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What is the theory of multiple intelligences (M.I.)?

Intelligence is the ability to solve problems or to create products that are values within one or more cultural settings. Howard Gardner claims that all human beings have multiple intelligences. These multiple intelligences can be nurtured and strengthened, or ignored and weakened. He believes each individual has eight intelligences: Verbal-Linguistic Intelligence -- well-developed verbal skills and sensitivity to the sounds, meanings and rhythms of words Mathematical-Logical Intelligence -- ability to think conceptually and abstractly, and capacity to discern logical or numerical patterns Musical Intelligence -- ability to produce and appreciate rhythm, pitch and timber Visual-Spatial Intelligence -- capacity to think in images and pictures, to visualize accurately and abstractly Bodily-Kinesthetic Intelligence -- ability to control one's body movements and to handle objects skillfully Interpersonal Intelligence -- capacity to detect and respond appropriately to the moods, motivations and desires of others. Intrapersonal Intelligence -- capacity to be self-aware and in tune with inner feelings, values, beliefs and thinking processes Naturalist Intelligence -- ability to recognize and categorize plants, animals and other objects in nature "How can our knowledge, given the intelligences, help us learn to think like a historian, like a scientist, and so on? If we don't change the way people think about those things, then school is a waste of time after elementary school." -- Dr. Howard Gardner, Harvard University Gardner's multiple intelligences theory challenged traditional beliefs in the fields of education and cognitive science. Multiple intelligence theory has served as a rallying point for a reconsideration of the educational practice of the last century.

Traditional intelligences

Multiple intelligences

Intelligence can be measured by shortanswer tests:

Assessment of an individual's multiple intelligences can foster learning and problemsolving styles. Short answer tests are not used

Stanford-Binet Intelligence Quotient Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISCIV) Woodcock Johnson test of Cognitive Ability Scholastic Aptitude Test

because they do not measure disciplinary mastery or deep understanding. They only measure rote memorization skills and one's ability to do well on short answer tests. Some states have developed tests that value process over the final answer, such as PAM (Performance Assessment in Math) and PAL (Performance Assessment in Language)

People are born with a fixed amount of intelligence.

Human beings have all of the intelligences, but each person has a unique combination, or profile.

Intelligence level does not change over a lifetime.

We can all improve each of the intelligences, though some people will improve more readily in one intelligence area than in others.

Intelligence consists of ability in logic and language.

There are many more types of intelligence which reflect different ways of interacting with the world

In traditional practice, teachers teach the same material to everyone.

M.I. pedagogy implies that teachers teach and assess differently based on individual intellectual strengths and weaknesses.

Teachers teach a topic or "subject."

Teachers structure learning activities around an issue or question and connect subjects. Teachers develop strategies that allow for students to demonstrate multiple ways of understanding and

value their uniqueness.

Factors Affecting the Intelligence There is a wide variety of individual differences in people's intellectual abilities. Some are more intelligent than others. The differences are so much that some change the course of human civilization through their intellectual innovations, a few others even find it difficult to master a problem simple addition. Inheritance affects intelligence inherit (nature) Hereditary factors are based on the genetic make up of the individual influences growth and development throughout life. The offspring inherits genetic characteristics from his parents. Environmental Factors (nuture) Heredity alone cannot account for all the individual differences in intelligence. The role of environment cannot be underestimated. Environment consists of a wide range of stimulations that the child is subjected to. He lives and grows in his environment. It provides him the necessary input and experiential base for intellectual development. Enrichment or deficiency of the environment would obviously produce differences in his abilities. Adults should carefully monitor child's environment to help him perform at optimal efficiency level. Environment starts showing its actions right from the moment of chi conception. Both the prenatal environment (when the baby/fetus is in mothers womb), and the postnatal environment (after the child is born) influence intellectual capabilities of the child. The prenatal stage is extremely important as a fertilized egg is shaped the form of a human being during this period. Rapid development takes place in major organs and brain cells. If things go wrong during this period, the effects are nearly irreversible or are very difficult to correct. The major prenatal environmental influences are: (a) mother's nutrition, (b) mother's emotional state, (c) illness of the mother, (d) mother's use of drugs, and (e) birth complications.

An undernourished mother cannot provide adequate nutrition to the grow baby. As a result, the baby is likely to be underweight, and more susceptible to diseases. Lack of nutrition would have an adverse impact on the mental development of the child. Maternal diseases for examples diabetes, rubella, AIDS and high blood pressure may produce permanent adverse effects on the baby. The brain d of the baby would either be damaged or not grow properly. The intellect development may be arrested. The consequences may be devastating to such an extent that later environmental enrichment programs for the child may totally ineffective. When we speak of environmental determinants of intelligence, we ordinarily mean the environment the child faces after he is born (Postnatal Environment) . Environment consists of a heterogeneous array of stimulations ranging from home experiences to the ecology of the natural habitat. Enriched environment accelerates cognitive development, while impoverished environment produces just the opposite effect. Home is the first learning institution for the child during his early years of development. The home environment consists of all the mental and behavioral transactions taking place among the family members. The environment can be stressful or supportive for the child. A supportive and warm home environment that encourages exploration, curiosity, and self reliance leads to higher intellectual competence in children (Kelly & Woreil, 1977). Children of the upper socioeconomic status (SES) of the society are exposed to more intellectual stimulation, get better social opportunities, and are nurtured with better nutrition. All these are believed to influence their intellectual development in a positive direction. The index of socioeconomic status (SES) is based on parental education, occupation, and income. The higher is the socioeconomic status of the parents, the higher is the average IQ of children. The physiological conditions such as nutrition, health, drugs, disease, and physical injury affect the cognitive competence of the child. Healthy body gives a healthy mind. The mental development is associated with biochemical processes and hormones within the body. The biological processes within the body provide a necessary but not sufficient condition for intellectual development. Poor health and susceptibility to diseases would retard the growth of brain cells, and consequently the intellectual skills. Physical injury to the brain during early childhood years

is likely to result in minimal brain damage thus seriously restricting the development of intellectual faculty. How can the Multiple Intelligences be implemented in the classroom? Assess Student Intelligences In order to focus on MI, teachers need to learn the specific aptitudes of each of their students. One way to do this is to offer a steady stream of varied activities, and then pay close attention to the types of intelligences students display as they solve problems and complete tasks. "You've got to be sure you know your children," To implement Gardner's theory in an educational setting, teacher can organized classroom into seven learning centers, each dedicated to one of the seven intelligences. The students spend approximately two-thirds of each school day moving through the centers - 15 to 20 minutes at each center. Curriculum is thematic, and the centers provide seven different ways for the students to learn the subject matter. Examples of activities at each center follow:

In the Personal Work Center (Intrapersonal Intelligence), students explore the present area of study through research, reflection, or individual projects.

In the Working Together Center (Interpersonal Intelligence), they develop cooperative learning skills as they solve problems, answer questions, create learning games, brainstorm ideas and discuss that day's topic collaboratively.

In the Music Center (Musical Intelligence), students compose and sing songs about the subject matter, make their own instruments, and learn in rhythmical ways.

In the Art Center (Spatial Intelligence), they explore a subject area using diverse art media, manipulables, puzzles, charts, and pictures.

In the Building Center (Kinesthetic Intelligence), they build models, dramatize events, and dance, all in ways that relate to the content of that day's subject matter.

In the Reading Center (Verbal/Linguistic Intelligence), students read, write, and learn in many traditional modes. They analyze and organize information in written form.

In the Math & Science Center (Logical/ Mathematical Intelligence), they work with math games, manipulatives, mathematical concepts, science experiments, deductive reasoning, and problem solving.

The following list provides a survey of the techniques and materials that can be employed in teaching through the multiple intelligences. Verbal-Linguistic choral speaking, declarizing , story telling, retelling , speaking , debating, presenting , reading aloud , dramatizing , book making, nonfiction reading , researching , listening ,process writing , writing journals Logical-Mathematical problem solving, measuring , coding ,sequencing , critical thinking, predicting, playing logic games, collecting data, experimenting, solving puzzles, classifying, using manipulatives, learning the scientific model, using money, using geometry Visual-Spatial graphing, photographing, making visual metaphors, making visual analogies, mapping stories, making 3d, projects, painting, illustrating, using charts, using, organizers, visualizing, sketching, patterning, visual puzzles Bodily-Kinesthetic hands on experiments, activities, changing room arrangement, creative movement, going on field trips, physical education activities, crafts, dramatizing, using, cooperative groups, dancing Musical humming, rapping, playing background music, patterns form, playing instruments, tapping out poetic rhythms, rhyming, singing Interpersonal classroom parties, peer editing, cooperative learning, sharing, group work, forming clubs, peer teaching, social awareness, conflict mediation, discussing, cross age tutoring, study group, brainstorming Intrapersonal personal response, individual study, personal goal setting, individual projects, journal log keeping, personal choice in projects, independent reading


reading outside, cloud watching, identifying insects, building habitats, identifying plants, using a microscope dissecting, going on a nature walk, build a garden studying the stars, bird watching, collecting rocks, making bird feeders, going to the zoo

What is Emotional Intelligence? Emotional intelligence (EI) refers to the ability to perceive, control and evaluate emotions. 1. Emotional Skills 2. Developing emotional awareness 3. Managing emotions 4. Reading emotions 5. Handling relationships According to Salovey and Mayer (1990) emotional intelligence is the ability to: 1. Perceive and express emotion accurately and adaptively 2. Understand emotion and emotional knowledge 3. Use emotion to facilitate thought 4. Manage emotions in oneself and others Emotional Intelligence in the Classroom 1. Creating a Positive Learning Environment Here are some traits of a positive learning environment: Safe-- Free from fear of physical, psychological or emotional pain and abuse. Free from threats, force, punishment, coercion, manipulation, pressure, stress, intimidation, humiliation, embarrassment, invalidation. Free -- Students have real choices. Participation in activities and lessons is voluntary. Respectful -- Students and teachers respect each other's feelings, emotional needs, beliefs, values and uniqueness. Individual/Supportive/Nurturing -- Students are treated individually. Their individual needs, talents, potential and interests are supported.

Emotionally Intelligent -- Feelings are valued, discussed, validated. EI is part of the formal and informal curriculum. Relevant/Meaningful/Practical -- Material helps students with real problems in their lives. Life skills, relationship skills and parenting skills are taught. Empathetic & Caring -- Students and teachers care about each others feelings. Interesting/Stimulating -- The material and the environment stimulate the student's natural curiosity and need to learn. Flexible -- Changes are made frequently, easily and smoothly