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Basic Accounting

Agenda
What is Accounting Mode of Learning Accounting Accounting and Finance - Difference Accounting Concepts / Conventions Accounting Events Rules of Accounting Preparation of Financial Statements A Simple Case Study
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What is Accounting
JOURNAL PAYMENT
Vision Enterprises Financial Statement at December 31, 1997 Vision Enterprises Financial Statement Assets Cash $4,456 at December 31, 1997 Vision Enterprises Account Receivable $5,714 Financial Statement Land Assets $ 981 --------Cash $4,456 at December 31, 1997 Total Assets $11,151$5,714 Account Receivable ====== Land Assets $ 981 Liability --------- $4,456 Cash Account Payable Total Assets Account Receivable $3,830$11,151$5,714 Notes Payable Land $ 416====== $ 981 --------Liability --------Total Liability $4,246 $3,830$11,151 Account Payable Total Assets ====== Notes Payable $ 416====== Stockholders Equity $2,365--------Liability Contributed Capital $ 367$4,246 $3,830 Total Liability Account Payable Retained Earnings --------- ====== Notes Payable $ 416 Total Stockholders $2,732 $2,365--------Stockholders Equity Equity ====== Contributed Capital $ 367$4,246 Total Liability Retained Earnings --------- ====== Total Stockholders $2,732 $2,365 Stockholders Equity Equity ====== Contributed Capital $ 367 Retained Earnings --------Total Stockholders $2,732 Equity ======

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Accounting is defined as the art of Recording, Classifying and Summarizing transactions in monetary terms (in Money terms) for the preparation of Financial Statements
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What is Accounting
Accounting is the art of recording, classifying and Summarizing financial transactions in the Preparation of Financial Statements Recording refers to creating Journal entry for every financial transaction with Debit and Credit amounts amounts. . Classifying refers to Classifying each of the Debit / Credit Transaction to Capital or Revenue and Asset, Liability, Revenue or Expense Summarizing refers to Grouping the Transactions of Asset, Liability, Revenue and Expenses and preparing the Financial Statements (Trading, Profit and Loss Account and Balance Sheet) In case of Trading, Manufacturing and Customer Service oriented Organization, the sum of all income and expenses is referred to as Profit and Loss account Social Service oriented Organization like Schools, Hospitals and Government Organizations, Banks it is referred to as Income and Expenditure account . Note:- Trial Balance is not a Financial Statement. Note: Statement. It is only a summary of all Debit and Credit Transactions Transactions. .
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Mode of Learning Accounting


Change your mindset that accounting means only Debit and Credit Do not blindly learn Accounting Rules and apply the rules of Debit and Credit The Best way to Learn Accounting is
Learn the Accounting Concepts Understand the Accounting Conventions Classify the Accounting Event Apply the Accounting Rules Record, Classify and Summarize the Journal

Mode of Learning Accounting


Learn Accounting Concepts (Ten Fundamental Accounting Concepts) Understand Accounting Conventions (Three major conventions) Classify the Accounting Events (Capital, Revenue, Deferred Revenue Expenditure) Apply the Accounting Rules (Personal, Real and Nominal Rules) Record the Transaction as a Journal (Entering the Debit and Credit Side of Transaction) Classify the Transaction (Asset, Liability, Revenue or Expense) Summarize the Transaction (Prepare Trial Balance, Trading, P&L and Balance Sheet)
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Finance and Accounting - Difference


Finance
Procurement and Utilization of Funds Leads to Investment Decisions Financing Decisions Futuristic

Accounts
Recording of an Accounting Event Expressed in Monetary Terms Recording , Classifying and Summarizing Transactions Preparation of Financial Statements (Trading, Profit and loss Account and Balance Sheet) Historical Compliance with Statutory Matters like Companies Act, Income Tax Act, Sales Tax Act Etc.,
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Cost of Capital Cash Flow / Fund Flow

Project Appraisal Ratio Analysis

Accounting Concepts/Conventions (US GAAP/UK GAAP/IFRS/SOX)


The Concepts and conventions of accounting are developed by IASC (International Accounting Standards Committee) which is in in-charge of releasing International Accounting Standards (IAS) The IASC Decides the preferred Accounting practices worldwide and encourages the worldwide acceptance There are 41 International Accounting Standards Now IFRS (International Financial Reporting Standards) and SOX (Sarbanes Oxley) Act gain more importance which came up from US GAAP and UK GAAP
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Accounting Concepts / Principles


Business Entity Concept Money Measurement Concept Dual Aspect Concept Cost Concept Accounting Period Conservatism Realization Concept Matching Concept Materiality Concept Objectivity
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Accounting Conventions / Practices


Going Concern

Consistency

Accrual

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Accounting Concepts
Business Entity Concept
Accounts can be kept only for Entities, which are different from the persons who are associated with these entities Ex. Ex. Sole Proprietorship, Partnership firm, Company This is one of the most Important and fundamental accounting principle with which Double entry system of accounting has evolved evolved. .

Accounts need to be maintained separate from the Owners and providers of capital. capital. If you understand the simple logic, then you can understand Accounting. Accounting.

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Types of Entities
Type of Organization
Sole Proprietary Partnership Firm Private Company

Example
Miachel & Co. Tom & Brothers Oracle India Pvt Ltd (A Private Company in which shares are not traded in Stock Exchange and members cannot exceed 50) Hindustan Unilever Ltd (A Public Company in which Shares are traded in Stock Exchange)

Public Company

Closely Held Company

Cadbury India Ltd (A Public Company in which shares are not traded but shares are held by more than 50 persons) Hutchinson Private Trust Sembur CoCo-op Society ICAI, ICWAI, ICSI, Rotary Club President of India, Governor of State A Hindu Undivided Family Jointly holding the Investment and Properties for the benefit of 12 Family members.

Trust Society Association of Persons Body of Individuals (one Man Corp) Any other Legal Entity (HUF)

Accounting Concepts
Business Entity Concept
Ex 1: You are running your own Textile Showroom as a Dealer in Cloth as a Sole Proprietor/Individual Owner of the Business. Business. The entire capital amount for the Business is provided by you. you. In this case also for the purpose of accounting you need to maintain Two set of books books. . One set of books for the purpose of Textile Business in which, Business owes you equivalent to the Capital Provided (Capital + Profit earned) or (Capital Losses) In your own Books the amount of Capital invested will be shown as an Investment in Business as an Asset. This need not be maintained as a Normal Set of Books but required to know the Cash Inflow and Cash Outflow from Income Tax Perspective. Ex 2: You are working for Oracle Corporation and Oracle has a Bank Account with Bank of America and You have Bank Account with Citi Bank and the salary at end of every month is transferred from Bank of America to Citi Bank. Bank. How many accounting Entities involved in this case? If your answer is 4, then you are right (You, Oracle Corp, Bank of America, Citi Bank) Ex 3: You run your own Business in Software Consulting and your Friend has agreed to provide a Loan of 50000 USD which he goes and deposit directly into your Bank account - How many accounting Entities involved in this case? If you say 3, You are right, it is only Three. (You, Your Friend and Bank)
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Accounting Concepts
Money Measurement Concept
Record should be made only of that information which can be expressed in Monetary Terms (i.e.) Currency value (USD,GBP,INR) Ex 1. Sole Proprietor had 40 Tables & Chairs Chairs. . This cannot be recorded unless a Value of Furniture is known in monetary value Ex 2. 2. My husband loves me so much Can this be accounted? A Big NO . This is Flaw in Financial Accounting as it does not understand the human values Ex 3. My Father in Law gave his Personal Property to start my Business. Business . Can this be Accounted Yes (If the Value of the Property is provided)
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Accounting Concepts
Money Measurement Concept
A normal doubt comes to your mind in the first and last example in previous slide on how to get the value. value. We should not be taking the Purchase value, but we should take the Market value on the date of transferring the assets to Business Business. . This is an exception to cost concept only in case of transfer to another business Ex 4: Ram started his software consulting Business with his own Property (Cost Price 1 Million USD and Market Value 1.5 Million USD) and Furniture Cost price 50000 worth Market Value 30000 USD - In this case, You can record Ram Capital (1530000) and Building 1500000 and Furniture 30000 as Assets Liabilities Ram Capital Total 1530000 1530000 Building Furniture Total Assets 1500000 30000 1530000
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Accounting Concepts
Dual Aspect Concept
The Value of the Assets owned by the concern is equal to the claims on the Assets ASSETS = LIABILITIES + OWNERS EQUITY OWNERS EQUITY = ASSETS LIABILITIES LIABILITIES = ASSETS OWNERS EQUITY Ex: If Owners Equity is 600000 and Liabilities are 400000, then Total Asset = 1000000

Asset Liabilities Owners Equity

Owners Equity + Liabilities Assets Owners Equity Assets - Liabilities


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Accounting Concepts
Cost Concept
Assets are always shown at their Cost and not at their current Market Value Ex 1. A land purchased for Rs. Rs.5 Lacs will be recorded only at Rs. Rs.5 Lacs even though Market value may be lower say Rs. Rs.4 Lacs or Higher Rs. Rs.6 Lacs than the Cost Price Ex 2. You are acquiring a Business for a Million USD and its value as per Books is 0.8 Million, then the difference of 0.2 Million is termed as Goodwill and you should record the assets and liabilities at the price you have paid for the Business (i (i. .e.) 1 Million

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Accounting Concepts
Accounting Period
Accounting measures activity for a specified interval of time, usually a year (e.g e.g) ) Calendar Year (Jan07(Jan07-Dec07) Fiscal Year (Apr07-Mar08) (Apr07Choosing the Accounting period is the entitys choice, but there are legal rules like Companies Act and Income Tax Act which prescribes the period in which the entity has to report to them them. . Off course the entities can have different accounting period for their own Internal Management Reporting A Company in India can have for Company Law Purpose (Jan(Jan-Dec) Year and Income Tax Purpose (Apr(Apr-Mar) Year and for own internal Reporting (Jul(Jul-Jun) Year Note: The Entities cannot change their accounting period without Note: getting proper approval only in case of Companies Act and 18 not possible with Income Tax Authorities Authorities. .

Accounting Concepts
Conservatism
Anticipate no Profits but provide for all possible losses. Accountants are by nature Conservative and also to protect the interest of the Shareholders and Creditors it is required to provide for all losses. losses. Ex 1. A pharmaceutical Company going to lose the case filed for Patent Right filed for a medicine Ex 2.Company is likely to Win a Major Legal Dispute or a Sales Contract Contract. . Note: Note : This rule should not be misinterpreted to provide anticipated reduction in market price of a Product and Providing Losses Ex 3: You are a Government Company and there is a possibility that Government will withdraw the subsidy for Fertilizers in the forthcoming budget, You cannot provide loss of subsidy as a loss now itself. itself. Ex 4: The Government is likely to increase the Price of petrol which is one of the essential input for your business, then you cannot provide for losses. losses. Ex 5:There is a Fire in your Factory and Goods were lost and the Goods are insured, then the claim you submitted can be booked to the satisfaction of Insurance Company and Auditors. Auditors.
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Accounting Concepts Realization Concept


The Sales is considered to have taken place only when either the cash is received or some third party becomes legally liable to pay the amount. amount . Revenues are recognized when they are earned or realized. realized . Realization is assumed to occur when the seller receives cash or a claim to cash (receivable) in exchange for goods or services Ex 1: A Sales invoice for Rs. Rs.1 Million Credit Note for Rs.15000 received Ex 2: 2: For instance, if a company is awarded a contract to build an office building the revenue from that project would not be recorded in one lump sum but rather it would be divided over time according to the work that is actually being done.
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Accounting Concepts
Matching Concept
When an Event affects both the revenues and expenses, the effect on each should be recognized in the same accounting period Ex 1: Generally Employees Salaries are paid for the previous month at the beginning of the next month month. . But they have rendered their services to produce goods and sold and Sales revenue is recognized in previous month month. . So to match the cost with the revenue earned, we need to make provision for Salaries in previous month itself. itself. (i (i. .e.) March Salary paid in April, but a Salary Payable provision will be made in March itself EX 2: Insurance Premium paid for JanJan- Dec whereas your accounting period closes on March. March. In this case only three months premium need to be treated as Expense and balance 9 months treated as advance premium paid as an asset
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Accounting Concepts
Materiality concept
Insignificant events would not be recorded, if the benefit of recording them does not signify the cost Ex: Ex: A calculator worth Rs. Rs.500 not recorded asset rather than charged off as an Expense even though the benefit is enduring in nature. nature. This concept need to read in conjunction with accounting events which signifies the transaction into Capital, Revenue and deferred revenue expenditure. expenditure . 22

Accounting Concepts
Objectivity Concept
An Evidence of the happening of the Transaction should support every Transaction in the form of paper. paper. External Evidence is considered to be more authenticated proof than Internal Evidence. Evidence. This rule is more important from Audit perspective as Auditors always consider and bound to get more external evidences than internal Evidences. Evidences. Ex 1: 1: Third Party Evidence (Credit Note from Supplier) Ex 2: Auditors Collect Statements from Customer and Suppliers for the amount showing as Outstanding from Customers and amounts Payable to Suppliers. Suppliers. Ex 3: The Sales Invoices alone is not considered as an objective evidence unless it is supported by Delivery challan and acknowledgement of Goods Received by Customer Customer. .
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Accounting Conventions
Going Concern
Accounting Records , Events and Transactions on the assumption that the entity will continue to operate for an indefinitely Long period of time Ex. Ex. An Entity will not be started with an intention to close within the specified time period period. . Business is always not started with an intention to close and it is expected to continue forever. forever.

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Accounting Conventions
Consistency
The Accounting Policies and methods followed by the company should be the same every year Ex 1. 1. Period should not be changed frequently from JanJanDec to AprApr-Mar Ex 2. 2. Inventory Valuation change from FIFO to LIFO or Weighted Average not permitted frequently Ex 3. 3. Changing Depreciation Policy from Straight Line to Reducing Balance Method frequently Note: Note : If any Company decides to change the policy, then that Company has to report on the effect of Profit/Loss due to the change for past 5 Years Years. .
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Accounting Conventions
Accrual
In General it is assumed that Accounts are always prepared based on Accrual basis basis. . However there are entities which follow Cash Basis of Accounting Also Ex: Ex: Salary Payable to employees (March salary paid in April), Interest Receivable on Investments (NSC interest), Dividend Receivable on shares, Tax Payable to Government (March sales Tax and Annual Income Tax) The Company Law / Income Tax Act Prescribes all Companies to follow Accrual Basis of Accounting except for Professional Firms and Government Organizations which are allowed to follow Cash Basis of Accounting Accounting. .
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Classification of Accounting Event


Capital Item: Any expenditure that creates an asset, for example: example : Purchase of plant or machinery Improvements to assets that increase their usefulness or extend their effective useful life of the asset Expenditure incurred in transporting an asset to its site and preparing it for use.

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Classification of Accounting Event


Revenue Item Item: : An Income or Expenditure and the benefit of which will be exhausted within a year (i (i. .e.) The Calendar Year or the Financial Year whichever is set up for the Ledger Ex: Ex: Salary and wages, Printing and Stationery, Sales Revenue, Interest Income, Salary Payable, Bonus Payable, Tax Payable etc. etc., In simple terms, an event which generates revenue and the related cost to earn the revenue are accounted as expense expense. .

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Classification of Accounting Event


Deferred Revenue Expenditure Expenditure: : It is neither a Capital nor Revenue and the benefit of which will be realized for more than a year (Exceeding beyond the Calendar year for the set of books) and does not result in creation of an asset. asset. Ex 1: Advertisement Expenditure the benefit of which is likely to be obtained over a period more than one year (E (E. .g.) PepsiCo Pays USD 2 Million to Sachin Tendulkar for an Advertisement Contract for two Years and benefit of which is expected to be for four years Ex 2: Royalty paid to the author of the book for five years
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Rules of Accounting
Accounts

Personal
Debit the Receiver Credit the Giver Ex: Sole Prop, Company

Impersonal

Real

ominal
Debit Expenses and Losses Credit Revenue and Income Ex: Sales, Power, Rent
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Debit what comes in Credit what goes out Ex: Cash, Bank, Building,Inv

Application of Accounting Rule


Check whether a Money Transaction is Involved? Does that transaction affect your set of books? Check which accounting period the transaction falls under. Does the transaction involve a personal account (i.e.) Ram as a Person or a Company or any other entity as mentioned in Business entity concept Is that person receiver or giver in the transaction and accordingly debit or credit the person account. Does the transaction involve any Cash inflow or Cash outflow? (i.e.) Cash or Bank involved If there is no cash involvement then the choices are as follows
Both can be real ( Debit and credit both real accounts) One real and one nominal (Either Debit/Credit for Real or Credit/ Debit for Nominal accounts)

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Accounting Rule of Thumb


Nature of Transaction Asset Liability Revenue Expense Profit Losses Increase Debit Credit Credit Debit Credit Debit Decrease Credit Debit Debit Credit Debit Credit

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Combination of Rules
Dr Personal A/c Cr Real A/c
Ex:Drawings or Advance to Employee, Payment to Supplier

Dr Real A/c Cr Personal A/c


Ex:Capital invested, Payment Received from Customer

Dr Real A/c Cr Real A/c


Ex:Purchase of Inventory by Cash

Dr Real A/c Cr Real A/c


Ex: Cash withdrawal or Deposit

Dr Real A/c Cr Nominal A/c


Ex: Interest Recd by Cash, Cash Sales

Dr Nominal A/c Cr Real A/c


Ex: Rent Paid by Cash

Dr Personal A/c Cr Nominal A/c


Ex: Interest Accrued on Investment, Dividend accrued on Investment

Dr Nominal A/c Cr Personal A/c


Ex: Hire Purchase Charges accrued, Interest Payable, Salary Payable

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Combination of Accounting Rules


Debit

Combination Personal
Credit

Personal X

Real

Nominal

Real

Nominal

X
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Combination of Accounting Rules


Both Debit and Credit cannot be Personal Accounts
EX 1: Ram paid Cash to Ajay. The Entry Cannot be
Ajay A/c Dr Ram A/c Cr

The Correct entries are as follows. In Ajay set of Books

Cash A/c Dr Ram A/c Cr In Ram set of Books Ajay A/c Dr Cash A/c Cr

1000 1000

1000 1000

Similarly Both Debit and Credit cannot be Nominal Accounts Note: Remember this important aspect and therefore You will not commit any mistake in Debit and Credit
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Recording of Accounting Transactions


Recording of an Accounting event is known as Journal entry Recording is made in Primary and Secondary Books in Manual Accounting system Primary Books General Ledger Cash Book Secondary Books Purchase Register Sales Register Fixed Assets Register Returns (Purchase return/Sales Return) Journal Register In Oracle ERP System GL is called Main Ledger and the Transactions emanating from Modules are referred to as 36 Sub Ledger

Recording of Accounting Transactions


First the transactions are entered as Journal Then Second step is they are posted to individual account as T Accounts In Oracle or any other ERP system this happens immediately when a transaction is created Prior to ERP system except for Non cash charges, Journals were directly posted in Primary and secondary ledger with supporting Document reference Number (like Invoice Number), date, amount and a cross reference ledger folio number (Page Number) of respective Debit and Credit Entries in Ledger. Ledger. Journals are entered only for year end Provision Entries. Entries. Then the balance from each T account is taken and which becomes a Trial Balance with Sum of Debits and Sum of Credit which should be equal. equal . Trial Balance forms the basis for preparation of Financial Statements and in ERP systems including Oracle Applications Debit is shown as Positive and Credit is shown as Negative In ERP systems the chance of Trial Balance not matching or not tallying issue is very minimal minimal. . In case of manual Accounting this will happen most of the time and unless it is corrected and balanced, the accountant should not proceed to prepare Financial Statements
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Preparation of Financial Statements


Preparation of Trial Balance Balances Extracted from General Ledger Sum of debit and credit balances = 0 Preparation of Trading, Profit & Loss Account or Income & Expenditure Account and Balance sheet Trial Balance is the base for preparing Financial Statements Adjustment entries are made in adjustment period and passed as Journal Vouchers before making the financial statements Trading and Profit and Loss Account is Always for a period say for an Year (Jan - Dec or Apr - Mar), Quarterly for 3 months or Half yearly for 6 months Balance Sheet is always as on Date (As on 3131-1212-2007 or 3131-0303-2008)
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Accounting Concepts

A Simple Case Study

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Case Study
Ram started Business in dealer in Computer Spare parts and Computer Stationery on 0101-APRAPR-2007 and following events occurred in the month of April. Ram invested USD 50000 Cash and USD 50000 worth of furniture Ram purchased USD 75000 worth of goods on credit Rams friend Ajay promised him to give a loan of USD 25000 Ram sold USD 50000 worth of good for USD 100000 Ram paid rent USD 2000 for two months Ram paid Salary to Staff USD 5000 Ram incurred USD 5000 on interior decoration which will last for two years. Ram sold USD 10000 worth of goods on credit for USD 18000 Ram has a Bank account with Citi Bank which credited USD 5000 wrongly of John account Purchased Vehicle for USD 25000 paid through Bank Cash Deposited by Ram into Bank 50000 USD

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ARE YOU READY FOR THE GAME


Accounting is very simple

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Accounting Terminologies
Before creating Accounting Transactions let us recall and learn few accounting terminologies
ASSETS: Any property or Investment which can be convertible into cash LIABILITIES: Amount Payable to providers of goods and Services (Creditors) and Providers of Capital (Owners) REVENUE: Amount earned out of the Sale Proceeds and the amount earned on Investments EXPENSES: Amount incurred or expended to earn the revenue PROFIT: TOTAL REVENUE TOTAL EXPENSES LOSS: If the Total Expenses is more than Total Revenue it is termed as Loss FIXED ASSETS: Amount Invested in Long Term Assets which is not intended to be sold within a Year (Ex. Machinery, Land) CURRENT ASSETS: Amount invested in Short Term Assets which is intended and rotated to earn Revenue (Ex. Inventory) NOTE: The Fixed Asset and Current asset vary from Person to Person Ex: For a Dealer in Refrigerator it is a Current asset which becomes Fixed Asset for you when you buy. CREDITORS: Person who provide Money or Goods on Credit to the Business (Supplier) DEBTORS: Goods or Money Provided / sold on Credit by the Business (Customers)
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Accounting Terminologies
You should also understand the same accounting terminology is referred or used by different people in different context
Receivables also known as Trade Debtors, Debtors, Account Receivables, Sundry Debtors, Trade Receivables, Amount Receivables Liability is also known as Trade Creditors, Account Payable, Sundry Creditors, Amount Payable, Trade Liabilities, Creditors Cost of Goods Sold: Sold: It varies with Company to Company the way they do set up and use it it. . The Cost of Goods Sold comprise of Material Cost, Resource Cost (Labor and Machinery) and Overheads. Overheads . There are few companies which will have only Material Cost and will not add up Resource Cost and Overheads. Overheads. You Should talk to client and understand their requirement
Lets See Each of this in a Formula Model

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Accounting Calculation and Formula


Receivables (or) Debtors Reconciliation
Opening Receivables (+) Add Credit Sales (+) Debit Memo (+) Positive Adjustments 100 2500 150 75

Payables (or) Creditors Reconciliation


Opening Payables (+) Add Credit Purchases (+) Debit Memo (+) Positive Adjustments 200 2000 150 75

(-) Less Cash Received 2000 (-) Less Credit Memo (Sales Return) 125 (-) Negative Adjustments 50 Closing Receivables 650

(-) Less Cash Paid 1500 (-) Less Credit Memo (Purc. Return) 125 (-) Negative Adjustments 50 Closing Payables 750

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Accounting Calculations and Formula


Purchased Inventory Reconciliation
Opening Purchased Inventory (+) Add Purchases 100 2500

Finished Goods (FG) Reconciliation


Opening stock of FG (+) Add Production (+) Sales Return (-) Less Sales 200 2000 100 1500

(-) Less Issued to Production (-) Less Purchase Return Closing Purchased Inventory

2000 125 475

Closing FG Inventory

800

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Accounting Calculations and Formula


Cash Reconciliation
Opening Cash Balance 100

Bank Balance Reconciliation


Opening Balance of Bank (+) Add Bank Receipts (Cash Deposits, Cheque Received From Debtors, Interest Credited) 200 2000

(+) Add Cash Receipts 2500 (Cash Sales, Cash Recd from Receivables, Cash with drawl from Bank) (-) Less Cash Payments 2000 (Cash Purchases, Expenses paid By Cash, Cash Deposited into Bank) Closing Cash Balance 600

(-) Less Payments from Bank (Paid to Creditors by Cheque, Expenses paid by cheque, Cash With drawl from bank) Closing Bank Balance

1500

700

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Accounting Entries for the Case Study


Sl No 1 Description Cash A/c Dr Furniture A/c Dr (Cash and Furniture Real Tangible Asset. Hence apply the Real Rule Debit What comes in) To Ram Capital A/c (Ram is a Person running the business as a Proprietor in this case. Hence apply the Rule for Personal Credit the giver) Nature of Account Real Real Dr (in USD) 50000 50000 100000 Cr (in USD)

Personal (Also using the Business Entity Concept Ram being owner is also treated as a Creditor for the purpose of Business. If the Business is wind up Business has to pay back Ram) Real 75000

Inventory A/c Dr (Real Tangible Asset) To Creditors A/c (Person be an Individual or Company gives the goods on Credit)

Personal

75000
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Accounting Entries for the Case Study


Sl No 3 Description No Entry (Mere Promise to give does not tantamount to Monetary Transaction) Two Entries involved (One for sale of goods and one for reduction in inventory) Cash / Bank A/c Dr (Real Debit what comes in) To Revenue (Sales) A/c (Nominal Rule - Credit all Income and Revenue) Cost of Goods Sold A/c Dr (Nominal Debit Expenses) To Inventory A/c (Reduction in Inventory) Nature of Account No Entry (Money Measurement Concept No Monetary transaction involved ) Dr (in USD) Cr (in USD)

Real A/c 100000 Nominal A/c 100000 Nominal A/c 50000 Real A/c 50000

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Accounting Entries for the Case Study


Sl No 5 Description Rent A/c Dr (Debit Expense Nominal) Rent Advance A/c Dr (This is like Cash Advanced to Landlord. Hence it should be treated as Personal Debit the Receiver) To Cash A/c (Real Credit what goes out) Salary A/c Dr (Nominal Debit Expense) To Cash A/c (Real Credit what goes out) Nature of Account Nominal A/c Personal A/c Dr (in USD) 1000 1000 Cr (in USD)

2000 Real Nominal A/c 5000

Real A/c

5000

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Accounting Entries for the Case Study


Sl No 7 Description Advertisement Exp A/c Dr Advt Exp Adv A/c Dr (This is like a Deferred Revenue Expense needs to be charged in two years. 50% need to be Current Year Expense and Balance 50% is carried Forward and treated as Expense in next Year) To Cash A/c (Real Credit what goes out) Receivables A/c Dr To Revenue A/c Cost of Goods Sold A/c Dr To Inventory A/c Nature of Account Nominal Real Dr (in USD) 2500 2500 Cr (in USD)

Real 8 Real Nominal Nominal Real 18000

5000 18000 10000 10000 50

Accounting Entries for the Case Study


Sl No 9 Description No Entry (This is a Mistake done by Bank. Bank has to make correction and in Rams Book there is no accounting entry required) Vehicles A/c Dr (Real Tangible Asset Debit what comes in) To Bank A/c (Real asset Credit what goes out) Bank A/c Dr (Real assetasset- Debit what comes in To Cash A/c (Real Asset Credit what goes out) Nature of Account No Entry Dr (in USD) Cr (in USD)

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Real

25000

Real Real 50000

25000

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Real 50000
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T Accounts
Ram Capital Account
Dr To Bal USD 100000 Cr USD Dr

Furniture Account
USD Cr By Bal Total USD 50000 50000 To Ram Cap 50000 Total 50000

By Cash 50000 By Furniture 50000 Total 100000

Total

100000

Cash Account
Dr USD Cr By Rent By Rent Adv By Salary By Advt Adv By Advt exp By Bank By Balance Total USD 1000 1000 5000 2500 2500 50000 88000 150000 Dr

Inventory Account
USD Cr USD

To Ram Cap 50000 To Sales 100000

To Creditors 75000

By COGS 50000 By COGS 10000 By Bal 15000

Total

75000

Total

75000

Total

150000

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T Accounts
Creditors Account
Dr To Bal USD 75000 Cr By Invent USD 75000 Dr To Cash Total

Rent Account
USD 1000 1000 Cr By Bal Total USD 1000 1000

Total

75000

Total

75000

Rent Advance Account


Dr To Cash USD 1000 Cr By Bal USD 1000 Dr To Bal

Revenue / Sales Account


USD 118000 Cr USD By Cash 100000 By Rece 18000 Total 118000

Total

1000

Total

1000

Total

118000

Salary Account
Dr To Cash USD 5000 Cr By Bal USD 5000 Dr To Cash

Advertisement Exp Account


USD 2500 Cr By Bal USD 2500

Total

5000

Total

5000

Total

2500

Total

2500 53

T Accounts
Advt Exp Advance Account
Dr To Cash USD 2500 Cr By Bal USD 2500 Dr To sales Total

Receivables Account
USD 18000 18000 Cr By Bal Total USD 18000 18000

Total

2500

Total

2500

Cost of Goods Sold Account


Dr USD Cr By Bal USD 60000 Dr To Bank

Vehicle Account
USD 25000 Cr By Bal USD 25000

To Inventory 50000 To Inventory 10000 Total 60000

Total

60000

Total

25000

Total

25000

Bank Account
Dr To Cash USD 50000 Cr By Vehicle By Bal Total USD 25000 25000 50000
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Total

50000

Trial Balance
Trial Balance for the Month of APRIL 2007
A Asset, L Liability, R Revenue, E - Expense

Debit

USD

Credit Ram Capital (L) Sales / Revenue (R) Creditors (L)

USD 100000 118000 75000

Furniture (A) 50000 Cash (A) 88000 Bank (A) 25000 COGS (E) 60000 Salary (E) 5000 Rent (E) 1000 Rent Advance (A) 1000 Advertisement Exp (E) 2500 Advt Exp Advance (A) 2500 Inventory (A) 15000 Vehicle (A) 25000 Receivable (A) 18000 Total 293000

Total

293000

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Profit and Loss Account For APR 2007


Expenses USD Revenue Sales / Revenue (R) USD 118000 COGS (E) 60000 Salary (E) 5000 Rent (E) 1000 Advertisement Exp (E) 2500 To Profit 49500

Total

118000

Total

118000

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Balance Sheet as on 3030-APR APR-2007


Liabilities Ram Capital Add Profit Ram Capital Creditors 100000 49500 149500 75000 USD Assets Furniture Vehicle Cash Bank Receivables Inventory Rent Advance Advt Exp Advance Total USD 50000 25000 88000 25000 18000 15000 1000 2500 224500

Total

224500

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Important Points to Remember


Accounting can be learnt only by Practice and not by reading Try to learn by creating Journal entries with Examples Cash Balance can never have negative balance at any point of time Land will never Depreciate and it will have only Appreciation Bank can have negative balance if you have Overdraft facility The Bank which maintains your account will have exactly opposite entries of what is shown in your Bank Account In the above, Example the bank account in your Books and in Bank Books will be as follows
Ram Books Bank Account
Dr To Cash USD 50000 Cr USD Dr

Bank Books Ram Account


USD Cr USD

By Vehicle 25000 By Balance 25000 Total 50000

To Vehicle 25000 To Balance 25000 Total 25000

By Cash 50000

Total

50000

Total

25000
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Case Study for Practice


Take your own Personal Account and try to create the following On First of July 2007 You had a Cash balance of USD2500 which is your Capital On 3rd July You have received Salary of USD 12000 On 5th Paid Rent of USD 1200 by cheque On 7th You purchased provision for house for 800 USD On 10th You spent for outing through your credit card USD 500 On 15th You withdraw Cash USD 8000 On 20th You Invested in Fixed Deposit USD 5000 @5% Interest Per annum On 22nd you have given a Loan of USD 2000 to friend James On 25th You spent for Car Repairs 500 USD On 28th Your wife gave USD 200 to your Neighbor from her pocket On 30th You Deposited Cash 1000 USD to your Bank Account

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