Rafter and Haunch Purlins Fly Braces 460UB67.1 310UB40.4 Z20024 Lapped, 2 rows bridging 50 x 50 x 5 EA 300 300 G450 250 2 2 24 11 Supply Fabrication Detailing Surface Transport Erection Treatment $ 487 846 107 3 10 2.5 1 $ 80 616 $ 20 156 $ 49 110 $ 56 15 $ 86 86 30 Total Member per Mark Member Total $ 778 1829 137 17 Total $ 1,556 3,658 3,288 187 $8,689

STEEL CONSTRUCTION VOLUME 30 NUMBER 2, JUNE 1996

33

APPENDIX D2. MULTI-STOREY BUILDING CASE STUDY


This appendix presents the costing asoociated with the office floor beams illustrated in figure D2.1. Refer figure 2 for the overall floor plan and section 4.2 for a discussion of the design options A and B. Waste lengths have been calculated assuming supply from standard lengths.

SUPPLY COSTS DESIGN A


Items per Member Member Mark Section Grade No. of Members No. B1 460 UB 67.1 300 120 Steel Member Supply $/m 75.00 Shear Studs No. 32 Bolt Supply Type $/ Bolt No. 10 Plates, Flats No. & Type Total $ Other Items No. & Type Total $ Total Member per Mark Member Total $ 1028 $ 123,360

Finished Waste Type $/ Length m Length m Stud 12.00 19 1.80 diam 19 1.80 diam

M20 1.50 8.8/S M20 1.50 8.8/S

90x10 FL 4.90 90x10 FL 50.40 (2 @ .35m long, (8 @ .9m long, $7.00/m) $7.00/m) 90x10 FL (.35m long, $7.00/m) 2.45 90x10 FL 75.8 (8 @ .9m long, $7.00/m) and 180x12 FL (1.5m long, $16.90/m)

B7

460 UB 67.1

300

100

75.00

12.00

32

1046

104,600

200x12 FL 11.61 150x19EA, 13.3 (.3m long, (.25m long, $18.70/m) and $44.80/m) and 6 @ 12mm 130x16 FL diam bars, (.13m long, $1.00 each $16.20/m)

25

2,500

SubTotal B1 and B7 $230,460


B2 530 UB 82.0 300 40 92.00 10.00 0.50 19 1.80 diam 38 M20 1.50 8.8/S 14 180x10 FL (.42m long, $14.00/m) 5.88 200x16 FL (1.5m long, $25.00/m) 37.5 1099 43,960

200x20 FL 15.36 150x19EA, 13.3 (.3m long, (.25m long, $31.20/m) and $44.80/m) and 6 @ 12mm 130x16 FL diam bars, (.13m long, $1.00 each $16.20/m) B3 410 UB 59.7 300 40 68.00 12.00 19 1.80 diam 0.60 19 1.80 diam 19 1.80 diam 19 1.80 diam 30 M20 1.50 8.8/S M20 1.50 8.8/S M20 1.50 8.8/S M20 1.50 8.8/S 8 90x10 FL 3.92 (2 @ .28m long, $7.00/m) 90x10 FL 4.90 (2 @ .35m long, $7.00/m) 90x10 FL 4.90 (2 @ .35m long, $7.00/m) 90x10 FL (.28m long, $7.00/m) 1.96 180x10 FL (1.5m long, $14.00/m) 21.0

29

1,160

886

35,440

B4

460 UB 67.1

300

80

75.00

8.40

32

10

753

60,240

B5

410 UB 53.7

300

20

62.00

8.40

0.60

26

10

625

12,500

B6

360 UB 44.7

300

40

51.00

10.00

0.50

28

615

24,600

200x12 FL 11.61 150x19EA, 13.3 (.3m long, (.25m long, $18.70/m) and $44.80/m) and 6 @ 12mm 130x16 FL diam bars, (.13m long, $1.00 each) $16.20/m)

25

1,000

SubTotal B2 to B6 Supply Total Design A

$178,900 $409,360

34

STEEL CONSTRUCTION VOLUME 30 NUMBER 2, JUNE 1996

APPENDIX D2. MULTI-STOREY BUILDING CASE STUDY (CONTD)

Figure D2.1

SUPPLY COSTS DESIGN B


Items per Member Member Mark Section Grade No. of Members No. B1 530 UB 82.0 300 120 Steel Member Supply $/m 92.00 Shear Studs No. 32 Bolt Supply Type $/ Bolt No. 10 Plates, Flats No. & Type Total $ Other Items No. & Type Total $ Total Member per Mark Member Total $ 1182 $ 141,840

Finished Waste Type $/ Length m Length m Stud 12.00 19 1.80 diam 19 1.80 diam

M20 1.50 8.8/S M20 1.50 8.8/S

90x10 FL 4.90 (2 @ .35m long, $7.00/m) 90x10 FL (.35m long, $7.00/m) 2.45 180x12 FL (1.5m long, $16.90/m) 25.4

B7

530 UB 82.0

300

100

92.00

12.00

32

1200

120,000

200x12 FL 11.61 150x19EA, 13.3 (.3m long, (.25m long, $18.70/m) and $44.80/m) and 6 @ 12mm 130x16 FL diam bars, (.13m long, $1.00 each $16.20/m)

25

2,500

SubTotal B1 and B7 $264,340 SubTotal B2 to B6 As per Design A $178,900 Supply Total Design B $443,240

STEEL CONSTRUCTION VOLUME 30 NUMBER 2, JUNE 1996

35

APPENDIX D2. MULTI-STOREY BUILDING CASE STUDY (CONTD)


Hourly Rate ($/Hr) 40 Notes: 1. Hrs = Workhours. 2. Fabrication costs are associated with the supported member.

FABRICATION COSTS DESIGN A


Work per Member Member Mark Section No. of Camber Members No. B1 B7 460 UB 67.1 460 UB 67.1 120 100 Hrs 2.0 2.0 Connections Coping Plates, Flats, Stiffeners, Other No. & Type Total Hrs Notches, Penetrations, Other No. & Type 2 @ Stiffened Rectang. Pens 2 slotted holes 0.12 Total per Member Fabrication $ 584 777 Member Mark Total $ 70,080 77,700

Type - Hrs Type - Hrs Type - Hrs Type - Hrs end 1 end 1 end 2 end 2 end 1 end 1 end 2 end 2 WSP WSP 1.60 WSP 1.60 Web 2x Web 0.4 0.8 2x Web 0.8

Total Hrs Hrs 8.2 14.6

1.60 Cast-in- 2.60 Plate

1 Notch and 12.3 19.4 2 @ Stiffened Rect

SubTotal B1 and B7
B2 530 UB 82.0 40 2.0 WSP 1.60 Cast-in- 2.60 Plate 0.80 1.60 0.80 WSP WSP WSP 0.80 1.60 0.80 Web 0.3 2 slotted holes 0.12 1 Notch and 2 @ Unstiff, Circular 3.3 2 slotted holes 0.24 1 Notch and 2 @ Unstiff, Circular 5.1 11.5

$147,780
462 18,480

B3 B4 B5 B6

410 UB 59.7 460 UB 67.1 410 UB 53.7 360 UB 44.7

40 80 20 40

1.5

WSP WSP

3.1 3.2 3.1 8.6

124 128 124 345

4,960 10,240 2,480 13,800

1.5 1.5

WSP WSP

0.80 Cast-in- 2.60 Plate

SubTotal B2 to B6 Fabrication Total Design A

$49,960 $197,740

FABRICATION COSTS DESIGN B


Work per Member Member Mark Section No. of Camber Members No. B1 B7 530 UB 82.0 530 UB 82.0 120 100 Hrs 2.0 2.0 Connections Coping Plates, Flats, Stiffeners, Other No. & Type Total Hrs Notches, Penetrations, Other No. & Type 2 @ Unstiff, Rectangular 2 slotted holes 0.12 1 Notch and 2 @ Unstiff, Rect. Total per Member Fabrication $ 320 497 Member Mark Total $ 38,400 49,700

Type - Hrs Type - Hrs Type - Hrs Type - Hrs end 1 end 1 end 2 end 2 end 1 end 1 end 2 end 2 WSP WSP 1.60 WSP 1.60 Web Web 0.4 0.4 2x Web 0.8

Total Hrs Hrs 1.6 5.7 8.0 12

1.60 Cast-in- 2.60 Plate

SubTotal B1 and B7 SubTotal B2 to B6 As per Design A Fabrication Total Design B

$88,100 $49,960 $138,060

36

STEEL CONSTRUCTION VOLUME 30 NUMBER 2, JUNE 1996

APPENDIX D2. MULTI-STOREY BUILDING CASE STUDY (CONTD)


Hourly Rate ($/Hr) 40

DETAILING COSTS DESIGN A & B


Drawing Type No. of Drawings Required No. Marking Plans eg: elevations, plans, intersections, etc. Repeated Marking Plans (similar to a previous drawing but with minor changes) Shop Drawing - Beam Member 6 9 7 Time per Drawing Hrs 15 2 6 Total Time per Drawing Drawing Type Type Total Hrs 90 18 42 Detailing Total $ 3,600 720 1,680 $6,000

SURFACE TREATMENT COSTS DESIGN A


Items per Member Member Mark Section Finished Length m No. of Members No. Treatment Type 2 Hr firespray 2 Hr firespray Surface Treatment Faces Profile Covered Area m2/m 3 3 1.44 1.44 Profile Prep. & Additional Area First Coat Coats m2 $/m2 $/m2 17.3 17.3 27.00 27.00 Total per Member $ Member Mark Total $

B1 B7

460 UB 67.1 460 UB 67.1

12.00 12.00

120 100

467 467 SubTotal B1 and B7

56,040 46,700 $102,740 15,080 16,960 22,240 5,900 12,760 $72,940

B2 B3 B4 B5 B6

530 UB 82.0 410 UB 59.7 460 UB 67.1 410 UB 53.7 360 UB 44.7

10.00 12.00 8.40 8.40 10.00

40 40 80 20 40

2 Hr firespray 2 Hr firespray 2 Hr firespray 2 Hr firespray 2 Hr firespray

3 3 3 3 3

1.64 1.31 1.44 1.30 1.18

16.4 15.7 12.1 10.9 11.8

23.00 27.00 23.00 27.00 27.00

377 424 278 295 319 SubTotal B2 to B6

Surface Treatment Total Design A $175,680

SURFACE TREATMENT COSTS DESIGN B


Items per Member Member Mark Section Finished Length m No. of Members No. Treatment Type 2 Hr firespray 2 Hr firespray Surface Treatment Faces Profile Covered Area m2/m 3 3 1.64 1.64 Profile Prep. & Additional Area First Coat Coats m2 $/m2 $/m2 19.7 19.7 27.00 27.00 Total per Member $ Member Mark Total $

B1 B7

530 UB 82.0 530 UB 82.0

12.00 12.00

120 100

531 531 SubTotal B1 and B7

63,720 53,100 $116,820 $72,940 $189,760

SubTotal B2 to B6 As per Design A Surface Treatment Total Design B

STEEL CONSTRUCTION VOLUME 30 NUMBER 2, JUNE 1996

37

APPENDIX D2. MULTI-STOREY BUILDING CASE STUDY (CONTD)


TRANSPORT COSTS DESIGN A & B
Transport per Member Member Mark Section Finished No. of Length Members m B1 B7 B2 B3 B4 B5 B6 460 UB 67.1 460 UB 67.1 530 UB 82.0 410 UB 59.7 460 UB 67.1 410 UB 53.7 360 UB 44.7 12.00 12.00 10.00 12.00 8.40 8.40 10.00 No. 120 100 40 40 80 20 40 Transportation to: Paint Shop Site 56.00 56.00 56.00 15.00 56.00 15.00 15.00 Total per Member $ 56 56 56 15 56 15 15 Member Mark Total $ 6,720 5,600 2,240 600 4,480 300 600

Transport Total $20,540

ERECTION COSTS DESIGN A & B


Items per Member Member Mark Section Finished No. of Crane Length Members m B1 B7 460 UB 67.1 460 UB 67.1 Scissor lift and welding angle seat to cast-inplate B2 530 UB 82.0 Scissor lift and welding angle seat to cast-inplate B3 B4 B5 B6 410 UB 59.7 460 UB 67.1 410 UB 53.7 360 UB 44.7 Scissor lift and welding angle seat to cast-inplate 12 8.40 8.40 10.00 10.00 12.00 12.00 No. 120 100 100 $ Access Labour Equipment $ 20 20 45 $ 40 40 60 32 @ $0.90 32 @ $0.90 Shear Studs $ 27 27 Other $ Erection Member per Mark Member Total $ 87 87 105 $ 10,440 8,700 10,500

40 40

20 45

40 60

38 @ $0.90

34

94 105

3,760 4,200

40 80 20 40 40

20 20 20 20 45

40 40 40 40 60

30 @ $0.90 32 @ $0.90 26 @ $0.90 22 @ $0.90

27 27 23 20

87 87 83 80 105

3,480 6,960 1,660 3,200 4,200

Erection Total

$57,100

38

STEEL CONSTRUCTION VOLUME 30 NUMBER 2, JUNE 1996

APPENDIX D2. MULTI-STOREY BUILDING CASE STUDY (CONTD)


SUMMARY OF COSTS DESIGN A
Items per Member Member Mark Section Grade No. of Members No. B1 B7 460 UB 67.1 460 UB 67.1 300 300 120 100 Supply $ 1028 1071 Fabrication $ 584 777 Surface Treatment $ 467 467 Transport Erection $ 56 56 $ 87 192 Total Member per Mark Member Total $ 2,222 2,563 $ 266,640 256,300 $522,940 88,880 61,440 104,160 22,840 60,160

SubTotal B1 and B7 B2 B3 B4 B5 B6 530 UB 82.0 410 UB 59.7 460 UB 67.1 410 UB 53.7 360 UB 44.7 300 300 300 300 300 40 40 80 20 40 1128 886 753 625 640 462 124 128 124 345 377 424 278 295 319 56 15 56 15 15 199 87 87 83 185 2,222 1,536 1,302 1,142 1,504

SubTotal B2 to B6 $337,480 Detailing $6,000 Total, Design A $866,420

SUMMARY OF COSTS DESIGN B


Items per Member Member Mark Section Grade No. of Members No. B1 B7 530 UB 82.0 530 UB 82.0 300 300 120 100 Supply $ 1182 1225 Fabrication $ 320 497 Surface Treatment $ 531 531 Transport Erection $ 56 56 $ 87 192 Total Member per Mark Member Total $ 2,176 2,501 $ 261,120 250,100 $511,220

SubTotal B1 and B7

SubTotal B2 to B6 As per Design A $337,480 Detailing $6,000 Total, Design B $854,700

STEEL CONSTRUCTION VOLUME 30 NUMBER 2, JUNE 1996

39

APPENDIX D3 - BRIDGE CASE STUDY

Figure D3.1 Bridge Design 40 STEEL CONSTRUCTION VOLUME 30 NUMBER 2, JUNE 1996

APPENDIX D3 - BRIDGE CASE STUDY (CONTD)


TABLE D3.1 - COSTING OF 35m LENGTH BEAM
MATERIAL SUPPLY ITEM Plates Top Flange: 450x25x35000 Grade350 Bottom Flange: 650x45x12000 Grade350L15 (2off) Bottom Flange: 650x55x11000 Grade350L15 Web: 1415x20x17000 Grade250 Web: 1415x20x18000 Grade250 Intermediate Gusset Plate: 200x12mm Flat x1335mm long Grade 250 (3 off) Abutment Gusset Plate: 200x25mm Flat x 1415mm long Grade 250 (4 off) Wastage @ 5% Shear Studs Size: 22mm dia. x 130 long No. 280 3.0 sqm sqm sqm sqm sqm m m 15.8 15.6 7.2 24.1 25.5 4.0 5.7 204 420 514 153 153 18.7 39.1 3,223 6,552 3,701 3,687 3,902 75 223 1,068 840 $23,271 FABRICATION ITEM Gusset Plates (Stiffeners) Intermediate Gusset Plates Abutment Gusset Plate Beams Three Plate Girder Fabrication Cost Welds CPBW Splicing: Top Flange CPBW Splicing: Bottom Flange CPBW Splicing: Web Grinding of Welds CPBW Splicing: Top Flange CPBW Splicing: Bottom Flange CPBW Splicing: Web Taper Bottom Flange Plates (x2) Holes Drilling Shear Studs fix: 22mm dia. x 130mm m m m m m m m No. No. 0.45 1.30 1.42 0.90 2.60 1.42 0.90 4 280 156 318 100 16 16 16 17 2 1 70 413 142 14 42 23 15 8 280 $7,979 TRANSPORTATION Fabrication Shop to Paint Shop, and Paint Shop to Site. UNIT No. QUANTITY 1 RATE 900 COST 900 $900 ERECTION (Cost of crane hire spread over 4 beams) CraneHire; 150T P&H 5170A crawler,pin jib ($5000/week, min.) Mobilisation $6000; Demobilisation $6000 Labour: 3 x Riggers @ 4hrs Hrs. 12 40 UNIT No. QUANTITY 1 RATE 1250 COST 1,250 3,000 480 $4,730 SURFACE TREATMENT ZnSi 75microns , Class 2.5 blast (All-sides) UNIT sqm QUANTITY 182.5 RATE 14 COST 2,555 $2,555 COST OF 35m BEAM $39,435 m 35 180 6,300 UNIT No No QUANTITY 3 4 RATE 64 120 COST 192 480 UNIT QUANTITY RATE COST

STEEL CONSTRUCTION VOLUME 30 NUMBER 2, JUNE 1996

41

APPENDIX D3 - BRIDGE CASE STUDY (CONTD)


TABLE D3.2 - COSTING OF ABUTMENT CROSSFRAME
MATERIAL SUPPLY ITEM Chords Top chord: 300 PFC Grade300 Bottom chord: 125x125x10 EA Grade300 Bracing (x2) Bracing: 100x100x12 EA Grade250 Plate Plate: 700 x350x12mm Grade250 Wastage @ 5% Bolts Bolts: M20, Grade 8.8 60mm Shear Studs: Supply No. No. 14 11 2 3 28 33 $384 FABRICATION ITEM Top chord Cut Cope Drill Bottom Chord Cut Drill Weld: 6mm CFW Plate Strip Braces (x2) Drill Cut Weld: 6mm CFW Shear Studs fix: 22mm dia x 130 long m No. No. m No. 1.1 4 2 0.7 9 5 2 10 12 1 6 8 20 8 9 $175 TRANSPORTATION Included with girders ERECTION (Cost of crane hire included in main beams) Labour: 3 x Riggers @ 0.4hrs/bracing UNIT Hrs QUANTITY 1.2 RATE 40 UNIT QUANTITY RATE COST 0 COST 48 $48 SURFACE TREATMENT ZnSi 75microns , Class 2.5 blast (All Sides) UNIT sqm QUANTITY 5.5 RATE 14 COST 77 $77 TOTAL COST/CROSSFRAME $684 UNIT No. No. No. No. No. m QUANTITY 2 2 12 2 8 1.7 RATE 10 12 2 10 2 12 COST 20 24 24 20 16 20 sqm 0.245 92 23 15 m m m 3.5 3.5 3.5 45 19 17 158 67 60 UNIT QUANTITY RATE COST

42

STEEL CONSTRUCTION VOLUME 30 NUMBER 2, JUNE 1996

APPENDIX D3 - BRIDGE CASE STUDY (CONTD)


TABLE D3.3 - COSTING OF CROSS FRAME INTERMEDIATE
MATERIAL SUPPLY ITEM Chords Top chord: 90x90x8 EA Grade250 Bottom chord: 90x90x8 EA Grade250 Bracing (x2) Bracing: 90x90x8 EA Grade250 Plate Plate: 700 x350x12mm Grade250 Wastage @ 5% Bolts: M20, Grade 8.8 50mm sqm No. 0.245 12 92 1.5 23 7 18 $156 m m m 3.5 3.5 3.5 10.2 10.2 10.2 36 36 36 UNIT QUANTITY RATE COST

FABRICATION ITEM Top chord Cut Drill Bottom chord Cut Drill Weld: 6mm CFW Plate Strip Braces (x 2) Cut Drill Weld: 6mm CFW

UNIT No. No. No. No. m m No. No. m

QUANTITY 2 8 1 8 1.58 1.05 2 8 0.66

RATE 10 2 10 2 12 5 10 2 12

COST 20 16 10 16 19 5 20 16 8 $130

TRANSPORTATION Included with girders

UNIT

QUANTITY

RATE

COST 0

ERECTION (Cost of crane hire included in main beams) Labour: 3 x Riggers @ 0.4hrs/bracing

UNIT Hrs.

QUANTITY 1.2

RATE 40

COST 48 $48

SURFACE TREATMENT ZnSi 75microns , Class 2.5 blast (All Sides)

UNIT sqm

QUANTITY 5.4

RATE 18

COST 97 $97

TOTAL COST/CROSSFRAME $431

TABLE D3.4 - SUMMARY OF BRIDGE COST


Member 35m Length Beam Abutment Crossframe Cross Frame Intermediate Cost/Member $39,435 $684 $431 No. of Members 4 6 6 Total Cost $157,740 $4,104 $2,586

TOTAL STEELWORK COST $164,430

STEEL CONSTRUCTION VOLUME 30 NUMBER 2, JUNE 1996

43

APPENDIX E1. INDICATIVE COSTING OF STEEL CLAD PORTAL FRAMES


Costs prepared for haunched portal frames at 9m spacing, 7m eaves height, 3 degrees rafter pitch, wind region A, terrain category 3, Cpi=0.3.

Portal Frame Span (m) 20 Rafter Section Size Column Section Size Purlin Section Size Colorbond Sheeting 25 30 360UB50.7 530UB82.0 35 410UB53.7 530UB92.4

360UB44.7 360UB50.7 460UB67.1 460UB74.6 Lapped Z20024, 2 rows of bridging Spandek/Longspan, 0.48mm Base Metal Thickness

TOTAL COST, PORTAL FRAME AND CLADDING ($/sq.m of floor plan area) Supply Frame Purlins Sheeting Supply subtotal Fabrication Frame Surface Treatment Frame (Alkyd primer) Erection Frame Purlins Sheeting Erection subtotal 2% 4% 5% 18% 13% 39%

90

83

77

74

20% 13% 39% 70% 17% 2% 2% 4% 5% 11% 11% 72% 15% 2%

20% 13% 39% 72% 14% 2% 2% 4% 6% 12%

21% 13% 39% 73% 13% 2% 2% 4% 6% 12%

Cost of Portal Frame and Cladding

20 m Span Portal Frame and Cladding Costs by Cost Category

20 m Span Portal Frame and Cladding Costs by Building Component

44

STEEL CONSTRUCTION VOLUME 30 NUMBER 2, JUNE 1996

APPENDIX E2. STEEL FLOOR BEAM COSTS AT INDICATIVE COSTING STAGE


This appendix presents the results of steel designs prepared for carpark, office and retail centre floors, using the typical beam arrangement as depicted in figure E2.1. The results are intended to provide a guide during the assessment of preliminary design options (such as framing system or column layout) and early cost estimation. The costs charted are associated with the primary and secondary floor beams only and include steel supply, detailing, fabrication, surface treatment, transport, cranage, erection and shear studs. Costs of notches or penetrations which might be required to accommodate services are not included. Table E2.2 is a guide to the additional costs per sqm for the steel decking and reinforced concrete slab. The costs allow for fabricator margins. The beams were designed according to AS2327.1 (1996) (Composite structures Simply-supported beams) and are standard BHP universal or welded beams of Grade 300 steel. Beams were assumed to carry uniformly distributed loading, were connected using AISC web side plate or flexible end plate connections and propping was not used. A selected set of beam design results is reproduced in Table E2.3.

Table E2.1 Index to Indicative Costing Charts


Chart No. E2.1 E2.2 E2.3 E2.4 E2.5 E2.6 Building Use or Floor Type Carpark Carpark Office Office Retail Retail Surface Treatment to Steel Beams Alkyd Primer Zinc Silicate Primer None 2 Hour Fire Protection None 3 Hour Fire Protection

Table E2.2 Additional Costs of Steel Decking and Reinforced Concrete Slab
Building Use or Floor Type Carpark Office Retail Cost for 1 mm Cost for 120mm Steel Decking Reinforced Concrete Slab (supply and install) (supply and install) ($/sqm) ($/sqm) 31 31 31 35 30 35

Figure E2.1. Typical Grid Layout

Chart E2.1. Carpark with Alklyd Primer to Steelwork STEEL CONSTRUCTION VOLUME 30 NUMBER 2, JUNE 1996

Chart E2.2. Carpark with Inorganic Zinc Silicate to Steelwork 45

APPENDIX E2. STEEL FLOOR BEAM COSTS AT INDICATIVE COSTING STAGE (CONTD)

Chart E2.3. Office Building with No Surface Treament to Steelwork

Chart E2.4. Office Building with 2 Hour Fire Protection to Steelwork

Chart E2.5. Retail Centre with No Surface Treatment to Steelwork

Chart E2.6. Retail Centre with 3 Hour Fire Protection to Steelwork

46

STEEL CONSTRUCTION VOLUME 30 NUMBER 2, JUNE 1996

APPENDIX E2. STEEL FLOOR BEAM COSTS AT INDICATIVE COSTING STAGE (CONTD)
Table E2.3 Preliminary design solutions for floor beams. (Shear studs are 19mm dia.)
CARPARKS Span (m) 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 Spacing (m) 2.8 2.8 2.8 2.8 2.8 2.8 2.8 2.8 2.8 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 Beam, Grade 300 310UB40.4 310UB40.4 360UB44.7 410UB53.7 410UB59.7 460UB67.1 530UB82.0 530UB92.4 610UB101 360UB44.7 360UB44.7 360UB50.7 410UB53.7 410UB53.7 410UB59.7 460UB67.1 460UB67.1 460UB74.6 410UB53.7 410UB53.7 460UB67.1 460UB67.1 460UB74.6 460UB74.6 460UB82.1 530UB82.0 530UB92.4 460UB67.1 460UB67.1 460UB74.6 530UB82.0 530UB82.0 530UB92.4 530UB92.4 610UB101 610UB101 460UB74.6 530UB82.0 530UB92.4 530UB92.4 610UB101 610UB101 610UB113 610UB125 700WB115 530UB82.0 530UB92.4 610UB101 610UB101 610UB125 700WB115 700WB115 800WB122 800WB122 610UB101 610UB101 610UB125 700WB115 800WB122 800WB122 800WB146 800WB146 800WB146 610UB113 610UB125 700WB115 800WB122 800WB146 800WB146 800WB146 900WB175 900WB175 Camber (mm) 25 40 45 45 55 55 50 55 50 15 20 15 15 15 15 0 15 0 20 25 15 15 15 20 20 15 15 20 25 25 20 20 20 20 15 15 30 25 25 25 20 25 20 20 20 35 35 25 30 25 25 25 20 20 30 35 30 30 25 25 20 25 25 40 40 40 30 25 30 30 20 25 No. of Studs per beam 20 22 25 27 30 32 36 40 44 22 22 22 26 26 26 30 30 32 26 26 30 30 32 32 36 36 40 30 30 32 36 36 40 40 44 44 32 36 40 40 44 44 46 50 50 36 40 44 44 50 50 50 52 52 44 44 50 50 52 52 62 62 62 46 50 50 52 62 62 62 74 74 OFFICE BUILDINGS Beam, Grade 300 310UB40.4 310UB40.4 360UB44.7 410UB53.7 410UB59.7 460UB67.1 530UB82.0 530UB92.4 610UB101 360UB44.7 360UB44.7 360UB50.7 410UB53.7 410UB53.7 410UB59.7 460UB67.1 460UB67.1 460UB67.1 410UB53.7 410UB53.7 460UB67.1 460UB67.1 460UB67.1 460UB74.6 460UB82.1 530UB82.0 530UB82.0 460UB67.1 460UB67.1 460UB74.6 530UB82.0 530UB82.0 530UB92.4 530UB92.4 610UB101 610UB101 460UB74.6 460UB82.1 530UB82.0 530UB92.4 610UB101 610UB101 610UB101 610UB125 610UB125 530UB82.0 530UB92.4 610UB101 610UB101 610UB113 610UB125 700WB115 800WB122 800WB122 610UB101 610UB101 610UB113 610UB125 700WB115 800WB122 800WB122 800WB146 800WB146 610UB113 610UB125 700WB115 800WB122 800WB122 800WB146 800WB146 800WB146 800WB168 Camber (mm) 25 45 50 45 55 60 50 55 55 15 20 20 15 15 15 0 0 15 20 25 15 20 20 20 20 15 15 20 25 25 20 20 20 20 15 20 35 35 30 25 20 25 25 20 25 35 35 30 30 30 30 25 20 20 30 35 35 35 35 25 30 25 25 40 40 40 30 35 30 30 35 30 No. of Studs per beam 20 22 25 27 30 32 36 37 40 22 22 24 26 26 28 30 30 30 26 26 30 30 30 34 36 36 36 30 30 34 36 36 42 42 46 46 34 36 36 42 46 46 46 52 52 36 42 46 46 46 52 52 54 54 46 46 46 52 52 54 54 64 64 46 52 52 54 54 64 64 64 64 Beam, Grade 300 310UB40.4 360UB44.7 410UB53.7 410UB59.7 460UB67.1 530UB82.0 530UB92.4 610UB101 610UB125 410UB53.7 410UB59.7 460UB67.1 460UB74.6 460UB82.1 530UB82.0 530UB82.0 530UB92.4 610UB101 460UB67.1 460UB74.6 530UB82.0 530UB92.4 610UB101 610UB101 610UB101 610UB125 610UB125 530UB82.0 530UB92.4 610UB101 610UB101 610UB125 700WB115 700WB115 800WB122 800WB122 610UB101 610UB101 700WB115 700WB115 800WB122 800WB122 800WB146 800WB146 800WB168 700WB115 700WB115 800WB122 800WB146 800WB146 800WB168 900WB175 900WB175 900WB175 800WB122 800WB122 800WB146 800WB168 900WB175 900WB175 900WB218 900WB218 1000WB215 800WB146 800WB168 900WB175 900WB175 900WB218 900WB218 900WB257 900WB257 1200WB249 RETAIL CENTRES Camber (mm) 30 35 35 45 50 40 50 50 50 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 15 15 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 15 15 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 15 20 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 20 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 20 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 No. of Studs per beam 38 42 52 54 60 36 36 37 40 26 28 30 34 38 36 36 42 42 30 34 36 42 46 46 46 48 48 36 42 46 46 52 52 52 54 54 46 46 52 52 56 56 60 60 60 52 52 56 60 60 60 60 60 60 56 56 60 60 60 60 62 62 60 60 60 60 60 62 62 64 64 60

Secondary Beams

Primary Beams

10

11

12

STEEL CONSTRUCTION VOLUME 30 NUMBER 2, JUNE 1996

47

for fabricated steelwork

Consider those who share AISCs resources

NEW SOUTH WALES & ACT


ABB Engineering Construction Pty Ltd (Office) GPO Box 1537, Sydney 2001 . . . . . . . . (02) 356 2433 ABB Engineering Construction Pty Ltd Tomago Road, Tomago 2322 . . . . . . . . . (049) 64 8282 Adua Engineering Pty Ltd 25 Loftus Street, Riverstone 2765 . . . . . (02) 627 2933 Antax Steel Constructions Pty Ltd 93 Bellambi Lane, Bellambi 2518 . . . . . . (042) 85 2644 Austfab Pty Ltd Factory 3, 16 Ada Avenue, Brookvale 2100 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (02) 9905 7055 Baxter Engineering Pty Ltd 177 Gladstone Street, Fyshwick 2609 . . (06) 280 5688 B & G Welding Pty Ltd 12 Bessemer Street, Blacktown 2148 . . (02) 621 3189 Beltor Engineering Pty Ltd The Broadway, Killingworth 2301 . . . . . . (049) 53 2444 Bosmac Pty Ltd 64-68 Station Street, Parkes 2870 . . . . . (068) 62 3699 Boweld Constructions Pty Ltd Lot 1 Bolong Road, Bomaderry 2541 . . . (044) 21 6781 Chapple Bros Engineers (Albury) Pty Ltd Lot 62 Conrad Place, Lavington 2641 . . (060) 25 6622 Charles Heath Industries 18 Britton Street, Smithfield 2164 . . . . . . (02) 609 6000 Combell Constructions (NSW) Pty Ltd 51 Jedda Road, Prestons 2170 . . . . . . . (02) 607 3822 Coolamon Steelworks 81 Wade Street, Coolamon 2701 . . . . . . (069) 27 3296 Cullen Steel Fabrications Pty Ltd 26 Williamson Road, Ingleburn 2565 . . . (02) 605 4888 Designed Building Systems 144 Sackville Street, Fairfield 2165 . . . . (02) 727 0566 DTD General Engineering Pty Ltd 12 Hoffman Road, Thurgoona 2640 . . . . (060) 43 1560 Edcon Steel Pty Ltd 52 Orchard Road, Brookvale 2100 . . . . (02) 9905 6622 E M R Group 14-16 Heald Road, Ingleburn 2565 . . . . (02) 829 3768 Flame-Cut Pty Ltd 68 Elizabeth Street, Wetherill Park 2164 . (02) 609 3677 Gale Bros Engineering Pty Ltd Cnr Batt & Penrith Streets, Penrith 2750 . (047) 32 1133 Haniox Group Lot 51 Norfolk Avenue, South Nowra 2541 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (044) 21 2388 Hepvette Pty Ltd B-14/B-15 Campbell Parade, Manly Vale 2093 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (02) 9907 9866

Kermac Welding & Engineering Cemetery Street, Goulburn 2580 . . . . . . (048) 21 3877 Leewood Welding 77 Corporation Place, Orange 2800 . . . . (063) 62 8797 Mannesmann Demag Pty Ltd 92 Long Street, Smithfield 2164 . . . . . . . (02) 609 9500 Mecha Engineering Pty Ltd 9A Lucca Road, North Wyong 2259 . . . . (043) 51 1877 Morson Engineering Pty Ltd Lot 3 Lucca Road, Wyong 2259 . . . . . . . (043) 52 2188 National Engineering Pty Ltd 6 Boorowa Street, Young 2594 . . . . . . . . (063) 82 1499 National Engineering Pty Ltd 72-74 Bayldon Road, Queanbeyan 2620 . (06) 299 1844 Nifty Welding Pty Ltd 34 Eddy Crescent, Florey 2615 . . . . . . . (06) 258 9818 Niloc Engineering Pty Ltd Lot 2 Enterprise Drive, Berkeley Vale 2261 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (043) 89 2250 Piper & Harvey Steel Fabrications Tasman Road, Wagga Wagga 2650 . . . . (069) 22 7527 Profab Industries 8 Childs Road, Chipping Norton 2170 . . (02) 755 2600 Romac Engineering 288 Manns Street, Armidale 2350 . . . . . (067) 72 3407 Silo Constructions Aust Pty Ltd 36 Victoria Street, Smithfield 2164 . . . . . (02) 604 1865 Steeline Fabrications 9 Mutu Street, Woy Woy 2256 . . . . . . . . (043) 41 9571 Transfield Construction Pty Ltd (Office) PO Box 470, North Sydney 2059 . . . . . (02) 9929 8600 Transfield Construction Pty Ltd (Works) 15-25 Powers Road, Seven Hills 2147 . . (02) 624 4400 Tri-Fab Engineering Pty Ltd Lot 1 Ti-Tree Street, Wilberforce 2756 . . (045) 75 1056 Universal Steel Construction NSW Pty Ltd 50 Newton Road, Wetherill Park 2164 . . (02) 756 2555 Walpett Engineering Pty Ltd 52 Hincksman Street, Queanbeyan 2620 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (06) 297 1277 PJ & JD Wayte Structural Engineering 23 Brickfield Avenue, Armidale 2350 . . . (067) 72 7464 Weldcraft Engineering Pty Ltd 79 Thuralilly Street, Queanbeyan 2620 . (06) 297 1453 Wieland Engineering Pty Ltd 1 Victoria Street, Riverstone 2765 . . . . . (02) 627 4400

QUEENSLAND
ABB Engineering Construction Pty Ltd (Works) 19 Formation Street, Wacol 4076 . . . . . (07) 3271 1333 Allterrain Engineering & Fabrication Cnr Ann & James Street, Fortitude Valley 4006 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (07) 3257 1101 Apex Fabrication & Construction 164 168 Cobalt Street, Carole Park 4300 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (07) 3271 4467 Apple Fabrications Pty Ltd 22-24 Jade Drive, Nerang 4211 . . . . . . (07) 5527 9999 Arcraft Industries Pty Ltd 2 Queensbury Avenue, Currumbin 4223 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (07) 5598 1225 Austin Engineering Pty Ltd 173 Cobalt Street, Carole Park 4300 . . (07) 3271 2622 Barmax Steel Fabrication 165A Lavarack Avenue, Eagle Farm 4007 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (07) 3216 4311 Beenleigh Steel Fabrications Pty Ltd 41 Magnesium Drive, Crestmead 4132 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (07) 3803 6033 Belconnen Steel Pty Ltd 11 Malton Street, The Gap 4061 . . . . . (07) 3300 2444 Better Garages & Carports 35 Centenary Place, Logan Village 4207 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (07) 5546 8654 Boral Structural 97 Robinson Road, Geebung 4034 . . . (07) 3265 7922 Cairns Steel Fabricators Pty Ltd 29 Redden Street, Portsmith 4870 . . . . . (070) 35 1506 Caloundra Engineering 38P Grigor Street, Caloundra 4551 . . . . (074) 91 3198 DA Manufacturing Co Pty Ltd 7 Hilldon Court, Nerang 4211 . . . . . . . . (07) 5596 2222 Darra Welding Works Pty Ltd 53 Station Avenue, Darra 4076 . . . . . . (07) 3375 5841 Evans Deakin Industries Ltd (Office) 451 Sherwood Road, Sherwood 4075 . (07) 3278 2555 Gay Constructions 360 Lytton Road, Morningside 4170 . . . (07) 3370 6555 Jenark Engineering Pty Ltd 10 Mica Street, Carole Park 4300 . . . . (07) 3271 2300 J K Morrow Sales 7-9 William Street, Cairns 4870 . . . . . . . (070) 35 1599 Kawana Engineering Pty Ltd 21 Enterprise Street, Caloundra 4551 . . (074) 917 733 M & S Steel Buildings Pty Ltd Cnr Meringandan & Kinsthorpe Roads, Goombungee 4354 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (076) 96 5255 Mining & Metal Pty Ltd 36 Buchan Street, Portsmith 4870 . . . . . (070) 35 2310

NORTHERN TERRITORY
`TransconTrans Australian Constructions Pty Ltd 1859 Pruen Road, Berrimah 0828 . . . . . (089) 84 4511

AUSTRALIAN INSTITUTE OF STEEL CONSTRUCTION


Level 13, 99 Mount Street, North Sydney NSW 2060
48 STEEL CONSTRUCTION VOLUME 30 NUMBER 2, JUNE 1996

Morton Engineering Co 47 Barku Court, Hemmant 4174 . . . . . . (07) 3396 5322 Noosa Engineering & Crane Hire 9 Leo Alley Road, Noosaville 4566 . . . . . (074) 49 7477 Podevin Engineering Co Pty Ltd 298 Musgrave Road, Coopers Plains 4108 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (07) 3277 1388 Schmider Steel Fabricators 2 Neon Street, Sumner Park 4074 . . . . (07) 3279 0066 Stewart & Sons 11 Production Street, Bundaberg 4670 . (071) 52 6311 Story Steel Olney Court, Southport 4215 . . . . . . . . (07) 5591 2400 Strathpine Welding Works Pty Ltd Leitchs Road, Strathpine 4500 . . . . . . . (07) 3205 6944 Sun Engineering Pty Ltd 113 Cobalt Street, Carole Park 4300 . . (07) 3271 2988 Swift Engineering Pty Ltd Boundary Road, Mackay 4740 . . . . . . . . (079) 52 1766 Thiess Contractors Pty Ltd 146 Kerry Road, Archerfield 4108 . . . . (07) 3275 8627 Thomas Steel Fabrication 19 Hartley Street, Garbutt 4814 . . . . . . . (077) 75 1266 Transfield Construction Pty Ltd (Office) GPO Box 2238, Brisbane 4001 . . . . . . (07) 3236 3131 Tropical Fabrications 6 Caldwell Street, Garbutt 4814 . . . . . . . (077) 75 4688 W D T Engineering Pty Ltd 124 Ingram Road, Acacia Ridge 4110 . (07) 3345 4000 W T M Projects PO Box 406, Salisbury 4107 . . . . . . . . (07) 3875 1745

Haywards Steel Fabrication & Construction 1 Boral Road, Breadalbane 7258 . . . . . . (003) 918 508 Northern Engineering Lot 30 Thomson Avenue, George Town 7253 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (003) 822 099 Specialist Engineering & Construction Services Pty Ltd Mobile Road, Bell Bay 7253 . . . . . . . . . . (003) 82 1689

WESTERN AUSTRALIA
ABB Engineering Construction Pty Ltd (Office) 172 St Georges Terrace, Perth 6000 . . . (09) 322 5933 ABB Engineering Construction Pty Ltd (Works) 441 Beach Street, Kwinana 6167 . . . . . . (09) 419 5000 Cays Engineering & Construction Lot 21 Thornborough Road, Mandurah 6210 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (09) 581 6611 C Bellotti & Co Lot 40 Spearwood Avenue, Spearwood 6163 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (09) 434 1442 Fremantle Steel Fabrication Co Lot 500 Cutler Road, Jandakot 6164 . . . (09) 417 9111 Highline Building Constructions 9 Felspar Street, Welshpool 6106 . . . . . .(09) 451 5366 Kewdale Engineering & Construction 13 Stott Street, Welshpool 6106 . . . . . . . (09) 458 4322 Mandurah Steel Supplies Lot 96, 16 Hampton Street, Mandurah 6210 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (09) 581 6030 Modular Metals (Aust) Pty Ltd 7 Lumsden Road, Wanneroo 6065 . . . . . (09) 409 9044 Pacific Industrial Co (1979) 11 Hopevalley Road, Naval Base 6165 . (09) 410 2566 Park Engineers Pty Ltd 42 Railway Parade, Welshpool 6106 . . . (09) 458 1437 Patten Welding Services 262 Cox Street, Pinjarra 6208 . . . . . . . . (09) 531 2119 Phillips Engineering Pty Ltd 5 Egmont Road, Henderson 6166 . . . . . (09) 410 2422 Picton Steel Pty Ltd 25 Yookson Road, Picton 6229 . . . . . . . . (097) 25 4371 Scenna Constructions 43 Spencer Street, Jandakot 6164 . . . . . (09) 417 4447 SDR Construction (Office) Level 29, 108 St Georges Terrace, Perth 6000 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (09) 481 3277 SDR Construction (Works) 174 Thomas Road, Kwinana 6167 . . . . . (09) 419 4844 Transfield Construction Pty Ltd (Office) PO Box 125, West Perth 6005 . . . . . . . . (09) 322 6244 Transfield Construction Pty Ltd (Works) Beard Street, Naval Base 6165 . . . . . . . (09) 410 1066 United Construction Group Pty Ltd Lot 449 Mandurah Road, Kwinana 6167 . (09) 419 2255 Uniweld Structural Co Pty Ltd 61A Coast Road, Beechboro 6063 . . . . . (09) 377 6666 Wenco Pty Ltd 1 Ladner Street, OConnor 6163 . . . . . . (09) 337 7600

VICTORIA
ABB Engineering Construction Pty Ltd 195 Wellington Road, Clayton 3168 . . . (03) 9560 9944 AKZ Engineering Pty Ltd 80 Latrobe Road, Morwell 3840 . . . . . . . (051) 34 3899 Alfasi Constructions Pty Ltd Level 5/434 St Kilda Road, Melbourne 3004 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (03) 9243 5520 A.M.S. Fabrications Pty Ltd 14 Park Drive, Dandenong 3175 . . . . . (03) 9706 5988 Associated Iron Industries 25-35 Japaddy Street, Mordialloc 3195 . (03) 9580 0744 Bahcon Steel Pty Ltd 549 Princes Highway, Morwell 3840 . . . . (051) 34 2877 Chapple Bros Engineers (Aust) Pty Ltd 80 Albert Street, East Preston 3072 . . . (03) 9478 4244 Fairbairn Steel Pty Ltd 8A Apsley Place, Seaford 3198 . . . . . . (03) 9786 2866 Freelance Engineering Pty Ltd 40 Slough Road, Altona 3018 . . . . . . . . (03) 9398 1790 Geelong Fabrications Pty Ltd 5-19 Madden Avenue, North Shore 3214 . (052) 75 7255 GFC Industries Pty Ltd 42 Glenbarry Road, Campbellfield 3061 (03) 9357 9900 Grinter Manufacturing Pty Ltd 75 Heales Road, Corio 3214 . . . . . . . . . (052) 75 2751 John Beever (Aust) Pty Ltd 78 Berkshire Road, North Sunshine 3020 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (03) 9312 4811 Metalform Structures Pty Ltd 22 Fowler Road, Dandenong 3175 . . . . (03) 9706 7644 Monks Harper Fabrications Pty Ltd Lot 7 Tatterson Road, Dandenong 3175 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (03) 9794 0888 Page Steel Fabrications Pty Ltd 9-11 Sutton Street, Spotswood 3015 . . (03) 9399 1600 P & G Genis Steel Construction 10 Spences Street, Thomastown 3074 . (03) 9465 1287 Stanley Welding Industries Pty Ltd 19 Sullivan Street, Moorabbin 3189 . . . (03) 9555 5611 Vale Engineering Co Pty Ltd 170 Gaffney Street, Coburg 3058 . . . . . (03) 9350 5655

SOUTH AUSTRALIA
Adelaide Profile Services 8 Waddikee Road, Lonsdale 5160 . . . . . (08) 384 6449 Ahrens Engineering Pty Ltd William Street, Sheaoak Log 5371 . . . . . (085) 24 9045 R C & M L Johnson Pty Ltd 671 Magill Road, Magill 5072 . . . . . . . . . (08) 333 0188 Samaras Structural Engineers 61-67 Plymouth Road, Wingfield 5013 . . (08) 268 7988 Transfield Construction Pty Ltd Jacobs Street, Whyalla Norrie 5608 . . . . (086) 44 0099

TASMANIA
Crisp Bros Pty Ltd 160 Hobart Road, Kings Meadows 7249 . (003) 44 4144 Dowling Constructions Pty Ltd 46 Formby Road, Devonport 7310 . . . . . (004) 23 1099

A NATIONAL BODY TO PROMOTE THE USE OF STEEL IN CONSTRUCTION SPONSORED AND SUSTAINED BY AUSTRALIAS FABRICATORS, STEELMAKERS AND ALLIED INDUSTRIES.

AUSTRALIAN INSTITUTE OF STEEL CONSTRUCTION


Level 13, 99 Mount Street North Sydney NSW 2060 Telephone (02) 9929 6666

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