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TABLE OF CONTENT

1.0

INTRODUCTION........................................................................................................................... 1 1.1 1.2 1.3 Background ............................................................................................................................... 1 Problem Statement ................................................................................................................... 1 Objectives.................................................................................................................................. 2

2.0

LITERATURE REVIEW ................................................................................................................... 1 2.1 Sewage Treatment Plant ........................................................................................................... 1 2.1.1 2.1.2 Sewage Treatment Method ......................................................................................... 1 Classification of Sewage Treatment Plant.................................................................... 2 2.1.2.1 2.1.2.2 2.1.2.3 2.2 Attached Growth Processes.......................................................................... 2 Suspended Growth Processes ...................................................................... 3 Hybrid Processes - Attached Growth with Suspended Growth.................... 3

Technologies for Sewage Treatment ........................................................................................ 4 2.2.1 2.2.2 2.2.3 2.2.4 Oxidation Pond (OP)..................................................................................................... 4 Sequencing Batch Reactor (SBR) .................................................................................. 5 Extended Aeration (EA)................................................................................................ 7 Oxidation Ditch (OD) .................................................................................................... 8 i

2.2.5 2.2.6 2.3 2.4 3.0

Rotating Biological Contactor (RBC)............................................................................. 9 Membrane Bio Reactor (MBR) ..................................................................................... 9

Comparison of Sewage Treatment Technologies ................................................................... 10 Life Cycle Assessment ............................................................................................................. 11

METHODOLOGY ........................................................................................................................ 13 3.1 3.2 Site Visits ................................................................................................................................. 13 Process Description................................................................................................................. 14

4.0

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION ........................................................................................................ 17 4.1 4.2 4.3 Design and Process Review ..................................................................................................... 17 Collected Data of STP .............................................................................................................. 19 Kinetic Parameters .................................................................................................................. 19 4.3.1 4.4 Calculations ................................................................................................................ 20

Analysis.................................................................................................................................... 25 4.4.1 4.4.2 Actual Removal Efficiency .......................................................................................... 25 Operational Cost ........................................................................................................ 25

5.0 6.0

CONCLUSION............................................................................................................................. 27 REFERENCES.............................................................................................................................. 28

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1.0

INTRODUCTION

A public Sewage Treatment Plant (STP) located in Cheras has been selected for the case study. This STP which is serving for residential and commercial areas at Taman Segar Perdana, Cheras is operated and maintained by Indah Water Konsortium Sdn Bhd (IWK).

1.1

Background

The process type of the selected STP is Sequencing Batch Reactor (SBR) system. The system is designed to cater for 12,000 population equivalent (PE) which is equals to 2,700 m3/ day of average flow. Treated effluent from the STP is discharged into nearby monsoon drain which eventually flows into Sungai Langat.

The STP is located at the upstream of Bukit Tampoi Water Intake Point, thus the effluent must comply with Standard A of EQ(S)R 2009 Second Schedule. However, the STP is not designed to include nutrient removal process since it was constructed before the gazette date of EQ(S)R 2009. 1.2 Problem Statement

Sewage, also known as domestic wastewater is one of the major contributors to river pollution. Various systems are presented nowadays, which offer sophisticated technologies for high efficiency of treatment.

Despite the availability of the high technology for sewage treatment, there had been numerous occasions where water intake points and its treatment facilities had to cease operation as the river water quality was very poor at intake point. The water treatment facilities were unable to treat it to the required drinking water quality. This happens due to the fact that the environmental need is not given precedence in selecting an appropriate sewage treatment system for a new development. In pursuit of economic growth, cost has always been the number one factor considered in providing sewage treatment systems to cater for new developments. 1

1.3

Objectives

The objectives of this study are; i. To determine the efficiency of the selected STP in meeting the required effluent standard as stipulated by EQA ii. To review the physical design of selected STP and determine whether the design is sufficient to accommodate daily flow connected to the STP. iii. To compare the physical design of the selected STP to the requirements in Guidelines for Developers Volume IV Design of Sewage Treatment Plant. iv. v. To assess whether the plant is operated in an efficient manner To come out with a proposal to operate the plant efficiently, at a lower cost while still achieving the stipulated standard

2.0 2.1

LITERATURE REVIEW Sewage Treatment Plant Sewage, also known as domestic or municipal wastewater is created by residential, institutional, commercial and industrial establishment. In simple word, sewage is defined by human waste. It includes household liquid waste from toilets, bathrooms, showers, kitchens, sinks and laundry. In many areas, sewage also includes liquid wastes from industrial and commercial activities.

Sewage treatment is the process of removing physical, chemical and biological contaminants in sewage prior to discharge into water bodies. It involves physical, chemical and biological process with the objective to produce treated effluent (fluid) which is considered safe to be discharged to the environment and also treated sludge (solid) which is suitable for disposal or reuse. Physical unit operation includes screening, mixing, flocculation, sedimentation, filtration and floatation. In chemical unit processes, removal or conversion of contaminants is achieved by means of chemical additions or chemical reactions. This includes precipitation, adsorption and disinfection. Biological unit process is the method where pollutants are removed through biological activity. Biodegradable organic substances are converted into gases released to the atmosphere while the cell tissue is removed through settling process.

2.1.1 Sewage Treatment Method

Sewage treatment method can be categorized into preliminary treatment, primary treatment, secondary treatment and tertiary treatment.

Preliminary and/ or primary treatment refers to the physical unit process, is the first stage of treatment which is applied to any sewage. Preliminary treatment includes screening and grinding to remove debris and rags, grit removal by sedimentation and oil and grease removal by floatation. Primary treatment removes some of the suspended solids and organic matter through screening and sedimentation. Effluent from primary treatment still contains high organic constituent.

Secondary sewage treatment refers to biological and chemical unit processes. Biodegradable organic and suspended solids are removed mainly using biological unit processes. Some secondary sewage treatment also includes disinfection.

Tertiary sewage treatment refers to combination of physical, biological and chemical unit processes. It includes removal of nutrients, toxic substances such as heavy metal, also further removal of suspended solids and organics. Tertiary treatment produces effluent of high quality which is suitable for reuse.

In Malaysia, the focus has been to provide a basic preliminary, primary and secondary sewage treatment. However, current trend is moving towards providing tertiary sewage treatment for removal of nutrients including ammonia and phosphorous since the new effluent standard for sewage (gazetted in December 2009) has become more stringent. Thus, new sewage treatment plant (STP) which is designed after December 2009 must include nutrient removal process.

2.1.2 Classification of Sewage Treatment Plant The microorganisms in sewage treatment can be grown in a form of fixed film, suspension or a combination of both. Hence, biological treatment processes for sewage treatment works can be classified under one of the followings:

a) Attached Growth Processes b) Suspended Growth Processes c) Combined Processes (Hybrid)

2.1.2.1

Attached Growth Processes In an attached growth process, the active microorganisms grow and attach on the

mobile or immobile medium (rock, gravel, slag, plastic or other synthetic materials) that is in contact with sewage. The organic material and nutrients are removed from wastewater flowing past the attached growth also known as biofilm. Attached growth process can be operated as aerobic or anaerobic process. Types of attached growth processes include:

a) b) c) d) e)

Trickling Filter (TF) Fluidised Bed Packed Bed Reactor Rotating Biological Contactor (RBC) Submerged Biological Contactor (SBC)

2.1.2.2

Suspended Growth Processes In a suspended growth process, active microorganisms responsible for treatment

remain in suspension in the sewage by appropriate mixing methods. Their concentration is usually related to mixed liquor suspended solid (MLSS) or mixed liquor volatile suspended solid (MLVSS). This system was developed as a result of studies that showed that if sewage is aerated over a long period of time, the organics in the sewage are removed by the active microorganisms grow during the process. The most common suspended growth process used for municipal wastewater treatment is the activated sludge process.

Types of suspended growth processes include: a) b) c) d) Waste Stabilisation Pond System Aerated Lagoon Conventional Activated Sludge (CAS) Extended Aeration (EA)

2.1.2.3

Hybrid Processes - Attached Growth with Suspended Growth Recent technologies in sewage treatment include combination of attached growth

and suspended growth process in order to obtain best performance and most economical treatment. Among advantages of Hybrid Process is; it combines the stability and capability to handle shock loads of an attached growth process and the capability of suspended growth system in producing high quality effluent.

Hybrid processes can be used to upgrade existing attached growth and suspended growth process, especially in plants with high suspended solids in the final effluent due to poor solids settlement in the final clarifier.

2.2

Technologies for Sewage Treatment

In Malaysia, primary treatment systems such as communal septic tanks and Imhoff tanks have been widely used to treat sewage. Other common system is the unreliable low cost secondary system like oxidation ponds. These systems only treat sewage partially, discharging treated effluent which is still contains high organic constituent. This creates risk of public health and environmental problems, especially in urban areas. 38% of public sewage treatment plants in Malaysia are mechanical plants. Sewage breakdown is accelerated in mechanical plants, by means of mechanical equipments. Common types of mechanical STP used in Malaysia are Extended Aeration, Sequencing Batch Reactor, Oxidation Ditch and Conventional Activated Sludge.

2.2.1 Oxidation Pond (OP)

Oxidation Ponds (or Stabilization Ponds) are a popular sewage treatment method for small communities because of their low construction and operating costs. New oxidation ponds can treat sewage to Standard B effluent level but require maintenance and periodic desludging in order to maintain this standard.

OPs may comprise one or more shallow ponds in a series. The natural processes of algal and bacteria growth exist in a mutually dependent relationship. Oxygen is supplied from natural surface aeration and by algal photosynthesis. Bacteria present in the wastewater use the oxygen to feed on organic material, breaking it down into nutrients and carbon dioxide, which are used then by the algae. Other microbes in the pond such as protozoa remove additional organic and nutrients to polish the effluent.

Normally, at least two ponds are constructed. The first pond reduces the organic material using aerobic digestion while the second pond polishes the effluent and reduces the pathogens 4

present in sewage. Sewage enters a large pond after passing through a settling and screening chamber. After retention for several days, the flow is often passed into a second pond for further treatment before it is discharged into a drain. Bacteria present in sewage acts to break down organic matter, using oxygen from the surface of the pond. Oxidation ponds need to be desludged periodically in order to work effectively. Depending on the design, OPs must be desludged approximately every 10 years.

OPs require large amounts of land and the degree of treatment is weather dependent. They are incapable of achieving a good standard of effluent consistently. Nowadays, application of this treatment system for new developments are ceasing due to the variations of performance and vast land area requirement. 2.2.2 Sequencing Batch Reactor (SBR) The Sequencing Batch Reactor is a sequential suspended growth (activated sludge) process, in which all major steps take place in the same tank. SBR system has been successfully used to treat both municipal and industrial wastewater. In addition to removing TSS and BOD, SBR can be designed and operated to enhance removal of nitrogen, phosphorous and ammonia.

There are five basic sequences in a cycle, namely; 1) Fill Fill stage consists of adding the waste and substrate for microbial activity. The fill phase can include many phases of operation depends on various modes of control, termed as Static Fill, Mixed Fill and React Fill. Static fill involves waste introduction of influent without mixing or aeration. In some applications, static fill will be accompanied by mixed fill stage so that microorganism is exposed sufficient substrate. In a react fill stage, both mixing and aeration are provided.

2) React (Aeration) The react stage completes the reactions initiated during fill stage. The react stage may be comprised of mixing or aeration, or both. The length of react phase can be controlled by timers, by liquid level controls in a multitank system, or when the degree of treatment has been achieved. 5

3) Settle - The separation of liquid-solid occurs during settle phase, which is similar to the operation of a conventional final clarifier.

4) Decant - Clarified effluent is decanted during this stage. Various apparatus are available for decanting purpose. The most common are floating or adjustable weirs.

5) Idle - Idle phase is the final phase and is only used in multi tanks applications. The time spent in this phase depends on the time required for the preceding tank to complete its fill cycle. Sludge wastage is normally done during this stage.

There are two major classifications of SBRs, the intermittently fill & intermittently decant system and the continuous fill & intermittently decant system. The intermittently fill system only accepts effluent at specified interval and in general, follow the five step sequence. There are usually two IF units in parallel. Because this system is closed to influent flow during the treatment cycle, two units may be operated in parallel, with one unit open for intake while the other runs through the remainder of the cycles. In the continuous inflow SBR, influent flows continuously during all phases of the treatment cycle. To reduce short-circuiting, a partition is normally added to the tank to separate the turbulent aeration zone from the quiescent area.

Advantages and disadvantages of SBR system are summarized in Table below: Advantages Disadvantages

Equalization, primary clarification (in most A higher level of sophistication is required cases), biological treatment, and secondary (compared to conventional systems),

clarification can be achieved in a single especially for larger systems, of timing units reactor vessel. and controls.

Advantages Operating flexibility and control.

Disadvantages Higher level of maintenance (compared to conventional systems) associated with more sophisticated controls, automated switches, and automated valves.

Minimal footprint.

Potential of discharging floating or settled sludge during the DRAW or decant phase with some SBR configurations.

Potential capital cost savings by eliminating Potential plugging of aeration devices during clarifiers and other equipment. selected operating cycles, depending on the aeration system used by the manufacturer Potential requirement for equalization after the SBR, depending on the downstream processes.

2.2.3 Extended Aeration (EA)

The extended aeration system is one of the modifications of activated sludge process. It is a complete mix system and provides biological treatment for the removal of biodegradable organic wastes under aerobic conditions. Air may be supplied by mechanical or diffused aeration to provide the oxygen required to sustain the aerobic biological process. Mixing must be provided by aeration to maintain the microbial organisms in contact with the dissolved organics.

Since there is complete stabilization occurs in the aeration tanks, there is no need for separate sludge digester. Primary settling tank is also not required since the settleable organic solid is allowed to settle in aeration tank due to long hour of retention time i.e. 18 to 24 hours.

EA is one of the most common systems used in municipal wastewater treatment in Malaysia since it is easy to operate, capable to handle organic loading and flow fluctuation, also the system have relatively low sludge yield due to long residence time and sludge age.

2.2.4 Oxidation Ditch (OD)

Oxidation ditch system is an extended aeration activated sludge process. It consists of a "ring or oval shaped channel" equipped mechanical aeration devices, commonly brush aerators. Screened wastewater enter the ditch is circulated through the channel and aerated. The tank configuration and aeration and mixing devices promote unidirectional flow in channel, so that the energy used for aeration is sufficient to provide mixing in a system, with relatively long hydraulic retention time. High degree of nitrification can be achieved if the basin is sized using appropriate SRT. The ditch is built on the surface of the ground and is lined with an impermeable lining. This allows the wastewater to have plenty of exposure to the open air for the diffusion of oxygen. The liquid depth in the ditches is very shallow, 0.9 to 1.5 m, which helps to prevent anaerobic conditions from occurring at the bottom of the ditch. The oxidation ditch effluent is clarified in a secondary clarifier and the settled sludge is returned to maintain a desirable MLSS concentration.

As in the extended aeration system, OD system also produces low sludge volume due to long residence time in the ditch. However, this system requires relatively larger land area than other types of activated sludge process.

Advantages

Disadvantages

Long hydraulic retention time and complete Effluent suspended solids concentrations are mixing minimize the impact of a shock load or relatively hydraulic surge. high compared to other

modifications of the activated sludge process.

Produces less sludge than other biological Requires a larger land area than other treatment processes owing to extended activated sludge treatment options. It makes biological activity during the activated sludge this system less feasible in urban areas where process. land acquisition cost is relatively high.

Energy efficient operations result in reduced energy costs compared with other biological treatment processes. 8

2.2.5 Rotating Biological Contactor (RBC)

Rotating Biological Contactors (RBCs) are mechanical secondary treatment systems. The system comprises of a series of closely spaced circular discs, normally made from plastic material. The disks are partially submerged and slowly rotated in sewage. Organic pollutants are breakdown and stabilized by the bacteria and microorganisms present in sewage that grows on the rotating disks.

As the disks rotate, the micro-organisms obtain oxygen from the atmosphere. As the microorganisms grow, they build up on the media until they are strip off due to shear forces provided by the rotating disks in sewage. Effluent from the RBC is then passed through final clarifiers, where the micro-organisms in suspension settle as sludge. The sludge is withdrawn from the clarifier for further treatment.

RBC units are suitable where land area is restricted. They are quite and consistently produce a high quality effluent. Because they are modular they are also suitable for a staged development. Operations and maintenance costs are lower than other forms of mechanical treatment.

2.2.6 Membrane Bio Reactor (MBR)

Membrane Bioreactors combine conventional biological treatment processes with membrane filtration to provide an advanced level of organic and suspended solids removal. This system can also provide an advanced level of nutrient removal when designed accordingly.

In MBR system, the membranes are submerged in an aerated biological reactor. The porosities of the membranes range from 0.035 microns to 0.4 microns, depending on the manufacturer. This level of filtration produces high quality of effluent to be drawn through the membranes while eliminating the typically used sedimentation and filtration processes in other types of system. Because the need of sedimentation is eliminated, the biological process can be operated at a higher mixed liquor concentration. This significantly reduces the number and size of tankage required, thus allowing many existing plant to be upgraded without adding new tanks. 9

The distinct advantages of MBR over EA and SBR system make the system a favourable option especially where land area is limited and plant located in environmentally sensitive area. However, due to high cost of equipments, it is not the appropriate technology for every application.

Other benefits of MBRs include: Hydraulic Retention Time (HRT) of 4-8 hours vs 16-24 hours Solids Retention Time (SRT) of 15-365 days, can vary based on flow without negative process impact MLSS of 10,000-15,000 mg/L Sludge Yield of 20-40% less than conventional Footprint of 25% Conventional Plant Modular expandability Highest quality effluent Capable of meeting new standards for nutrient removal Less susceptible to upsets due to flow variations Less odour Simple, yet sophisticated 2.3 Comparison of Sewage Treatment Technologies

Factors considered in selecting an appropriate system for a proposed new development are capital cost, treatment efficiency, sizing of the system which is related to land area requirement, ease of operation and maintenance, as well as the O&M cost.

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Table 1 : Comparison of Technologies for the Wastewater Average Removal Efficiency Treatment System BOD (%) Oxidation Pond Sequencing Batch Reactor (SBR) Extended aeration (EA) Membrane Bio Reactor (MBR) Conventional Activated Sludge (CAS) Rotating Biological Contactor (RBC) High Rate Trickling Filter 80 - 90 70 - 87 87 - 93 < 50 < 60 < 35 88 - 95 83 - 90 87 - 93 65 - 85 < 60 < 35 85 - 93 80 - 90 87 - 93 > 80 < 60 < 35 90 - 97 99 83 - 93 99 87 - 93 99.9 > 80 99.2 < 60 99 < 35 96.6 75 - 85 85 - 95 COD (%) 65 - 80 80 - 90 SS (%) 70 - 80 93 - 97 Ammonia (%) < 50 > 80 Total N (%) < 60 < 60 Total P (%) < 35 < 35

2.4

Life Cycle Assessment

Life cycle assessment (LCA) is an appropriate methodology for assessing the sustainability of a sewage treatment plant design. ISO 14040:2006 describes the principles and framework for life cycle assessment (LCA). Environmental costs and benefits of different sewage treatment technologies and standards can be compared quantitatively using the LCA method.

Factors considered in comparing the technologies are:

Potential Negative Impact Nonrenewable energy Global warming impact

Factors Contributing to the Impact High sludge production, High energy consumption, Land use High sludge production, CO2 produced (directly related to the energy consumption)

Acidification Eutrophication

NOx produced NOx produced 11

High Sludge production Energy consumption Land use CO2 produced NOx produced CAS MBR, CAS, EA OP, OD, CAS MBR, CAS, EA CAS, EA, OD

Medium SBR SBR EA SBR SBR

Low MBR, EA, OD OP MBR, SBR OP MBR

Potential Negative Impact

Nonrenewable energy

Global warming impact

Acidification

Eutrophication

Type of System Oxidation Pond (OP) Sequencing Batch Reactor (SBR) Extended Aeration (EA) Oxidation Ditch (OD) Membrane (MBR) Note: +++ ++ + Most favourable/ least negative impact Intermediate grade Least favourable/ most negative impact Bio Reactor ++ + ++ + + + + ++ +++ + ++ +++ ++ ++ +++ ++ + ++ + ++

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3.0 3.1

METHODOLOGY Site Visits

Site visit has been conducted on 26th January 2011. During site visits, dimensions of key process units from inlet pump stations to the SBR tank were measured. Layout plan of the SBR plant is shown in drawing in Appendix A.

The plant has been designed to treat flow equivalent to 12,000PE and the current PE loading is 11,305PE (94%). Based on MS1228, 1PE is equals to 0.225m3/day/capita, thus the plant receives flow equivalent to 2,544m3/day at average. Peak flow is calculated using following equation from MS1228:

Qpeak Where PFF

= PFF x Qave = 4.7 PE x (PE / 1000)-0.11 = 3.58

Thus, Qpeak

= 3.58 x 2,700m3/day = 9,655m3/day

Since the STP is located in water catchment area, the design was designed to meet Standard A effluent based on Guidelines for Developers Volume IV (Sewage Treatment Plant). It is important to note that the STP was designed in year 2002, before the gazette date of Environmental Quality (Sewage) Regulation: 2009. Thus, design of this plant does not include for tertiary treatment to remove nutrient and further removal of suspended solids and organics.

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3.2

Process Description

Raw sewage from the last manhole of Taman Segar Perdana enters the inlet works via two (2) mechanical coarse screen of 25mm clear opening to collect the rubbish. The primary screen is controlled by one (1) unit of manual penstock. After screening process, the raw sewage flows into a pump sump and periodically pumped by two (2) raw sewage pumps (1 duty, 1 standby). These pumps transfer the raw sewage via 350mm DI pipe to the next process unit.

Before reaching the single grit removal chamber, the sewage will flow through the secondary screen chamber which comprises of two (2) units of mechanical fine screens of 12mm bar spacing. The collected rubbish is then transferred down to the collection bin via 500mm wide conveyor system. Concurrently, sewage flows from the top level and undergoes aeration at the grit chamber. At selected intervals, the airlift pump will pump up the settled grit to a collection sump. Then, the pre-treated sewage flows out to the grease chamber whereby the floating grease is removed by the surface grease scrapper conveyor. Finally, the pre-treated sewage flows into the distribution chamber at the head of the reactor tanks. The flow of the pre-treated sewage into the reactor tanks is controlled by two (2) numbers of motorised penstocks. Periodically, the flow will be released out into the SBR tank.

There are two (2) SBR tanks in this plant. SBR is an activated sludge system whereby the biological reaction, solid-liquid removal and surface liquid (effluent) removal are all carried out in a single tank by setting specific sequences. The SBR tanks operate in the following sequences:

1) 2)

Fill and aerate Sewage is intermittently filled in the tanks and aerated for two (2) hours Settle Aeration stops and suspended solids settle leaving a clear liquid at the top of the sludge blanket

3)

Decant Clear liquid (effluent) is decanted with a maximum of 30% of the total tank volume. Decant depth for the reactors are 1.2 m from top water level.

4)

Idle Sludge is pumped out at the end of the cycle

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The above four (4) cycles are known as one (1) cycle which takes four hours (Fill & aerate - 2 hours, settle - 1 hour, decant & idle - 1 hour) to complete. Thus, six (6) cycles are performed in a reactor tank per day. The waste activated sludge (WAS) pumped from the SBR tank is transferred into a circular gravity sludge thickener tank. Sludge is expected to thicken to about 1% dry solid content in the gravity thickener tank before it is transferred out to the drum thickener. Polymer is added prior to entering the drum thickener to aid the flocculation of the sludge.

The dryness of the produced cake from drum thickener is typically from 8 10% and further treated at the sludge drying beds. So far, the mechanical sludge facilities at this plant are not fully utilized due to small amount of sludge generated by the SBR reactor. Thus, the WAS pumped out during idle phase is bypassed to sludge drying bed and dried for 28 days. Filtrate from the drying beds is returned to the inlet works for treatment. Every 28 days, the sludge drying beds will be cleared out and the sludge cake is sent to an approved site for disposal as solid waste.

Meanwhile, effluent extracted from the SBR tanks is transferred to a disinfection chamber. A flow measurement facility complete with a non-contact ultrasonic level meter is provided for the effluent.

Flow diagram of the SBR plant is shown in Figure 1.

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Incoming Sewage

Inlet Pump Station

Screened Raw Sewage

Secondary Screen Chamber

Grit Removal Chamber

Filtrate Grease Removal Chamber

Sludge Drying Bed

WAS

SBR Tank 1

SBR Tank 2

WAS

Sludge Thickening Tank Thickened Sludge

Treated Effluent Sludge Cake for Disposal as Solid Waste Mechanical Sludge Final Effluent Chamber Dewatering

Stabilized Sludge

Figure 1 : Flow Diagram of SBR System

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4.0

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

4.1

Design and Process Review

Design and process review are conducted in order to determine whether each of the key process units at the plant has been designed sufficiently in order to meet the stipulated standard. Based on the Guidelines for Developers Volume IV (Sewage Treatment Plant), the design influent and effluent values adopted in the design of a Standard A plant are tabulated in Table below:

Table 2 : Design Influent and Effluent Values

Parameter

Design Influent Value (mg/l)

Effluent Value (mg/l) Design 10 20 60 5 2 n/a n/a Absolute** 20 50 120 50 20 n/a n/a

Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD5) Suspended Solids (SS) Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) Ammoniacal Nitrogen (AMN) Oil and Grease (O&G) Total Nitrogen (TN) Total Phosphorous (TP)

250 300 500 30 50 50 10

** Absolute value is the stipulated effluent standard that the plant must comply at all times.

Based on measurement and information provided by IWK, dimensions of main process units are shown in Table 3.

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Table 3 : Dimension of Main Process Units

Tank

Nos

Dimension

Volume (m3)

HRT @ Qave -

HRT @ Qpeak

Limits in Guidelines Max. 30min @ Qave

a. Wet Well

6.5m (l) x 2.2m (w) x 4.3m (d) *Effective depth = 0.9m

12.87 7 min

b. Grit Removal Chamber c. Grease Removal Chamber d. Reactor Tank

V1 + V2 + V3 = 9.53m3 + 10.72m3 + 0.40m3 **

20.65 11 min

3 min

Min. Qpeak

3min

5.0m (l) x 1.0m (w) x 2.2m (d)

22 12 min

3 min

Min. Qpeak

3min

27.5m (l) x 10.7m (w) x 4.0m (d)

2,354 20.9 hr

18 24 hr @ Qave

* Effective depth is the difference between start and stop level of pumps ** Grit removal chamber of rotary type as shown in figure below

V1

V2

V3
From the table above, it is found that the provided tank volumes of key process units are sufficient to cater for the hydraulic load at which the plant has been designed to.

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4.2

Collected Data of STP

Data collected during site visit to the STP are tabulated in Table 4 below. Table 4 : Influent and Effluent Sampling Result Parameter BOD5in BOD5eff CODin CODeff SSin SSeff O&Gin O&Geff NH3Nin NH3Neff MLSS MLVSS Concentration (mg/l) 159 12 338 36 138 14 32 7 30 17 3,300 ~ 0.7 X 3,300 = 2,310

4.3

Kinetic Parameters

Equations used are:

HRT =

V Q ave

F /M= c = = VL =

Q S 0 VX

VX Q w Xr

1 + Kd c QS 0 V
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Assumptions are made based typical value of kinetic coefficient for the activated sludge process from Metcalf & Eddy, 1991, as per tabulated in Table 5.

Table 5 : Typical kinetic coefficients for activated sludge type of process for domestic wastewater Coefficient Basis Range K Ks d
-1

Value Typical 5 60 40 0.6 0.06 0.12 0.12 0.08

2 - 10 25 100 15 - 70 0.4 - 0.8 0.025 0.075 0.06 0.20 0.10 0.15 0.05 0.15

mg/L BOD5 mg/L COD

Y kd fd Yn kdn

mg VSS/mg BOD5 d-1 unitless g VSS/ g NH4-N g VSS/ g VSS.d

4.3.1 Calculations

Calculation of HRT Provided volume of aeration tank Average Flow = 2,354 m3 = 2,700m3/ day

HRT =

2354m 3 24hr = 20.9hr 21hr 3 2700m / day 1day

Calculation of SRT MLSS, X Underflow concentration, Xr = = 3,300 mg/l 10,000 mg/l 43.2 m3/ day (based on WAS pump capacity, 8 l/s, runs 15 minutes per cycle, thus 1.5 hour per day)

Volume of Sludge Wastage, Qw =

c =

2,354m 3 3,300mg / l = 18days 43.2m 3 / day 10,000mg / l

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Calculation of sludge yield

Sludge wastage/ produced, Qw = Sludge concentration, Xw kg Sludge Produced /day kg BOD Removed / day Thus, Y = = = =

43.2m3/day 10,0000 mg/l 432 kg/ day


(250 10)mg / l 2,700m3 / day = 648kg / day 1000 432kg / day = 0.67 kg sludge produced/ kg BOD5 removed 648kg / day

Calculation of oxygen requirement

Ro

Q (S0 S) 1.42 PX, VSS + 4.33 Q (NOx)

PX ,VSS =

QY S0

S +

fd

k d QY S0 1 + K d SRT

S SRT +

QY n NOx 1 + K dn SRT

1 + K d SRT

Assume fd kd Yn kdn NOx

= = = = =

0.15 g/ g 0.06 d-1 0.12 g VSS/ g NH4-N 0.08 g VSS/ g VSS.d (30 5) mg/l = 25mg/l

PX,VSS Thus, Ro

208.73 + 33.81 + 3.32 = 245.85 kg/day

[(2,700m3/day) (250 10)mg/l (1kg / 103 g)] [1.42 (245.85kg/day)] + [4.33 Q (NOx)]

= =

(648 344.41 + 292. 28) kg O2/ day 595.87 kg O2/ day

Aeration tank/ tank Aeration time / cycle No. of cycles/ day = 2.0 hr =6 21

Total aeration time

= 12 hr/ day
595.87 kg O 2 / day = 49.65kg / hr 12hr/day

Average oxygen transfer rate = Air weight % of oxygen

= 1.201 kg/m3 = 0.232

O2 transfer efficiency of Unifflex diffuser = 0.15 Air volume required = 49.65 kg/hr / (1.201 kg/m3 x 0.232 x 0.15) = 1,188 m3/ hr or 19.8 m3/min

Based on Guidelines for Developers Volume IV,

Oxygen requirement for SBR BOD to remove Air volume required

= = = = = =

Cycle Time Aeration Time


648 kg/day

2.0kgO2 per kg BOD removed

(4 hr / 2 hr) x (2.0 kg O2 x 648 kg/day) 2,592 kg/day or 108 kg/hr 108 kg/hr / (1.201 kg/m3 x 0.232 x 0.15) 2,584 m3/ hr or 43.07 m3/min

Calculation of F/M ratio

F /M =

Q S 0 2,700m 3 / day 250mg / l = 0.09day 1 = 3 VX 2,354m 3300mg / l

Calculation of specific growth rate

Assume kd = 0.06 d-1

1 + 0.06d 1 = 0.12d 18days

Calculation of BOD volumetric loading

VL

(2,700m 3 / day)(250mg / l) = 0.29kg / m 3 / day (2354m 3 / day)(10 3 g / kg)

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Calculation of Nutrient Requirement BOD : N : P = 100 : 5 : 1 Based on Table 2, BOD TN TP = = = 250 mg/l 50 mg/l 10 mg/l

Based on concentrations above, BOD : N : P is 25 : 5 : 1, which indicates that sufficient nutrient is available in the influent

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Table 6 : Comparison of HLT234 to Design Guidelines

Guidelines 3,000 4,500 2,000 5,000

Metcalf & Eddy

HLT234 3,300 mg/l 0.7 x 3,300 mg/l = 2,310 mg/l

MLSS, mg/l

MLVSS, mg/l

F/M Ratio, kg BOD/ kg 0.05 0.30 0.04 0.10

0.09

MLVSS d-1 0.1 0.3 0.29

BOD volumetric loading

kg BOD/ m3.d 18 - 24 10 30 days 0.75 1.10 15 - 40 10 30 days 0.4 0.8 21 18 days 0.66

HRT, hr

SRT, days

Sludge Yield, kg Sludge / Kg

BOD5 load 4 8 hrs Max 1.0 30% 30% Q (S0 S) 1.42 PX, VSS + 4.33 Q (NOx) = 49.65 kg/hr 43.06 m3/min 19.8 m3/min n/a 4 1.2m 1 30%

Cycle Time, hr

Decant depth, m

Decant time, hr

Decant Volume, %

Oxygen Volume Required, = 108 kg/hr

kg/hr

Cycle Time Aeration Time

2.0kgO2 per kg BOD removed

Oxygen Volume Required,

45 m3/min

m3/min 24

4.4

Analysis 4.4.1 Actual Removal Efficiency BOD removal = [(So - S) / So]*100% BOD removal = [(159 - 12)mg/l /159]*100% = 92.4 %. 4.4.2 Operational Cost

Electricity cost is the highest contributor to the total O&M cost of a STP. Electricity cost per month for HLT234 is estimated based on M&E equipments data as shown below in Table 7.

Table 7 : List of Mechanical Equipments in HLT234 Equipments Nos Capacity Total Capacity RSP Air Blower WAS pump Primary Mechanical Screen Secondary Mechanical Screen 2 (1 duty, 1 standby) 4 (3 duty, 1 standby) 2 (1 duty, 1 standby) 2 2 117.5 l/s 15.0 m3/min 8.0 l/s 117.5 l/s 45.0 m3/min 8.0 l/s Power (kW) 14.0 15.0 1.3 1.1 0.75 Head (m) 10.0 n/a 6.0 n/a n/a

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Calculation of Electricity Consumptions

i)

Raw Sewage Pump

1 unit x 14.0 kWh x 24hr x 30 day = 10,080 kW/ month

ii) Air Blower 3 units x 15.0 kWh x 12 hr x 30 day = 16,200 kW/ month

iii) WAS Pump 1 unit x 1.3 kWh x 1.5 hr x 30 day = 58.5 kW/ month

iv) Primary Mechanical Screen 2 units x 1.1 kWh x 2hr x 30 day = 132 kW/ month

v) Secondary Mechanical Screen 2 units x 0.75 kWh x 2hr x 30 day = 90 kW/ month

Total kW usage per month TNB Tariff Total electricity cost

= 27,280.5 kW/ month = RM 0.366 (Industrial) = RM 9,984.66

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5.0

CONCLUSION

It is concluded that the design of HLT234, a sequencing batch reactor plant at Taman Segar Perdana is sufficient to treat sewage influent of 2,700 m3 per day to meet EQ(S)R. The plant is operated at an operational cost of approximately RM 10,000 per month.

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6.0

REFERENCES

Metcalf & Eddy, Inc. Wastewater Engineering: Treatment, Disposal, Reuse. 3rd edition. New York: McGraw Hill. U.S. EPA. EPA Design Manual, Summary Report. Sequencing Batch Reactors. EPA/625/8-86/011, August 1986. U.S. EPA. Wastewater Technology Fact Sheet. Sequencing Batch Reactors. EPA 932-F-99-073 September 1999. L. K. Wang, N. K. Shammas, and Y. T. Hung. Handbook of Environmental Engineering Volume 9: Advanced Biological Treatment Processes. New York: Humana Press Ministry of Housing and Local Government. Guidelines for Developers Volume IV : Sewage Treatment Plant https://www.iwk.com.my

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