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Board of Geology

Syllabi in Geology Courses


I. General Geology..................................................40% Its scope, branches and relation to other sciences: The Planet Earth Earths statistics, size and shape, its atmosphere, hydrosphere, mountain belts, oceanic ridges, trenches, islands arcs, volcanic chains, earthquake distribution/pattern. Earth Material Relative abundance of elements in the atmosphere and in the earths crust: minerals and common rock forming minerals: economic values and their occurrences in the Philippines. Description of the general rock types: Igneous, metamorphic and sedimentary. Igneous rock classes and varieties with emphasis in those found in the Philippines: origin and composition of magma. Extrusive phenomena - lava and pyroclastics: eruption types, prediction and related phenomena. Intrusive phenomena - dikes, sills, batholiths, Philippine examples. Distribution of igneous rocks in the Philippines. Weathering - physical and chemical: product of weathering, soil types and profile. Erosion - hydrosphere, hydrologic cycle, streams and stream erosion, ocean and wave erosion. Sedimentation and sedimentary rocks - Basins of deposition, geosyneline, transformation of sedimentary rock, distribution of sedimentary rocks in the Philippines. Rock Deformation - fractures, folding of rocks, processes affecting sediments, transformation of sediments into sedimentary rocks, types of sedimentary rocks, distribution of sedimentary rocks. Fracturing, Faulting and folding of rocks, strike-anddip concept: geologic maps. Records in rocks: fossils, relative and absolute time scale, geologic age of Philippine rocks. Mountain building: Geostasy, processes occurring in the earths interior, processes related to uplifting of geosynclinal deposits, continental drift, seaflow spreading, plate tectonics, and other theories. Metamorphic rocks and metamorphism Agents of metamorphism, temperature, pressure, and chemically active fluids. Types of metamorphism: contact, regional, isograd. Geologic evolution of the Philippines Principles of structural geology Earthquakes, volcanism and the earths interior Historical geology, stratigraphy, geomorphology Fieldworks. Report writing Field methods - geology and geologic mapping II. Applied Geological Sciences ............................... 30% A. Ore Deposits (Economic Mineral Deposits and their Occurrences):

1. Definitions/Descriptions 2. Metallogenic Provinces and Epochs 3. Ore genesis and concepts, mode of formation of mineral deposits: association of ore forming mineral with igneous, metamorphic and sedimentary rocks. Chemical depositional controls of mineral deposits. Physical depositional controls of mineral deposits. Classification of economic mineral deposits. Recognition of associated alterations - hypogene, supergene, cappings, wallrock alterations, etc. Ores guides. Mineralogy and petrology as related to association and genesis of ore deposits. a. Use of crystallography, X-ray method, Xray fluorescence, electron microprobe, differential thermal analysis, etc. b. Fluid inclusion studies. c. Polished section and mineragraphic study.

4. Classification of Reserves and Resources: Current classification/definitions/guiding principles. Significant aspects of existing definitions. Ore reserve and resource calculation. Categories and aspects. Quantitative aspects. 5. Exploration for Mineral Deposits: General definition/descriptions of different phases of exploration: Regional, reconnaissance and detailed exploration activities. Organization of an exploration program. Data compilation/Preparation of base maps. Geologic features of various economic mineral deposits. Exploration methods - Search for economic mineral deposits. Mapping, photogeology, geophysical and geochemical surveys, alteration studies, structural analysis, recognition of path finders, etc. Primary target investigation. Evaluation of outcrops, surface assessment work, sampling, assays, drilling, core logging, etc. Interpretation and modeling. Case studies.

The examinee should be able to classify and identify the following: A. Genetic types of Philippine mineral deposits: 1. Gold - Vein: Placer: Contact Metasomatic; Disseminated and/or Porphyry 2. Iron - Contact metasomatic, Sand deposits, laterite deposits, bedded sedimentary deposits,spring deposits, bog deposits 3. 3. Chromite - Primary podiform chromite deposits; Residual/transported deposits 4. Nickel - Primary nickel sulphide deposits.Epithermal deposits, Laterite deposits

5. Manganese - Primary and secondary manganese deposits 6. Copper - Porphyry deposits: Vein types; Kuroko-type; Cyprus-type; Besshi-type; contact metasomatic; 7. Lead and zinc - Vein type 8. Molybdenum - Contact mesatomatic; porphyry type; Vein type B. Economic (Commercial) Classifications: 1. Precious Metals - Examples: Gold and silver 2. Iron and Ferroalloys - Examples: Iron, chromite, nickel, and manganese 3.Non-ferrous - Examples: Copper, lead and zinc, molybdenum, aluminum, mercury 4. - Examples: Guano, phosphate rocks, limestone, dolomite, magnesite, peat 5. Industrial and manufacturing materials - Examples: Asbestos, barite, bentomite, diatomite, feldspar, gypsum, perlite, silica, cement raw materials, etc. 6. Structural and building materials - Examples: Marble, pumice and pumicite, rock aggregates, rock asphalt, sand and gravel 7. Energy mineral resources - Examples: Hydrocarbons, coal, geothermal energy, Radioactive minerals 8. Gemstone and decorative materials - Examples: Jade, jasper, tektite, obsidian, petrifield wood. C. Organization Exploration Programs 1. Organize an Exploration Program Objective setting/Exploration strategy Setting financial goals Scanning and target generation Risk evaluation Timetable Exploration logistics Information management Legal aspects Environment and the ecosystem 2. Drilling, Sampling and Estimation of Reserves: Design and financing of drilling program Diamond drilling - core logging Estimation of ore reserves Sampling optimization and assaying: Estimation practices, geostatistical estimation guides. Mining and Metallurgical considerations

B. Geophysics 1. Definitions and general principles applied in different geophysical methods in mineral exploration - gravity, magnetic, electrical, seismic, radiometric, satellite remote sensing, etc. 2. Geologic and economic considerations. Classifications and scientific basis of geophysical methods. Technique of application Specific factors governing application and choice of geophysical methods.

Field application/data interpretation. Economics of methods. C. Geochemistry 1. Types of surveys. 2. Identification of primary and secondary environments. Primary environment deals with: distribution of elements in minerals and igneous rocks. primary haloes and primary dispersion pathfinders geochemical provinces geochemical associations Secondary environment involves: chemical weathering physical weathering environmental factors affecting weathering soil application of pH & Eh values absorption mobility in secondary environment ground water, river water, lake water and sediments 3. Actual application of field methods for stream sediments, soil, rocks and water and lake sediments. Orientation survey Identification of primary and secondary dispersion patterns both in regional and detailed surveys. Vegetation Survey - geobotany and biogeocheistry Analytical methods - collection and preparation of samples for analysis Statistical treatment of geochemical data Background values, regional variation, correlation between elements. Classification of samples, anomaly detection and interpretation, etc. 4. Computer application in geochemical exploration Design of exploration programs Data collection Data reduction and interpretation

D. Environment Protection Social and political context Geological and engineering perspective Regulatory objectives Corporate strategies E. Exercise in the Preparation of a Feasibility Study: The merit of implementing an exploration program and project development on a scale which will provide sufficient information to indicate clearly whether the deposit can be made commercially viable. Objective of a feasibility study/corporate policy Date collection/outline layout

Geological and engineering aspects Economic aspects Sensitivity analysis Risk analysis Financial strategies Decision making F. Petroleum Geology Origin and petroleum generation Regional geological framework Identification and classification of depositional environments and reservoirs. Lithostratigraphic and structural controls favorable for petroleum deposition and accumulation Migration study Seismic investigation of target structure/ interpretation Well and log evaluation Prognosis of producing Palawan offshore wells Petroleum geochemistry G. Technical Report Writing The examinee should convey a clear and coherent level of communication skill and proficiency. III. Petrology and Mineralogy A. Mineralogy 1. Crystallography a. Internal structure, properties, symmetry and notation of crystals b. Measurement of crystal angles and projection c. Classes of crystal system d. Isometric; Hexagonal; Tetragonal Orthorhombic, Monoclimic; Tryclimic system 2. Physical Properties of Minerals a. Cleanage, Parting and fracture b. Tenacity, Sp. Gravity c. Optical properties of minerals 1. Color, streak, luster 2. Reflection and Refraction, Index of refraction 3. Isotropic crystal and Roche line method 4. Uniaxial crystals 5. Biaxial crystals 6. Extinction angle 7. Birefringence d. Electrical and magnetic properties 3. Chemistry of Minerals - Principles of crystal structure of minerals, coordination principle, radius ratio, relation of radius ratio and coordination number of ions as rigid sphere. a. Structure of silicates b. Latice energy of crystals c. Isomorphism, atomic substitution d. Basic chemical composition of magma and igneous rocks e. Structure of minerals - silica and silicates, feldspars, felspathoids, pyroxene group, amphibole group, oblique group

f. Nature of silicate melt g. Pyroxene -Plagioclase system h. Magmatic crystallization i. Minor elements of magmatic crystallization j. Geochemical process and sedimentation k. Chemical and Mineralogical composition of sedimentary rocks l. Physiochemical factors in sedimentary colloids and colloidal processes m. Products of sedimentation 4. Identification of common rock forming minerals 5. Nomenclature and classification of igneous rocks a. Chemical and Quasi chemical classification b. Textural classification c. Qualitative mineral classification d. Calcalic-basic igneous rocks e. Alkali-rich basic igneous rocks f. Ultrabasic rocks and lamprophyres g. Intermediate rocks h. Acid ingneous rocks i. Phyroclastic rocks 6. Metamorphism and metamorphic rocks a. Chemical composition of metamorphic rocks b. Mineralogy of metamorphism c. Stability of minerals d. Thermodynamic of metamorphism e. Phase rule in metamorphism f. Facies Principle g. Mineral transformation and the facies principle h. Metamorphism and metasomatism i. Accessory elements in metamorphism j. Petrographic criteria and products of metamorphism k. Conditions controlling metamorphism l. Types of metamorphism m. Characteristics of metamorphic Fabric n. Basis of classification of metamorphic rocks o. Textural class of metamorphic rocks p. Chemical classes of metamorphic rocks q. Hornfelses and slates r. Cataclasites, mylomites and phyllomites s. Slates, phyllites and low metamorph schists t. High grade schists, amphibolites, granulites and eclogites