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CYMCAP for Windows

May 2004

Copyright CYME International T&D Inc.

All Rights Reserved This publication, or parts thereof, may not be reproduced in any form, by any method, for any purpose. Cyme International T&D makes no warranty, either expressed or implied, including but not limited to any implied warranties of merchantability or fitness for a particular purpose, regarding these materials and makes such materials available solely on an "as-is" basis. In no event shall Cyme International T&D be liable to anyone for special, collateral, incidental, or consequential damages in connection with or arising out of purchase or use of these materials. The sole and exclusive liability to Cyme International T&D, regardless of the form of action, shall not exceed the purchase price of the materials described herein. Cyme International T&D reserves the right to revise and improve its products as it sees fit. This publication describes the state of this product at the time of its publication, and may not reflect the product at all times in the future. The software described in this document is furnished under a license agreement. Cyme International T&D Inc. 3 Burlington Woods, 4th Floor Burlington, MA 01803-0269 1-800-361-3627 (781) 229-0269 FAX: (781) 229-2336 International and Canada: 1485 Roberval, Suite 104 St. Bruno QC J3V 3P8 Canada (450) 461-3655 Fax: (450) 461-0966
Internet : E-mail : http://www.cyme.com support@cyme.com

Windows 98 and Windows NT, 2000 & XP are registered trademarks of Microsoft. Autocad is a trademark of Autodesk Inc.

NOTICE

The computer programs described in this manual were developed jointly by CYME International T&D Inc., Ontario Hydro and McMaster University under the auspices of the Canadian Electricity Association (CEA). Neither CYME International T&D, Ontario Hydro, McMaster University, CEA, nor any person acting on their behalf: (a) makes any warranty, express or implied of any kind with regard to the use of the computer programs, the documentation and any information, method or process disclosed therein, or that such use may not infringe privately owned rights; or (b) assumes any liabilities with regard to the use of, or damages resulting from the use of the programs or other information contained in this document. The software described in this document is furnished under a license agreement.

CYMCAP for Windows

Table of Contents

Chapter 1 ......................................................................................................................................... 1 PROGRAM INSTALLATION ........................................................................................................ 1 1.1 Software and hardware requirements ............................................................................... 1 1.2 Installing CYMCAP for Windows ....................................................................................... 1 Chapter 2 ......................................................................................................................................... 3 A CYMCAP OVERVIEW .............................................................................................................. 3 2.1 Introduction ........................................................................................................................ 3 2.2 The contents of CYMCAP ................................................................................................. 3 2.3 The Cable Library............................................................................................................ 4 2.4 The Duct bank Library..................................................................................................... 4 2.5 The Heat Source Library ................................................................................................. 4 2.6 The Load Curves Library................................................................................................. 5 2.7 The Shape Library........................................................................................................... 5 2.8 The Study-Execution Library........................................................................................... 6 2.9 How to proceed for a study using CYMCAP ..................................................................... 6 2.10 The CYMCAP GUI navigator as gateway to the Libraries .............................................. 7 Chapter 3 ......................................................................................................................................... 9 THE CABLE LIBRARY ................................................................................................................. 9 3.1 Introduction ........................................................................................................................ 9 3.2 Cable library management, view, add, modify and delete entries................................... 10 3.3 Cable components, materials and construction .............................................................. 11 3.3.1 Conductor material..................................................................................................... 11 3.3.2 Conductor construction .............................................................................................. 12 3.3.3 Drying and Impregnation............................................................................................ 12 3.3.4 Skin and proximity effect loss factors ........................................................................ 13 3.3.5 Conductor screen....................................................................................................... 13 3.3.6 Insulation.................................................................................................................... 14 3.3.7 Dielectric loss factors for insulating materials............................................................ 15 3.3.8 Insulation screen........................................................................................................ 16 3.3.9 Sheath........................................................................................................................ 16 3.3.10 Sheath construction ................................................................................................. 17 3.3.11 Skid wires (for pipe type cables only) ...................................................................... 17 3.3.12 Concentric neutral wires .......................................................................................... 17 3.3.13 Jacket, oversheath and pipe coating material. ........................................................ 17 3.3.14 Armour ..................................................................................................................... 18 3.3.15 Armour Bedding-Serving.......................................................................................... 20 3.4 General cable description information............................................................................. 20 3.5 Creating a new cable. An illustrative example................................................................. 21 3.6 Steps to create a new cable ............................................................................................ 30 3.7 Useful considerations ...................................................................................................... 31 3.8 SL-type cables ................................................................................................................. 32 3.9 Custom materials and thermal capacitances .................................................................. 33 3.10 Search for a cable with particular characteristics. The library filters ............................. 34 3.10.1 Searching the cable library. The primary filter ........................................................ 34 3.10.2 Searching the cable library. The secondary filter ................................................... 35

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CYMCAP for Windows

Chapter 4 ....................................................................................................................................... 39 THE DUCT BANK LIBRARY...................................................................................................... 39 4.1 Introduction ...................................................................................................................... 39 4.2 Duct bank library management, view, add, modify and delete entries............................ 39 4.3 Creating a new duct bank. An illustrative example.......................................................... 40 Chapter 5 ....................................................................................................................................... 45 LOAD-CURVES/HEAT-SOURCE-CURVES AND SHAPE LIBRARIES.................................... 45 5.1 Introduction ...................................................................................................................... 45 5.2 Curves and Shapes .......................................................................................................... 45 5.3 Shape Library Management ............................................................................................. 46 5.3.1 Creating a new shape. An Illustrative example.......................................................... 47 5.3.2 Shifting a shape, an illustrative example. .................................................................. 49 5.4 Load Curve Library Management .................................................................................... 51 5.4.1 Create a Load Curve using shapes, an illustrative example .................................... 55 5.5 Load Curve from field-recorded data............................................................................... 63 Chapter 6 ....................................................................................................................................... 69 STEADY STATE THERMAL ANALYSIS ................................................................................... 69 6.1 General ............................................................................................................................ 69 6.2 Methodology and computational standards..................................................................... 69 6.3 Studies and executions ................................................................................................... 72 6.4 Library of studies/executions ........................................................................................... 72 6.4.1 Introduction ................................................................................................................ 72 6.4.2 Managing the library of studies .................................................................................. 73 6.4.3 Searching for a particular study ................................................................................. 78 6.5 Labeling studies and executions ..................................................................................... 80 6.6 Analysis options............................................................................................................... 82 6.6.1 Generic options ......................................................................................................... 82 6.6.2 Steady state analysis options. .................................................................................. 82 6.7 General data for the installation....................................................................................... 83 6.7.1 Ambient temperature and soil resistivity ................................................................... 83 6.7.2 Non isothermal earth surface modelling. .................................................................. 83 6.7.3 Moisture migration modelling .................................................................................... 83 6.7.4 Surrounding medium of the installation .................................................................... 84 6.7.5 Multiple Cables per phase ........................................................................................ 88 6.8 Cable Installation Data .................................................................................................... 89 6.8.1 Geometrical configuration of the installation............................................................. 89 6.8.2 Additional cable installation salient aspects.............................................................. 89 6.8.3 Installation types ....................................................................................................... 90 6.9 Specific cable installation data ........................................................................................ 91 6.9.1 Bonding ..................................................................................................................... 91 6.9.2 Barring certain bonding options ................................................................................ 93 6.9.3 Cables touching ........................................................................................................ 93 6.9.4 Cable transposition ................................................................................................... 94 6.9.5 Ductbank/duct materials and construction................................................................ 94 6.9.6 Fraction of return current for single phase cables ..................................................... 95 6.9.7 Pipe Material And Dimensions.................................................................................. 96 6.10 Cable Library data and executions................................................................................ 96 6.11 Steady state thermal analysis, Example 1: Cables in a ductbank................................. 97 6.11.1 An illustrative Study Case for cables in a duct bank............................................... 97 6.11.2 Defining a new study and a new execution ............................................................ 98 6.11.3 Defining the steady state analysis solution Option ............................................... 100 6.11.4 Execution Speed bar and associated speed buttons ........................................... 102 6.11.5 Defining Regular and/or Irregular ductbanks........................................................ 104 6.11.6 Importing a ductbank from the Library .................................................................. 105

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CYMCAP for Windows

6.11.7 Defining the General Installation data and setup.................................................. 106 6.11.8 Defining the Cable Installation data ...................................................................... 108 6.11.9 Rearranging the cables in the proper ducts.......................................................... 110 6.12 A study case for dissimilar directly buried cables........................................................ 112 6.12.1 Case description and illustrations ......................................................................... 112 6.12.2 Define a new execution using an existing one as template.................................. 112 6.12.3 How to modify the solution option from the CYMCAP menu ................................ 113 6.12.4 Enter a group of cables using absolute coordinates............................................. 115 6.12.5 Enter a trefoil formation using relative coordinates .............................................. 116 6.12.6 Specifying a fixed ampacity circuit ..................................................................... 118 6.12.7 Specify a reference circuit for the installation ...................................................... 119 6.12.8 Specify a heat source included in the installation................................................. 119 6.12.9 Specify the specific installation data ..................................................................... 121 6.12.10 Viewing the Graphical ampacity reports for cables in a trefoil formation............ 122 6.13 Opening more than one executions simultaneously ................................................... 125 6.14 Working with more than one executions simultaneously ............................................ 129 6.15 Submitting more than one executions simultaneously ................................................ 130 Chapter 7 ..................................................................................................................................... 131 TRANSIENT ANALYSIS .......................................................................................................... 131 7.1 General .......................................................................................................................... 131 7.2 Preliminary considerations ............................................................................................ 131 7.3 Transient analysis Options ............................................................................................ 132 7.4 How to proceed for a transient analysis ........................................................................ 137 7.5 Informing CYMCAP that a transient analysis is to be performed .................................. 138 7.6 Example and Illustrations .............................................................................................. 139 7.6.1 Case description and illustrations ........................................................................... 139 7.6.2 Specify the transient analysis option ...................................................................... 140 7.6.3 Specify the data for the transient analysis option ................................................... 141 7.6.4 Assign Loads to cables ........................................................................................... 142 7.6.5 Submit the simulation.............................................................................................. 143 7.6.6 Generate the reports............................................................................................... 144 7.6.7 Changing the color of the curves for the transient reports...................................... 147 7.6.8 Tracing the transients results with the mouse ........................................................ 148 Chapter 8 ..................................................................................................................................... 149 The CYMCAP Menu Options................................................................................................. 149 8.1 The CYMCAP menu ...................................................................................................... 149 8.2 The CYMCAP menu Files entry .................................................................................. 150 8.3 The CYMCAP menu Windows entry........................................................................... 151 8.4 The CYMCAP menu for opened executions ................................................................. 152 8.4.1 The execution menu File activity .......................................................................... 153 8.4.2 The execution menu Edit activity.......................................................................... 154 8.4.3 The execution menu View activity ........................................................................ 155 8.4.4 The execution menu Options activity ................................................................... 156 Chapter 9 ..................................................................................................................................... 159 The Sensitivity analysis Option of CYMCAP............................................................................ 159

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CYMCAP for Windows

Chapter 10 ................................................................................................................................... 165 CYMCAP UTILITIES ................................................................................................................ 165 10.1 Introduction .................................................................................................................. 165 10.2 Designate the working directory for CYMCAP ............................................................ 165 10.3 Designate the Unit System for the session ................................................................. 166 10.4 Designate the AC system frequency for the session .................................................. 167 10.5 Designate AC conductor resistance values ................................................................ 168 10.6 Backup the contents of the Working directory to another directory ............................ 169 10.7 Restore from floppy disk to a directory on the hard-disk............................................. 170 10.8 Tag specific items from the Libraries........................................................................... 170 10.9 Copy selected items to a given data base................................................................... 172 10.10 Append a database to another database .................................................................. 174 Chapter 11 ................................................................................................................................... 175 THE DUCT BANK OPTIMIZER................................................................................................ 175 11.1 Introduction .................................................................................................................. 175 11.2 An illustrative example of the duct bank optimizer ...................................................... 176 11.2.1 Invoking the Optimizer .......................................................................................... 177 11.2.2 Configuring the Optimizer ..................................................................................... 177 11.2.3 Running the optimizer ........................................................................................... 180 11.2.4 Viewing the results of the optimizer ...................................................................... 182 Appendix I ........................................................................................................................................ 1 DEFAULTS FOR VARIOUS TYPES OF CABLES ...................................................................... 1 General ..................................................................................................................................... 1 A. Concentric neutral cables ................................................................................................. 1 B. Extruded dielectric cables................................................................................................. 3 C. Low pressure oil filled cables (Type 3)............................................................................. 5 D. High pressure oil (gas) filled cables ................................................................................. 7 E. Sheath related defaults..................................................................................................... 8 F. Armour related defaults .................................................................................................. 10 G. Three core cables .......................................................................................................... 11 INDEX ............................................................................................................................................ 12

TABLE OF CONTENTS

CYMCAP for Windows

Chapter 1
PROGRAM INSTALLATION

1.1 Software and hardware requirements


CYMCAP is a 32 bit application, runs on IBM PC or compatible personal computers and can be used with Windows NT and Windows XP operating systems. The minimum hardware requirements are: A Pentium-based computer;

32 MB RAM; 10 MB free memory on the hard disk; A Microsoft mouse or equivalent; A color monitor with Super VGA and a graphic card supporting 256 colors or more Any printer or plotter supported by Windows

1.2 Installing CYMCAP for Windows


CYMCAP can be made available through either a CD or be downloaded from our web site at www.cyme.com/newvwersion.htm. In any case, a password is needed for the application to be unpacked and installed. Make certain you contact CYME International T&D, to obtain the proper password. Once the application is unpacked and installed the hardware lock, i.e. the protection key is needed to operate it. The hardware key must be inserted in the line printer port, e.g. LPT1. Furthermore it neds to be configured to recognize the application. For more information, please refer refer to Appendix II: Setting up the protection key. The protection key is inactive during normal system operation, i.e. the key does not have to be removed when CYMCAP is not running. You may connect a printer to the back end of either type of key (local or network). Neither one should interfere with normal printer operation.

CHAPTER 1 PROGRAM INSTALLATION

CYMCAP for Windows

CHAPTER 1 PROGRAM INSTALLATION

CYMCAP for Windows

Chapter 2
A CYMCAP OVERVIEW

2.1 Introduction
Underground and aerial insulated cable installations are intimately linked with ampacity and/or temperature rise calculations of power cables. The maximum current a cable can sustain without deterioration of any of its electrical and/or mechanical properties, has always been of prime interest to engineers and constitutes an important design parameter for both system planning and operations. Accurate ampacity studies help maximizing the benefits from the considerable capital investment associated with cable installations. Also they help to increase system reliability, the proper utilization of the installed equipment and outline of optimum operating strategies under forced or scheduled contingencies. CYMCAP is a Windows-based software designed to perform the thermal analysis-related calculations and addresses both steady state and transient thermal analysis. The term thermal analysis pertains to temperature rise and/or ampacity calculations using the analytical techniques described by Neher-McGrath and the IEC 287 and IEC 853 International standards. No finite-element modeling is included in CYMCAP at this moment.

2.2 The contents of CYMCAP


CYMCAP is equipped with calculating engines to accommodate Steady State and Transient analysis. These simulation programs produce the results and generate tabular and graphical reports. The results of the steady state analysis are the starting point for any transient calculation. In order to perform any type of transient analysis, it is mandatory to obtain the results in steady state first. Data for the steady state and transient simulators is provided through a Graphical User Interface (GUI) supported by the CYMCAP application libraries. These Libraries are the Cable Library, the Duct bank Library, the Shape Library, the Heat Source Library and the Load Curves Library. The Cable library is needed in all computations. The Load Curves Library and the Shape Library are essential for transient thermal analysis. Similarly, the Duct bank library and the Heat source Library are needed for installations featuring duct banks and/or external heat sources using transient thermal analysis. The CYMCAP libraries need to be populated before the application models of any installation. Although typical entries are provided for all these libraries, it is mandatory to populate them with components reflecting actual system data. Any entries of the application libaries supplied with the application should not be interpreted as being typical in any way. Finally, CYMCAP keeps a Library of all the simulations that were performed. Unless the user decides to delete them, all studies along with their data are kept by the application for future reference. This Library is the Study and Executions library.

CHAPTER 2 A CYMCAP OVERVIEW

CYMCAP for Windows

2.3 The Cable Library


The Cable Library is a data base containing the detailed construction of various types of power cables. The contents of the Cable Library are used for both steady state and transient analysis. The cable Library, apart from being a data base containing the various cable types, is equipped with a module that permits the definition of the cables themselves. Fairly detailed data is required to describe a cable, because the models used for the thermal representation of the cable rely heavily on the exact cable construction. This data is as essential, as the data describing the cable layout and the installation operating conditions. CYMCAP offers the possibility to provide default cable dimensions based on generic cable construction characteristics, once the materials of the various cable components are defined. This facility can be useful for preliminary cable studies but should not be interpreted as addressing all possible manufacturing practices.. Chapter 3 is dedicated to describing the Cable type Library and its various functions.

2.4 The Duct bank Library


The Duct bank library is a data base containing the construction details of various duct banks. A duct bank is a pre-constructed block containing several cable conduits. The purpose of the Duct bank library is to define the geometrical characteristics of these duct banks by specifying the total length, width, conduit number, duct spacing and specific duct diameter so that the information can be used as an integral part of any study for cables installed in duct banks. The contents of the Duct bank Library is used for both steady state and transient analysis, since duct bank geometrical characteristics are crucial in determining external thermal resistances. The Duct bank Library, apart from being a data base containing the various duct bank types, is equipped with a module that permits the definition of new duct banks. Chapter 4 is dedicated to describing the the Duct bank Library and its various functions and facilities.

2.5 The Heat Source Library


The Heat source library is a data base containing the transient thermal characteristics of external heat sources that may be present within a cable installation layout. External Heat sources are deemed third party bodies that either emit or absorb heat depending on their temperature with reference to the ambient environment temperature. The heat source library contains the heat source curves that display the temporal variations of the heat source. Typical examples of heat sources are steam pipes and/or water pipes whose temperature can vary as a function of time. The Heat source Library is supported by another Library, the Shape Library and is used exclusively for transient thermal analysis analysis. It is, often, important to include the presence of heat sources in the simulation, since heat sources alter considerably the temperature rise of the cables in an installation. The Heat source library, apart from being a data base, is equipped with a module that permits the definition of new heat source characteristics. In Chapter 5 we describe the the Heat source Library and its various functions and facilities, by describing the identical in nature functions and attributes of the Load curves library.

CHAPTER 2 A CYMCAP OVERVIEW

CYMCAP for Windows

2.6 The Load Curves Library


The Load curves Library is a data base containing the description of the various patterns the cable currents may exhibit as a function of time. The Load curves Library is used exclusively for transient analysis and is supported by another Library, the Shape Library. The Load curves Library, apart from being a data base, is equipped with a module that permits the construction of the Load curves themselves. Load curve data is crucial for transient analysis. Load curves are defined in p.u. within the Load curve Library. The Load curve description does not contain actual ampere levels information. The ampere base Load curves are interpreted during run time as the steady state value of the currents determined for the cables from the steady state thermal analysis. The description of the Load curves and its various functions are given in Chapter 5.

2.7 The Shape Library


The Shape Library is not a stand-alone library. Instead, it is a utilitary library dedicated to containing the building blocks for the entries of the Heat Source and the Load Curve libraries. By definition, shapes are defined on a 24-hour basis and represent daily temporal variational patterns. Different shapes can be concatenated to produce weekly temporal profile variations. Since, however, Heat source shapes can only be invoked from the Heat source libray and Load curves shapes can only be invoked from the Load urve Library, there is no danger of confusion. It is essential to enter the required shapes in the Shape Library first and then built the Heat Source curves/Load curves to be used for transient analysis. The Shape Library, apart from being a data base, is equipped with a module that permits the construction of new shapes as well. Shapes are expressed in p.u. in order to ascertain flexibility in describing temperature/heat flux levels for the heat sources and ampere loading levels for the load curves. The same entry format is used to describe both Heat source shapes and load curve shapes. Chapter 5 is used to describing the Load curve Library and its various functions. It is emphasized again that all p.u. values entered in shapes and Load Curves/Heat Source Curves are expressed in p.u of the values these quantities assumed during steady state thermal analysis.

CHAPTER 2 A CYMCAP OVERVIEW

CYMCAP for Windows

2.8 The Study-Execution Library


This library contains all the studies performed by the application. CYMCAP relies on the concepts of "studies" and "executions" to categorize study cases. A "study" can be viewed as a stand alone scenario for thermal cable analysis, with several simulation alternatives, named executions. A study normally pertains to a given installation exhibiting salient characteristics for the cable installation or the ambient conditions. Within a "study" one can define many "executions". An "execution" is used to describe a variant of the base case. The following diagram illustrates these notions:

STUDIES

Study no. 1, Study no. 2, ..............................Study no. xx, ....

Execution no. 1, ..n

........

Execution no. 1, ..n

2.9 How to proceed for a study using CYMCAP


The end result of using CYMCAP is to obtain temperatures and currents for the various cables contained in a given cable installation, operating under certain conditions. The following is a typical sequence of steps followed when using CYMCAP as an analysis tool. 1. Make sure that ALL the cables of the installation you are about to study are well defined construction-wise and dimension-wise. If this is not the case, try to obtain as much information as possible from the cable manufacturer. 2. Make sure that ALL the cable types that the simulation will use are entered in the CYMCAP cable Library. If this is not the case, enter them all one by one. 3. Make sure that the duct bank that the installation employs is entered in the duct bank library. If the installation does not feature a duct bank there is no need to populate the duct bank library. 4. Make sure that the geometrical data of the installation you are about to study as well as the necessary simulation parameters (pipe dimensions, solar radiation intensities, bonding characteristics, ambient temperatures, thermal resistivities etc.) are available and well defined. Use the graphical User Interface of CYMCAP to define the installation in detail.

CHAPTER 2 A CYMCAP OVERVIEW

CYMCAP for Windows

5. Make certain that you clearly specify the type of analysis option you wish to perform. Once you have finished entering the installation data for the particular study case, save and submit the study case(s). 6. Make certain that both the system frequency is the one desired and that the Unit system you prefer to work, have been properly set. Ampacities calculated at 50 Hz are not the same as assuming a system frequency of 60 Hz. Furthermore, working with the metric or imperial system of units can be convenient depending how the installation and/or cable data were initially provided. 7. Before initiating a transient study make certain that you have specified loads to all the cables in the installation by assigning to every one of them an appropriate load curve from the library of load curves. You cannot assign a load curve that has not been first defined in the library. It is therefore necessary to first define the load curves you wish to use and include them in the load curve library. You do that by using the Load Curve Library manager 8. Examine the simulation results by utilizing the extensive tabular and graphical reports facilities offered by CYMCAP and make the necessary corrections.

2.10 The CYMCAP GUI navigator as gateway to the Libraries


Section 2.9 outlined, on a conceptual basis, the sequence for the various steps necessary to perform a study using the CYMCAP application. The same section outlined, also the importance of the CYMCAP libraries management facilites to enter the data for any particular study scenario. Access to all CYMCAP libraries is independent, modular and does not rely on any predetermined sequence. The CYMCAP libraries and, therefore, all the application activities ranging from data management to actual simulation runs, are accessed through the CYMCAP navigator. The CYMCAP navigator can be invoked at any time by pressing the button F3.

CHAPTER 2 A CYMCAP OVERVIEW

CYMCAP for Windows

Chapter 3
THE CABLE LIBRARY

3.1 Introduction
This chapter describes how to enter new cables in the library and how to manage an existing library of cables. Keeping the cable library up to date with accurate data is extremely important because the results of the simulations depend heavily on this data. The cable library aspect is one of the major functions of CYMCAP. Access to the cable library allows you not only to add a new cable, but to modify and delete previously entered cables. The cable library contains the cable data that comprise the detailed construction of the various power cables, material and dimension-wise. Direct access to the cable library permits the user to utilize one or more library cables, within a given execution, for steady state and transient studies. Note that it is also possible to modify the data of a given cable within a particular simulation scenario (execution) without updating the cable library. This is possible because CYMCAP keeps a copy of the cable from the library within the execution (see also chapter 6). The information related to cable data within a given execution, is used in the simulations. The program allows the user to transfer cable data from the cable library to the execution in question and vice versa. Unless particular reasons prevail, it is always advisable to harmonize the data in the cable library with the actual data used in the various executions.

CHAPTER 3 THE CABLE LIBRARY

CYMCAP for Windows

3.2 Cable library management, view, add, modify and delete entries
The cable library can be accessed by entering the CYMCAP NAVIGATOR. The menu of the navigator is shown below: Among the principal menu functions we see "Cables". Point there with the mouse and click the left mouse button. The list of all the cables in the library is shown as follows:

Every cable is identified within the cable library by an unique CABLE ID that appears to the left of the CABLE TITLE in parenthesis. Its highly recommended also to enter a unique cable TITLE for every cable. It is also seen that a picture showing the cable cross section is displayed for every cable the highlight bar is positioned upon. Move the Up and Down arrow keyboard keys to browse through the library. By virtue of this cable library browser option, CYMCAP allows the user to view the salient aspects of the cable constructions without resorting to detailed editing. Note also that for every cable a bitmap appears to the left that indicates whether the cable is a single-core, a three-core, or a pipe-type cable.

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CHAPTER 3 THE CABLE LIBRARY

CYMCAP for Windows

TO ADD A CABLE to the cable library, position the highlight bar on any cable title and press the New key located to the right of the navigator list. You can either use that cable as template or create a new one from scratch. If you choose the template option, the highlighted cable will be used as a template. TO MODIFY A CABLE position the highlight bar on the cable of interest and left-click with the mouse on the Edit button located to the right of the navigator list. The same task can be accomplished by positioning the highlight bar on the cable and double-clicking the left mouse button. TO DELETE A CABLE you position the highlight bar on it and left-click with the mouse on the Delete button located to the right of the navigator list. You can also click and drag any cable form the library to the disposal bin shown in the upper right corner of the navigator window.

3.3 Cable components, materials and construction


When a cable is entered in the library the user has considerable flexibility in specifying both the available cable components as well as the materials these components are made of. In the paragraphs that follow, the supported cable components are outlined along with the parameters the program will use internally as a function of the component construction. Parameters and/or constants used by the application, follow the ones in IEC-287-1-1/1994. 3.3.1 Conductor material The conductor material can be copper, aluminum or any other user defined material. Independently of the choice, the program needs the DC conductor material resistivity at 20 C (in -m) and the temperature coefficient for the resistance (/K at 20C). When aluminum or copper is selected the program assumes the following values: Copper Aluminum =1.7241e-08, =3.93e-03 =2.8264e-08, =4.03e-03

When the user selects the conductor material, these values have to be provided. Resistance values per IEC 228 The resistance of the conductors can be calculated or tabulated using IEC 228. The conductor material, type and construction are all taken into account during the course of the calculations. The user may choose the option to obtain the resistance of the conductor from the resistance tables tabulated in IEC 228. Depending on conductor cross-sectional area, construction type and material, a different resistance value will be considered. The following restrictions and/or assumptions apply: IEC-228 resistance values apply ONLY to copper and aluminum conductors. IEC-228 resistance values pertaining to PLAIN conductors are considered. In other words, the current version of the program does not support METAL-COATED conductors. For conductor sizes in-between standard tabulated values, linear Interpolation is used to arrive at the estimated resistance value. If the user wishes to consider resistances applicable to class 1 conductors (table I of IEC 228), the choice "solid" must be used for the conductor construction option in the INPUT program.

CHAPTER 3 THE CABLE LIBRARY

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CYMCAP for Windows

If the user wishes to consider resistances applicable to class 2 conductors (table II of IEC 228), the choices "stranded", "compact/compressed", "sector-shaped" and "oval" are pertinent. No other conductor construction option is supported for IEC-228 compatible calculations. If a conductor cross-section is entered for the cable and not supported by IEC 228, the program will revert to the alternate mode, i.e. the resistance will be calculated. For conductor cross-sections, corresponding to blank entries in the tables 1 and 2 of IEC 228, the program will revert to the alternate mode, i.e. the resistance will be calculated. 3.3.2 Conductor construction

The following choices for conductor construction are supported: Round Stranded Round, compact or compressed Segmental (4 segments) Hollow core Segmental (6 segments) Sector shaped Oval Solid Segmental Segmental peripheral-strands

These choices are contingent upon the cable type selected as well as the conductor dimensions.The program will indicate which options are valid by highlighting them in the selection menu. 3.3.3 Drying and Impregnation This information is used to properly correct for skin and proximity effects when calculating the conductor resistance.

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CHAPTER 3 THE CABLE LIBRARY

CYMCAP for Windows

3.3.4 Skin and proximity effect loss factors

Skin and proximity effects are used to calculate the ac resistance of the conductor by adjusting the dc conductor resistance by the factors Ys (skin effect) and Yp (proximity effect) as follows: Rac = Rdc (1 + Ys +Yp): Rac, Rdc are AC and DC resistances, respectively. In calculating Ys and Yp the constants Ks and Kp are used. The program assumes the following values based on conductor construction. Note that these values have been compiled for copper conductors. Nevertheless, the same values will be assumed for aluminum. The approximation is considered to be on the safe side.

Conductor Construction Round stranded dried and impregnated Round stranded not dried and impregnated Round compact dried and impregnated Round compact not dried and impregnated Round segmental (4 segments) Hollow, helical stranded, dried, impregnated Sector shaped dried and impregnated Sector shaped not dried and impregnated

Ks 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 0.435 ** 1.00 1.00

Kp 0.80 1.00 0.80 1.00 0.37 0.80 0.80 1.00

Notes: 6 segment conductors are treated as 4-segment conductors Oval conductors are treated as equivalent round conductors

3.3.5 Conductor screen

The program does explicitly support "conductor screens", as a cable component The term "shield" is often used as equivalent to the term "screen". Notes: Non-metallic screens should be modeled as part of the insulation. If a conductor shield is modelled, the program will assume its material to be the same as the insulation material. The conductor shield shall be taken into account as part of the insulation when the thermal resistance is computed, but it will not be considered as part of the insulation for the calculation of the dielectric losses.

CHAPTER 3 THE CABLE LIBRARY

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CYMCAP for Windows

3.3.6 Insulation

The insulation materials supported are shown below along with the assumed thermal resistivities. The user has the capability of entering a custom material. In this case the thermal resistivity has to be provided along with the appropriate coefficients for dielectric loss calculations (tan() and ). Thermal resistivity values are shown in C-M/W.

Material Solid type/mass impregnated non draining cable LPOF self contained cable HPOF self contained cable HPOF pipe type cable External gas pressure cable Internal gas pressure preimpregnated cable Internal gas pressure mass impregnated cable Butyl rubber EPR PVC Polyethylene Cross linked polyethylene (XLPE) (unfilled) Cross linked polyethylene (XLPE) (filled) Paper-polypropylene-paper-laminate

i
6.0 5.0 5.0 5.0 5.5 6.5 6.0 5.0 5.0 6.0 3.5 3.5 3.5 6.5

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3.3.7 Dielectric loss factors for insulating materials The program assumes the following values for loss-related factors in the dielectric (values taken from IEC 287, 1988 revision).

Paper Impregnated cables

Dielectric Loss Factors tan()

Impregnated, pre-impregnated or mass-impregnated non-draining. Self-contained, oil filled, up to 36kV Self-contained, oil filled, up to 87kV Self-contained, oil filled, up to 160 kV Self-contained, oil filled, up to 220 kV Oil-pressure pipe-type External gas-pressure Internal gas-pressure Butyl rubber EPR up to and including 18/30 (36) kV above 18/30 (36) kV PVC PE (HD and LD) XLPE up to and including 18/30 (36) kV (unfilled) above 18/30(36) kV (unfilled) above 18/30(36) kV (filled) Paper-polypropylene-paper-laminate (PPP or PPL) 3.5 0.00095 2.5 2.5 3.0 0.004 0.001 0.005 3.0 3.0 8.0 2.3 0.020 0.005 0.1 0.001 4.0 3.6 3.6 3.6 3.6 3.7 3.6 3.4 4.0 0.01 0.0035 0.0033 0.0030 0.0028 0.0045 0.004 0.0045 0.05

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The dielectric loss factors are only taken into account when cables operate at equal or greater phase to ground voltage than the following: Cable Type Insulated with impregnated paper solid type oil-filled and gas pressure Butyl rubber EPR PE (Hd and LD) XLPE unfilled filled PPP or PPL 127.0 63.5 38.0 38.0 63.5 18.0 63.5 127.0 Voltage level (kV)

Note: Dielectric losses for voltages lower than indicated are always taken into account for userdefined insulation.

3.3.8 Insulation screen When copper or aluminum insulation screens are specified, the program will perform calculations according to IEC-287/1994 in order to calculate the thermal resistance of the screened insulation. These calculations will apply to three core cables only. For single core cables the insulation screen is treated as a separate layer. If semiconducting insulation screen is chosen, the insulation screen will be considered as part of the insulation, for both single core and 3-core cables. The term "shield" is also used for "screen". For 3-phase cables, the program assumes that the insulation screening applies to the insulation of the individual conductor cores. The same is true for sector-shaped cables. The term "belted" is utilized by the program to identify 3-phase cables with no screens featuring an additional layer of insulation encompassing all 3 conductors. 3.3.9 Sheath The sheath resistivity (-m at 20C) as well as the thermal coefficient (1/C) are required. Supported materials read as follows: Lead Aluminum Copper =21.4e-08, =2.84e-08, =1.72e-08, =4.0e-03 =4.03e-03 =3.93e-03

The user can enter any other material, but in this case the values of and must be provided. For SL-type cables please refer to section 4.6

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3.3.10 Sheath construction The program supports both radial and longitidunal (LC-sheath construction) sheath corrugation for the case of aluminum and copper only. When default dimensions are set by the program, the calculation for the sheath thickness followed for the case of aluminum, is applied to copper as well; see Appendix I. 3.3.11 Skid wires (for pipe type cables only) Skid wires are applicable to pipe type cables only. Despite the fact that skid and concentric wires share similar information, skid wires data entry dialog boxes are dedicated to pipe type cables. No cable can have both skid and concentric neutral wires. The program assumes that the skid wires are semicircles. Two skid wires will be assumed present, by default, by the program but the number can be changed; see Appendix I. Length of lay considerations applicable to skid wires, are identical to the ones for concentric neutral wires. 3.3.12 Concentric neutral wires Concentric neutral wires are, usually, return wires in distribution cables. The program assumes that these wires are bare (no insulanting or plastic wrap that they may be equipped with, is supported). Data for the concentric neutral comprise the wire size, the number of wires as well as the length of lay; see Appendix I for defaults. The concentric wires may be made of copper, brass, zinc, or stainless steel. An alternative form of concentric neutral CYMCAP supports is flatstraps. Copper Aluminum Stainless steel Zinc Brass/Bronze =1.7241e-08, =2.8264e-08, =70.000e-08, =6.1100e-08, =3.5000e-08, =3.93e-03 =4.03e-03 =0.000000 =0.004 =0.003

If other than the above materials are to be used, the user has to provide resistivity and temperature coefficient. is expressed in -m at 20 C and in 1/C. Length of lay of a concentric neutral/skid wire is defined as the length required for the wire to make a complete turn around the cable. It is this length the application requires as data whenever pertinent for either concentric neutral wires or skid wires. 3.3.13 Jacket, oversheath and pipe coating material. The following materials are supported for cable jacket oversheath and pipe coating (for pipe type cables only). Material Compounded jute and fibrous materials Rubber sandwich Polychropropene Thermal resistivity () 6.0 6.0 5.5

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P.V.C up to and 35 kV above 35 kV Butyl Rubber Coal tar wrapping

5.0 6.0 5.0 5.5

Note: Pipe coating material is entered in the specific installation data and not in cable data.

3.3.14 Armour CYMCAP supports cable armour assemblies in the form of either wires or tapes. For the case of armour wires, the program requests as data the number of wires (if not touching), the wire size and the length of lay (length of lay is a term applicable not only to armour wires and tapes but to concentric and skid wires and signifies the cable length needed for the wire to make a complete turn around the cable). For the case of armour tapes, besides the number of tapes and the length of lay, the tape width must also be provided. For thermal calculations the armour resistivity as well as the thermal coefficients are also needed. The following materials are internally supported: (A is expressed in -m at 20C and in 1/C) Material Custom non magnetic tape Custom, magnetic armour wires Custom magnetic tape Custom, non magnetic wires Steel wires touching Steel wires not touching Steel tape reinforcement Copper armour wires Stainless steel armour IEC TECK armour

A
User-defined User-defined User-defined User-defined 13.8 E-08 13.8 E-08 13.8 E-08 1.721 E-08 70.0 E-08 2.84 E-08

User-defined User-defined User-defined User-defined 0.0045 0.0045 0.00393 0.00393 0.0 0.0043

If any other material is to be used, the user has to supply the above parameters. When magnetic losses are of importance, additional data need to be entered to model the eddy currents and hysterysis losses of the armour. The parameters needed are the longitudinal and transverse permeability (AME and AMT respectively) as well as the angular time delay . The user can enter these parameters or have the program select. When the program selects, it will assume AME=400, AMT=10 for steel wires touching or AMT=1 for steel wires not touching and GAMMA=45 degrees. The same values will be assumed for steel tapes. Magnetic properties modelling for the armour is supported only for steel armour assemblies.

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3.3.15 Armour Bedding-Serving CYMCAP defines as armour bedding the layer which is normally encountered below the armour assembly. Armour serving is defined as the layer of protective coverings sometimes found above the armour assembly. The following materials are supported for armour bedding. Material Compounded jute and fibrous materials Rubber sandwich Thermal Resistivity (C-m/W) =6.00 =6.00

If any other material is to be used, the user must provide the thermal resistivity.

3.4 General cable description information


CABLE RATED VOLTAGE: This is the voltage used to calculate the dielectric losses in the cable. This voltage should be the rated Line to Line voltage for the installation. Even if the cable is used in a single-phase circuit arrangement the hypothetical Line to Line Voltage needs to be entered. NUMBER OF CONDUCTORS: 1 for single conductor cables and 3 for three conductor cables. No other option is supported. CABLE TYPE: CYMCAP supports 5 cable types. These types are conceptual and are only used by the application to assign default dimensions to the cable components. The cable type is defined at the early stages of cable definition (see example below) and read as follows: Notes: There is no provision for default dimension assignment to the cable type OTHER There is no components availability restrictions for the cable type OTHER. Note that such restrictions do apply to the remaining types. No pipe type cable can be modeled under the code 5. The component availability restrictions are seen in the data entry dialog boxes as padlocks not allowing the user to select a particular component construction depending on the remaining data entered so far. These restrictions are not meant to be rigid and they simply reflect one philosophy of manufacturing practice from the very many available. PIPE TYPE cables LPOF cables CONCENTRIC NEUTRAL cables EXTRUDED cables OTHER reserved for cables that cannot be directly classified to any of the above categories.

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CONDUCTOR CROSS SECTIONAL AREA: This is the nominal conductor area and should be entered as such. This area is interpreted by the application to be the "effective" conductor area and is this value that will be used by the program for resistance calculations. The user has access to standard conductor sizes ordered in increasing order of wire denomination when the cable is defined. Conductor sizes can either be selected from the list or typed explicitly.

3.5 Creating a new cable. An illustrative example


A new cable will be created for illustration purposes. The cable will be a typical 250KCMIL distribution cable, rated 35 kV. The cable features Al stranded conductor, XLPE insulation and copper concentric neutral wires. In what follows a typical sequence of the steps/screens/dialog boxes required to enter a cable is outlined for illustration purposes. To create a new cable in the library, position the highlight bar on any cables and click on the New button. If the existing cable is to be used as a template for the new one, answer Yes to the ensuing prompt. For this example, no existing cable was used as a template. As the following screen indicates, it is required to enter a cable ID and a cable Title. The cable ID should be unique because it is used internally as a data base index. It is the cable ID and cable title that appears in the library browser. Comments are optional.

Click OK to accept the entered data and the screen that follows allows the user to begin defining in detail the cable construction, from the point of view of component availability. First specify whether the new cable will be a single-core or a three-core, by clicking on one of the following bitmaps: Click this bitmap to specify a single-conductor cable Click this bitmap to specify a three-conductor cable

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Then specify the cable type as EXTRUDED (access the scroll list).

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The program then prompts for the nominal cable voltage (kV).

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The next piece of data required is the conductor size. Access the standard conductor sizes scroll list and select 250 KCMIL.

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Once the conductor size and voltage are entered, the program is ready to accept more instructions by displaying the following screen.

It is seen that no dimensions are entered at all. As the encircled quantities show, it is also seen that no materials were defined at all. Before proceeding to materials and dimensions, we must first specify the generic cable components. Among the generic components only the cable insulation has been enabled so far. Let us enable the insulation screen, the concentric neutral and the jacket.

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Note that the concentric wires were not drawn yet. They will not, until specific data is entered later. Once all the generic components for the cables are entered, we tell the program that their definition has ended by clicking on the Complete Cable button. The program then shows the first generic component, the conductor, in order to accept further instructions about materials, construction type and dimensions.

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It is seen that there are several alternatives for the conductor material and construction. Choices that are either not permitted or irrelevant with data entered so far are locked, as the appropriate locker symbol next to them indicates, and are not available for selection. Define the material, construction and dimensions on the same screen and then proceed to the following generic component by selecting the next button at the bottom of the left part of the screen. The similar screen for the insulation is:

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The extra information needed to be entered includes the maximum design (steady state) and emergency (transient) operating temperatures the particular cable can withstand. Default values are assigned automatically depends on the insulation type material selected by the user. These values will be used by the program for the corresponding analysis options unless changed by the user. One can proceed in this fashion to fully define the cable in question. Note that until no data is missing, the cable cannot be saved. Missing data are identified by being encircled in red.

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The finalized cable is as follows:

Additional input data like length of lay, internal and external radius of corrugated sheath, dimensions of flat-strapped concentric neutrals, etc, can be obtained by pressing on the space bar.

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3.6 Steps to create a new cable


Based on the above-illustrated step by step procedure, the necessary steps to create a new cable and add it in the cable library are summarized below: Step 1: Identify the separate layers and cable components and decide how they are to be modeled, according to the component availability CYMCAP offers. Step 2: Identify the cable components and define the materials they are made of. In case the program does not support a material for a given component make certain that the necessary constants are available so that you can enter it as user-defined. Step 3: Identify the cable components dimensions and make certain that every layer thickness is well identified. CYMCAP relies on layer thickness to conjecture equivalent layer diameters for both single core and three-core cables of all constructions. Furthermore, make certain that accurate data concerning length of lay for concentric wires armour and tapes are also available. These data are important to correctly estimate loss factors in 2-point bonded systems. It is always useful to ascertain that the cable construction dimensions are available from the manufacturer. The more the cable construction details are known, the less one has to rely on the default dimensions provided by the program. Step 4: Select the system of Units for the session. Both Imperial and Metric systems are supported by CYMCAP. The cable dimensions can be entered in either inches (Imperial system) or mm (Metric). Once the cable dimensions are entered in any system they can be visualized in the other system by simply switching the Unit system. Step 5: Enter the cable components and dimensions for the cable (see example below). Step 6: SAVE the newly entered cable results. Step 7: Obtain a new listing of the library of cables and make sure that the newly entered cable appears in the list.

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3.7 Useful considerations


a. When cables with oval conductors are to be modeled, the user should enter the equivalent round conductor diameter D = conductor. b. When creating a cable, it is possible that layers not directly identifiable with any of the available components are encountered. Closer inspection, often, reveals that one of the available layers by the program can be directly used because different names are often interchangeably used for the same layer. For example, CYMCAP will not accept a cable jacket once armour is defined for a given cable. The cable jacket then can alternatively be modeled as armour serving. c. Model metallic conductor screens, as part of the conductor. Similarly, model semiconducting conductor screens as part of the insulation, include semiconductive swellings in the semiconductive screen over the insulation, etc. d. If the need for a layer not supported by CYMCAP arises, one can combine two layers in one by calculating an equivalent thermal resistivity for two layers in series. This can be particularly useful for the cases that materials of different thermal resistivity are used for either armour serving or bedding. A conservative approach from a thermal resistance point of view would be to model the two layers as one having as thermal resistivity the one with the higher value. e. To model armour wires imbedded in the jacket, one can represent the portion of the layer below the wires as armour bedding, the wires as armour, and the portion of the layer above the wires as armour serving. f. The sequence of cable components CYMCAP assumes, starts from the conductor and expands outwards with the insulation, insulation shield, sheath, sheath reinforcement, concentric neutral wires, armour bedding, armour, armour serving, and finally jacket. It is in this spirit that the terms are used in the program and their definition should be respected. g. When a layer is deleted, the user does not have to reflect the change in the dimensions inflicted beyond that layer towards the cable surface. The program will automatically adjust the dimensions accordingly. The same holds true if a layer is inserted. If a layer is deleted and then reinserted, the layer dimensions are automatically restored so long as the cable was not saved or the program session has not been terminated. h. Interjackets and jackets around armour assemblies, should be modeled as armour bedding and serving, because the program does not allow for jacket when armour is present. i. Metallic parts that are associated with circulating currents should be modeled as sheaths, even if they are termed screens. This will assure that the program will calculate correctly the appropriate loss factors.

D major D min or , where Dmajor and

D min or are the corresponding lengths of the major and minor elliptical axis of the oval

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3.8 SL-type cables


SL-type cables are 3-conductor cables which are characterized by the fact that every core has its own sheath or armour wires. The program supports either option but not both simultaneously. The SL-type construction is identified during the cable data entry by specifying either individual sheath or individual armour construction. Note that the following restrictions apply to the construction of SL-type cables: SL-type cables are not permitted to have metallic insulation screens. No sheath reinforcement is supported for SL-type cables. Corrugated sheaths are not supported for SL-type cables. SL-type cables will either have individual sheaths or individual concentric neutral wires but not both. When SL-type cables are modeled, the bonding arrangement selections available are either single point bonded or two point bonded. Default dimensions for SL-type cables sheaths and armour wires follow the same defaults as for single-core cables.

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3.9 Custom materials and thermal capacitances


CYMCAP gives the user the possibility to enter custom materials for many of the cable components metallic or not. For many non-metallic parts, like insulation, armour bedding, serving etc. the thermal capacitance of the particular component is needed for transient ampacity calculations. Although the program will consider specific thermal capacitance values for known and tabulated selected material types, when custom materials are specified typical values are assumed for the thermal capacitances. The Application supports ASCII fileds for any type of user-defined components so that their name, as well as their parameters can be clearly identified. The following screen illustrates the concept

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3.10 Search for a cable with particular characteristics. The library filters
3.10.1 Searching the cable library. The primary filter In order to search for a particular cable in the Library, use the arrow keys Up and Down and navigate through the cable library. By default all the cables in the library are shown by the navigator. By clicking the right mouse button, however, a primary filter can be activated that permits selective display of the major cable types. In this way the search can narrowed down to single-core, three-core or Pipe-type cables. The screen below shows the pop-up filter menu applied for 3-core cables.

An additional feature of the primary filter is the ability to sort the displayed cables by either cable ID or cable title.

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3.10.2 Searching the cable library. The secondary filter It is not uncommon to desire to locate cables with particular construction characteristics, in addition to the major generic classification provided by the primary filter. In this case, invoking the more advanced search/filtering facilities of CYMCAP is needed. From the cable library navigator screen, invoke the Filter Editor as shown below:

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Once the filter is invoked the user is presented with the option to specify any particular cable characteristics for the search material-wise construction, as seen below. In the particular example, single core, medium voltage cables (rated higher than 6.00 kV) featuring a conductor cross-section larger than 1250 MCM, copper conductor of stranded construction, with concentric neutral and XLPE insulation are searched for.

Notes: More detailed searches comprising non-metallic components could also be included. To bring any cable component attribute to the right, collecting all the desired cable characteristics, highlight the desired feature and bring it over by clicking on the right arrow. To remove a selection, highlight the selected attribute to the right and use the left arrow. All the specified salient search characteristics are summarized at the bottom of the screen A name could be given to the particular filter search characteristics set and saved for future reference.

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Chapter 4
THE DUCT BANK LIBRARY

4.1 Introduction
Duct banks are pre-arranged assemblies of conduits where cables are placed for underground installations. This chapter describes how to enter new duct banks in the library and how to manage an existing library of duct banks. The geometrical disposition of these pre-constructed assemblies is needed to perform the simulations for cables placed in the conduits of the duct bank. Access to the duct bank library allows you not only to add a new duct bank, but to modify and delete previously entered duct banks.

4.2 Duct bank library management, view, add, modify and delete entries
The duct bank library can be accessed by entering the CYMCAP NAVIGATOR. The menu of the navigator is shown below: Among the principal menu functions we see "Ductbank". Point there with the mouse and click the left mouse button. The list of the duct banks in the library is shown as follows:

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Every duct bank is identified within the duct bank library by its TITLE. The duct bank TITLE must be unique for every duct bank. It is also seen that a picture showing the duct bank cross section is displayed for every entry the highlight bar is positioned upon. Move the Up and Down arrow keyboard keys to browse through the library. CYMCAP allows the user to view the salient aspects of the various duct banks without resorting to detailed editing. TO ADD A DUCT BANK to the library, highlight any library entry and press the New key located to the right of the navigator list. You can either use that duct bank as template or create a new one from scratch. If you choose the template option, the entry the highlight bar is on will be used as a template. TO MODIFY A DUCT BANK highlight the duct bank of interest and left-click with the mouse on the Edit button located to the right of the navigator list. The same task can be accomplished by positioning the highlight bar on the entry of interest and double-clicking the left mouse button. TO DELETE A DUCT BANK you position the highlight bar on it and left-click with the mouse on the Delete button located to the right of the navigator list. You can also click and drag any entry from the library to the disposal bin shown in the upper right corner of the navigator window.

4.3 Creating a new duct bank. An illustrative example.


A new duct bank will be created for illustration purposes. The duct bank will be a sample 3x3 duct bank, i.e. consisting of 3 series of conduits and 3 columns of conduits. In what follows, a typical sequence of the steps/screens/dialog boxes required to enter a new duct bank is outlined for illustration purposes. To create a new duct bank in the library, position the highlight bar on any entry and click on the New button. If the existing duct bank is to be used as a template for the new one, answer Yes to the ensuing prompt.

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For this example, no existing duct bank will be used as a template.

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As the following screen indicates, it is required to enter a duct bank TITLE.

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Once the duct bank title is entered, the following screen contains the prompts for the various geometrical details outlining the duct bank construction.

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Once the cursor is positioned into any field for data entry, the needed dimension is outlined on the small auxiliary help screen for clarity. The following screen illustrates the complete characteristics of the new duct bank.

Click OK to accept the entered data and the screen and save the new duct bank in the library. Examining the new library, we remark that the newly entered duct bank appears as a new entry.

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Chapter 5
LOAD-CURVES/HEAT-SOURCE-CURVES AND SHAPE LIBRARIES

5.1 Introduction
Load curves are the patterns of current versus time and are used to indicate how the current in a given cable varies as a function of time over a specific time period. Access to a wide variety of loading patterns is thus assured for various transient studies. Much like the various types of cables, the different load curves are kept in a separate library. Heat Source curves are the patterns of heat source intensity versus time and are used to indicate how the heat source intensity varies as a function of time over a specific time period. Much like the various types of cables, the different heat source curves are kept in a separate library. Shapes are the building blocks used to construct both the Load curves and the Heat Source curves. The shape library is common to both the Load Curve and the Heat source library. This chapter describes how to manage these libraries. In what follows, the terms Load curve and Heat source curve are treated as conceptually identical, as far as library management is concerned, despite their physical difference. The term Curve, wherever used, means both. Whatever statements are made, however, for Load curves, apply equally well to Heat Source curves. These curves are used by CYMCAP only for TRANSIENT ANALYSIS.

5.2 Curves and Shapes


CYMCAP uses the notion of Shapes in order to assure modularity flexibility and efficiency in describing the various curve variations versus time. A Shape is essentially a curve that spans at most 24 hours. Shapes are used to represent daily variations and feature, typically, hourly resolution. The various shapes can be stored separately in a Shape Library. This shape library can be accessed when constructing a curve, that spans one or more days. It is useful therefore to conceptualize the shapes not only as standalone short term Load variations but as building blocks for the Load curves as well. A curve describes the variation of the Loading of a Cable/Heat Source intensity with time and may be composed of one or more shapes, depending on the duration of the transient to be simulated. Curves can span time intervals ranging from a fraction of a day to one week. It is important to realize that CYMCAP forms an association between shapes and Curves. No curve can be defined without a Shape. At least one shape is necessary to construct a Curve. When shapes are modified within the shape library, these actions directly affect the Curves associated with these shapes. No shape that belongs to an existing curve can be deleted. All variations, within the context of the curve definition, are expressed in p.u.The base quantity is the current/heat source intensity the cable/heat source carries at steady state as resulted/defined from the steady state ampacity simulations.

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Note: CYMCAP is also capable of interpreting recorded field measurements and construct Load Curves that faithfully reproduce these recordings, with an hourly resolution. These measurements need to be logged in an ASCII file that follows a specific FORMAT. The resulting Load curves are directly usable by the program for transient studies (see Section 5.5).

5.3 Shape Library Management


The main tool for managing the Shape Library is the CYMCAP Navigator. The shape Library is accessed by clicking on the entry Shape of the navigator. The list of all available shapes in the shape library appears as the following screen indicates

It is seen that the shape library is equipped with a browser that is shape-sensitive. Whenever the highlight bar is positioned on a new shape the screen below shows that very shape. This way CYMCAP permits rapid visualization of the shapes without resorting to detailed editing. TO DELETE A SHAPE position the highlight bar on the shape to be deleted and click on the Delete button to the right. The same can be accomplished by highlighting the shape and dragging into the disposal bin. If that shape is used within a Load curve a warning will follow. TO EDIT A SHAPE position the highlight bar on the shape to be edited and click on the Edit button to the right. You can also edit a shape by double-clicking on it with the left mouse button.

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TO CREATE A NEW SHAPE position the highlight bar on any shape and click on the New button to the right. If you want to use any given shape as a template for the new one position the highlight bar on the one to be used as a template. TO RENAME A SHAPE you must edit it first.

5.3.1 Creating a new shape. An Illustrative example.

Assume that a shape is to be created that spans 24 hours. The first 2 hours will experience a load current of 0.3 p.u. the next 4 hours a load current of 0.6 p.u., the next 5 hours a load current of 0.85 p.u., the next half hour a load current of 0.34 p.u., the next 4 hours a current of 0.7 p.u., the next 5 hours a current of 0.5 p.u. and the remaining 3.5 hours a current of 0.92 p.u. Enter the CYMCAP navigator and access the shape manager. Position the highlight bar on any shape and demand a new shape. In the screen that follows, the prompt demands if the current shape is to be used as a template. We will create a new shape from scratch, thus the answer to the prompt is NO.

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We next enter the shape manager work-bench. It is at this point that data particular to this shape can be entered. At first a title is needed for the shape. This title must be unique and different from the remaining shape titles, if this is to be a valid shape title. After entering the title, the time-current data need to be entered. Note that when the table first appears, all entries of the table are blank and there is no drawing for any segments of the shape. As soon as data is entered for the shape, the drawn curve is refreshed appropriately.

Notes: When data for a shape is entered, the current value cannot exceed 1.0 p.u. Scaling factors can, however, be used when building the Load Curve. Every time the cursor is positioned in a given field, the appropriate part of the drawing is highlighted for better visualization. Furthermore, access to the list of shapes is also guaranteed from the shape manager work-bench by virtue of the list of shapes accessible at the top.

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The shape manager work-bench features 6 bitmaps on the top of the active window. Three on the first row and Three on the second row. They are all used for shape management purposes. Position the cursor on any of the bitmaps and a tooltip appears indicating their function. More specifically:

Click on the bitmap showing the diskette to save the shape.

Click on the bitmap showing the eraser pen to delete the shape.

Click on the bitmap showing the question mark (?) to inquire what Load curve(s) utilizes that shape.

Click on the bitmap showing the clipboard to put a shape on the windows clipboard.

Click on the bitmap with the exclamation mark to revert to the original entries defining a shape, once a modification was effected.

5.3.2 Shifting a shape, an illustrative example. Shapes are normally entered beginning at time 0. It may, however, be desirable to shift a shape so that any given time can be considered its origin. The application permits this operation to be done without redefining the shape using the shift button. For instance, assume that the following shape is to be shifted at the 5th hour. Click on shift and define the desired hour

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The resulting shifted shape is also illustrated below

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5.4 Load Curve Library Management


In what follows typical activities relating to Curve library management are illustrated. The very same actions can be undertaken for both the Load curves and the Heat Source curves if necessary. The example below illustrates Load curves. The load curve library is accessed with the CYMCAP navigator by clicking on the entry Loads (to access Heat Source curves click on the corresponding navigator data entry). The Load curves available in the library appear in a list. At the same time the Load Curve the cursor is on appears in the screen below.

This screen is context-sensitive. If the highlight bar is moved with the Up and Down arrow keys to another curve, or another curve is selected (click on another curve) the graph showing the Load curve changes accordingly. To the left of every Load Curve title a bitmap showing a closed drawer is displayed.

Double click on the Load curve and the bitmap changes (the drawer opens)

while at the same time the sequence of shapes composing the Load Curve is displayed.

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This action is called Expanding the Load Curve, and permits immediate identification of the shapes used by the current Load curve. The reverse action is called Collapsing the Load curve. The numbers in parentheses shown to the right of every shape are the scaling factors applied to the shape within this particular Load Curve.

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After expanding the Load curve, if any shape is selected (click on the shape with the mouse, the shape title is highlighted and the appropriate section of the Load curve identified in the contextsensitive screen.

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This permits a rapid shape recognition without access to the shape manager. Expanding the Load Curves can also be accomplished by clicking the right mouse button and accessing the Special Functions Menu.

By using these options, a single or many branches can be expanded or Collapsed. This may be convenient for expanding all Load Curves at once. TO DELETE A LOAD CURVE position the highlight bar on the Curve to be deleted and click on the Delete button to the right. The same task can be accomplished by selecting the Load Curve and dragging it to the disposal bin shown in the upper right corner of the navigator screen. If that Load Curve is used for any transient simulation a warning will follow. TO EDIT A LOAD CURVE position the highlight bar on the curve to be edited and click on the Edit button to the right. You cannot edit a curve by double-clicking on it since this action is reserved for expanding/collapsing the Load curve. TO CREATE A NEW LOAD CURVE position the highlight bar on any curve and click on the New button to the right. If you want to use any given curve as a template for the new one, position the highlight bar on the one to be used as a template. TO RENAME A LOAD CURVE you must edit it first.

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5.4.1 Create a Load Curve using shapes, an illustrative example

Assume a new Load curve is to be created. This curve will portray a weekly variation. The curve therefore shall be composed of 7 portions. Every portion can be a different shape. The same shape can be used for different portions with identical or different scaling factors. For the example in question it is assumed that the shapes to be used have already been created, although this is not necessary as shown below. Activate the CYMCAP Navigator and access the Load Curve Library. Position the highlight bar on any Load curve and click on the New button.

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To the prompt asking if a Load curve is to be used as a template we respond No and the Load Curve work-bench appears. At first the sample title A WEEKLY CURVE is entered and then we begin constructing the Load curves from the available shapes in the shape library. The Load-Curve work bench features, initially, the list of shapes to the left and a blank list to the right. Select any shape to the left and that shape will be highlighted on the list of shapes featuring the shape library. To the right there is another list containing the list of shapes composing the Load Curve. By clicking to the arrow pointing to the right, the highlighted shape is imported to the list of shapes composing the Load curve. The same shape forms now the first portion of the Load curve and drawn on the screen below portraying the Load Curve in its current status.

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Once at least a shape is entered for the Load Curve, the arrow pointing to the left is enabled and can be used to remove the shape from the Load Curve. Subsequent shapes can be used in a similar fashion to complete the Load curve. The second and third shapes used have all a scaling factor equal to 1 (as the first shape does). The third shape has a scaling factor of 1.176. The way to assign a scaling factor to any shape is to first import the shape from the list to the left and then click on the bitmap , shown above the list of shapes composing the load curve.

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The scaling factor entered can be applied to either the given shape or to all the shapes in the Load curve for uniform scaling. The final form of the Load curve is shown below.

The new Load curve can be saved and remain in the library for future utilization. The Load Curve work-bench features several bitmaps that summarize the various functions of the work-bench. More specifically: Click on this bitmap to save the Load Curve

Click on this bitmap to delete the Load Curve. Click on this bitmap to put a Load Curve on the windows clipboard.

Click on this bitmap to create a new shape.

Click on this bitmap to edit the highlighted shape. This activity, much like the previous one, also gives direct access to the shapes work-bench from the Load Curve workbench.

Click on the bitmap with the exclamation mark to revert to the original entries defining the Load Curve, once a modification was effected.

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Shapes can be created while building the Load Curve It is not necessary to have all the shapes available in the shape library in order to build the Load Curve. The Load Curve work-bench does not only give access to the shape library but to the basic functions of the shape manager as well as the bitmaps above the list of shapes indicates. Thus shapes can be created and modified while constructing the Load curve.

Click on this bitmap to create a new shape. This activity gives direct access to the shapes work-bench from the Load Curve work-bench. Activate it to create a new shape and use it with existing shapes. Shapes can be assigned different scaling factors within a Load Curve When a shape is used within a Load curve, a scaling factor can be applied to it. This scaling factor is applicable only for the given Load curve. The shape data within the shape library are left intact. If the same shape is used twice within the Load curve, with a different scaling factor the second scaling factor is applied to the original shape in the library and not to the already modified one. Every time a shape is imported to a Load Curve the scaling factor is assumed to be 1.0 even if that shape has already been used with a different scaling factor.

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More than one shape can be moved simultaneously When shapes are imported to build the Load Curve, they do not have to be moved one at a time. They can be selected sequentially by keeping the left mouse button clicked and scrolling down the list or selected in any order using the Shift key. All the highlighted shapes will then be moved in the order they were selected.

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Change the order of the shapes in the Load curve Once a Load curve is constructed, the order of its shapes can be altered. The arrow keys pointing Up and Down , situated to the right of the list of the shapes composing the Load Curve, are reserved for that purpose. Their function is essentially the same as the one reserved for the arrows and Keys used to build the Load Curve.

, the Select any shape within the Load curve with the mouse and by clicking on the arrow shape will be displaced one position up in the list. The graph showing the Load Curve will also be refreshed accordingly. The inverse is accomplished by using the arrow key pointing downwards. This way, any shape can assume any position within the Load curve and portions can be interchanged rapidly, to create new Load curves. The screen below pictures the Load curve which was just constructed with portion 6 moved to the 4th position. Portions 4 and 5 were displaced to the 5th and 6th position respectively.

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Shapes can be visualized while building the Load Curve When building a Load curve the list of shapes available in the shape Library are listed so that a selection can be made. The exact graph of the shape is not, however, available until a selection is made and the shape already imported. CYMCAP gives the user the possibility to take a look at any shape before actually importing the shape to the load curve. Select any shape of interest and enable the display mode button.

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5.5 Load Curve from field-recorded data


It is not uncommon that measurements over a period of time are taken to determine the actual loading pattern of a cable. These measurements are often carried out at a given rate, yielding measurements at regular time intervals. This can continue for several hours, or even days, until a quite detailed set of measurements is obtained reflecting the load variation. CYMCAP is capable of interpreting these measurements so that a load curve is constructed which can be used for transient ampacity studies. The following sections explain how the program accomplishes that function. Note that this particular functionality is currently supported only for Load Curves. Heat source Load curves need to be entered using the Graphical User Interface. Field-Recordings and Data Acquisition It is assumed that the recorded measurements are logged to an ASCII file. It is this file that the program uses as input to construct the load curve. The format of this ASCII file is a free format, i.e. no specific record positions are required for the data. It is imperative however, that (a) no field is missing (b) fields are interpreted in the proper sequence and (c) fields are separated by at least one blank character. Every record of this ASCII file is composed of 3 fields. The time field, the date field and the current intensity field. The program will assume this field sequence for any ASCII file provided as input data. The time field The time filed indicates the exact time the measurement took place and is composed of 2 digits denoting the hour indicator followed by 2 digits denoting the minutes indicator, separated by a dot. No other format will be accepted. For example, 01.10 denotes a measurement which took place at 1.10 a.m, while 13.10 denotes a measurement that took place at 1.10 p.m. The valid range for the hour indicator is from 00 to 23 and for the minute indicator from 00 to 59. The Date field The Date field indicates the exact day and month the measurement took place and is composed of 2 digits denoting the month indicator followed by 2 digits denoting the day indicator, separated by a slash (/). For example, 08/09 denotes a measurement which took place on the ninth day of the eighth month. No other format will be accepted. No year indicator is supported. It is recommended, if the year is important, to include it in the Load curve Title. The Current Intensity field The Current Intensity field indicates the current that was measured on the date designated by the date field at the time designated by the time field. It is expressed in Amperes. Format Example
13.25 13.45 14.02 14.22 15.01 15.32 15.57 16.32 16.43 . 08/08 08/08 08/08 08/08 08/08 08/09 08/09 08/09 08/09 50.00 60.00 50.00 60.00 40.00 60.00 34.00 40.00 60.00

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Remarks on Constructing a Load curve from a Data file

When constructing a Load Curve from a data file, every day is assumed to be a different portion having its own shape. There will therefore be as many different portions as the number of the defined days. If more than one measurement is obtained during one hour, the average of the recordings is taken as being the representative loading of the cable for that hour. If no measurement is recorded for the hour, a zero value of current will be assumed. If the load curve is supposed to span several days, no date is permitted to be missing from the starting date until the specified number of days is exhausted. The maximum number of days permitted in a Load curve is 7. When the Load curve is constructed and all the days with their 24 hours intervals defined, the interval with the maximum value of current is used to normalize the load curve. Thus, the interval with the highest recorded current value will appear as carrying a 1.00 p.u. current, while the rest of the intervals will feature a p.u. value which is found by dividing the actual current value for the interval by this maximum current value. The normalizing current is also indicated, once the calculations are completed. This piece of data can be useful when defining scale factors for the various cables in order to specify desired ampacity levels. The user can always edit the load curves produced from a recorded data file. It must be mentioned, however, that once this is done the modified load curve will not reflect the data contained in the data file which is associated with that load curve.

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Entering A Load Curve from an ASCII Data file Activate CYMCAP, enter the navigator and access the Load curve Library by clicking on the entry Loads. Click on the New button to the right to create a new Load curve. Do not use the existing curve as a template, enter a title for the new curve as shown and save the new Load curve by clicking on the bitmap portraying the computer diskette.

Then click on the bitmap next to the bitmap used for saving the Load curve (diskette). This activates the function to enter a Load curve from data recorded to an ASCII file.

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Select the directory in which the file with the recordings are located and select the file.

Then click on Open AND THE NEW Load curve is constructed.

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The Load curve shown below is composed of three portions representing three days.

When a Load curve is created from recorded data, new shapes are automatically created for every day in the file. These shapes are given default names and are automatically put in the shape library.

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Chapter 6
STEADY STATE THERMAL ANALYSIS
6.1 General
This chapter describes the necessary steps to perform steady state ampacity and/or temperature rise analysis. The available generic analysis options are outlined as well as the supported cable installations. The term steady state means a continuous current for the cables just sufficient to produce asymptotically the maximum conductor temperature with the surrounding ambient conditions assumed constant.

6.2 Methodology and computational standards


The techniques and formulas outlined in the International standard IEC 287 and IEC 1042 issued by the International Electrotechnical Commission in 1982 which were amended in 1988 and 1990 are used throughout the calculations. The method of Neher and McGrath is used for non unity load factors. CYMCAP includes the following analysis options not directly addressed in IEC 287 or IEC 1042: a. Cables without metallic sheath, but with copper concentric wires bonded and grounded at one or both ends. b. Submarine cables with touching steel armour wires with or without copper concentric neutral wires and without metallic sheath. c. Cables on riser poles in a protective guard or duct. d. Single phase circuits consisting of one single core cable with concentric neutral wires or sheath serving as the return conductor. e. Modelling of rectangular ductbanks and backfills of any size by the extended geometric factor. f. Modelling of soil drying out in the vicinity of the cable surface (moisture migration). g. Modelling of non-isothermal earth surface conditions. h. Paper-polypropylene-paper laminated cables. i. Thermal analysis of grouped cables in the presence of solar radiation. j. Multiple cables per phase. k. Cables in magnetic ducts/risers l. Cables on riser poles with different venting conditions. CYMCAP deals with cables at all alternating voltages and direct voltages (up to 5kV). Cables can be directly buried, in ducts, in back fills, in through or steel pipes, as well as in air.

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The permissible current rating of an AC cable is derived from the expression for the temperature rise above ambient temperature:

= (I 2 R + 05 . Wd )T1 + (I 2 R(1 + 1 ) + Wd )nT2 + (I 2 R(1 + 1 + 2 ) + Wd )n(T3 + T4 )


Where: I = Current flowing in one conductor (A) Conductor temperature rise above ambient (C) ac resistance per unit length of the conductor at maximum operating temperature (/m) Dielectric loss per unit length for the insulation surrounding the conductor (W/m) Thermal resistance per unit length between conductor and sheath (C-m/W). Thermal resistance per unit length of the bedding between sheath and armour (C-m/W). Thermal resistance per unit length of the external serving of the (C-m/W). Thermal resistance per unit length between the cable surface and surrounding medium (C-m/W). Number of load-carrying conductors in the cable (equal size conductors carrying the same load). Ratio of losses in the metal sheath to total losses in all conductors in that cable. Ratio of losses in the armor to total losses in all conductors in that cable.

= c amb =
R =

Wd = T1 = T2 = T3 =
cable

T4 =
the n =

1 = 2 =

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The permissible current rating is obtained from the above formula as follows:

I=

. T1 + n(T2 + T3 + T4 )) Wd (05 RT1 + nR(1 + 1 )T2 + nR(1 + 1 + 2 )(T3 + T4 )

The drying out of the soil is represented by computing the ampacity from the formula:

I=

. T1 + n(T2 + T3 + T4 ))( 1) x Wd (05 RT1 + nR(1 + 1 )T2 + nR(1 + 1 + 2 )(T3 + T4 )

where:

x = x amb =

temperature difference between critical isotherm (50C) and the ambient (critical isotherm is one at which drying out occurs) ratio of thermal resistivities of dry and moist soil.

The NON-ISOTHERMAL SURFACE is modeled by an imaginary layer of soil d meters thick at the earth surface, where

. d = 10 ar
where:

a = r0 =

convection coefficient thermal resistivity of the moist soil.

The convection coefficient is computed by the program.

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6.3 Studies and executions

A typical example of this categorization scheme is the case of analyzing the effect of bonding and/or transposition for the sheaths of single core cables in a three phase circuit. Although the basic installation remains unaltered, one may define several executions each with different bonding arrangement to best investigate the effects of bonding. When a study is created for the first time, an execution is also automatically created.

STUDIES

Study no. 1, Study no. 2, ..............................Study no. xx, ....

Execution no. 1, ..n

........

Execution no. 1, ..n

A study may contain as many executions as needed. The conceptual schematic categorization also shown in chapter 2 is reproduced here for convenience.

6.4 Library of studies/executions


6.4.1 Introduction

Much like the various types of cables, the studies are kept in a separate library. This section describes how to enter a new study in the library and how to manage an existing library of studies. Access to the library of studies allows the user not only to add a new study but also to modify and even delete previously entered ones.

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6.4.2 Managing the library of studies The library of studies is accessed through the CYMCAP navigator menu by clicking on the entry Study.

It is seen that, by default, the executions belonging to a given study are NOT shown in the list of the studies. Note also that the bitmap shown to the left of the study title represents a closed drawer.

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If the executions belonging to any study are to be displayed, just double-click on the study. If all the executions for all the studies need to be shown, right click and obtain the auxiliary menu shown in the illustration below, to expand the studies.

The entry menu expand-all will expand all the studies. The entry expand-branch will expand only the highlighted study.

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The illustration below shows all studies expanded.

The open drawer symbol, means that the study is expanded i.e. all the executions within the study are displayed. Double click on the study title and the study will be collapsed, i.e. no executions will be shown. The closed drawer symbol is displayed for a Collapsed study.

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Expanding a study is a convenient way to view the executions available for a particular study. Another important piece of information is the type of cable(s) used within a given execution. CYMCAP offers the possibility to access the cable types without resorting to detailed execution editing, thus circumventing the necessity to memorize execution titles. Click on the button View cable(s) installed for each execution

and the type of cables associated with the execution is shown.

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The bitmaps used to describe the various types of cables are as follows:

Single Core self-contained cables Pipe type cables cradled configuration within the pipe.

Pipe type cables triangular (trefoil) configuration within the pipe.

Three core self-contained cable.

Three core self-contained with sector-shaped conductors.

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TO EDIT A STUDY, position the highlight bar on the study of interest and click on the Edit button to the right. Double clicking on the study will not resort to editing since this function is reserved for expanding/collapsing the study. When a study is edited all executions within the study are brought up for editing. Data pertaining to any execution can then be modified accordingly. TO DELETE A STUDY you position the highlight bar on it and click on the Delete button to the right. When a study is deleted ALL the executions belonging to this study will be deleted. TO CREATE A NEW STUDY, position the highlight bar on any study and press the New Study Key to the right. When a new study is created, you have the choice to use that study as a template or create from scratch a completely new execution. TO CREATE A NEW EXECUTION within the study, select any existing execution as a template to create the new execution. The execution used as template will be the one the highlight bar is on. The only way to create a completely new execution without using any templates is to create a new study. 6.4.3 Searching for a particular study The library of studies can be quite voluminous. Once, accessed it can be difficult to locate a particular study of interest. That is why CYMCAP features a search facility that is activated by mouse right-clicking on them

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Once the search facility is invoked, the alphanumeric string can be entered and the study(ies) title(s) containing will be filtered out.

Notes: The studies do no need to be expanded for the search facility to be operated The search facilty can also search for an execution title The search facility can also search for a cable title The search facility can be case sensitive OR pertain to tagged library entries only The search facility can be a forward search OR a global search

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6.5 Labeling studies and executions

In order to label a study and/or execution, the user has to supply: STUDY ID: Alphanumeric string, 10 characters long used as study ID. Use different ID's for different studies for better study identification. CYMCAP uses the STUDY ID for Data Base management purposes only. STUDY TITLE: Alphanumeric string 60 characters long which is going to be used as the study title. Use different titles for different studies, for better study identification. Used by CYMCAP to list the various studies. EXECUTION TITLE: Alphanumeric string 60 characters long which is going to be used as the execution title. Different executions should have different titles for better execution identification. EXECUTION DATE: A date can be associated with every execution. When an execution is created, the date for the execution remains blank as the following screen indicates

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CYMCAP provides a calendar which is synchronized with the computer clock. Access it and any desired date can be entered, be it the current or any other date.

Executions within a study are numbered consecutively. To view the execution number when editing it enable the appropriate option in the navigator screen.

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6.6 Analysis options


6.6.1 Generic options CYMCAP offers the following two analysis options: 1. STEADY STATE THERMAL ANALYSIS, for calculations of ampacities and/or temperature rises when the cable currents are not functions of time. For temperature rise calculations, the currents in the cables are specified and temperatures are sought. For Ampacity calculations, the maximum permitted conductor temperatures are entered and the cable currents are sought. Hybrid calculations are also supported. That means that ampacities can be computed for several circuits while assuming fixed current values for the remaining. 2. TRANSIENT ANALYSIS, for calculations where the cable loading is a function of time, and/or transient conditions are sought. Transient calculations must be preceded by Steady State analysis. No transient analysis is supported for installations of cables in air and in the presence of moisture migration. 6.6.2 Steady state analysis options. The user is prompted for the specific analysis option which is to be exercised. The choice of this option determines the data asked later for cable installation. The analysis options are the following: 1. EQUALLY LOADED, if the installation comprises IDENTICAL cables which are equally loaded. This is the default option. 2. UNEQUALLY LOADED, if the installation comprises unequally loaded and/or dissimilar cables. FOR OPTIONS 1 AND 2 THE MAXIMUM CONDUCTOR TEMPERATURES ARE SPECIFIED AND THE PROGRAM CALCULATES CABLE AMPACITIES. 3. TEMPERATURE, if the conductor currents are known and the temperatures are sought. FOR THIS OPTION THE CABLE CURRENTS ARE SPECIFIED AND THE PROGRAM CALCULATES THE CABLE TEMPERATURES. If in the study some cable currents are to be kept constant, while calculating maximum temperatures, choose option 2.

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6.7 General data for the installation

6.7.1 Ambient temperature and soil resistivity AMBIENT TEMPERATURE and SOIL RESISTIVITY values should correspond to the installation situation and not necessarily to the test condition of the manufacturer. Ambient temperature for buried cables is the soil ambient temperature at the cable burial depth, and the air ambient temperature if the cables are installed in air, or non-isothermal earth modelling is desirable. Soil thermal resistivities range, typically, from 0.8 to 1.3 C-W/m. Values as low as 0.4 and as high as 4 C-W/m can also be encountered. The thermal resistivity of the soil is a very important factor affecting cable ampacity, particularly for directly buried cables. The higher the soil thermal resistivity, the lower is the ampacity, for a given maximum permitted conductor temperature. Thermal resistivity increases with decreasing moisture in the soil. The thermal resistivity of dry sand can be as high as 5 C-W/m, while, thermal resistivity of dry crushed limestone, usually, cannot be higher than 1.5 C-W/m. Soil thermal resistivity is also inversely proportional to the degree of the soil compacting. If the soil thermal resistivity is unknown, the value of 1.3 can be used as an average conservative estimate. 6.7.2 Non isothermal earth surface modelling.

NON ISOTHERMAL SURFACE MODELLING, may be necessary for the case the cables are buried relatively close to the surface of the earth. The implication of this is that the earth surface can no longer accurately be considered as an isothermal. For non-isothermal surface modelling, the program needs the air ambient temperature. THIS TEMPERATURE MUST BE GREATER THAN THE SOIL AMBIENT TEMPERATURE. Non-isothermal earth surface modeling is warranted only if d/L <0.4, (d is defined in section 6.2 and L is the depth of burial of the cable closest to the earth surface) and the user wishes so. If all the cables in the installation are located at a depth greater than 1.5 m, non-isothermal modelling is considered unnecessary. 6.7.3 Moisture migration modelling

MOISTURE MIGRATION modelling, also referred as "drying out of soil" in the vicinity of the cable surface is modeled, if the user wishes so. In this case the user will be asked to enter dry soil thermal resistivity. The dry soil thermal resistivity value is larger than the ones usually assumed for moist conditions and can be as high as 4.0 degrees C-m/W. The program assumes by default that the critical temperature at which moisture migration occurs is 50C if this value is not specified by the user. Notes: Moisture migration is not supported for cables in ducts, and for cables in backfill. Only unity load factor is recommended for this option for directly buried cables. No transient analysis can be carried out in the presence of moisture migration.

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6.7.4 Surrounding medium of the installation This is to specify whether the cables are directly buried, in backfill, ducts or in air. Depending on the particular installation, the following additional data may be necessary: 6.7.4.1 Backfill/Ductbank data Backfill data pertain to thermal backfills and ductbanks. The present version of the program cannot handle more than two different materials surrounding the cable. Rectangular backfills/ductbanks are the only types supported. Backfill/ductbank is characterized by its dimensions and thermal resistivity. The thermal resistivity of the backfill is usually lower than the native soil. The thermal resistivity of concrete is usually in the range of 0.5 to 0.8 C-W/m. The coordinates for the Backfill/Ductbank center must be based on the same reference axes as the cable coordinates. It is emphasized, again that no moisture migration is supported when the cables are in backfill. NOTES: The maximum permitted ductbank width/height ratio is 5. If greater than 5 will be limited to 5. The maximum permitted ductbank depth/height ratio is 20. If greater than 20 will be limited to 20.

6.7.4.2 Cables in air When cables are installed in air, besides the data pertinent to solar radiation, the program needs to know if any special cable arrangement applies. 1. SOLAR RADIATION MODELLING is supported only for the case the cables are installed in air and are "unshaded". The following information is required: a) Intensity of solar radiation in W / m , or in W / ft.2. Normally, an average seasonal value is used. If the cables are unshaded (exposed to solar radiation) the program assumes a solar radiation intensity of 500 W / m even if the latter is set to 0.0. b) Absorption coefficient for the cable surface material. The following are typical values for various materials: Compounded jute/fibrous materials Polycholoroprene Polyvinylchloride Polyethylene Lead or armour ABSC = 0.8 ABSC = 0.8 ABSC = 0.6 ABSC = 0.4 ABSC = 0.6
2 2

If the cables are unshaded and the absorption coefficient is set to 0, the program will assume it to be 0.6. c) For cables installed in air, the load factor has to be 1.0.

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2. SUPPORTED CONFIGURATIONS FOR CABLES INSTALLED IN AIR. The following table illustrates the cases the program supports for cables near or clipped to walls. The necessary assumptions concerning clearances are also tabulated. These cases were taken from the IEC287 standard.

Table 1: Cables installed in air near a wall

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For the configurations outlined in table 1, note the following: Cables are assumed in free air or non continuous brackets, ladder supports or cleats. De" is not greater than 0.15m. Values for 1 cable also apply to each cable of a group when spaced horizontally, with a clearance between cables of at least 0.75 times the overall cable diameter. 6.7.4.3 Cables on riser poles Cables on riser poles are installed in vertical arrangements with a guard to provide mechanical protection. These guards act as ducts for thermal analysis purposes. They do merit, however, special treatment in view of the fact that heat transfer mechanisms are different as compared to horizontally placed ducts. In order to avoid overestimation of the ampacities for cables on risers, CYMCAP uses a dedicated methodology to treat cables on riser poles. As table 2 indicates, the program supports both-ends vented guards, partially vented (open at the top) and completely closed risers.

Table 2: Cables on Riser Poles, arrangement and venting conditions

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The possibility of having 1 or 3 cables in the riser guard is also supported for all three cases. When magnetic risers are considered, all 3 phases must be present. In other words we can either have a) 3 single-core cables in trefoil within the same duct, b) a 3-core cable in a duct, or c) 3 single-core cables in 3 different ducts spaced apart. For the former 2 cases, enter in Cable installation data the coordinates of the center of the duct while for the latter case all three cables must be explicitly entered respecting their spacing. For 3 single-core cables in the same duct, select the appropriate icon and enter only one cable in the cable installation data. The program will assume that 3 cables in trefoil are considered. The bitmaps shown for cables on riser poles are generic. Thus, a 3-core cable can also be modeled in the guard by choosing options 1, 3 or 5, despite the fact that the icons portrays single-core cables. 6.7.4.4 Groups of cables in air per IEC-1042 The available choices for groups of cables in air is shown in table 5. These configurations have been obtained from the IEC standard 1042 (1991). The calculating procedures contained in IEC1042 have been modified to take into account solar radiation.

Table 3: Group Cables in air, per IEC 1042 All the cables must be of the same type. The program will assume that 3 cables are in trefoil instead of one since the icon selected pictures trefoil formations.

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6.7.4.5 Heat/Sink Source Modelling This option can be exercised to model a nearby heat source(sink) that is suspected of influencing the ampacity calculations. This can be used for nearby pipes waterbeds etc. There are four possibilities: a. Source inside backfill specified as constant temperature b. Source inside backfill specified as heat flux source. c. Source not in backfill specified as constant temperature. d. Source not in backfill specified as constant heat flux. Heat flux is expressed in W / m and temperature in C. Heat sources are modeled as circles with either constant temperature or constant heat flux boundaries. When therefore a source is specified, the source coordinates and the radius are required data. If the source is in backfill, make certain that the source circumference falls within the backfill. Similarly, if the source is specified outside the backfill make sure that the source circumference stays out of the bakfill. No hybrid geometrical situations are recommended. 6.7.5 Multiple Cables per phase
2

There are some installations which feature more than one cable, in parallel, per phase. This is normally due to the fact that the load per phase may be too high to be carried by a single cable. We may therefore have 2, 3 or more cables per phase. When single core cables are connected in parallel the load current may not share equally between them, due to the fact that the associated impedances are not only a function of the self but of the mutual inductance between cables and their sheath which is dependent on the geometrical arrangement. Similar considerations apply for the circulating currents in their sheaths for 2 point bonded systems. In calculating ampacities for cables in parallel, different sheath loss factors are involved. Their value is dependent not only on the cable location but on the phase labeling as well. Modelling installations involving several cables per phase by assuming every parallel path to be an independent circuit, entails an error because this will disregard the mutual impedances between sheaths of the same circuit and could result in overestimating the cable ampacities. Notes : All the cables for multiple cables per phase will have to be the same cable type when belonging to the same circuit. Different circuits can, however, have different cable types. Multiple cables per phase cannot be applied on 3-phase cables. The notion of transposition, crossbonding and minor section lenghts as well as specifying section length for 2-point bonded systems are not applicable.

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6.8 Cable Installation Data


This part of data entry pertains to the geometrical coordinates of the cables used in the installation and comprises labeling and cable numbering conventions the application abides by. Depending on the analysis option selected for steady state analysis, conductor temperatures may need to be entered instead of conductor currents. 6.8.1 Geometrical configuration of the installation The geometrical location of the cables, i.e. their coordinates are necessary. The Y-coordinate value for the cables is always assumed to be positive and designates the depth of burial with respect to the earth surface which is assumed at Y=0.0. For cables installed in air, Y can be set to 0. The X-coordinate values can be either positive or negative. The choice of the origin of the X-axis should be governed, whenever possible, by the ease of entering cable coordinates. It is common for installations to exhibit a symmetry along a vertical axis. Choose this vertical axis to be the X-axis reference. This will at first greatly facilitate entering the coordinates (half the cables will be mirror images of the other half) and at second it will ease the convergence process. Note that entering the X and Y coordinates for every cable is not always necessary in the sense that for some cases only distances between the various cables is of importance. In other cases, only the coordinates of one cable are necessary, while the rest can be deduced from the cables spacing. CYMCAP also allows the user to enter the coordinates for a cable in relative coordinates by designating any cable in the installation as the beacon cable. 6.8.2 Additional cable installation salient aspects The circuit number identifies the 3 phases of the circuit. If more than one cables share the same circuit number, the program will check if there are 3 cables and if all are of the same type. If not, the user will be requested to correct the data. The same circuit number can only be featured by 1 or 3 cables, never by 2 cables. The cable design ID is the IDENTIFICATION string given to cable in the cable library. The cable ID is used in the installation data because it is shorter than the cable title. The cable library is accessible when entering the cable installation data as the examples that follow clearly show. You cannot select for the installation a cable that is not in the library. Make certain that cables with the same circuit number have the same cable ID. A maximum of 45 cables can be entered per installation. If cables are in a ductbank, with three cables per duct, only 1 cable is sufficient to represent the trefoil formation. CYMCAP will automatically designate that CABLES ARE TOUCHING in the specific installation data (see below). The implicit assumption of this modelling is that all three phases are in the same duct. Similarly, for the case of 3 cables which are directly buried or in backfill and they are touching (i.e. the cables are in a triangular formation directly in contact) CYMCAP facilitates data entry by entering the coordinates of the center of the trefoil formation. In the Specific Installation data CYMCAP shall designate the cables as touching".

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6.8.3 Installation types CYMCAP supports the following generic types of cable installations: Cables in air Cables in duct/duct is in air. Cables directly buried. Cables in thermal backfill. Cables in ducts or in an underground ductbank. Cables in pipe and the pipe directly buried. Cables in pipe and the pipe in thermal backfill.

This information is used to direct the program for any additional data required. Pipe-type cables are always assumed to be three-conductor cables.

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6.9 Specific cable installation data


These data are used to provide further details on the installation and pertain to specific cable types used in the installation. An installation may have many cables, but only a few types of cables. Specific installation data have to be entered for every cable type. Once specific installation data is specified for one cable type, the information remains for all cables of this type in the installation. When an execution is duplicated and the cable types are changed, the user should always specify the specific installation data for all the new cable types. The program will not assume any specific installation data. 6.9.1 Bonding The bonding arrangement is a very important factor for ampacity calculations. When the cable sheaths are bonded and grounded at both ends, large circulating currents result, which may considerably decrease the permissible cable ampacity. For crossbonded and single point bonded systems, only eddy current losses are present (continuous cylindrical sheaths assumed). These losses are much lower than the losses due to the circulating currents in the sheaths when the cables are not crossbonded. For single point bonded systems, standing voltages arise usually at the open end. This voltage can be of concern, particularly for personal safety, and it is calculated by the program. Crossbonding can be applied with equal or unequal section lengths. In the former case, circulating currents are the minimum while in the latter some circulating currents may exist. In the case of unequal section lengths, the program requests the user to use the length of the shortest section as reference and define the remaining two sections (longer and longest) by using the length ratios longer/shortest (AN) and longest/shortest (AM) to quantify the degree of asymmetry and thus calculate the circulating currents in the sheaths accordingly. Concentric wires shields and sheath reinforcement assemblies follow the bonding option selected for the sheaths. For single point bonded and cross-bonded systems only sheath and sheath reinforcement eddy currents are considered as losses. Armour wires are always assumed to be bonded and grounded at both ends. Non-magnetic armour is combined with the sheath for circulating current loss computations. Non-magnetic armour wires, in the absence of a sheath should always be modelled as concentric neutral wires. Since it is not always possible to install cables with one value of spacing along a given route, the program supports unequal spacing of cables. The following relate to the calculation of sheath circulating current losses for 2-point bonded systems when a situation like this occurs. A section is defined as the length along two points of the cable route where shields are solidly bonded. Loss factors have to be calculated based on conductor and external thermal resistance of the closest cable spacing along the section. a) When spacing along a section is not constant but the various lengths are known, the value for X are derived as per IEC 287 as follows: LaXa+LbXb+.....LnXn X = ----------------------La + Lb +......Ln La,Lb,...Ln are lengths of different spacing along a section where:

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Xa,Xb,...Xn the reactances/unit length of cable, with appropriate values for the corresponding spacing Sa, Sb,..Si,...Sn. It is assumed that the cables are in flat formation. Note that the same considerations are also applicable for single core cables arranged in triangular formation. Si is the spacing between either one of the outer cables to the middle cable. Here the spacing of the two outer cables is assumed to be equal. If not, enter the GMD (geometric mean distance). b) If the spacings of cables along a section are not known or cannot be really anticipated in the preliminary design stages, the losses will be considered increased by 25%. This is considered to be a typical value. 3-Core cables with metallic tape screens If the cable has tape screens around each core and no other metallic parts encompassing all three cores, the program will calculate the ampacity assuming that these screens are grounded at one end. If the screens are multipoint grounded, the program will still apply the screening factors but will not calculate any circulating currents in the screens. In the latter case, the results will be somewhat optimistic. If the cable, in addition to the above mentioned screens, has another concentric neutral wires or nontouching armour wires around all three cores the program, as before, will not calculate any circulating currents in these metallic assemblies. The calculated ampacities will again be on the optimistic side. If the cable, in addition to the above mentioned screens, has another CONTINUOUS metallic part encompassing all three conductors (i.e. sheath, reinforcing tape, armour tapes etc) the program will calculate the ampacity correctly for any bonding arrangement. 3-core cables with wire screens (including equalizing tape around the wires) If the wires screening the cores are not touching and the equalizing tape is thin and not overlapping with a long lay (normally this is the case), the circumferential heat transfer towards the outer cable components is negligible. Thus, one can proceed without applying any screening factor as is mandatory for the case of continuous metallic tapes. The wires can therefore, for ampacity calculation purposes, be neglected under the circumstances. If they need to be represented, the cable can be modelled as SL-type cable. The error this approximation entails is on the optimistic side, i.e. the program will give slightly higher ampacities if there are no other metallic parts surrounding all three cores and the screen wires are multipoint grounded. If, however, the wires are multipoint grounded the program cannot be used, in its present configuration, to analyze this case.

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Single core cables In the case there is both metallic tape and wire screen around the cable core, treat the tape screen as sheath and the wire screen as concentric neutral. For single point bonded sheaths, the wire screens can be neglected, the tape screen should be combined with the sheath and the combination represented as sheath. If there is metallic screen, armour wires and the metallic parts of the cable are single point bonded the program will not calculate eddy current losses in the screens. The screens in this case can be represented as sheaths. In the case that all metallic parts of the cable are multi-point bonded and grounded, the present version of CYMCAP will not calculate circulating losses in the screens. The only remedy will be to combine the electrical resistance of the sheath, screens, tapes and concentric neutral. This however, is a tedious and delicate process.

6.9.2 Barring certain bonding options Bonding arrangements need to be defined for every cable type within the installation. Depending on the geometrical disposition of the cable layouts the application may barr certain bonding arrangements as a precaution to invalid data entry. For instance, triplexed formations will not be permitted to be assigned bonding options pertinent to flatly arranged cables. Non-accessible bonding options are shown with the Pad-lock option, the same symbol used for invalid selections in the cable library.

6.9.3 Cables touching The program supports the following options: a. Single conductor (core) cable b. Single conductor (core) cables touching If trefoil formations are selected in the installation data, the program will automatically assign the cables as "touching".

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6.9.4 Cable transposition The transposition of single conductor cables reduces the circulating currents in the sheaths when cables are bonded at both ends and they are arranged in flat formation. Both options are supported: Cables are regularly transposed Cables not transposed

This consideration is only relevant when the single conductors cables are specified as being two point bonded. Furthermore the specification of transposition bears no relevance for the case one single conductor per cable is specified. Single core cables in triangular formation are assumed transposed. The notion of transposition is only applicable to circuits composed of 1 single core cable per phase. 6.9.5 Ductbank/duct materials and construction When cables are installed in ducts, the program supports the calculation of the external thermal resistance as a function of the duct construction. The following choices are supported: D (duct thermal resistivity C-m/W) can be user supplied or slected from the list below.

Material Metallic conduit (non-magnetic) Metallic conduit (magnetic) Fiber duct in air Fiber duct in concrete Asbestos duct in air Asbestos duct in concrete PVC duct in air PVC duct in concrete Polyethylene duct in air Polyethylene duct in concrete Earthenware duct High pressure gas filled pipe type High pressure oil filled pipe type

D
0.0 0.0 4.8 4.8 2.0 2.0 7.0 7.0 3.5 3.5 1.2 0.0 0.0

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REMARKS: The duct/ductbank material along with its dimensions are used to determine some constants necessary for the computation of the external thermal resistance of the cable. When option -K is selected, the user has some flexibility in providing the thermal resistivity of the duct material. The duct construction, however, MUST BE one of the 12 listed above. For example, if the case at hand exhibits asbestos ducts in air and the thermal resistivity of the asbestos variant used is different than the one tabulated in entry 4 above, the user can supply the required asbestos thermal resistivity by selecting -K and still use the entry 4 to tell the program that the new asbestos duct is in air. For the case plastic ducts are considered (PVC and polyethylene) the program in the absence of officially tabulated experimental values, will consider, for the time being, the same constants as in the case of asbestos ducts for the calculation of the thermal resistance of the air in the duct.

6.9.6 Fraction of return current for single phase cables

By fraction of reference CYMCAP defines the return current in the concentric wires assembly, sheath or shield to that matter for circuits composed of 1 single phase cable only. This is defined in p.u. of the conductor current and cannot exceed 1. A value of 1 for the fraction of reference means that all the current returns through sheath, shield or concentric neutral. A value of 0 means that no return current exists. The value for the fraction of reference is important for ampacity calculations. The higher the fraction of reference the lower the ampacity due to losses associated with the circulation of the return current. Notes: This quantity is only pertinent for single conductor cables and must be entered if the default value is not desired. Three core cables are assumed always to carry symmetrical loads in the three conductors and no return current exists. When three single conductor cables are modeled with the same circuit number, the program assumes that no return current exists in any of the phases and will set the fraction of reference to 0 independently of what the user specifies. This is consistent with the implicit assumption adopted for ampacity calculations which stipulates that all cables in one circuit (cables having the same circuit number) will have to carry the same current.

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6.9.7 Pipe Material And Dimensions

For pipe type cables the pipe material is used to calculate the multiplier for the so called "in-pipeeffect". This multiplier is used to take into account losses due to proximity and eddy currents because of the presence of the pipe. The following choices are supported: a. User supplies pipe material. In this case the user has to enter the coefficient PIPFAC for the "in-pipe-effect". b. Stainless steel pipe, c. Steel pipe, d. Iron pipe, PIPFAC=1.0 PIPFAC=1.7 PIPFAC=1.7

The pipe dimensions support not only the regular pipe dimensions, but a provision for coating is also made. The user can specify any coating material. If custom made, (user supplies material) the thermal resistivity has to be given to the program, although normally the selection can be made from the same list of the materials used for the jacket. In this case the program has imbedded thermal resistivities for the listed materials. When specifying the dimensions, the overall pipe diameter has to be larger than the outer pipe diameter in order to model the pipe coating. If no pipe coating material is present, the overall pipe diameter has to be entered equal to the outer pipe diameter.

6.10 Cable Library data and executions


When an execution is run, the cable data used for the particular simulation are the ones contained within the execution. CYMCAP keeps a copy of the Cable Library data that could be modified locally within the execution. The data of the cable library will remain unaltered. That is why when an execution is saved the user is presented with the following options: -SAVE AS IS If the current execution is not new, then it already contains previously entered cable design data. This option will conserve the existing data no matter what the status of the cable library. If the execution was created just now, and no cable design data exist within the execution, the program will take the data from the cable library. -UPDATE FROM LIBRARY When this option is exercised, the program will update the cable data for this execution from the cable library. This option is useful when a cable design has been modified in the library and we desire to import the necessary changes in the pertinent execution. -UPDATE TO LIBRARY We exercise this option when the cable design data performed within the execution are to be used to update the cable library. Note that if the same cables are used in other studies or executions, the cables are not updated automatically.

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6.11 Steady state thermal analysis, Example 1: Cables in a ductbank


In the sections that follow a study cases outlining several major analysis options of the program are presented. The basic interface aspects of CYMCAP associated with this analysis option are also outlined. 6.11.1 An illustrative Study Case for cables in a duct bank In what follows, the basic steps for setting up a case with cables in a duct bank are illustrated. 6 single phase cables, composing 2 3-phase circuits, located in ducts within a ductbank are considered. The cables are 30kV, 1000KCMIL, CU conductor, CU concentric neutral, XLPE insulated cables. The ductbank is made of concrete and the cables are assumed to operate at 75% load factor. This study will assume that all the cables are of the same type and that are equally loaded. The maximum conductor temperature will be assumed to be 90 C. The frequency will be 60 Hz and the unit system will be the Metric one. All 6 cables are of the same type, therefore only 1 cable type will be used for the installation. The cable type to be used is already in the library. If this was not the case the first task would be to create the cable and save it in the library. The following aspects of CYMCAP are illustrated through this example: How to define a new study and a new execution. How to set the solution Option for the simulation How to use the speed bar and the speed buttons within an execution. How to utilize the ductbank library for cables installed in a ductbank. How to define the General Installation data and setup How to enter the geometrical installation data How to rearrange the cable positions in an installation. Why it is not necessary to explicitly enter the cables coordinates for ductbank installations. How to define specific installation data for the cables within an installation How to generate graphical and tabular reports for a given execution. How to access the cable design data graphically from the installation layout. How to access graphical reports from the installation layout. How to interpret the generated tabular reports for steady state analysis.

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6.11.2 Defining a new study and a new execution

We enter the CYMCAP navigator and make certain that the frequency is set to 60 and the Unit system is set to Metric. It is seen that the Unit system is set to Imperial. If this was not the case, access the frequency and Unit buttons to the bottom right of the screen and make the necessary changes. We then create a new study. By creating a new study a new execution is automatically created. The first thing to do is to properly identify the study and the execution. The prompt illustrated below is meant to be used as a convenient means of duplicating a study with all its executions for future utilization. If the response to the prompt is NO, a new study containing a new execution will be created. That will be the case for this example.

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6.11.3 Defining the steady state analysis solution Option

Click on OK and the following prompt demands the solution option to be followed for the simulation.

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We select Equally Loaded, since there is only one cable type in the installation and we desire all circuit to feature the same ampacity, and click OK. The program then prompts the user for the generic installation type by displaying the execution speed bar.

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6.11.4 Execution Speed bar and associated speed buttons Before proceeding any further, let us examine for a short while the contents of the execution ribbon. An alternative name CYMCAP uses is the execution speed-bar. It is seen that the toolbar associated with the execution features several speed buttons with their corresponding bitmaps. These speed buttons are the gateways to important activities within the execution. They also govern the prioritization of data entry and ensuing prompts. The same functions can be accessed from the CYMCAP menu. Depending on whether the execution is a new execution, some (or all) will be enabled. More specifically:

Speed button for generic installation description. It pertains to cables installed within a ductbank. All the cables of the installation must be contained within the ductbank.

Speed button for generic installation description. It pertains to cables installed within a backfill. All the cables of the installation must be contained within the backfill.

Speed button for generic installation description. It pertains to cables installed as directly buried. All the cables of the installation must be directly buried.

Speed button for generic installation description. It pertains to cables installed in buried ducts. All the cables of the installation must be contained within buried ducts. CYMCAP perceives this installation to be an extension of the ductbank type.

Speed button for generic installation description. It pertains to pipe type cables that are directly buried. The installation must contain at least one pipe-type cable. All the cables of the installation must be directly buried.

Speed button for generic installation description. It pertains to cables installed in air. All the cables of the installation must be installed in air.

Speed button for heat source/sink description. Speed button for submitting the execution and initiating calculations. When this bitmap is clicked on, only the current execution of the study is submitted.

Speed button Bitmap for zooming-in on the cables within the installation geometrical layout. Zooming-in may, under certain circumstances distort the proportionality CYMCAP keeps for the various installation components since they are drawn under scale.

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Speed button for zooming-out of the cables within the installation geometrical layout. Zooming-out restores the normal view and the program reverts to the state before zooming-in.

Speed button to begin or edit the Cable Installation data. These data comprise geometrical layout of cables within the installation, cable types used, circuit arrangements etc.

Speed button to begin or edit the Specific Cable Installation data. These data comprise information on bonding transposition etc. Every cable type used in the installation must have its own specific Installation Data.

Speed button to enter or access data for the Transient Analysis.

Speed button to edit the Cable design data as entered in the Cable Library. This bitmap gives access to the Cable Library module for all the cable types within the current execution. Invoke this activity to modify the cable design data locally, within the execution.

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6.11.5 Defining Regular and/or Irregular ductbanks Click on the ductbank installation speed button to call for a ductbank installation and the program displays another prompt, to inquire whether a regular ductbank or not is to be used.

Regular duct banks are duct banks featuring symmetrical arrangements of duct rows and columns. Asymmetrical ductbanks feature arbitrary duct placement geometry within the duct bank. Answering NO to the prompt, simply means that a regular duct bank is to be created.

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6.11.6 Importing a ductbank from the Library Once a regular duct bank is selected, the duct bank library becomes accessible, with all its entries in a scroll list.. Any duct bank from the library can be selected and brought-over. Highlight the desired duct bank and press on the button Apply, to import the new ductbank in the installation. It is important at this point to specify the depth at which the duct bank will be placed. Here the depth is specified by the duct bank center.

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6.11.7 Defining the General Installation data and setup

The program then prompts for the General installation data. The pertinent information is shown below:

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CYMCAP then prompts the user for the cables/circuits the installation includes. The simulation under consideration features 6 single core cables, in 2 circuits. The maximum conductor temperature is 90 degrees C and the circuit Load factor 0.75.

The conductor temperature and Load factor shown will be applied initially to all cables in the installation. They can later be modified on a per circuit basis.

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6.11.8 Defining the Cable Installation data Click on OK and CYMCAP provides the Cable installation work-bench.

It is seen that by default CYMCAP positioned the 6 cables in ducts sequentially by filling the ductbank row by row. The positions the program placed the cables in the ductbank, are marked by an X. The left part of the screen comprises the cable installation data i.e. the cable positions, the maximum temperature and the circuit layout. The bitmaps for the circuit layout, clearly indicate that we deal with single core cables, with one cable per duct. If other circuit arrangements were chosen different bitmaps would appear for the circuit layout. More specifically:

This bitmap indicates a single core cable located at the displayed coordinates.

This bitmap indicates a trefoil formation whose center is located at the displayed coordinates

This bitmap indicates a three-core cable located at the displayed coordinates

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We need to specify now the cable types that will be used. Position the highlight bar on any cable of the first circuit (or drag it to highlight them all) and double click on it. The installation screen is replaced by the cable library browser.

Selecting any cable type from the library is thus possible, with simultaneous visualization of the cable cross-section within the browser. Furthermore, by activating the Library cable filter the search can be narrowed down to pertinent cables only (e.g. single core). Position the highlight bar on the desired cable and click OK to import it to the installation. Note that CYMCAP will first verify if the outside diameter of the selected cable can fit the duct. Any cables showing the X symbol signify that they are too large to enter the conduit.

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6.11.9 Rearranging the cables in the proper ducts As seen, the application placed the cable arbitrarily, filling completely the upper row of the duct bank and moving-on to the second row sequentially. If this is not the desired cable positioning, click on the button permute cables and rearrange the cables as desired by pointing and dragging any cable to any desired location.

Once the desired positioning is achieved, click on the button Apply to accept.

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The final position of the cables is shown in the installation screen.

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6.12 A study case for dissimilar directly buried cables


6.12.1 Case description and illustrations For this example we will consider one trefoil formation of single core cables( 350KCMIL, 15kV rated) three single core cables (350KCMIL, 46kV rated submarine cables) in flat formation and one 3-core (250 KCMIL, 69kV rated) cable, directly buried in the ground. The installation therefore features 3 circuits and 3 different types of cables. The maximum permissible conductor temperatures for the 15kV and 46kV submarine cable circuits shall be assumed to be 90C, while their respective Load factors are 0.75. The 69 kV circuit will be assumed to have a fixed ampacity of 140.00 A at a load factor of 1.00. An irrigation pipe, having 150 cm diameter is in the vicinity, carrying water. The pipe will be modeled as a heat sink having a temperature of 10C. The ampacities of the first two circuits are sought. The Unit system will be the Imperial system and the operating frequency shall be assumed to be 60 Hz. In analyzing this case, the following CYMCAP options are illustrated: How to create a new execution using an existing one as a template. How to change the solution Option from the CYMCAP menu. How to enter in the installation a group of cables using absolute coordinates. How to enter in the installation cables using relative coordinates with respect to already entered cables. How to enter in the installation cables arranged in a trefoil formation. How to designate a reference circuit when dissimilar cables are considered for the installation. How to perform steady state analysis when one circuit in the installation has a fixed load carrying capacity. How to model external heat sources. How to view the reports for cables arranged in a trefoil formation.

6.12.2 Define a new execution using an existing one as template We can proceed as in example 1 and define a new study with a new execution in it. An alternative manner is to use the existing execution for ductbanks and create a new one within the same study. If the former way is selected, the steps that need to be followed have already been described. If the latter approach is followed, the old installation data need to be deleted and a new installation to be built anew. In both cases the solution option must be specified, in fact changed, to reflect the fact that the installation now has dissimilar cables.

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6.12.3 How to modify the solution option from the CYMCAP menu The solution Option can be specified from the main CYMCAP Menu. Enter the menu item Edit and access the Solution Option entry as the following screen illustrates.

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The new installation will comprise 1 trefoil formation, one flat formation and one 3-core cable. Since the majority of the conductor temperatures will be 90 C and most of the circuits will feature a Load factor of 0.75 both can be specified along with the generic circuit description, when defining the installation setup.

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6.12.4 Enter a group of cables using absolute coordinates The 44 kV submarine cables are arranged in flat formation with a spacing of 1 ft buried at a depth of 5 ft. If all the cables in the circuit are selected by highlighting them, the absolute coordinates of the formation, as a group, are entered by specifying the position of the left most cable along with the cable spacing. If the cables in the circuit were selected individually, the absolute coordinates of every one of them should have been entered. The conductor temperature and Load factor were already defined to be 90 and 0.75 respectively. Click on OK and the circuit appears drawn to the right.

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6.12.5 Enter a trefoil formation using relative coordinates The trefoil formation is located at 1.5 ft to the right and 1.0 ft towards the surface from the rightmost cable. In order to avoid entering absolute coordinates with respect to the leftmost cable of the flat formation we denote the cable to the right as beacon cable. Select the cable whose coordinates are to be designated as the reference coordinates and click on the button labeled Beacon. The beacon cable is then enclosed within a colored square.

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The trefoil formation coordinates are then entered with respect to the beacon cable as follows:

The last cable (3-core) is entered, using the same cable as beacon cable.

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6.12.6 Specifying a fixed ampacity circuit Click on More to specify the fact that this cable will have a Load factor of 1.00 and that it will be a fixed ampacity circuit Note that by specifying the circuit to be a reference circuit the Temperature field reverts to Circuit Ampacity. It is there that the fixed ampacity values need to be entered.

Once the circuits have been defined, since the cables are unequally loaded, one circuit needs to be designated as the reference circuit. The reference circuit should be the cable circuit containing the hottest cable. If the wrong circuit is selected as reference the program may return unexpected results. The hottest cable could have exceeded the specified temperature. This is easily fixed by simply changing the reference to other circuit.

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6.12.7 Specify a reference circuit for the installation We select the trefoil circuit to be reference circuit by selecting it and by clicking on the button labeled: Reference circuit. 6.12.8 Specify a heat source included in the installation The next task is to define the heat source and its characteristics. Click on the dedicated speed button of the execution ribbon and fill-in the data as illustrated below:

Click OK to accept all entries.

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It is seen that the installation data screen is now split into 2 parts, the upper part reserved for the cable installation data and the lower part reserved for the heat source data.

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6.12.9 Specify the specific installation data The execution data need now to be completed by specifying the specific installation data. The 15kV cables are assumed to be 1-pt bonded and the 44kV cables 2-pt bonded, non-transposed with even spacing along the cable run. The 69 kV cable is assumed to be 2-pt bonded. It is emphasized again that specific installation data need to be entered for all the cable types. The screen below indicates specific installation data for the 46 kV cables arranged in flat formation.

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6.12.10 Viewing the Graphical ampacity reports for cables in a trefoil formation The reports for cables in a trefoil formation follow the same philosophy as for any other cable. The only difference is that CYMCAP recognizes the individual identity of every phase in the trefoil arrangement both when pointing with the mouse on the trefoil arrangement as well as for the detailed reports on a cable per cable basis.

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If another phase of the trefoil formation is of interest, the scroll list above the bitmap portraying the trefoil gives access to it. Select the appropriate phase and the new report will be generated. Whenever viewing graphical ampacity reports, the cable that is enclosed in a red square was determined to be the hottest cable in the entire installation.

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6.13 Opening more than one executions simultaneously


CYMCAP offers the possibility to work simultaneously on more than one execution. The executions may belong to the same or to different studies. In order to be able to open more than one executions, the CYMCAP navigator needs to remain accessible. Once the navigator appears, click on the Hide on Edit button to remove the tick mark. By default, the tickmark is on, instructing CYMCAP to close the navigator when an execution is edited. This is because the program assumes, by default, that the user will work on one execution at the time. If the tick-mark is removed, then the navigator stays on to edit another execution when the previous execution has already been edited.

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Note that the execution title appears at the top of the screen. There is also a scroll-list that contains all the open studies. The study title appears also clearly above the CYMCAP ribbon. If a second execution is opened, from the same study, the active windows will show the second execution unless CYMCAP is instructed to either tile or cascade the Windows (access the menu entry Windows to set the desired Option). Cascaded, the two executions look as follows.

The highlighted windows pertains to the execution which was loaded last. Note that the same could have been accomplished by clicking on the study title alone. In that case, all the executions within the study will be opened automatically.

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CYMCAP groups the edited executions by study in order to facilitate editing. If the executions for one study are already opened and another study is opened, the executions for the previous study are iconized and the executions of the new study appear cascaded in the foreground. The newly opened study is added to the study scroll list. By accessing the proper study on the scroll-list one can bring to the foreground all its executions and iconize the rest without having to close individually all the executions in the foreground.

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If any of the executions in the foreground are closed the remaining ones from the study are available. If all the executions within the study are closed, then all the iconized executions will appear in the foreground.

The same principles apply when editing executions from different studies and there is only one execution per study.

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6.14 Working with more than one executions simultaneously


Once more than one executions are opened any one can be designated as active. The following screen portrays 2 executions tiled vertically.

By performing any type of editing or operation, the execution occupies completely the foreground as if it as the only one opened. The executions remain independent each retaining its own ribbon with full access to all the standard editing facilities.

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6.15 Submitting more than one executions simultaneously


Once 2 (or more) executions are opened, they can be submitted individually by clicking on the execution speed button executions will be generated. located next to the CYMCAP ribbon. All the reports, for both

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Chapter 7
TRANSIENT ANALYSIS

7.1 General
Transient thermal analysis is performed to assess the maximum permissible currents that a cable can sustain over a specific period of time without violating cable material thermal specifications. These violations could either lead to imminent cable failure or substantially shorten the cable's life expectancy by causing premature failure in the long run. The transient analysis options supported by CYMCAP addresses these concerns and are subsequently analyzed.

7.2 Preliminary considerations


Transient analysis can only be performed AFTER a steady state thermal analysis for the installation has already been successfully performed. This is because a part of the steady state simulation results are used as initial conditions for the transient calculations. Every cable in the installation must be assigned a load curve for transient analysis studies. This curve determines the variation of the current over a given period of time. The actual ampacity (A) assigned to the cable under transient conditions, is determined with the aid of the SCALING FACTOR. This number is a factor by which the steady state cable current, as resulted from steady state analysis, will be multiplied. The load curve itself has also a factor of its own for every portion in the curve (see also chapter 5). The current applied to the cable therefore, for a given time interval, will be the product of the cable current as resulted from steady state analysis multiplied by the effective load curve scaling factor. Note that the program does not support transient calculations in the presence of moisture migration. This means that transient studies can only be effected for the cases where moisture migration was not modeled in steady state. No transients for cables installed in air and/or riser poles, are supported either.

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7.3 Transient analysis Options


1.0 Solve for Ampacity Given Time and Temperature In this analysis option, the user enters the temperature which a specific cable component (conductor, sheath, etc.) is to reach in a desired time (hours) and the program computes the maximum possible current for the cables. The same cable component is effective for all cables in the installation. The user should NOT select a temperature below the ambient temperature used for the steady state analysis. The following screen illustrates the involved parameters.

Since more than one circuit may be present in the installation, it may be desirable to determine the ampacity of some with the remaining at a constant current value. This is expressed by the notion of the participating circuit. The program will calculate ampacities for all participating circuits if the option simultaneously is selected. Instead, if the option one at a time is selected, the program will calculate ampacities for one circuit at a time assuming that the remaining are held at their steady state loading. Non-participating circuits are held at their steady state loading. The program reports the required cable currents in terms of SCALING FACTORS based on the results obtained form the steady state analysis.

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2.0 Solve for Temperature given Time and Ampacity In this analysis option, the program will solve for the temperature of the desired cable component given time and ampacity. Again, ampacities are entered in terms of scaling factors. The following screen illustrates the involved parameters.

It is not recommended to use time intervals of less than 10 minutes.

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3.0 Solve for Time given Ampacity and Temperature In this analysis option the user specifies the maximum temperature of the component of interest and the current. The program will calculate the time required to reach these conditions for the first time. When step loading functions are applied, the program will calculate the time at which the maximum permissible temperature is reached and then stop. When more complex loading patterns are considered, the program will calculate the FIRST occurrence (in the specified range) of the user specified value of temperature and scale factor and then stop. The following screen illustrates the involved parameters.

Both the accuracy and solution speed depend upon the selected RANGE OF SEARCH TIME and RESOLUTION. There are cases for which the program may not be able to find a solution. In this case verify that the time range dictated for the search is consistent with the temperatures and ampacities specified.

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4.0 Ampacity as a function of Temperature This option is similar to the second option described earlier with the difference that instead of considering one ampacity (scale factor) the program considers many at the time. The user supplies, as before, the cable component of interest (conductor sheath etc.), the required time of analysis in hours and a set of scaling factors. The set of scaling factors is defined by specifying the INITIAL and FINAL value for the scaling factor range and the RESOLUTION of the scale factor interval. The following screen illustrates the involved parameters.

For every scale factor there will be a different ampacity and therefore a different temperature the component of interest will reach in the specified time. The notion of participating circuits becomes relevant here as well. By default, all circuits are considered as participating unless a scaling factor is specified.

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5.0 Ampacity as a function of Time This option is similar to the third option described earlier with the difference that instead of considering one ampacity (scale factor) the program can consider many. The user supplies, as before, the cable component of interest (conductor, sheath, etc.) and the maximum permissible temperature that the component can reach. The program then will calculate how long the cables can carry a given set of currents. The loads of interest are defined by specifying an INITIAL and a FINAL value for the scale factor as well as a RESOLUTION. This option requires the user to supply a time interval within which the calculations are made, characterized by a time resolution which will determine the number of searches. It is possible that for a given set of data no solution will be found in the specified time interval.

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6.0 Temperature as a function of Time This option allows the user to assess what temperatures a given cable component can reach when exposed to a given ampacity for a set of specific time intervals. The user supplies the cable component of interest as well as the cables ampacities (the scale factor). The required set of exposures (in hours) is defined by supplying an INITIAL and FINAL time as well as a RESOLUTION.

7.4 How to proceed for a transient analysis


The following steps are normally followed in the indicated sequence in order to carry out any of the transient analysis options. 1. Make sure that the load curves to be used are in the load curve library. If not, enter them first and then proceed. 2. Choose the appropriate transient analysis option and provide all the necessary data. 3. Assign loads to cables. This activity is crucial because it is here that the specific load curves will be assigned to various cables. 4. Save the changes for the new execution. 5. Submit the desired execution to obtain the steady state results and transient analysis. 6. View tabular and graphical results.

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7.5 Informing CYMCAP that a transient analysis is to be performed


Suppose that for an existing execution, transient analysis is to be performed. Edit the execution at hand. Then from the CYMCAP menu enter the item Edit, descend down to the solution Option and enable the choice Transient analysis. The check mark that appears next to it is the flag that informs CYMCAP that a transient simulation is to follow the steady state analysis.

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7.6 Example and Illustrations

7.6.1 Case description and illustrations

During the following example, the execution analyzed in chapter 6, featuring 6 cables in a ductbank is used to illustrate the process of performing a transient analysis with CYMCAP. Temperatures of all cables as function of time will be generated. Every circuit shall be assigned a different Load and the conductor temperatures as a function of time will be assessed. The Load curve for circuit 2 shall be considered to be the same as the Load curve for circuit 1. An overload of 20% and 40% will be assumed for the circuits #1 and #2 respectively. The ensuing temperatures will be monitored for 48 hours. During the course of this example the following aspects of CYMCAP are illustrated: How to select a specific transient analysis Option. How to specify the necessary data for a given transient analysis Option. How to assign Load curves to the various cables of the installation. How to submit a transient simulation. How to generate and view tabular and graphical results for transient analysis. How to selectively display results for various cables in the installation How to change the colors of the plotted curves How to track the results with the mouse thus avoiding the generation of tabular reports

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7.6.2 Specify the transient analysis option

Edit the execution and, as described in the previous paragraph, enable the transient analysis option. Then click on the ribbon bitmap that accesses the transient data to select the desired analysis option.

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7.6.3 Specify the data for the transient analysis option

Once the desired transient option has been selected, we need to provide the accompanying data.

Click on OK to accept the data and let us now assign Loads to Cables.

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7.6.4 Assign Loads to cables

Click on the button labeled Go to assign Loads (transient) located at the bottom left of the installation window (the same function can be performed by right-clicking anywhere on the window that contains the pictorial representation of the cable installation.

The Load Curve library then becomes accessible and any Load curve can be assigned to the circuit in question. For this particular example the weekly loading curve will be used. Highlight the desired Load curve and press the apply button. The same operation is repeated for the second circuit.

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7.6.5 Submit the simulation

Once the transient data is entered the execution is submitted by clicking on the appropriate button on the ribbon. Although, this is the same button as used for steady state analysis, the transient analysis follows for this case. The successful completion of both steady state and transient analysis is indicated.

It is seen that once both steady state and transient analysis were successful, reports for both are available as the enabled buttons at the bottom of the screen indicate. Both reports can be accessed through these buttons.

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7.6.6 Generate the reports

Click for the Transient report and by default, the results for the first circuit appear.

It is seen that the cables, for which graphical results are displayed, are also color-highlighted on the actual installation and on the installation screen to the left. Results for any cable in the installation can be selected by either (a) highlighting the cable on the cable installation screen (left) portraying the cables coordinates (b) pointing to the cable of interest in the installation and clicking on it. In either case, the cables are highlighted for clarity. The dashed horizontal line shown on the graph represents the maximum permissible temperature specified in the data. Click on the button select-all to view the graphical results for all the cables. Similarly, any phase can also be viewed alone by highlighting it.

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The load curve associated with any circuit can be superimposed on the graph picturing the temperature variations with time by clicking on the dedicated bitmap of the transient report window as illustrated below.

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Furthermore, a tabular report is available that portrays the time intervals during which the stipulated maximum temperature has been exceeded. Again, this can be accomplished by clicking on the dedicated bitmap in the ribbon of the transient report window. The result for this particular case, (no such intervals exist) is illustrated below:

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7.6.7 Changing the color of the curves for the transient reports

It is also seen that the graphical results window indicates what cable and what phase is drawn. If the color is not satisfactory it can be changed by double clicking on the color indicator of the curves.

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7.6.8 Tracing the transients results with the mouse

The results for the transient simulation can be graphically traced with the mouse. Position the mouse anywhere on any generated curve and an ordered pair appearing at the bottom right indicates what temperature pertains to what time.

Finally, tabular reports are also available for the transient analysis. Both tabular and graphical reports can be printed/plotted and copied to the Windows clipboard as the appropriate bitmaps within the report-Windows indicate. Tabular reports can be generated by clicking on the most-left bitmap of the transient report window ribbon.

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Chapter 8
The CYMCAP Menu Options

8.1 The CYMCAP menu


When outlining the program operational aspects in previous chapters, the application was operated from the execution speed bar. A lot of these functions can also be accessed from the CYMCAP menu which is located at the top of the screen encompassing the opened execution(s). Assume that CYMCAP was activated and the navigator is closed.

The CYMCAP menu features now 3 items, namely: Files, Window, Help

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8.2 The CYMCAP menu Files entry


Click on the Files menu and the options to either open a New study, Open Navigator or Exit appear as alternatives.

The first two menu activities could have also been accessed from the CYMCAP ribbon:

Click on this speed button to open a New study.

Click on this button to Open the CYMCAP Navigator.

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8.3 The CYMCAP menu Windows entry


The CYMCAP menu item Windows allows managing how executions will appear on screen, if more than one are opened.

By default, executions will be displayed in Cascade.

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8.4 The CYMCAP menu for opened executions


Once an execution is opened, the CYMCAP menu is expanded to accommodate the execution-related activities.

The new menu items read Edit, View and Options. At the same time, the speed button permits printing the installation layout.

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8.4.1 The execution menu File activity By accessing now the CYMCAP menu item File it is seen that the previously displayed menu is expanded with execution management options.

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8.4.2 The execution menu Edit activity By accessing the CYMCAP menu item Edit it is seen that the menu comprises all the gateways to modifying the Execution title, specifying Solution Options and accessing the execution data through either Single action or Cascaded menu entries, entries which correspond to the activities of the speed buttons found in the execution speed bar.

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8.4.3 The execution menu View activity The CYMCAP menu entry View, is dedicated to modifying the installation data screen layout.

The entries it features could be used as follows: X-axis: X-Y axis: Underground Effect: Cable Monitor: Speed Bar: Toolbar: Execution Number: Steady State Report: Transient Report: Show or Hide the X-axis of the installation, located at (0,0) Show or Hide the X-Y coordinate axes Show underground effect below the earth surface (shading) Enable the cable monitor Show the execution speed bar Detach the execution toolbar Show the execution number Generate execution steady state report (if enabled/successfully submitted) Generate execution transient report (if enabled/successfully submitted)

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8.4.4 The execution menu Options activity If the CYMCAP menu item Options is examined, access to how the installation data are presented, what system of Units is to be used and what will be the AC system frequency can be specified.

Installation Data on Left This item represents the default Display Option for CYMCAP interface. The screen containing the Installation data i.e. cable IDs, cable coordinates, temperatures, etc, is displayed on the left side of the screen. The window portraying the pictorial representation of the installation is displayed to the right. Installation Data on Right This item reverses the default option, i.e. the screen containing the Installation data will now be displayed on the right side of the screen. The window portraying the pictorial representation of the installation, shall then be displayed to the left. Units This item permits the selection of either system of units for the program displays, be it the Imperial or the Meric system. An alternative way to achieve the same is by clicking on the dedicated unit Window displayed near the bottom right of the screen.

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Frequency This item permits the selection of any system AC electrical frequency for the thermal studies. An alternative way to achieve the same is by clicking on the dedicated unit Window displayed near the bottom right of the screen. Percentage of Duct Fill This item permits the selection of the duct fill permitted for the ducted cables. If 100% duct- fill is assumed, the program will verify the total external diameter of the cable, or the equivalent of a trefoil arrangement, with the internal diameter of the duct prior to permitting the placement of any cable in the duct. If another duct-fill percentage is specified, the program will compare the total external diameter of the cable with the internal duct diameter multiplied by the duct-fill factor. This is a precaution taken due to the fact that some margin is normally required between the duct and the cable so that the latter can be pulled in the duct. The duct-fill factor can therefore determine whether a cable is eligible to be positioned within a given duct or not, during the editing process of the installation. Note that the program will ignore any inconsistencies and/or violations if the duct-fill factor is modified after the data has already been entered.

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Simulation/Report Control Steady State This item permits the selection of important simulation control parameters and the generation of a simulation Control report. The reason these facilities are provided is for the eventuality the numerical solution algorithm does not converge.

To begin with, convergence can be facilitated by relaxing (increasing) either the current or temperature convergence tolerance thresholds. These thresholds are, by default, taken to be 1 Amp and 0.1degrees C respectively. If increased, the program may converge at the expense of a less accurate solution. Still, a good estimate of the expected currents is obtained. The iteration report can be generated in order to view at what point the iterative procedure starts diverging. Quite often, the divergence manifests itself very close to the solution so, again, a very good estimate of the expected currents can also be obtained through the iteration report. Finally, the number of iterations can also be increased/decreased at will. Experience with the program has, however, shown that 100 iterations are more than sufficient. In fact, the program normally converges in less than 10 iterations. Unless valid reasons exist for modifying them it is strongly recommended that the simulation parameters control settings are left at their default values.

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Chapter 9
The Sensitivity analysis Option of CYMCAP
This activity permits a particular kind of sensitivity analysis and is implemented to automate the generation and solution of a particular set of executions pertaining to the so-called Peak Ratings Analysis option. The problem manifests itself, normally, for various circuits (feeders) within a duct bank and can be defined as follows: Assume that the installation has a certain number of circuits. Assume that the Temperature analysis Option is selected for the steady state analysis. That means that for all involved circuits, currents are impressed and resulting temperatures as sought. This is considered to be the base case for the ensuing analysis. Assume now that one is interested in finding out what is the maximum current one can impress in any of the circuits so that its temperature does not exceed a target temperature while the rest of the circuits remain unaltered, i.e., they carry the same currents as in the base case. Assume that the same question is of interest for all the circuits within the installation, considered one at a time.

If these problem is to be resolved using the base facilities of the program the user will be forced to: Create a new execution every time a new circuit is to be examined For every one of these executions, the circuit in question needs to be selected. The circuit current needs to be changed to limiting temperature instead. The solution Option needs to be changed to Unequally Loaded The circuit in question needs to be labeled as the Reference circuit The execution needs to be renamed and saved The process needs to be repeated for all involved circuits. All the executions need to be submitted for solution.

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All these activities are permissible activities and perfectly well within the capabilities of the program. The fact, however, remains that this is a tedious process and prone to error. That is why the Option at hand is implemented to fully automate the process. In other words, the program will automatically generate the needed executions with the proper configuration, solve them simultaneously without any unnecessary user intervention and display the reports in a manner conducive to ready inspection. Furthermore, more than one limiting temperature can be requested on a per circuit basis. The procedure is best illustrated by the following example. Assume that the installation portrayed below is to be analyzed for peak-ratings analysis. Limiting temperatures of 90 degrees (normal) and emergency temperatures of 100 and 110 degrees (emergency) are sought for all involved circuits.

It is seen that all circuits are assigned currents. Note that this is a fundamental assumption for the starting of this process. Another fundamental, and implicit assumption, is that none of the circuits should exceed neither the normal nor any of the emergency temperatures under the assumed currents. Click on the sensitivity analysis bitmap located next to the specific Installation bitmap to activate the sensitivity analysis option.

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For this particular case, 2 emergency temperatures were requested 100 and 110 degress because the step was chosen to be 10.00 degrees. Since there are 4 circuits in the installation, a total of 12 executions shall be created (1 execution for the normal temperature of 90 degrees and 2 for the emergency temperatures of 100 and 110 degrees for every circuit). Once the execution is saved, the ensuing prompt requests confirmation of the activity

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Click Yes to Proceed and a total of 12 executions are created in the Study navigator.

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These executions are already tagged and appear below the parent execution, faeturing only currents in the circuits. These executions shall be edited and solved. Press on the Edit tagged, arrange them in cascade and each execution appears on its dedicated Window.

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The Global Solve button can be used to solve them all simultaneously and results can be viewed at will after that.

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Chapter 10
CYMCAP UTILITIES

10.1 Introduction
CYMCAP provides an extensive array of facilities to manage the database files; it uses powerful functions to aid data exchange between users and computers. Furthermore, the program is quite flexible in accommodating North American and International design practices by supporting userdefined ac system frequencies, International standards for conductor resistance values, the Metric and the Imperial system of units. In what follows, these functions are described.

10.2 Designate the working directory for CYMCAP


CYMCAP provides the facility to work in more than one directories. The option to change the working directory, permits a classification of databases and studies as well as modularity if more than one user works in parallel. In the former case, Cable, Duct Bank, Heat Source, Load curve and installation data can be kept safely in different partitions while in the latter, integration of important and relevant studies becomes transparent. In order to designate the CYMCAP working directory, activate the program and click on the navigator entry, Utilities. By default the program considers as current (working) directory, the directory specified by the user during the installation process. The working directory appears at the top of the navigator for reference. In order to change the working directory, click on the Browse button that is shown next to the activity Change Current directory and using the browser, select the new working partition. The same task can be accomplished by accessing the scroll list displaying the directories already chosen (not only for the current but for previous sessions as well). Once the partition is selected, click on the button Apply to make it effective.

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10.3 Designate the Unit System for the session


CYMCAP permits the utilization of either the Metric or the Imperial system of units in order to facilitate data entry and avoid unnecessary conversions that otherwise would have to be done by the user. North American practice is still geared towards the Imperial system of units, while European and International practice favors the Metric System. When the imperial system of units is used, cable dimension and related data must be entered in KCMIL and inches while cable installation geometrical data must be entered in feet. For the Metric system, cable dimensions and related data are entered in mm and cable installation geometrical data in meters. In order to designate the system of units, activate the program and when the CYMCAP navigator comes up on screen, point to the button labeled Metric (Imperial) and click on it. This is a toggle switch that reverts to the alternative system of Units. Note that during the simulation, the program permits to switch the system of units thus assuring even greater flexibility.

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10.4 Designate the AC system frequency for the session


The ac system frequency is an important parameter in ampacity calculations for power cables in alternating current installations. Dielectric losses, ac conductor resistance and other important parameters are a direct function of the system frequency. In order to designate the desired frequency, once the program navigator is opened, click on the button labeled Fq (located next to the button that enables the system of units) and a dialog box will permit to enter any frequency desired.

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10.5 Designate AC conductor resistance values


It is by invoking the AC frequency activity that CYMCAP permits the utilization of the IEC 228 standard to obtain standard values of conductor resistance for the calculations (see chapter 3 for applicable restrictions). Another option is for the program to calculate the conductor resistance.

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10.6 Backup the contents of the Working directory to another directory


CYMCAP permits to Backup the contents of the working directory to another directory, the target directory, in order to safeguard them against potentially harmful, or undesired modifications. Activate the Browse button of the activity named: Backup current directory to this new location and select the desired directory. Use the Browser to create the desired target directory if the directory does not exist by creating a new folder.

Once the target directory is created, click on the Apply Key of the navigator to backup the data bases of the working directory NOTES: If the target directory is designated as A:\ (B:\) the contents of the working directory will be copied to a floppy disk. To copy the contents of any other directory to drive A: designate that directory first, as the current (working) directory and back up its contents. To copy the contents of any other directory, other than the working directory, designate that directory first as working directory and then proceed.

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10.7 Restore from floppy disk to a directory on the hard-disk


This option permits transferring data between computers when transfer of data cannot take place electronically. The activity is called: Restore from floppy to this new location. The data of interest can at first be transferred to a floppy disk by backing- up the contents of the directory to a floppy drive. Then specify the working directory with the Browser and click on the button Apply for the action to be in effect. Use the browser the same way as for the previous functions.

10.8 Tag specific items from the Libraries


There are times where particular entries of the CYMCAP Libraries need to be transferred to a different partition. Instead of copying the Libraries in their entirety, CYMCAP permits transferring some of their entries selectively, by tagging the desired ones. Assume for instance, that several Cables need to tagged. In order to do that we enter the navigator, activate the option Utilities and enable the Tag mode.

Once the Tag mode is enabled, we enter the Cable Library and start tagging the entries of interest. To tag a particular entry, position the highlight bar on it and click with the left mouse button.

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Once an entry is tagged, the highlight bar is positioned on the next one. Click again to tag it or press the letter T on the keyboard. This way sequential tagging can be easily accomplished. CtrlT will tag all the library entries, Ctrl-U will untag them all. The same function can be accomplished if the right mouse button is clicked within the working area of the navigator. The pop-up menu that appears allows to tag/untag all or individual entries.

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10.9 Copy selected items to a given data base


The need may arise to transfer data from one directory to another in order to complement already existing data bases. For instance, several important cable types or Load Curves may need to be transferred to be used in studies in another directory. In order to append to a given data base any set of data, the first step is to tag the desired entries from the source data base and the second step is to append the tagged entries to the target data base. Assume for instance that several Load curves are to be transferred form the working directory E:\CAPWIN to the database of the Load curves in the existing directory E:\TEST. We bring up the CYMCAP navigator, enter the Option Utilities, designate as working directory the source directory E:\CAPWIN and enable the tag mode. Then we enter the Load Curve Library and tag the Load curves to be appended. Since the Load curve is composed of shapes the Load curve need to be expanded first. We do that by double clicking on it with the left mouse button. Then by clicking on it all shapes belonging to that Load curve are tagged.

We then return to the Utilities activity and copy the tagged items to the target directory E:\TEST.

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Notes If a Load curve or Heat Source is transferred, all the shapes belonging to the Load Curve or Heat Source are also transferred. If a study is transferred all the associated cables, ductbank, Heat source and Load curves are automatically appended to the target directory data bases as well. When items are copied to a newly created directory, no other database items will be copied to that directory except the ones tagged. If, for instance some cables are tagged, only the tagged cables will be transferred to the new directory. No Ductbanks, no Heat Sources, no Load Curves, no shapes and no studies will be transferred at all.

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10.10 Append a database to another database


When the need to append the complete databases of one directory to another directory arises, it is not necessary to resort to selective tagging since this can be tedious and prone to errors. CYMCAP offers a dedicated facility to accomplish the task. It is named Append this database to the current directory. The term current directory is synonymous to the term working directory. This option permits therefore the merging of 2 sets of databases each one being in a different directory. In order to accomplish this task, the source directory (the directory containing the database to be appended) needs to be selected with the browser and the target directory (the directory containing the database to be expanded) need to be designated as the working directory. CYMCAP offers the possibility to selectively append Cables, Load Curves, Shapes and/or Studies.

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Chapter 11
THE DUCT BANK OPTIMIZER

11.1 Introduction
The duct bank optimizer is a module that allows the user to determine the placement of several circuits within a duct bank so that certain optimality criteria are fulfilled. More specifically, the module can recommend the various circuit disposition within the duct bank in order that: The duct bank overall ampacity, i.e. the sum of the ampacities for all circuits, is maximized. The duct bank overall ampacity, i.e. the sum of the ampacities for all circuits, is minimized. The ampacity of any given circuit is maximized. The ampacity of any given circuit is minimized.

The module rests on enumeration techniques and is based on exhaustive serial simulation of all valid combinations of cable locations. That is why execution times can be large depending on the size of the duct bank and on the number of circuits. The module permits the user to either fix the location of one or more circuits to predetermined positions, or to designate allowed positioning for one or more circuits.

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11.2 An illustrative example of the duct bank optimizer


In what follows, an example of the duct bank optimizer module in operation is illustrated. The duct bank will be a 3x3 duct bank. It is desired that 2 triplexed formations are placed in such a way so that the total overall ampacity is minimized. The execution is built as if the 2 triplexed formations were to have determined positions and instead of permuting the cables to the desired locations. The duct bank optimizer is invoked by pressing the button next to the Permute cables button.

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11.2.1 Invoking the Optimizer

11.2.2 Configuring the Optimizer The optimizer needs to be configured first, i.e. to designate the preferred cable positions for every circuit. Press on the Configure Optimizer button, to access these operations

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It is seen that the cursor highlights the first circuit and, by default, all conduit positions are valid.

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In case, a fixed position was desired for the highlighted circuit, the selection Fixed must be selected and then the specific conduit must be shown to the application by right clicking and dragging the circuit to that conduit. The same procedure should be followed whenever a set allowed positions is designated for any circuit. The screen below illustrates the allowed positions for circuit #2, should we have chosen them to be so.

Once this is done, press on the Apply button.

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11.2.3 Running the optimizer After configuring the optimizer, press the Run Duct bank optimizer button and the following menu permits the selection of the optimization criterion.

Since minimization of the overall duct bank ampacity is desired, the first selection is valid. The button Go launches the optimizer.

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Upon termination, the enumerator statistics are shown for completeness. Pressing on the button Close permits the visualization of the results

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11.2.4 Viewing the results of the optimizer

It is seen that the various combinations are presented in ascending ampacity order with the minimum ampacity being the first.

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Notes The drop down list of the ampacities is context-sensitive and whenever a new entry is selected the new circuit positioning is automatically shown on the graph. All circuits positions can be scanned using the Previous and the Next buttons. Clicking on the button apply next to the drop down list, will import the given circuit layout to the main installation.

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Appendix I
DEFAULTS FOR VARIOUS TYPES OF CABLES
General
It is not uncommon to find that, when entering a new cable in the library of the program, some manufacturer data are absent. Furthermore, when preliminary cable studies are performed, detailed cable data are not always available despite the fact that they are needed for ampacity calculations. The program is, in any case, in position to recommend default values to be used for the various cable components. This Appendix describes these default values for the types of cables supported. Note however, that the recommended defaults represent approximate reasonable choices based on prevailing manufacturing practice. They should be used only in the absence of more detailed information. If the manufacturer data sheets are available for the cable at hand, the user is advised to override the program defaults and enter the exact data. Finally, one should bear in mind that classifying the cables according to the types depicted below should not be viewed as rigid since there will be types of cables which can be allocated to more than one category. A. Concentric neutral cables 1. Conductor sizing and construction Size Nominal Cross 8 6 4 2 1 1/0 2/0 3/0 4/0 250 350 500 600 650 750 1000 1250 1500 section mm2 8.37 13.30 21.15 33.62 42.41 53.51 67.44 85.02 107.20 126.70 177.30 253.40 304.00 329.40 380.00 506.70 633.40 760.10 Solid D(mm) 3.26 4.12 5.19 6.54 7.35 8.25 9.27 Compact Stranded Stranded D(mm) 3.40 4.29 5.41 6.81 7.60 8.55 9.57 10.80 12.10 13.20 15.70 18.70 20.60 21.40 23.00 26.90 D(mm) 3.71 4.67 5.89 7.41 8.43 9.47 10.62 11.94 13.41 14.60 17.30 20.65 22.68 23.59 25.35 29.69 32.74 35.86

AWG/KCMIL

Table 1.1 Conductor sizes and construction supported. D in the table above signifies Diameter. The conductor construction choice is restricted by the conductor size according to table 1.1.

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2. Conductor screen thickness Conductor size (mm2) Screen thickness (mm) < 107.2 0.4 107.2 - 253.4 0.5 >253.4 0.6

Table 1.2 Conductor screen thickness according to conductor size. 3. Insulation thickness Rated kV 5 8 15 25 28 35 46 >46 Conductor size(mm2) 8.37 - 506.7 > 506.7 13.3 - 506.7 > 506.7 32.62 - 506.7 > 506.7 All sizes All sizes All sizes All sizes All sizes Insulation thickness (mm) 2.29 3.55 2.92 4.44 4.44 5.58 6.60 7.11 8.76 11.56 11.56

Table 1.3 Insulation Thickness as per size and rated kV. 4. Insulation screen thickness In the following table D stands for Diameter D over insulation(mm) Screen thickness (mm) <25.4 1.28 25.4-38.0 38.1-50.8 1.6 1.95 >50.8 2.15

Table 1.4 Insulation screen thickness as per inner diameter. 5. Jacket Thickness In the following table D stands for diameter. D over everything but jacket (mm) Jacket thickness(mm) 1.2 1.6 2.2 2.9 <17.8 17.8-38.0 38.0-63.5 >63.5

Table 1.5 Jacket thickness as per inner diameter.

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6. Concentric neutral

In the following table D stands for Diameter Conductor size Concentric wire D Number of wires 8 AWG 2.05 mm 11 6 AWG 2.05 mm 11 4 AWG 2.05 mm 11 2 AWG 2.05 mm 11 1 AWG 2.05 mm 11 1/0 AWG 2.05 mm 11 2/0 AWG 2.05 mm 14 3/0 AWG 2.05 mm 14 4/0 AWG 2.05 mm 22 250 KCMIL 2.05 mm 22 350 KCMIL 2.05 mm 18 500 KCMIL 2.05 mm 26 600 KCMIL 2.05 mm 26 650 KCMIL 2.05 mm 26 750 KCMIL 2.58 mm 24 1000 KCMIL 2.58 mm 32 1250 KCMIL 2.58 mm 33 1500 KCMIL 2.58 mm 32 Table 1.6 Concentric neutral assembly as per conductor size. The length of lay of the concentric neutral wires is taken to be 8 times the diameter of the cable under the wire assembly. B. Extruded dielectric cables 1. Conductor sizes and construction Same as for CONCENTRIC NEUTRAL CABLES. See table 1.1 2. Conductor screen thickness Conductor area (mm2) Conductor screen thickness (mm) Table 2.1 Conductor screen thickness as per conductor size. 381 508 635 762 126.67 26.67-253.35 53.35-506.7 506.7

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3. Insulation Thickness Rated Voltage Conductor size 46 69 115 138 13 126.67-1013.4 < 253.35 16.5 253.35-1013.4 760.00 20.32 760.00-1520.0 < 760.00 21.6 760.00-1520.0 in kV 126.67 in mm2 Insulation thickness in mm 13 16.5 20.32 21.6

Table 2.2 Insulation thickness as per size and rated kV. 4. Insulation screen thickness.

In the following table D stands for diameter D over insulation (mm) Insulation screen thickness in mm Table 2.3 Insulation screen thickness as per inner diameter. 5. Jacket thickness < 25.4 25.4-38.1 38.1-50.8 1.27 1.6 1.96 >50.8 2.16

The jacket thickness is universally taken to be 2.5 mm.

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C. Low pressure oil filled cables (Type 3) 1. Conductor sizes and Construction

Conductor Size AWG or KCMILS 1/0 2/0 3/0 4/0 250 300 350 400 450 500 550 600 650 700 750 800 900 1000 1250 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 4000

Nominal Cross section (mm2) 50 70 85 110 130 150 180 200 230 250 280 300 330 350 380 400 460 510 630 760 1010 1270 1520 1770 2030

Compact Round D (mm) 8.53 9.55 10.74 12.06 13.21 14.48 15.65 16.74 17.78 18.69 19.68 20.25 21.46 22.27 23.06 23.08 25.40 26.90 -

Hollow core Outer D (mm) 20 21 22 23 24 25 28 28 30 28 29 32 33 34 35 36 39 44 49 54 57 61

Table 3.1 Conductor sizes and construction types.

D in the table above signifies Diameter. The conductor construction choice is restricted by the conductor size according to table 3.1. 2. Internal Diameter for Hollow conductor construction. The default is universally taken to be 12.7 mm. (0.5 inch) 3. Conductor screen Same as for EXTRUDED DIELECTRIC CABLES.

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4. Insulation Thickness

Rated Voltage in kV 15 25 35 46 63 69 115 120 130 138 161 230 345 500

Insulation thickness in mm 2.54 3.43 4.32 5.21 6.73 7.24 11.05 11.43 12.20 12.83 13.46 19.30 26.29 34.01

Table 3.2 Insulation thickness as per rated kV. 5. Insulation screen

Same as for EXTRUDED DIELECTRIC CABLES. 6. Jacket thickness

The jacket thickness is universally taken to be 2.5 mm.

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D. High pressure oil (gas) filled cables 1. Conductor sizes and construction

Sizes

Nominal Cross

Round D(mm)

4 or 6 Segments D (mm) 29.3 32.7 35.9 38.8 41.5 43.9 46.3 48.6 50.7 52.8 54.8 56.7 58.6

AWG/KCMIL Section (mm2) Stranded 3/0 85 11.9 4/0 107 13.4 250 127 14.6 300 157 16.0 350 177 17.3 400 203 18.5 450 228 19.6 500 257 20.6 550 279 21.7 600 304 22.7 650 329 23.6 700 355 24.4 750 380 25.3 800 405 26.2 900 456 27.2 1000 507 29.3 1250 633 32.7 1500 760 35.9 1750 887 38.8 2000 1013 41.5 2250 1140 43.9 2500 1267 46.3 2750 1393 48.6 3000 1520 50.7 3250 1647 52.8 3500 1773 54.8 3750 1990 56.7 4000 2027 58.6

Compact 10.7 12. 13.2 14.5 15.6 16.7 17.8 18.7 19.7 20.7 21.5 22.3 23.1 23.8 25.4 26.9 -

Table 4.1 Conductor sizes and construction types. D in the table above signifies Diameter. The conductor construction choice is restricted by the conductor size according to table 4.1. 2. Conductor screen

Same as for EXTRUDED DIELECTRIC CABLES.

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3. Insulation thickness. Rated Voltage in kV 69 115 120 138 161 230 345 500 Insulation thickness in mm 6.86 10.67 11.05 12.45 14.86 18.92 25.91 27.94

Table 4.2 Insulation thickness as per rated LV level. 4. Insulation screen Same as for extruded dielectric cables. 5. Skid Wires. Skid Wire diameter is taken universally to be 5.08 mm. (0.2 inch) Number of skid wires is taken to be 2. Length of lay of skid wires is taken to be 76.2 mm. (3 inches) E. Sheath related defaults 1. Sheath Thickness. The sheath thickness defaults described below pertain to all types of cables supported. They are compiled according to the practice followed for Low Pressure Oil Filled Cables. The calculation reads as follows: Step A. The quantities D1 and D2 are, at first, calculated based on whether the cable is a single conductor or a three core cable: For Single conductor cables: D1 = ( D + 2T + 16 + 200 ) + 60

D2 = 1.03 ( D + 2T + 16 + 200 )

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For three conductor cables: D1 = ( 2.155 D + 4.31 T + 207 + 40 ) + 60

D2 = 1.03 ( 2.155 D + 4.31 T + 207 + 40 ) where: D is the conductor diameter expressed in mils, T is the insulation thickness expressed in mils Xmm correspond to Ymils ={ (Xmm / 25.4 ) * 1000.00 } Step B. Take D3 = MAX ( D1, D2 ) Step C. For LEAD sheath : S = 73.00 + 0.0270 D3 (mils)

The value calculated cannot be less than 110 (mils). For SMOOTH ALUMINUM Sheath: For CORRUGATED ALUMINUM Sheath: S = 13.00 + 0.0400 D3 (mils) S = 19.90 + 0.0165 D3 (mils)

The inner radius of the corrugated sheath assembly is taken to be the cable radius under the sheath. The outer radius of the corrugated sheath assembly is by default taken to be the inner radius plus twice the sheath thickness computed above. The user should further adjust these dimensions for the particular case at hand if necessary. 2. Sheath Reinforcement

Reinforcing tape thickness Tape over Insulation shield

= 0.127 mm (0.005 inch) = 0.125 mm (0.0049 inch) = 25.4 mm (1 inch)

Reinforcing tape width/metallic binder Number of reinforcing tapes Length of lay of tapes IEC related tape inclination Oversheath thickness =2

= 29.21 mm (1.25 inch) = 54 degrees. = 2.0 mm (0.0787 inch)

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F. Armour related defaults

The defaults depicted here will universally apply for all types of cables equipped with armour protection. 1. Armour Bedding

Cable Diameter under armour bedding in mm 0 11.43

Bedding Thickness in mm Tape Armour .76 1.14 1.14 1.65 1.65 Wire Armour 1.14 1.14 1.65 2.03 2.41

11.43 - 19.05 19.05 - 25.40 25.40 - 63.50 > 63.50

Table F.1 Armour Bedding as per inner Cable Diameter. 2. Armour Serving

Cable diameter under Armour Serving in mm 0.00 - 19.05 19.05 - 38.10 38.10 - 57.15 57.15 - 76.20 > 76.20

Serving Thickness in mm 1.27 1.65 2.03 2.41 2.79

Table F.2 Armour Serving as per inner Cable Diameter

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3. Armour Tapes

Cable diameter under Tape Thickness Bedding in mm 0.00 - 25.40 > 25.40 in mm 0.51 0.76

Table F.3 Armour Tape thickness as per inner Cable Diameter. 4. Armour Wires

Cable diameter under Armour Wire Diameter Bedding in mm 0.00 - 19.05 19.05 - 25.40 25.40 - 43.18 43.18 - 63.50 > 63.50 in mm 2.11 2.77 3.40 4.19 5.16

Table F.4 Armour Wire size as per inner diameter.

The armour wires are assumed to be TOUCHING and the necessary number is calculated from the cable dimensions. The length of lay of armour wires will be taken to be 1.3 times the diameter of the cable under armour. G. Three core cables The defaults for Conductor sizes and construction, Conductorshield, Insulation thickness and Insulation shield are the ones adopted for EXTRUDED DIELECTRIC CABLES. Sheath, and Armour Assemblies, follow the general sheath and armour defaults.

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INDEX
Analysis options ........................................................................................................................... 80 Append a database to another database .................................................................................. 172 Backup the contents of the Working directory to another directory........................................... 167 Cable components, materials and construction........................................................................... 11 Cable Installation Data................................................................................................................. 87 Cable library................................................................................................................................... 9 Cable Library data and executions .............................................................................................. 94 Cable library management........................................................................................................... 10 Cable Library ................................................................................................................................ 4 Contents of CYMCAP .................................................................................................................... 3 Copy selected items to a given data base ................................................................................. 170 Creating a new cable ................................................................................................................... 20 Creating a new duct bank ............................................................................................................ 38 Curves and Shapes ..................................................................................................................... 43 Custom materials and thermal capacitances............................................................................... 32 CYMCAP GUI navigator ................................................................................................................ 7 CYMCAP menu Windows entry .............................................................................................. 149 CYMCAP menu for opened executions ..................................................................................... 150 CYMCAP overview ........................................................................................................................ 3 CYMCAP utilities........................................................................................................................ 163 Defaults for various types of cables............................................................................................... 1 Designate AC conductor resistance values............................................................................... 166 Designate the AC system frequency for the session................................................................. 165 Designate the Unit System for the session................................................................................ 164 Designate the working directory for CYMCAP........................................................................... 163 Duct bank library .......................................................................................................................... 37 Duct bank optimizer ................................................................................................................... 173 Duct bank Library.......................................................................................................................... 4 Example and Illustrations........................................................................................................... 137 Example of the duct bank optimizer........................................................................................... 174 General cable description information ......................................................................................... 19 General data for the installation................................................................................................... 81 Heat Source Library...................................................................................................................... 4 Installing CYMCAP for Windows ................................................................................................... 1 Introduction .................................................................................................................................... 3 Invoking the Optimizer ............................................................................................................... 175 Labeling studies and executions.................................................................................................. 78 Library of studies/executions ....................................................................................................... 70 Load Curve from field-recorded data ........................................................................................... 61 Load Curve Library Management ................................................................................................ 49 Load Curves Library ..................................................................................................................... 5 Load-curves/heat-source-curves and shape libraries ................................................................. 43

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Menu Files entry ...................................................................................................................... 148 Menu Options ........................................................................................................................... 147 Methodology and computational standards................................................................................. 67 Opening more than one executions simultaneously.................................................................. 123 Program installation ....................................................................................................................... 1 Restore from floppy disk to a directory on the hard-disk ........................................................... 168 Running the optimizer ................................................................................................................ 178 Search for a cable with particular characteristics ........................................................................ 33 Sensitivity analysis Option of CYMCAP..................................................................................... 157 Shape Library Management ........................................................................................................ 44 Shape Library ............................................................................................................................... 5 SL-type cables ............................................................................................................................. 31 Software and hardware requirements ........................................................................................... 1 Specific cable installation data..................................................................................................... 89 Steady state thermal analysis ...................................................................................................... 95 Steady state thermal analysis ...................................................................................................... 67 Steps to create a new cable ........................................................................................................ 29 Studies and executions................................................................................................................ 70 Study case for dissimilar directly buried cables......................................................................... 110 Study using CYMCAP.................................................................................................................... 6 Study-Execution Library................................................................................................................ 6 Submitting more than one executions simultaneously .............................................................. 128 Tag specific items from the Libraries ......................................................................................... 168 Transient analysis ...................................................................................................................... 135 Transient analysis ...................................................................................................................... 129 Transient analysis Options ........................................................................................................ 130 Useful considerations................................................................................................................... 30 Working with more than one executions simultaneously........................................................... 127

INDEX