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CCNA Exploration Chapter 1 Planning and Cabling a Network V 4.0 1.1.

1 What are the common components between a router and other computers? What does a router connect? What does a router do with each packet it receives? What are the 2 types of connections to a router interface? What are the two primary functions of a router?

CPU, RAM, ROM, Operating System

Connects multiple networks The router forwards the packet to either the destination of the packet, or another network that will lead it to its destination LANs and WANs Determine the best path to send packets and forwarding the packets toward their destination.


What address does the router use to compare to the routing table? What two processes are used by a router to learn about remote networks and build their routing tables? What are the five components common to all routers? List the 5 different components stored in RAM. What happens to the information in RAM if the router looses power? What are the permanent storage areas in a router? What 3 things are stored in ROM? What is stored in flash? What happens to flash memory when the power is lost? What is stored in NVRAM?

The destination IP address Static routes and dynamic routing protocols

RAM, ROM, Power supply, Fan, and AIM

Operating System, Running Configuration File, IP routing table, APR Cache, and Packet Buffer The content is lost ROM, flash, and NVRAM Bootstrap instructions, Basic diagnostic software and scaled down version of IOS Permanent storage for Cisco IOS Nothing All configuring changes such as startup configuration file and running configuration file changes



What must you do to save changes you have made to a router? What is the most common method used for configuring a router? What is the first thing that happens as the router boots up? What are the 4 phases of the bootup process?

Save the contents to the NVRAM before powering off CLI interface Startup-configuration file is copied into the RAM and stored as the running-configuration file. Performing the POST Loading bootstrap program Locating and loading Cisco IOS software Locating and loading the startup configuration file or entering setup mode Router hardware Locate the Cisco IOS and load it to RAM Flash memory or on a TFTP server Load a scaled down version of IOS to diagnose issues to be able to load a complete version of IOS into RAM In the NVRAM Interface addresses, routing information, passwords, any other configurations saved by the network administration TFTP server 1. 2. 3. 4.

What does POST test? What is the main function of the bootstrap program? What are the 2 main places to find the IOS? If a full IOS can not be loaded what does the bootstrap loader do? Where is the startup configuration found? What are the main items stored in the configuration file? Where is the second place that the router looks for the startup config if it is not located in NVRAM? If the router can not locate a startup-config, what mode does it enter? What key command do you press to exit setup mode if you accidentally entered it? What command can be used to help verify and troubleshoot some of the basic hardware and software components of the router? What is the last line displayed in the show version output? What is the default configuration register setting? What does that setting tell the

Setup mode Ctrl-C Show version

Current configured value of the software configuration register in hexadecimal 0x2102 He router will attempt to load a Cisco IOS

router? 1.1.5 What are the two management ports? What is an interface? What must be configured for each interface? What are the two major groups of router interfaces? What OSI layer does a router operate at? What is the router interface that connects to a LAN called? What is the process that each router uses to determine where to send the packet? What are the four essential information elements to include in the topology diagram? What are the basic tasks to perform when configuring a router? What is the prompt for the user mode? What is the command to enter the privileged EXEC mode? What is the prompt for privileged EXEC mode? What is the command to enter the global configuration mode? What is the command to enter the hostname of a router? What happens to the prompt after you press enter? What is the command used to enter the password to enter the privileged EXEC mode? List the commands to set the password for the console port?

software image from the flash memory and load the startup configuration file from NV RAM Console port and Auxiliary port Physical connector on the router whose main purpose is to receive and forward packets IP address and subnet mask of a different network LAN and Wan Network Layer Ethernet Decapsulation, searching routing table, then reencapsulation Device names, interfaces used in the design, IP addresses and subnet masks, and Default gateway addresses for end devices such as PCs Name router, set passwords, configure interfaces, configure banner, save changes, verify basic configure and router operations Router> enable Router# Config t Hostname *(insert name here)* (inserted name here)#(config) Enable secret class


1.2.1 1.2.2

Line con 0 Password ciscoline Login Exit

List the commands to set the password for the Telnet lines?

List the commands to enter the Banner Message of the Day (motd). What should the banner show? Warn against unauthorized access What is the command to enter Interface (line name) the interface configuration mode? What is the command to set the IP addr (address) (subnet mask) IP address and subnet mask for an interface? What is the command to enter a description for the interface? What is the command to turn on an interface? What is the command to view the running-configuration file? What is the command to save the current config in NVRAM? What command will display the routing table? What command displays all of the interface configuration parameters and statistics? What command displays abbreviated interface configuration information, including IP address and interface status? Where is the routing table stored? What is a directly connected network? What is a remote network? What would a C in the first column of a routing table mean? What additional information is included when the destination is a remote network? Description (information) No shutdown Show running-config Copy running-config startup-config Show IP route Show interfaces Show ip interface brief

Line vty 0. 4 Password ciscovty Login exit Banner motd #(insert text here) #


Data file in RAM Network directly attached to one of the router interfaces Network not directly connected to the router Directly connected route Routing metric and administrative distance

What command reveals the configured or acquired default gateway, connected, loopback, multicast, and broadcast networks? How does a PC determine which network it belongs to? What command will activate a router interface? What routes does a router know before any static or dynamic routing is configured? What denotes a static route in the routing table? What are the three items that must be included in a static route? When should static routes be used? What are dynamic routing protocols used for? What are 2 of the activities that dynamic routing protocols perform? What is network discovery? What are some dynamic routing protocols? What are the three routing principles?

Show ip route

Its host IP address and subnet mask No shutdown Directly connected networks Code S Ip address, subnet mask, next hop A network only has a few routers, connected to the internet through a single ISP or is configured in a hub-and-spoke topology Share information about reachability and status of remote networks Network discovery, and updating and maintaining routing tables Ability of a routing protocol to share info about networks it knows with other routers that are using the same routing protocol RIP, IGRP, EIGRP, OSPF, IS_IS, and BGP 1. Every router makes its decision alone 2. The fact that one router has certain info in its routing table does not mean that other routers have the same info 3. Routing info about a path from one network to another does not provide routing info about the reverse or return path Packets traverse the network in one direction and return via another path Hop count and Bandwidth Quantitative value used to measure the distance to a given route Path with the lowest metric




What is asymmetric routing? 1.4.2 What does a router compare to select the best path to place in the routing table? What is a metric? What is the best path?

The number of routers that a packet must travel through before reaching its destination is called? The data capacity of a link, sometimes referred to as the speed of the link? What is it called when two paths to a destination have exactly the same metric? What is equal cost load balancing? 1.4.4 1.4.5 What are the two functions of packet forwarding? What is the process used by a router to accept a packet on one interface and forward it out another interface called? What are the three major steps a router performs on a packet?

Hop count

Bandwidth Equal cost load balancing


When a routing table has 2 or more paths with the same metric to the same destination network. Path determination and switching function Packet switching

What happens to the value of the TTL as a packet moves through a network? Which address does not change as the packet moves through the network? Which address changes as the packet moves through the network?

1. Decapsulates the Layer 3 packet by removing the Layer 2 frame header and trailer. 2. Examines the destination IP address of the IP packet to find the best path in the routing table. 3. Encapsulates Layer 3 packet into a new Layer 2 frame and forwards the frame out the exit interface It decrements the TTL by one Layer 3 IP address

Layer 2 data link address

How does a PC determine which network it belongs to?

By performing an AND operation on its own IP address and subnet mask which results in its network address.


How does it determine if the destination is on the same network? Where does the PC send the packet if the destination is not on its own network? Where does the PC look for the default gateway MAC address? What does the PC do if the MAC address is not in the ARP table? Excellent description of how a packet travels from one pc to another. Make certain you understand the steps. Note any questions you have about the process.

The AND operation will result the same network Forward the packet back to the router Checks its ARP table for the mac address of the default gateway Sends an ARP request to the router A packet travels from one pc to another is when a data is broken in to small pieces. Then another computer will receive the packet, and it will send an acknowledgement packet. By sending an acknowledgement to the other computer, it shows that it received the data. Then it also shows it is ready to receive more data.