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Weather Summary

Weather summary

2012 dry season was 300 mm. The same total rain accumulation trends were seen in 2012 and 2008, although that in 2012 had a slower start. The dry season in 2012 had a rainfall accumulation rate similar to that noted in the dry season of 2009, up until March. But the La Nia episode in 2009 continued to accumulate, reaching a total of 600 mm rainfall on April 30. The relatively dry seasons in 2010 and 2011 accumulated less than 120 mm rainfall. With 600 mm rainfall, it may be possible to grow rainfed rice during a dry cropping season with La Nia episodes. Annual rainfall for 2012 was 2162 mm for the IRRI dryland (upland) site and 2089 mm for the wetland (lowland) site. These values were 82.5 mm higher than the long-term average rainfall for the dryland site and 67 mm higher for the wetland site. Los Baos experienced above normal rainfall in March, turning the dry season into a wet season. The wettest day at IRRI occurred 25 October with more than 220 mm rainfall per day. The longest recorded continuous wet spell was 14 d (26 July8 August) at the dryland and wetland sites. The longest continuous dry spell was 20 d at the dryland site (21 February11 March) and 13 d at the wetland site (921 April). For both dryland and wetland sites, mean monthly solar radiation reached a peak in April (20.8 MJ m-2 d-1). It then gradually declined in December (12.5 MJ m-2 d-1). The highest recorded daily accumulated solar radiation occurred on 20 April (25.1 MJ m-2 d-1) at both sites. The highest mean monthly duration of bright sunshine was 9.6 h d-1 in April, declining to a low 3.7 h d-1 in August. The longest record of sunshine at Los Baos was on 10 June with 12.2 h of bright sunshine.

he patterns of rainfall accumulation from January 1 to April 30 had varied from 120 to 600 mm in the last 5 years. Total rainfall accumulation during the

IRRI Annual Report 2012

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Weather summary

IRRI wetland, dry season Accumulated rainfall (mm season-1) 700 600 500 400 300 200 100 0 Jan Feb Sowing date
o

2008 2011

2009 2012

2010

Mar

Apr

Maximum temperature reached its highest monthly C at the wetland site). Then, it gradually dropped to its C wetland). At the dryland site, the recorded averages

Mean early-morning relative humidity ranged from

evaporation totals were 1732 mm at the dryland site and 1628 mm at the wetland site. These values were 83.2 mm lower than the long term-evaporation total at the dryland site and 29 mm lower than the long-term evaporation total at the wetland site. Seventeen weather disturbances developed in the Philippine area of responsibility. Only four of them crossed the country. However, many of the disturbances that did not make landfall enhanced the southwest monsoon and produced heavy rains in Luzon. Two destructive typhoons (Quinta and Pablo) hit the Mindanao area unexpectedly in December.

mean value in May (33.9 oC at the dryland site and 33.2 lowest mean value in January (29.6 oC, dryland; 29.1
o

82 to 92 %. Midday vapor pressure deficit was consistent with the long-term trend at the wetland site and it remained minimal at the dryland site. Daily mean wind speed, measured at 2-m height was
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of maximum temperature were lower than long-term averages during the dry season. The hottest day in Los Baos was on 17 April 1981 with 36.8 oC of recorded maximum temperature. The distribution of minimum temperatures was more stable than that of maximum temperatures. Minimum air temperatures were generally similar to long-term monthly averages throughout the year. The coldest day of 2012 in Los Baos was on 24 February with 20.9 oC recorded temperature at the dryland site.

1.5 m s for the dryland site and 1.4 m s for the wetland site. Wind speed was generally low (<2.0 m s-1), except during the passage of tropical disturbances. Maximum 24-h average wind speed for 2012 was 1.8 m s-1 at the dryland site and 1.7 at the wetland site in August and December, respectively. Because of slightly higher air temperature, lower amount of rainfall, and higher vapor pressure deficit at midday, free water evaporation at the upland site was slightly higher than that at the wetland site. Open-pan

IRRI Annual Report 2012

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Weather summary

Solar radiation (MJ m2 d-1) 25 23 21 19 17 15 13 11 9 7 J F M A M J J A S O N D


2012 1979-2012 *SE

Rainfall (m s-1) 600 500 400 300 200 100 0 J F M A M J J A S O N D


2011 1979-2012 *SE

Fig. 1. Wetland annual and long-term solar radiation.


Air temperature (C) 33 31
Maximum

Fig. 3. Wetland annual and long-term rainfall.


Evaporation (mm mo1) 250


2012 1979-2012 *SE

200

29 150 27 25
Minimum 2012 1979-2012 SE

100

23 21

50

0 J F M A M J J A S O N D

Fig. 2. Wetland annual and long-term air temperature.


Fig. 4. Wetland annual and long-term evaporation.

IRRI Annual Report 2012

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Weather summary
Monthly weather data for the IRRI dryland (14 08' N, 121 15' E) and wetland sites (14 11' N, 121 15' E) in 2012 and long-term averages for dryland and wetland sites from 1979 to 2012. Site Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Annual total or average Sum (mm yr-1) 70 246 75 233 498 325 458 302 472 261 465 243 172 235 147 244 326 280 319 292 83 238 76 231 66 163 63 159 2162 2080 2089 2022 Sum (mm yr-1) 173 162 160 147 129 142 123 137 140 143 128 132 125 129 112 121 133 128 124 118 144 116 129 107 127 115 116 104 1732 1815 1628 1657 Av (C) 32.6 24.2 32.8 24.2 32.2 24.7 32.2 24.6 31.3 24.1 31.8 23.8 31.0 24.6 31.3 24.2 30.6 24.3 31.5 23.9 30.6 24.6 31.1 24.3 31.3 24.3 31.7 23.7 31.1 24.8 31.2 24.1 31.2 23.4 31.2 23.7 30.874 23.6 30.7 23.9 31.4 24.2 30.5 23.5 30.7 24.2 29.9 23.6 30.5 23.7 29.2 22.7 29.8 23.8 28.5 22.7 31.3 23.8 31.5 23.4 30.8 24.1 30.6 23.6 Av (%) 84 83 84 83 90 85 87 85 89 86 86 86 92 86 88 86 88 86 85 86 88 85 83 85 89 85 86 85 87 84 86 84 Av (m s-1) 1.7 1.4 1.4 1.3 1.5 1.4 1.3 1.3 1.8 1.6 1.5 1.3 0.9 1.3 0.9 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.2 1.2 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.4 1.4 1.7 1.7 1.7 1.5 1.5 1.3 1.4 Daily av (MJ m-2) 14.9 17.2 16.6 17.4 13.3 16.3 14.6 16.3 12.2 15.6 12.9 15.6 14.1 15.9 14.3 15.7 14.5 14.9 14.2 14.8 15.3 13.6 14.8 13.5 12.9 12.5 12.5 12.2 14.7 16.4 15.2 16.4 Daily av (h) 7.2 7.4 6.2 6.0 4.9 5.2 3.7 4.7 4.0 4.8 5.6 5.2 7.4 5.4 5.6 4.6 5.9 6.0

Rainfall (mm mo-1) IRRI, dryland site (14 08' N, 121 15' E) Long-term average (1979-2012) IRRI, wetland site (14 11' N, 121 15' E) Long-term average (1979-2012) 64 44 84 50 82 29 87 29 109 46 111 43 39 53 35 52 183 160 171 143
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Evaporation (mm mo ) IRRI, dryland site Long-term average (1979-2012) IRRI, wetland site Long-term average (1979-2012) 118 135 118 118 130 148 118 131 140 191 124 174 196 209 198 189 177 198 178 178

Temperature (oC) IRRI, dryland site Max Min Long-term average Max Min IRRI, wetland site Max Min Long-term average Max Min 29.6 23.4 29.4 22.1 29.1 23.5 28.3 22.2 29.8 23.2 30.5 22.0 29.0 23.3 28.9 22.1 30.1 23.4 32.0 22.6 29.4 23.4 30.4 22.7 33.2 23.4 33.8 23.8 32.8 23.8 32.3 23.8 33.9 24.4 33.9 24.4 33.2 24.8 32.9 24.6

Relative humidity (%) IRRI, dryland site Long-term average (1979-2012) IRRI, wetland site Long-term average (1979-2012) 88 85 87 85 87 84 87 84 86 82 87 82 83 80 82 80 86 80 85 80
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Wind speed (m s ) IRRI, dryland site Long-term average (1979-2012) IRRI, wetland site Long-term average (1979-2012) 1.7 1.7 1.6 1.8 1.7 1.7 1.4 1.7 1.7 1.8 1.4 1.6 1.4 1.7 1.3 1.5 1.1 1.5 1.0 1.3

Solar radiation (MJ m-2 d-1) IRRI, dryland site Long-term average (1979-2012) IRRI, wetland site Long-term average (1979-2012) 13.1 14.3 13.2 13.7 14.6 17.0 15.5 17.0 14.2 19.5 14.8 19.4 19.7 20.5 20.8 21.1 Sunshine (h d )
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17.8 19.2 18.7 19.4

IRRI, wetland site Long-term average (1979-2012)

5.2 5.4

5.9 7.0

5.1 7.8

9.6 9.0

IRRI Annual Report 2012

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