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Design for X

Dr Jane Marshall Product Excellence using 6 Sigma Module


PEUSS 2012/2013 Design for X Page 1

Objectives of the session


Introduce Design for X Discuss Specific Design for X methods

PEUSS 2012/2013

Design for X

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Design for X
Concurrent engineering is a contemporary approach to DFSS. DFX techniques are part of detail design To improve:
life-cycle cost; quality, increased design flexibility, and increased efficiency and productivity

Benefits include:
competitiveness measures, improved decision-making, and enhanced operational efficiency.

X in DFX is made up of two parts: life-cycle processes x and performance measure (ability) (Huang 1996). Effective approach to implement concurrent engineering. System design

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System design
Systems and its characteristics
System is an interrelated set of components, with identifiable boundary, working together for some purpose

A system has nine characteristics:


Components----------------------Subsystems Interrelated components A boundary A purpose An environment Interfaces Input Output Constraints
Design for X Page 4

PEUSS 2012/2013

Environment
Input

Interface Components

Output Boundary
PEUSS 2012/2013 Design for X Interrelationship Page 5

System characteristics
A component
an irreducible part or aggregation of parts that make up a system, also called a subsystem

Interrelated components
Dependence of one subsystem on one or more subsystems

Boundary
The line that marks the inside and outside of a system and that sets off the system form its environment

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Design for X

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System characteristics
Purpose
The overall goal or function of a system

Environment
Everything external to a system that interacts with the system

Interface
Point of contact where a system meets its environment or where subsystems meet each other.

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Design for X

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System characteristics
Constraint
A limit to what a system can accomplish

Input
Whatever a system takes from its environment in order to fulfill its purpose

Output
Whatever a system returns from its environment in order to fulfill its purpose

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Design for X

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Logical and Physical system description


Logical system description
Description of a system that focuses on the system function and purpose without regard to how the system will physically implemented

Physical system description


Description of a system that focuses on the how the system will be materially constructed

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Design for X

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Important system concepts Decomposition Modularity Coupling Cohesion


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Decomposition
Is the process of breaking down a system into smaller components in order to:
Focus on one area at a time Concentrate one component pertinent to one group of users Build different components at independent times

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Design for X

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Modularity and Coupling


Modularity
Dividing a system up into chunks or modules of a relatively uniform size. To Simplify the redesign and rebuild process

Coupling
The extent to which subsystems depend on each other. Subsystem should be independent as possible. If one subsystem fails and other subsystem are highly dependent on it, then the other will either fail themselves or have problems functioning

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Design for X

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Cohesion
A cohesion is the extent to which a subsystem performs a single function.

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Design for X

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Design for X tools


Design for Manufacture and Assembly; Design for Reliability; Design for Maintainability; Design for Serviceability; Design for the Environment; Design for Life Cycle Cost; Etc.
Design for X Page 14

PEUSS 2012/2013

Design for manufacture and assembly


Consider during concept stage to reduce cost of redesign later Involvement of manufacturing engineers and supply chain management at concept phase Involve investigating waste Reducing number of standalone parts DFA time identifies cost of assembly and efficiency Investigate alternatives through experimentation Error-proofing poke-yoke
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Design for Reliability


Analyse load-strength relationship Design out inherent weaknesses
Analyse potential failure mechanisms and remove or accommodate Analyse potential failure modes past data suppliers history

Plan for reliability improvement Plan correct testing


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What is Reliability?
Quality over a period of time The ability of an item to perform a required function under stated conditions for a stated period of time. Reliability is an aspect of engineering uncertainty and therefore measured using probability
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Why is reliability important?


Costs of unreliability or unavailability Safety Competitiveness Examples:
Airline costs Automotive reputation Military equipment availability

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Design for X

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Why do products fail?


Design inherently incapable Item overstressed Variation Wear-out Specification, design or coding errors Noise Interaction
Design for X Page 19

PEUSS 2012/2013

How do Products fail?


Discuss how products can fail? Choose different product types and give ideas for how they may fail?

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Design for X

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Wear-out and Over-stress


OVER-STRESS
Fracture Yield Thermal Electrostatic discharge

WEAR-OUT
Fatigue Creep Erosion Corrosion

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Design for X

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Electronic component failure examples

Mechanical failure
Chip capacitor overstress PCB PTH barrel crack

Solder joint fatigue


PEUSS 2012/2013

Chip resistor

Design for X

BGA active device

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Corrosion

Galvanic corrosion

Fretting Corrosion

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Design for X

Erosion Corrosion

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Load and strength


Load - Key Characteristic of interest in environment
Temperature / Pressure Vibration / Humidity

Strength - Key characteristic of interest in manufactured product


Tensile Strength Current Rating Propagation Delay
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Requirements & Environment - Engine Controls


Typical Civil Engine environment
Temperature extremes
operating non-operating -55 to 100 -65 to 125

FADEC

Reliability Requirements

Vibration extremes
low frequency general blade passing <5g 20g 50g

Typical environment much more benign

Service requirements
Life 25 yrs 100,000 hrs operating
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Reliability 30,000 hours MTBF failures/million hrs) Design for X

In a Safety Critical Harsh Environment Application


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Load and strength


Generally failures occur if

Load exceeds Strength

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Design for X

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Load and strength

Probability

Load

Strength

No overlap of distributed values .. No failures


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Load and strength


Failure

Probability

Load

Strength

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Design for X

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Over-stress
Load Strength

Stress
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Wear-out
Load Strength

Stress
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Bathtub curve
Hazard function

Useful Life

Time
Infant Mortality
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Wear Out
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Design for Reliability


Aim to maximise reliability during service life by:
Measurement & control of manufacturing quality / screening Optimized design & build process to improve intrinsic reliability Assure no systematic faults present in product Provide sufficient margin to meet life requirements

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Design for X

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Early - life
Hazard function

Useful Life

Time
Infant Mortality/early life
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Wear Out
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Early Life Failures Environmental Stress Screening


Sometimes called burn-in electronic components Stresses that cause defective production items which pass other tests to fail Normally 100% test but can be done for batches HASS high combined stresses
Test time shorter than ESS Cheaper
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Early-life failures
Quality in Manufacture

Service Life
e.g. 20 Years

Life Margin

Screening Effectiveness

Reliability Time
Perceived Quality
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Life Failures

Early-life failures Too little product screening


Service Life
e.g. 20 Years Screening Effectiveness

Life Margin

Degraded Reliability Increased Low Hour Failures Improved 1st Time Pass Yield
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Hazard function

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Early-life failures Too much product screening


Service Life
e.g. 20 Years

Life Margin

Screening Effectiveness

Higher Service Reliability Reduced Low Hour Failures Reduced 1st Time Pass Yield Reduced Life Margin
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Screening effectiveness
At what point is Manufacturing Quality measured?
Following screening ? . following x hours in service? Processes optimised to just pass ESS? Quality engineers aware of early life (service) failure?

How well is E.S.S. Effectiveness measured ?


Failures being detected during ESS? What type of failure, at what point and in which test.. ? Optimised cycles, levels,etc ? Measures of performance ?
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Product screening the answer?


Service Life Improved Build Quality
Improved Quality in Manufacture
More Stringent Quality Control Less Reliance on Screening Higher Service Reliability Reduced Low Hour Failures Improved 1st Time Pass Yield Increased Life Margin

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Design for X

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Useful- life
Hazard function

Useful Life

Time
Infant Mortality
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Wear Out
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Useful- life
Characterised by failures occurring randomly over time Due to non-systematic, minor anomalous process variations, for example:
Marginal design / tolerance build-up Random periods of reduced manufacturing process control Component part batch problems Maintenance induced failure
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Minimising failures during useful life


Learning (and using) lessons from current products
Determine those factors that have a significant effect on product reliability by analysing in-service with manufacturing data. Root Cause analysis of service issues enables generic process improvements in design and manufacture

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Wear-out
Hazard function

Useful Life

Time
Infant Mortality
PEUSS 2012/2013 Design for X

Wear Out
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Wear-out
Characterised by failure mechanisms broadly repeated across a product type, often following a similar period of use. Due to systematic weak links in design / manufacture.
Processes that consistently stress product during Manufacture Design / Selection of inappropriate parts or function Incompatibility between design and manufacturing capability

Not necessarily an end of life issue


Could occur at any point during product life
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Wear-out - solutions
How can systematic problems be detected prior to use ?
Physics of Failure (PoF) analysis, Finite Element Analysis, Design Of Experiments, Reliability Enhancement Testing (RET)

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Design for X

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Design for Reliability


Design for useful life Design out inherent weaknesses using tools such as:
FMECA Fault tree analysis (FTA) Physics of Failure ESS Finite element analysis Development Testing Data analysis

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Design for X

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Product life cycle


Design
FMECA, FTA, PoF,RBD FE,accelerated life test

Development Development Test Use Field data analysis

FRACAS

Test
ESS, Burn-in
PEUSS 2012/2013 Design for X

Manufacture SPC
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Design for maintainability


To minimise:
The downtime for maintenance, user and technician maintenance time, personnel injury resulting from maintenance tasks, cost resulting from maintainability features, and logistics requirements for replacement parts, backup units, and personnel

Maintenance actions can be preventive, corrective, or recycle and overhaul


Design for X Page 48

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Design for serviceability


Ability to diagnose, remove, replace, replenish, or repair any component or subassembly to original specifications with relative ease Poor serviceability produces warranty costs, customer dissatisfaction, and lost sales and market share due to loss loyalty Have serviceability personnel involved in the early stages, as they are considered a customer segment.
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Design for the environment


Addresses environmental concerns as well as postproduction transport, consumption, maintenance, and repair The aim is to minimize environmental impact, including strategic level of policy decision-making and design development DFE usually comes with added initial cost, causing an increment of total life cost Economic evaluation is required both for maximum economic benefit and to estimate what the expected financial savings (or losses) will be
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Design for life-cycle cost


Real cost of the design Includes the associated costs of defects, litigations, buybacks, distributions support, warranty, and the implementation cost of all employed DFX methods Activity-based cost (ABC)* is a method for estimating life-cycle design cost ABC assumes that the design, whether a product, a service, or a process, consumes activities. ABC objective is to identify activities in the design life, and then assign reliable cost drivers and consumption intensities to the activities
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