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Hydrogen Sulphide (H2S)

Characteristics:- Colourless gas wgich burns in air with a pale blue flame. It is moderately soluble in water. It is rapidly converted to Sulphur Di Oxide in the atmosphere by a reaction with Hydroxyl Group & Carbonyl Sulphide. In the body the sulphide ions are oxidized to Thio Sulphate & Sulphates in the liver & Kidneys & mostly eliminated in the urine. It is a chemical asphyxiant & its smell is just like rotten egg. Mechanism of Action:- It acts through the Inhibition of Cytochrome Oxidase as well as through a direct depressant effect on Respiratory Centre in the brain. Occupations Associated With H2S Poisoning:- 1) Carbon Sulphide Production 2) Viscous Rayon Production 3) Sewer & Tunnel Workers 4) Petroleum Production & Processing 5) Mining 6) Pulp Industry 7) Sulphuric Acid Production 8) Glue Manufacture Rotten egg smell can be detected below 1 ppm. However, the sense of smell to H2S is soon lost over 20 ppm. Therefore the worker may have very little warning of the presence of gas at dangerous concentration.
Toxicity:- A) Acute:- 1) Rapid Breathing & Distress with Nausea & Vomiting 2) These may be rapidly followed by Loss of Consciousness, usually in association with cessation of breathing. Very Very Dangerous in rayon Industries Loss of Consciousness without warning can occur on sudden exposure to a high concentration of H2S (more than 200ppm) after only one or two breaths, known as Knocked Down & there is high possibility of Death, unless Emergency Resuscitation is commenced. 3) It is a Pulmonary Irritant & may cause Non Cardiac Pulmonary Edema. 4) Conjunctivitis like symptoms B) Sub Acute:-1) Kerato Conjunctivitis usually the features of sub acute toxicity characterized By a) Blepharitis b) Irritant Conjunctivitis c) Lecremation d) Photophobia e) Sensation of Grittiness & Pain in the eyes associated with Superficial Punctate Corneal Erosion. Eyes usually recover within 24 hours, after removal from exposure or treatment with Chloramphenicol Eye Ointment, but Corneal Ulceration & Acute Keratitis have been recorded. 2) Some victims suffer from nonspecific symptoms like a) Hypersucceptebility of gas smell. B) fatigue c) Poor Memory d) Irritability e) Disturbance of Equilibrium C) Chronic:- Nothing except unpleasant smell can be a considerable nuisance. As per WHO Guidelines, Concentration Limit in Ambient limit of Water is 7micro grams/M Treatment:1) No specific treatment except Nitrite (Amyl Nitrate) may be used, but remains controversy. 2) Symptomatic treatment.