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EXPERIMENT - 1 AIM: To study about the various types of antennas. THEORY: 1.

DIPOLE ANTENNAS: This type of dipole has a short finite length even through it is short. It is the most basic of all antennas. All made up of very short conductors in series. The propagation time is higher in this type. 2. SQUARE LOOP ANTENNA: They may be considered to be consisting of four short linear dipoles. A small loop may be considered equivalent to a magnetic dipoles. The size of loop may assume any value. Properties only depend on the area of loop & not on shape. 3. QUAD ANTENNA: It is a type of a folded wire antenna. This can also be called a 4-wire folded /2 dipole or a two-turn loop.Each quad loop has a side equal to the length /4 & due to two such loops it is called a quad antenna. 4. SLOT ANTENNA: This is useful where low profile or flush installation is required. Ex. In high speed aircrafts. Any slot has its complementary from in wires strips so that pattern & impedance data of these forms are used to predict patterns & impedance of cores. Slots. 5. SLEEVE ANTENNA: It is a vertical antenna with the gd. Plane degenerated into a sleeve or axis of the antenna. 6. SNIFFER PROBE: This is basically to measure the current near the transmitter or receive. Here the current flowing is measured as voltage. 7. HELIX ANTENNA: It is a 3D geometric form with a helical wire on a uniform cylinder. So a helix combines. The geometric form of a first a circle & a cylinder. Also it is either left handed or right-handed. Advantage of helix over first stub or monopole is that its inductance can resonate the antenna.

8. CONICAL ANTENNA: Hear a smaller resistance fluctuation with frequency. They have a uniform impedance. Types A. Open-ended antennas. B. With end-cops. 9. MONOPOLE ANTENNA: This is one-half a dipole plus a perfectly conducting place. These antennas may be driver by a coaxial cable below the plane having its center conductor connected to the antenna thro a small hole. A monopole along with its linage forms a dipole. 10. BICONICAL DIPOLE: This type of antenna acts as a guide for spherical waves in the same way that a uniform transmission line acts as a guide for a place wave. Type of biconical antennas. A. Infinite antenna analogous to an infinite uniform transmission line. B. Finite antenna. 11. V ANTENNA: It is one of the long-wire (liver) antennas with each wire/element serving as both a radiator & a transmitter line. Type A.Unterminated with standing ware B. Terminated with traveling wave (two ends gnd.) The pattern obtained is the summation of those obtained by single wire / elements. 12. CROSSED DIPOLE ANTENNA: It is having two dipole on save axis both perpendiculars to each other (mutually perpendicular).

13. WHIP ANTENNA: Very simple in construction. Has a small raised part over the axis. 14. YAGI-UDA ANTENNA: Can be 3el,4el or 6el where el is the no of elements. Basically consists of feeder, reflector & directors. All have one feeder, one reflector & remaining other directors. Ex. Yagi-Uda (4el) one feeder, one reflector & 2 directors. Gain is app.12 dbi(max.)&BW at half power is reduced by 10 % .To increase BW, A. Lengthen the reflector to improve open at low frequency. B. Shorten the directors to improve open at high freq.

15. FOLDED DIOPLE ANTENNA: This is an ultra close-speed type of away. Basic one is a 2 wire folded V2 dipole. Consists of 2 closely spaced V2 elements connected together at other ends. Currents in the elements are substantially equal & in phase. 16. DISCONE ANTENNA: The arms of this antenna form a cone when opened. If can be used both as transmitter & a receiver. For max transmission angle made by each am should be 300 & that max receiving, it should be 120 .

REVIEW QUESTIONS:
1. Define antenna. 2. Explain the importance of having different types of antennas. 3. Write Application of Dipole Antenna.

4. What is the condition for a conductor to act like the antenna (in terms of wavelength)?

5. Categories various antennas according to their frequency in Electromagnetic spectrum.

EXPERIMENT - 2 Aim: To plot a radiation pattern of Dipole antenna. APPARATUS:


Transmitter & receiver tripod stand, stepper kit, various antennas & dipole antenna.

THEORY:
Basically antenna is a region between a wave guided by a transmission line & a free-space wave. An antenna interface between electrons on conductors & photons in space. The antenna is characterized by its radiation pattern or patterns involving field qualities. An electromagnetic wave consists of electric & magnetic fields propagation thro space a field being a region where electric or free-space wave traveling outward at a large distance from an antenna convey energy called RADIATION. Radiation pattern can be completely specified w.r.t. Field intensity & polarization. a) The component of electric field as a function of the angles & or E (,) v/m. b) The Component of the electric filed as a function of the angles & or E (,) v/m. c) The phase of these fields as a function of the angles & or (,) & (,) rad or deg. To obtain a normalized field pattern which is a dimensionless number with a maximum value of unity. E (,) n = E (,) / E (,) max (dimensionless) Normalized power pattern is given by P (,) = s (,) / s (,) max (dimensionless) A dipole antenna, is a radio antenna that can be made of a simple wire, with a center-fed driven element. It consists of two metal conductors of rod or wire, oriented parallel and collinear with each other (in line with each other), with a small space between them. The radio frequency voltage is applied to the antenna at the center, between the two conductors. These antennas are the simplest practical antennas from a theoretical point of view. They are used alone as antennas, notably in traditional "rabbit ears" television antennas, and as the driven element in many other types of antennas, such as the Yagi Dipole

antennas were invented by German physicist Heinrich Hertz around 1886 in his pioneering experiments with radio waves.

PROCEDURE:
1. Arrange the 3 legs of tripod stand at 60 i.e. on equilateral triangle should be formed at the base. 2. Distance between transmitter & receiver as 1.5 m. 3. Set transmitter frequency as 600 MHz & also for receiver. 4. Mount the antennas on tripod stand. Dipole antenna on the transmitter side (Vertical) & monopole on receiver antenna. 5. Plot the polar plot for different angles of receiver antenna vs. power obtained dB.

OBSERVATION TABLE:
Sr. No. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. Angle of receiving antenna (in degrees) 0 15 30 45 60 75 90 105 120 135 150 165 180 195 210 225 Power (dB) 51.1 49.2 47.2 47.2 46.5 46.1 44.3 42.8 41.8 45.3 48.9 47.7 50.5 49.8 49.9 48.9 Difference (dB) 0 -1.9 3.9 3.9 4.6 5.0 6.8 8.3 9.3 5.8 2.2 3.4 0.6 1.3 1.2 2.6

17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24.

240 255 270 285 300 315 330 345

48.1 41.5 36.5 25.4 39.9 43.9 48.8 49.2

3.0 9.6 14.6 25.7 11.2 7.2 2.3 1.9

CONCLUSION:
The radiation pattern of a dipole antenna is and 8 shaped figure on the log radial scale. Ideal and practical patterns however possess certain differences.

EXPERIMENT - 3 AIM:
To study variation of field strength of radiation wave with distance from transmitter antenna.

APPARATUS:
Dipole antenna, 4el Yagi Uda antenna, X mitter & receiver tripod stands, X mitter & receiver.

THEORY:
Here we are usually concerned with the gain measurement. Two basic method employed for gain measurement of an electromagnetic radiator absolute gain & gain transfer or gain companion mmts. The absolute gain method is used to calibrate antenna that can they be used as standards are the resonant hall wave dipole (with gain = 2.1 db) & the pyramidal horn antenna. Both antenna posses linear polarizations. The dipole in free space exhibits a high degree of polarizations purity. However because of its broad pattern, its polarization. Impedance & polarization mismatch can be correct by making power compels reflection. Coefficient & polarization measurement. The technique outlined above yield good result provided the transmitter & standard gain antennas exhibit good linear polarization parity. Errors will be introduce if either one of them processor a linear polarization with finite aural ratio. In addition these techniques are accurate if the tests can be performed in a free space, a good reflection or an extrapolation range, These requirement place a low frequency limit of 50 MHz.

PROCEDURE:
1. Conneet dipole antenna at the receiver such that they are in the same place. 2. Keep distance bitewing X mitter & receiver as 0.5 m & observe the power. 3. Keep the frequency constant for all reading as 600 MHz for transmitter as well as receiver. 4. Vary the distance of receiver & measure the power. Plot all reading on the Graph.

OBSERVATION TABLE:
Sr. No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Distance between Tx & Rx antenna (Meters) 1.0 1.4 2.0 2.8 4.0 5.0 5.2 Power (dB) 52.1 51.7 45.6 44.2 39.5 36.7 33.6

Conclusion:
As the distance between transmitter and receiver antenna increases the power received by receiving antenna decreases. As the distance is doubled there is a 6dB reduction in the received power. As the distance is doubled the received power decreases by a factor of 4 in normal scale which is equivalent to 6dB in the logarithmic scale.