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Cleaning In Place (CIP) System Design Manual


A cleaning In Place (CIP) system is designed to clean a liquid processing plant without the need to strip it down into component parts, and manually clean with scourers etc. The benefit of a CIP system, is that once set-up, it will clean the plant equipment, time and again, while the operators get on with other duties, i.e. it is supposed to be labour saving. It is possible to have a very simple manual CIP system, but here there is little benefit of labour saving. A CIP system has to be designed properly to match the plant being cleaned. The primary function is soil removal, but also to sanitise the process equipment. This document is designed as an outline guide for correct CIP system design and selection.

A Microdat Pharmaceutical Grade Single Shot Total Loss Automatic CIP System

Microdat is a trading name of Microdat.co.uk Limited. Microdat.co.uk Limited is a company registered in England and Wales with company number 4299819. Registered Office: Microdat.co.uk Limited, Lowfields Road, Leeds, LS12 6BS. Telephone +44 (0) 113 244 5225, Fax: +44 (0) 113 244 5226. Website: www.microdat.co.uk , Email: info@microdat.co.uk , VAT Number: 780 5449 11.

SOIL REMOVAL For effective cleaning we need to consider : Temperature + Scouring Action + Time + Detergent Type & Concentration If any of these aspects are not sufficient, then cleaning will be compromised.
1.1

TEMPERATURE Most detergents become more effective when hot, and in a dairy, where the soiling is fat based, temperature is very important. Use of hot (80C) CIP will also effectively pasteurise the plant, killing off any possibility of infections. However, given the additional energy requirements, Hot CIP has largely been replaced in small breweries, with the use of cold detergents and chemical terminal sanitisers in the final rinse, except for the brewhouse, where hot CIP assists in the removal of sugars.

1.2

SCOURING ACTION - PIPES A scouring action is required to assist the detergent to remove the soiling in pipework systems. When fluid passes down a pipe, contact with the tube internal wall creates friction. At low velocity this friction has little effect, and the flow is smooth and laminar. However, at higher velocity, the flow becomes very turbulent, and this turbulence creates an internal scouring action.

1.3

SCOURING ACTION - TANKS In tank cleaning, scouring action can be provided by a modern CIP tank cleaning head. These devices create jets of fluid, like a high-pressure hose, cutting into and removing soiling. With a cleaning head, there is some reliance on a soaking action, and also more reliance on the action of the detergent. More detail about cleaning heads is provided the CIP system design section.
GRAIN DISCHARGE
1"OD 2"OD

9600 kg/hr

1"OD

Vent
LIGHT

3200 Kg MASH TUN SA3354

WORM & GEAR

P107
2"OD SP 2"OD

Tank Cleaning Application In A Brewhouse

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2"OD

STEELES MASHER SA3353

1.4

TIME CONSIDERATIONS The minimum time for a CIP cycle is dependent upon all the other factors; correct scouring action, detergent type & concentration, and temperature. If one part of the equation is not ideal, then extending the time can sometimes compensate. Too little time, and the soiling will not be removed, but there is little benefit in massively over extending cycle times.

1.5

DETERGENT TYPES & CONCENTRATIONS The correct choice of detergents contributes strongly to the effectiveness of CIP. The standard in small to medium breweries is Caustic Soda (Sodium Hydroxide), which is cheap and readily available. CIP detergents also contain additional active components, referred to as sequestrants, and surfactants, which are designed to keep soiling in suspension once removed from the surfaces, and to reduce foaming and to give other beneficial properties. Other chemicals are sometimes added by the supplier, to create specific cocktails providing benefits to plant problems, such as beer-stone removal. In some brewery applications, with high CO2 atmospheres, an acid based detergent will be recommended. This is because Sodium Hydroxide reacts with Carbon Dioxide, and in closed vessels this can lead, in extreme cases, to tank collapse. In atmospheric tanks, this reaction is less of a concern, except that the effectiveness of the caustic solution is steadily neutralised by CO2, and as a by-product, the reaction generates Sodium Carbonate. This degeneration is difficult to detect in an automatic CIP system, which uses conductivity instrumentation to control the caustic concentration. In any case in a brewery application, the caustic should be regularly checked and refreshed as necessary Once the correct chemical is selected, the correct concentration must be used. Generally, the suppliers guidelines should be followed, but given that their business is built on selling chemicals in bulk, their recommendations should be checked with general industry practices. Use of strongly chlorinated products, and strong concentrations of sodium hypochlorite should be avoided if possible, as they are corrosive to stainless steel. Heat exchangers are particularly vulnerable, due to their very thin plates. When used hot, these products can contribute to the causes of stress corrosion cracking in stainless steel tanks. Highly chlorinated products should be rinsed from the system, using either hot water, UV treated water or using a further terminal sanitiser.

Caustic Soda For A Brewery CIP System

Warning: Detergents should never be mixed, either in dilute or concentrate form, unless specifically directed by your supplier as violent and potentially deadly reactions can occur.
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TERMINAL SANITISERS Terminal Sanitisers are used at the end of the final rinse to kill any residual or introduced microorganisms in the plant following the final rinse. They are recirculated at CIP velocities and through tank cleaning heads, and have a defined minimum contact time. The most commonly used terminal sanitiser is Peracetic Acid (also known as peroxyacetic acid) (PAA). Some sanitisers, such as Sodium Hypochlorite and Hydrogen Peroxide are highly corrosive to stainless steel, and so should be avoided. PAA is favoured because it breaks down in food to safe and environmentally friendly residues (water, acetic acid, low strength hydrogen peroxide and oxygen). It is left to drain down following CIP without any final rinsing. As with all chemicals, there are hazards. PAA is a very strong oxidiser, and is very harmful in contact with the skin or eyes, especially in neat form. It should never be handled manually without adequate PPE. PAA can present a fire or explosion hazard, because when it breaks down, it produces oxygen. If PAA is left in a closed system, it will slowly build in pressure as the chemical denatures. It is important to leave tanks and pipework to drain following sanitising. PAA is not compatible with natural rubbers, so valve and pipe seals etc. have to be carefully selected, and some dosing systems, which use rubber components are not suitable. Finished beer can be affected by residual PAA in pipework systems, due to oxygen generation. Where this is critical, for instance beer for bottling, hot water can be used to purge PAA from the pipework prior to the beer transfer. This is not considered a problem in cask beer production.

Microdats Standard Low Cost Twin Tank Automatic CIP System


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PLANT DESIGN FOR CIP For effective CIP, the production plant must be designed correctly. Hygienic components, designed for CIP must be used, with no crevices or dead spots. Pipework systems must be designed with no dead legs, and diameters of pipe should be consistent to allow correct CIP velocities in all sections of the pipework route. There should be no restrictions to flow rate in the system (i.e. positive displacement pumps should have a CIP bypass facility).

CIP PLANT CONFIGUARTIONS According to the conditions, capital availability, and preferences of the brewer, a number of systems are available.
4.1

SINGLE TANK CAUSTIC STORAGE SYSTEM A single tank CIP system can be used to store and recirculate caustic in a closed loop. Pre rinse and final rinses in this system, are fed directly from the mains, and this is often difficult to accommodate, given the flowrate required for turbulent flow. Water authority bylaws also restrict direct connection of CIP systems, to their water mains without a break tank.

4.2

SINGLE TANK TOTAL LOSS SYSTEMS This system uses a single tank for all rinses, which are drained at the end of each rinse cycle. These systems have low capital costs, but very high running costs, and are only really used in critical non-contamination applications like in the pharmaceutical industry.

Typical Microdat Total Loss System

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4.3

MULTI-TANK SYSTEMS Rinse Water Break Tank Used either where the flowrate of mains water in the brewery is insufficient to provide turbulent flow in the pipework, or when there is no other water break tank in the facility. The water break tank is used to store enough fresh water for at least one CIP cycle. Recovered Rinse Water Tank After a detergent cycle, the fresh water used as a post rinse and the terminal sanitisers are collected and re-used as the pre-rinse for the next CIP cycle. This saves both water usage and effluent costs. Detergent Tanks A tank is used to store a batch of dilute detergent, which is recirculated around the plant and returned back to the detergent tank again. Some larger breweries may use both caustic and acid based detergents in which case the CIP set may have two detergent tanks. Use of a detergent tank saves costs of chemicals when compared to single tank total loss systems.

Typical Microdat Rinse Recovery System

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CIP PLANT DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS


5.1

TANK CLEANING HEADS Modern tank cleaning heads are designed to utilise a jet of fluid. This provides a good scouring action on the tank walls. There are other cleaning, heads usually referred to as spray balls, which provide a lower pressure of spray, which then relies more on temperature, detergent strength and time, to achieve consistent cleaning of the vessel (rather than scouring action).

A Selection of Spray Balls & Rotary Cleaning Heads

The choice of cleaning head is often a combination of price vs performance. In a small diameter vessel, the choice of low cost cleaning heads is greater than in high diameter vessels, where more complex specific designs are required to provide the right jetting action. There are other factors to consider in selecting a cleaning head. Tank cleaning CIP flow rate is sometimes matched to the fluid velocity required for cleaning the tank outlet, which is pipesize dependant. More usually however, best practice is to use the supply and scavenge pump control, to produce regular cycling of pooling and scavenging in the tank, to provide the outlet pipe cleaning. An important aspect in designing the CIP supply pump system, is to consider the flow and pressure performance curve of the pump, and to match it to the requirements of the cleaning head. If the CIP fluid is presented at too high pressure (at the stated flowrate), then the CIP fluid may atomise into a spray cloud, and conversely, at too low pressure, the intended jet would too weak to be effective. A cheap cleaning head will provide little benefit, in terms of reducing cycle times, and energy and effluent costs. However complex cleaning heads from mainstream suppliers for large vessels can cost upwards of 1000, and are not usually required in smaller breweries. It is important to get the balance right.
5.2

CIP SUPPLY PUMP A pipeline clean requires : A tank cleaning CIP head requires: Low Pressure + High Flowrate. High Pressure + Low Flowrate.

The CIP supply pump therefore ideally has a variable speed drive or inverter to provide various set-points to suit the plant. The variable speed drive can also be used if cleaning more than one pipe-size, to generate the correct flowrate. It is sometimes possible to match the cleaning head flow pressure requirements well with the pipe cleaning requirements, so removing the need for variable speed, but this is only really in simple applications.

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5.3

CIP SCAVENGE PUMPS When cleaning tanks with a CIP system, a scavenging pump is required to return CIP to the CIP set. It is important for tank cleaning, that the scavenging pump is capable of pumping a mixture of air and water, otherwise it will easily become air locked. This necessitates an expensive style of pump, either a liquid ring pump (which is best), or a self-priming pump. The scavenge pump control is usually started and stopped in conjunction with the CIP supply pump control, to create a pool of CIP fluid in the vessel. This is then pumped away at high velocity to match the tank outlet pipework, for effective turbulent flow, thus cleaning the outlet pipe.

5.4

CIP VELOCITY As explained earlier, it is critical to control flowrates in pipes to provide turbulent flow and therefore provide a scouring action. Turbulent flow is generated at flow velocities above 1.5m/second. It is recognised that there is no benefit in increasing the velocity past 2.1m/second, as diminishing benefits are realised and increases in energy usage and effluent are the only result. Flowrate Table For Different Pipe Sizes. Pipesize 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 Min CIP Velocity (1.5m/sec) 2.8 m3/hr. 6.3 m3/hr. 11.1 m3/hr. 17.4 m3/hr. 25.0 m3/hr. Ideal CIP Velocity (1.8m/sec) 3.3 m3/hr. 7.5 m3/hr. 13.3 m3/hr. 20.8 m3/hr. 30.0 m3/hr. Max CIP Velocity (2.1m/sec) 3.9 m3/hr. 8.7 m3/hr. 15.6 m3/hr. 24.3 m3/hr. 35.0 m3/hr.

5.5

INSTRUMENTATION Depending upon the depth of automation, instruments may include tank level switches or level transmitters, return flow switch or flow meter, supply flow switch or meter, CIP pump pressure transmitter, temperature transmitters, conductivity meter for caustic dosing control and return rinse water routing.

5.6

AUTOVALVES Pneumatic valves are used for automatic systems to route the different rinse fluids from and to the tanks and to drain.

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5.7

MULTI-CIRCUIT SYSTEMS Where there is a lot of different plant to be cleaned, a CIP system may be configured to clean more than one circuit at a time, A two, three or four circuit CIP system may be provided, serviced by the same tanks.

A 4 Circuit Multi-Tank CIP System 6

MICRODAT Microdat manufactures a full range of brewery equipment from malt intake to cask washing and filling. Microdats process division is expert in designing plant suitable for CIP and Microdat has a range of standard low cost, and bespoke CIP systems. For more information, you can e-mail your enquiry to : Sales@Microdat.co.uk Alternatively contact: Andy Humphrey Sales Director, Microdat 07785 930931

Technical paper written by: Matthew Hadwen, Chief Process Engineer, Microdat.co.uk Ltd.

Copyright Microdat.co.uk Ltd.


You are not permitted to distribute this document, either in paper, or electronic form, without the express permission of Microdat.co.uk Ltd.
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