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SOCRATES father of political and moral philosophy mentor of Plato didn't write anything (Euthypro by Plato) charges: o impiety to the gods o corruption of young minds key ideas: o ironic modesty o questioning habit: (Socratic Method) o devotion to the truth o arguing both sides of a question o social criticisms famous quotes: o The unexamined .life is not worth living. o A wise man knows what is right and will also do what is right. II. PLATO most famous student of Socrates real name is Aristocles started his own academy wrote the Socratic Dialogues o The Apology o The Crito wrote The Republic o ideal state o marriage and family life o education o economy o politics o ethics o religion o natural knowledge and reality o human destiny key ideas: o two realities idea - ultimate reality, permanent, eternal, spiritual phenomena - a manifestation of the ideal; imperfect and will decay o Theory of Knowledge knowledge is attainable, certain, and absolute it is not derived from sense experience o Allegory of the Cave God is the ultimate reality shadowy environment of the cave - physical world of appearances

sun filled setting outside the cave - world filled with perfect beings, proper object of knowledge o Philosopher Kings those trusted with the government should be specially educated with philosophy o Dichotomy of Human Beings body - material, mortal, moved soul - ideal, immortal, unmoved o Three Levels of Pleasure sensual or physical - sex sensuous or esthetic admiration of beauty ideal pleasure - intellectual love o Three Souls appetite - mortal; live in the gut or stomach spirit or courage - mortal; lives in the heart reason - immortal; lives in the brain o 4 Cardinal Virtues Virtue is knowledge and the source of knowledge is virtue. wisdom courage fortitude temperance and justice famous quotes: o "Man is a knower." o "Until philosophers become kings, or the kings and princes of this world have the spirit and power of philosophy, the world will have no rest from evil."

moral - one becomes good by doing good (e.g. courage, justice, friendship, truthfulness)

o o o o

4 Causes material cause - what an object is made from, its matter formal cause - how matter is organized or structured efficient cause - how something came to be what it is final cause - purpose of something Golden Mean - avoid all extremes Exitus et Reditus Principle - all things come from God and return to God Man is a rational animal. God is the unmoved mover.

IV. EPICURUS Epicureanism - philosophy of Epicurus atomistic materialism o all physical bodies are the result of combinations of atoms o immortality of the soul is impossible o death is not to be feared for it is simply the dissolution of the atomic structure hedonism (pleasure) o Pleasure is the only good in life. o o ethical hedonism - We ought to act in such a way to produce the greatest amount of pleasure psychological hedonism - we take pleasure in all our acts

Concept of Good Life : avoidance of pain

III. ARISTOTLE mentor of Alexander the Great Plato's prized student founded the school in Athens called the Lyceum the peripatetic philosopher - walks around during lectures key ideas: o 2 Types of Virtues intellectual - acquired by teaching and requires foresight and sophisticated intelligence (e.g. wisdom, understanding, prudence) knowledgecafe2013 april2013 PHILOSOPHY: Greek Philosophers