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DNV Software Report No.: 00-000 / Revision 0, June 15, 2005 Copyright 2005 Det Norske Veritas

All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. Published by: Det Norske Veritas Veritasveien 1 N-1322 HVIK Norway Telephone: +47 67 57 99 00 Facsimile: +47 67 57 72 72 E-mail, sales: software.sesam@dnv.com E-mail, support: software.support@dnv.com Website: www.dnv.com

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Table of Contents

1 1.1 1.2 1.2.1 1.2.2 2 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.3.1 2.3.2 2.3.3 3 3.1 3.2 3.3 4 4.1 4.2 4.2.1 4.3 5 5.1 5.2 6 INTRODUCTION

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DeepC Deep Water Coupled Analysis...................................................................... 2 Glossary and Symbols.................................................................................................. 2 Abbreviations ............................................................................................................... 2 Important terminology and definitions ........................................................................ 2 OVERVIEW OF FLOATING SYSTEM CHARACTERISTICS 5

Introduction.................................................................................................................. 5 Main characteristics of deepwater floaters................................................................... 5 Main characteristics of slender structures .................................................................... 5 Mooring Systems ......................................................................................................... 5 Riser Systems ............................................................................................................... 6 Slender Structure Nonlinearities .................................................................................. 7 FLOATER LOAD MODELS 9

General ......................................................................................................................... 9 Large volume bodies .................................................................................................... 9 Small Volume Bodies ................................................................................................ 10 SLENDER STRUCTURE LOAD MODELS 11

Introduction................................................................................................................ 11 Fluid Kinematics ........................................................................................................ 11 Wave Kinematics ....................................................................................................... 11 Hydrodynamic Loading ............................................................................................. 11 COUPLED RESPONSE ANALYSIS 12

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INTRODUCTION

This manual covers the basic theory of the DeepC program for coupled analyses. DeepC is a package of software programs (see /1/), consisting of also the MARINTEK programs RIFLEX /2/ and SIMO /3/. This manual will not repeat the theory behind RIFLEX and SIMO, but rather try to give a basic understanding of coupled analysis and the theory behind the adopted formulations and methods. If necessary, references are given to SIMO /6/ and RIFLEX /5/Theory Manuals for more detailed reading. For a brief overview of the functional capabilities of the DeepC programs, the reader is referred to the DeepC White Paper /4/.

1.2.1 Abbreviations

Abbreviations used in this document:

CFD DOF DDF DTU FE FD FFT FPSO FTL GML GMT HF LF LTF OOL QTF RAO SCR SSVR TD TLP TTR VIM VIV WF Computational Fluid Dynamics Degrees of Freedom Deep Draught Floater Dry Tree Unit Finite Element Frequency Domain Fast Fourier Transform Floating Production Storage and Offloading Fluid Transfer Lines Metacentric Height, Longitudinal Metacentric Height, Transverse High Frequency Low Frequency Linear Transfer Function Oil Offloading Line Quadratic Transfer Function Response Amplitude Operator Steel Catenary Riser Spar Supported Vertical Risers Time Domain Tension Leg Platform Top Tensioned Riser Vortex Induced Motions Vortex Induced Vibrations Wave Frequency

The following terminology definitions to terms used throughout this document apply.

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1.2.2.1Time Scales

A floating, moored structure may respond to wind, waves and current with motions on three different time scales, wave frequency motions (WF), low frequency motions (LF) and high frequency motions (HF). The largest wave loads on offshore structures take place at the same frequencies as the waves, causing wave frequency (WF) motions of the structure. To avoid large resonant effects, offshore structures and their mooring systems are often designed in such a way that the resonant frequencies are shifted well outside the wave frequency range. Natural periods in surge, sway and yaw are typically more than 100 seconds. Natural periods in heave, roll and pitch of semi-submersibles are usually above 20 seconds. On the other hand, for a tension leg platform (TLP), these natural periods are below 5 seconds where there is little wave energy. Due to nonlinear load effects, some responses always appear at the natural frequencies. Slowly varying wave and wind loads give rise to low-frequency (LF) resonant horizontal motions, also named slowdrift motions. Higher-order wave loads yield high frequency (HF) resonant vertical motions, springing and ringing, of tensioned buoyant platforms like TLPs and slender gravity based structures (GBS).

1.2.2.2Coupling Effects

Coupling effects refer to the influence on the floater mean position and dynamic response from slender structure restoring, damping and inertia forces. These force contributions are elaborated as follows. Restoring: 1) Static restoring force from the mooring and riser system as a function of floater offset 2) Current loading and its effects on the restoring force of the mooring and riser system 3) Seafloor friction (if mooring lines and/or risers have bottom contact) Damping: 4) Damping from mooring and riser system due to dynamics, current, etc. 5) Friction forces due to hull/riser contact. Inertia: 6) Additional inertia forces due to the mooring and riser system In a traditional de-coupled analysis, item 1) can be accurately accounted for. Items 2), 4) and 6) may be approximated. Generally, items 3) and 5) cannot be accounted for. A coupled analysis as described previously can include consistent treatment of all these effects.

1.2.2.3De-coupled analysis

In a de-coupled analysis the equations of the rigid body floater motions are solved in time domain, but the effects of the mooring and riser system are included quasi-statically using non-linear springs, i.e. quasi-static restoring force characteristics. All other coupling effects, e.g. contributions from damping and current loading on the slender structures, need to be given as input to the analysis based on a separate assessment.

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1.2.2.4Coupled analysis

In a coupled analysis the complete system of equations accounting for the rigid body model of the floater as well as the slender body model for the risers and mooring lines are solved simultaneously using a non-linear time domain approach for dynamic analyses. Dynamic equilibrium is obtained at each time step ensuring consistent treatment of the floater/slender structure coupling effects. The coupling effects are automatically included in the analysis scheme.

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2.1 Introduction

The following sub systems are typically dealt with as part of a load effect and response analysis of a floating production system: Environmental effects describing waves, wind and current. Large volume bodies to represent floating structures such as ships and platforms. Slender structures to represent mooring lines and risers. Small-volume bodies to represent submerged elements such as clump weights or buoys. The following section describes the different sub systems.

A common feature of all types of floaters is that they utilise excess buoyancy to support deck payload and provide slender structure tensions. Depending on the area and the sea state, ocean waves contain 1st harmonic wave energy in the period range of 5 - 25 s. For a floating unit the natural periods of motions are key features and in many ways reflect the design philosophy. Typical motion natural periods of different floaters are presented in Table 2-1. Table 1 Typical natural periods of deep water floaters

Mode Surge Sway Heave Roll Pitch Yaw FPSO >100 >100 5 12 5 30 5 30 >100 Natural period in seconds for different floaters DDF TLP >100 >100 >100 >100 20 35 <5 50 90 <5 50 90 <5 >100 >100 Semi >100 >100 20 50 30 60 30 60 >100

A common characteristic of all floater types is that they are soft in the horizontal plane, with surge, sway and yaw periods generally longer than 100s. The fundamental differences among the floaters are related to their motions in the vertical plane, i.e. heave, roll and pitch. The floater motions in the vertical plane are decisive for the choice of riser and mooring systems.

2.3.1 Mooring Systems

Mooring systems are compliant systems. They provide resistance to environmental loading by deforming and activating reaction forces. Mooring systems work as spring mechanisms where displacement of the floater from a neutral equilibrium position causes a restoring force to react to the applied loading. The tension spring effect of mooring lines derives from two mechanisms: hanging catenary effect from gravity acting vertically on the line

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line elastic effect from elastic stretch over the length of the line Mooring systems with these two mechanisms are called catenary moorings and taut moorings, respectively.

2.3.1.1Catenary Moorings

Catenary moorings are defined by standard catenary formulations, which relate the following parameters: submerged weight of the suspended lines, horizontal mooring load, line tension and line slope at fairlead. The compliance to allow for wave-induced floater motions is ensured by a combination of geometrical change and axial elasticity of the lines. The large line geometrical changes make catenary mooring systems subject to significant dynamic effects due to transverse drag load. The mooring lines in catenary mooring systems are commonly composed of steel rope and chain segments. Sometimes clump weights and buoys are used to achieve the desired line configurations.

2.3.1.2Taut Moorings

In a taut mooring system the lines are nearly straight between the anchor and fairlead. The vertical forces are taken up as anchor and vessel reactions directly. The compliance to allow for waveinduced floater motions is provided mainly by line elasticity. The transverse geometric changes in taut mooring systems are not as large as in catenary systems, thus dynamic effects due to transverse drag loads are moderate. Synthetic ropes have recently been proposed and used as mooring lines in a taut mooring system to provide required elasticity and low weight. Compared to steel, synthetic ropes exhibit more complex stiffness characteristics (e.g. hysteresis), which may induce important dynamic effects.

2.3.1.3Tendons

TLP tendons bear much similarity to the mooring lines in a taut mooring system. However, the fundamental difference is that TLP tendons are usually made of large dimension steel tubes that are hardly compliant in the axial direction. The TLP system acts as an inverted pendulum. The station-keeping forces are governed by tendon length and the pretension. Tethers made of composite material are presently being qualified and will extend the use of TLPs into even deeper waters.

Depending on the mechanism of how floater motions are absorbed by the riser system, the risers can be divided into the following three categories: top tensioned risers compliant risers hybrid risers An brief overview of the different systems is given in the following three sections.

Vertical risers supported by top tension in combination with boundary conditions that allows for relative riser/floater motions in the vertical direction are referred to as top tensioned risers (TTRs). A TTR is normally constrained to follow the horizontal floater motions at one or several locations.

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Ideally, the applied top tension should maintain a constant target value regardless of the floater motions. Hence, the effective tension distribution along the riser is mainly governed by functional loading due to the applied top tension and the effective weight. The relative riser/floater motion in vertical direction is commonly termed stroke. Applied top tension and stroke capacity are the essential design parameters governing the mechanical behaviour as well as the application range.

Compliant riser configurations are designed to absorb floater motions by change of geometry, without the use of heave compensation systems. The required system flexibility is normally obtained by arranging non-bonded flexible pipes in one of the following classical compliant riser configurations; steep S, lazy S, steep wave, lazy wave, pliant wave or free hanging (catenary).

Most proposed designs are based on combining a self supported vertical riser column, i.e. tensioned riser, with a flexible riser at upper end for connection to the floater. The vertical column is normally governed by a bundle of steel risers. Control umbilicals may also be integrated in the bundle. A buoyancy module at the upper end provides the required tension in the riser column. The upper end of the vertical column is connected to the support floater by several flexible risers. A major advantage of such designs is that the vertical column is a self-supporting structure. The system can be designed to withstand significant dynamic floater motions since flexible risers are used for connecting the floater to the riser column

Floating/submerged pipes used for transportation of fluids between two floaters are known as Fluid Transfer Lines (FTLs). FTLs are normally low-pressure flexible pipes or hoses, , use of metallic FTLs can also be used. Buoyancy modules may be applied to achieve a desired configuration for floating as well as submerged FTLs. Analyses need to be performed to ensure that FTLs can operate safely within defined operational conditions and withstand extreme environmental loading in disconnected conditions without significant damage. To operate permanently, FTLs need to comply with design requirements for risers.

2.3.2.5Umbilicals

Umbilicals will normally have complex cross-sectional designs displaying pronounced nonlinear stiffness characteristics, e.g. moment/curvature hysteresis. Umbilicals may be arranged in the classic compliant riser configurations or clamped to a compliant or top tensioned riser. The latter solution is commonly termed piggy-back and will require special modelling considerations in the global load effect analyses, e.g. evaluation of hydrodynamic coefficients and stiffness properties for a double symmetric cross-section. Umbilicals are otherwise treated similar to compliant riser systems in the global load effect analysis.

Despite the differences in design, function and application areas for the slender structures discussed in the previous sections (top tensioned riser, compliant risers, fluid transfer lines and mooring lines/cables), physical behaviour and governing parameters for the hydrodynamic coefficients are quite similar. Such structures are commonly also termed as tensioned structures to reflect that the effective tension is the overall governing parameter for the global configuration,

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i.e. geometry, and transverse stiffness. A common overall analysis framework can be applied in load effect analyses of slender structures. Mooring lines and cable/chain systems are not influenced by bending stiffness. The other systems have a physical bending stiffness that should be considered in the load effect analyses. Understanding the important non-linearities of slender structures is critical for system modelling as well as selection of adequate global analysis approach. Non-linearities will also be decisive for the statistical response characteristics for systems exposed to irregular loading. An essential issue is how non-linear properties of the slender structure and hydrodynamic loading mechanisms transform the wave frequency Gaussian excitation, i.e. waves and 1st order floater motions into non-Gaussian system responses. Important non-linearities to be carefully considered can be summarised as: 1) Geometric stiffness, i.e. contribution from effective tension to transverse stiffness. Tension variation is hence a non-linear effect for slender structures. 2) Hydrodynamic loading. Non-linearities are introduced by the quadratic drag term in the Morison equation expressed by the relative structure-fluid velocity and by integration of hydrodynamic loading to actual surface elevation 3) Large rotations in 3D space. This is relevant for systems with bending stiffness undergoing two-axial bending. 4) Material and component non-linearities 5) Contact problems in terms of seafloor contact and hull/slender structure contact (varying location of contact point and friction forces). The relative importance of these non-linearities is strongly system and excitation dependent. Nonlinearities due to item 1) and 2) will, at least to some extent, always be present. Item 3) is relevant for systems with bending stiffness undergoing two-axial bending due to in-plane and out of plane excitation, while 4) and 5) are more system specific non-linear effects. Material nonlinearities are important for flexible risers and umbilicals, e.g. hysteretic bending moment/ curvature relation due to interlayer stick/slip behaviour, and synthetic mooring lines.

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3.1 General

Floater motions are commonly split into LF, WF and HF motion components. The WF and HF motions are mainly governed by inviscid fluid effects, while viscous fluid effects are relatively important for LF motions. Different hydrodynamic effects are important for each floater type, and must be taken into account in the analysis and design. An overview of these load effects is presented in Table 2 together with the DeepC coverage. Some of the effects can be linearised and included in a frequency domain approach, while others are highly non-linear and can only be handled in time-domain. In comparison with frequency domain analysis, the advantage of a DeepC time domain analysis is that it can easily capture higher order load effects. In addition, a time domain analysis can predict the maximum response without making assumptions regarding the response distribution. Table 2 Hydrodynamic effects of importance for floater motions

FPSO Wave Frequency loads Low frequency loads Loads in moon pool Mathieu instability Hull Vortex Shedding Wave on deck loads Slamming loads Green water loads High frequency loads X X X Semi X X DDF X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X TLP X X Covered by DeepC X X

Large volume bodies are represented by a 6 DOF rigid body motion model. The interaction between the wave and large volume bodies are described by a set of frequency dependent coefficients for inertia, damping and excitation forces. These coefficients have to be obtained from the diffraction/radiation analysis program Wadam /8/. Linear and quadratic forces are included. The frequency dependent added mass and damping coefficients have to be converted to a retardation function, and the frequency dependent force is included as a convolution integral, introducing a memory effect in the time domain analysis, see the SIMO Theory Manual /6/ for details.

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The quadratic wave forces, represented as sum-frequency excitation (HF) or difference-frequency (LF) excitation can also be included. The wave forces are computed for the mean (initial) heading and for a range of other heading s to allow for large yawing motions of the vessel. Wind and current forces are computed by a set of direction dependent coefficients specifying linear and quadratic forces as functions of wind and current directions relative to the vessel. Additional hydrodynamic forces can be included by attaching a strip model to the structure, providing a distributed drag force model based on a relative velocity Morison formulation, see /6/ for further details. The same model can also be used to compute the hydrostatic restoring forces for the body integrated up to the instantaneous free surface elevation given an adequate strip discretisation. This can be used to investigate e.g. Mathieu instabilities, large roll motions or other situations where vessel motions influences the hydrostatic restoring forces. Dynamic Positioning (DP) system are included by specifying a set of thrusters, a DP controller, comprising either a PID controller or a Kalman filter controller, and a thrust allocation in addition to a reverence position for the body. Reference is given to the the Wadam /8/and SIMO /6/ manuals for further details.

Position dependent hydrodynamic and geo-dynamic forces are accounted for by introducing structural models with 3 DOF translational motions, including linear and non.-linear forces that can be position dependent. These are used to model special force effects in the wave zone for launching problems, and at the mudline for installation operations.

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4.1 Introduction

This section will give a brief summary of the load models for analysis of risers and mooring lines for slender structure analysis. For a more detailed discussion of the different load models for risers, reference is made the RIFLEX /5/ Theory Manual.

Fluid kinematics may comprise a significant dynamic loading on the upper part of deep water riser systems. Direct wave loading on mooring lines is however normally of less importance, except if buoys close to the surface are used to obtain the desired mooring line configuration.

Undisturbed wave kinematics in a DeepC coupled is based on Airy wave theory. Different techniques for stretching may be applied to compute wave kinematics in the wave zone. For further details, see the RIFLEX /5/ and SIMO /6/ Theory Manuals

The hydrodynamic loading on slender structures is expressed by the Morison equation in terms of the relative fluid-structure velocities and accelerations. The fluid velocities and acceleration vectors is be found by considering contributions from wave kinematics and current. Hydrodynamic loading in normal and tangential pipe directions is computed independently according to the so-called cross-flow (or independence) principle. The reader is referred to the RIFLEX /5/ Theory Manual for the full details on the formulation.

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5.1 Introduction

Traditionally, the motions of a floating vessel and the load effects in mooring lines and risers have been analysed by a separated two step-procedure: 1. Compute motions of the floater based on large body (diffraction/radiation) theory in which load effects from risers are modelled as a linear restoring force only. This is typically a linear frequency domain procedure, or a more sophisticated de-coupled time domain procedure can be used. 2. Apply the vessel motions computed in step 1 as a terminal excitation of the mooring line or riser system in order to computed dynamic load effects. This is typically carried out using a non-linear time domain procedure due to inherent non-linearities present in these systems, see the discussion in section 2.3.3. The main shortcomings of this separated approach are: Mean loads on riser and mooring lines due to current is not accounted for. The important damping effect from the mooring and riser system on the LF motions can only be included in a simplistic way The dynamics of mooring lines (e.g. tendons of a TLP) will not influence the WF motions of the floater. The effect of these shortcomings will increase considerably when water depth increases. In deep water, the interaction between mooring lines/risers and the floater will be pronounced, and a separate analysis approach may be too inaccurate. In a coupled approach the total floater and slender structure response is solved for simultaneously at every time step in the simulation. In this way, the full interaction between floater and slender structure is accounted overcoming the limitations by a separated approach.

The governing dynamic equilibrium equation of the spatially discretised system is expressed by

(1)

where R I , R D and R S represent inertia, damping and internal reaction force vectors & and & & are the structural displacement, velocity respectively. R E is the external force vector. r, r r and acceleration vectors. The inertia force vector is expressed as &, t ) = M (r )& & R I (r, & r r (2)

where M is the system mass matrix that includes structural mass, mass accounting for internal fluid flow in pipes, and hydrodynamic mass. The damping force vector is expressed as

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(3)

where C is the system damping matrix that includes contributions from internal structural damping as well as hydrodynamic damping. & , t ) is calculated based on the instantaneous state of The internal reaction force vector R E (r, r stress in the elements. The external load vector accounts for weight and buoyancy, forced displacements, environmental forces and specific forces. Eq. (2) expresses a nonlinear system of differential equations. Nonlinearities may be due to the displacement dependencies in the inertia and damping forces and due to the coupling between the external load vector and structural displacements and velocity. In addition, there may be a nonlinear relationship between inertial reaction forces and deformations. The numerical solution of Eq. (2) is based on an incremental procedure using the dynamic time integration scheme according to the Newmark -family of methods. Newton-Raphson iteration is used to assure equilibrium between internal and external forces at every time step. Introducing the tangential mass, damping and stiffness matrices at start of the time increment, and implementation of the residual force vector from the previous time step, the linearised incremental equation of motion is given by

(4)

&, r & and r are the incremental nodal accelerations, velocities and displacements where & r respectively. All force vectors and system matrices are established by assembly of element contributions and nodal component contributions in a common global reference frame, See RIFLEX /5/ for further details.

In a coupled analysis the floating vessel is treated as a nodal component assuming the vessel acts as a rigid body. The forces on the vessel, represented by a large volume body, are computed separately at ech time step end included in the external load vector R E , see Eq. (2) and (5). The exception is the vessel inertia forces representing the vessel mass and the frequency-independent part of the added mass which are included in the mass matrix of the system, see Eq. (3). In the practical implementation of time-domain analysis with irregular wind and wave excitation, the excitation time series are pre-generated by means of FFT.

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/1/ /2/ /3/ /4/ /5/ /6/ /7/ /8/

REFERENCES

DeepC User Manual, DNV Software, 2005 SINTEF (1998) RIFLEX Program Documentation. SINTEF, Trondheim, Norway 1998 MARINTEK (1998) SIMO Simulation of Complex Marine Operations User Documentation. MARINTEK, Trondheim, Norway 1998 DeepC Deep Water Couple Analysis Tool. A White Paper. DNV Software, 2004 RIFLEX Theory Manual, SINTEF Report STF70 F95219, 1995 SIMO Theory Manual, MARINTEK Report 516412.00.003, 2004 DeepC Deep Water Couple Analysis Tool. A White Paper. DNV Software 2004 Wadam User Manual, DNV Software, 2004

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