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# This Excel package was created as a teacher's aid in the school laboratory / classroom / compu

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## A teachers demonstration tool to illustrate data handling

A tool for the plotting of graphs both for the experiments themselves or past exam que
It may also be used to check and plot student data before leaving the laboratory

Created By:

James Frawley

Revision:

Date:

1/7/2009

For non-commercial purposes on

## Please leave feedback / suggesti

Second Level Support Service Ho

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All red data (except the slope on the graphs) is to be entered / input by the user of this
All black and blue data represent answers computed using the data entered in the red cell
(Otherwise the formulae will be overwritten!!)
The tables, charts and graphs are directly printable without needing to edit page break

## selves or past exam questions

ing the laboratory

ames Frawley
mercial purposes only !

## feedback / suggestions on the Physics

Support Service Homepage Forum

## input by the user of this package

ata entered in the red cells - this should never be changed

## To Measure the Focal Length of a Concave Mirror

Measurement

Object

Image

Focal

Distance Distance

Length

cm

cm

cm

15.00

60.50

0.067

0.017

0.083

12.02

20.00

30.00

0.050

0.033

0.083

12.00

25.00

23.00

0.040

0.043

0.083

11.98

30.00

20.50

0.033

0.049

0.082

12.18

35.00

18.00

0.029

0.056

0.084

11.89

40.00

17.00

0.025

0.059

0.084

11.93

45.00

16.50

0.022

0.061

0.083

12.07

50.00

15.90

0.020

0.063

0.083

12.06

55.00

15.50

0.018

0.065

0.083

12.09

10

60.00

15.10

0.017

0.066

0.083

12.06

-1

cm

f
-1

cm

f
-1

cm

0.083

0.090

## From the Graph we see:

cm^-1

Intercept = 1/f =

0.083 cm-1

Focal Length = f =

12.05 cm

12.05 +cm
= -0.994x
0.083

0.070
0.060
0.050
0.040
0.030
0.020
0.010
0.000
0.000

## Focal Length of Concave Mirror

Intercept = 1/f =
0.080
Focal Length =
f=
f(x)

Remember:

12.03

1/v

0.010

0.020

0.030

0.040

1/u

0.050

0.060

0.070

0.080

0.090

1
f

0.030
0.020
0.010
0.000
0.000

0.010

0.020

0.030

0.040

1/u

0.050

0.060

0.070

0.080

0.090

## To Measure the Focal Length of a Convex Lens

Object

Image

Focal

Distance Distance

Length

cm

cm

cm-1

cm-1

cm-1

cm

20.00

66.40

0.050

0.015

0.065

15.37

25.00

40.60

0.040

0.025

0.065

15.47

35.00

27.60

0.029

0.036

0.065

15.43

45.00

23.20

0.022

0.043

0.065

15.31

55.00

21.50

0.018

0.047

0.065

15.46

65.00

20.10

0.015

0.050

0.065

15.35

75.00

19.20

0.013

0.052

0.065

15.29

85.00

18.80

0.012

0.053

0.065

15.39

95.00

18.40

0.011

0.054

0.065

15.41

10

100.00

18.20

0.010

0.055

0.065

15.40
15.39

## Average Focal Length

All data above is measured in units of cm
Intercept = 1/f =

0.065

Focal Length = f =

cm-1
15.38

cm

0.080
0.070
0.060

## f(x) = -1.004x + 0.065

0.050

1/v

Measurement

0.040
0.030
0.020
0.010
0.000
0.000 0.010 0.020 0.030 0.040 0.050 0.060 0.070 0.080

1/u

Measurement

Angle of

Angle of

Angle of

Angle of

sin i

Incidence

Refraction

Incidence

Refraction

i (Degrees)

sin r

Index
n

25.0

16.0

0.436

0.279

0.423

0.276

1.53

30.0

19.0

0.524

0.332

0.500

0.326

1.54

35.0

22.0

0.611

0.384

0.574

0.375

1.53

40.0

25.0

0.698

0.436

0.643

0.423

1.52

45.0

28.0

0.785

0.489

0.707

0.469

1.51

50.0

30.0

0.873

0.524

0.766

0.500

1.53

55.0

33.0

0.960

0.576

0.819

0.545

1.50

1.52

n = sin i
sin r

1.0
0.9

Slope = n =

0.8
0.7
0.6

Sin i

Refractive

0.5
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1
0.0

0.0

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

Sin r

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

1.0

1.52

Beaker 1
Beaker 2
Beaker 3
Beaker 4
Beaker 5

Real
Depth
cm
10.70
8.10
7.30
6.10
4.90

Apparent
Depth
cm
8.00
6.20
5.50
4.50
3.90

Refractive
Index
n
1.34
1.31
1.33
1.36
1.26
1.32

## Units of cm are used in the experiment above

Slope of Graph = n =

1.32

n = Real Depth
Apparent Depth
Ideal Value for the Refractive Index of Water = 1.33

12.0

10.0

Measurement

8.0
6.0
4.0
2.0
0.0
0.0

1.0

2.0

3.0
4.0 Depth
5.0 (cm)6.0
Apparent

7.0

8.0

9.0

## To Measure the Wavelength of Monochromatic Light (Sodium Vapour Lamp):

Diffraction Grating has:

600 lines/mm

d=

1.67E-06

## Spectrometer Zero Error Reading ==>

...
REMEMBER..

d=

1
(lines/mm) x 1000

## 0.3 Degrees to RHS

n.A = d.sin(Theta)

LHS

RHS

Order of

Angle (Theta)

Corrected

Angle for

Image

## for nth Image

Angle for

nth Image

Measured

nth Image

Theta

Degrees

Degrees

45.0

45.3

0.791

0.711

5.92E-07

20.4

20.7

0.361

0.353

5.89E-07

0.3

0.0

0.000

0.000

#DIV/0!

20.7

20.4

0.356

0.349

5.81E-07

45.2

44.9

0.784

0.706

5.88E-07

Average Wavelength

Sin Theta

Wavelength

5.88E-07

A = d.sin(Theta)
n

0.600

sin(Theta)
n

A = d x (slope)
A = 5.90E-07 m

0.500

Sin Theta

Slope = 0.354

0.700

Slope of Graph =

## Sin Theta vs. Order of Image

0.800

0.400

Column F
Linear (Column F)

0.300
0.200
0.100
0.000
0

0.5

1.5

2.5

## To Investigate the Laws of Equilibrium for a Set of Coplanar Forces:

Weight of Metre Stick
Position of Centre of Gravity
Note:

W=
CoG =

1.20 N
0.505 m

## Use the Centre of Gravity as the Axis of rotation in this experiment

Positions below are read directly from the metre stick
LHS of CoG
Masses

Weights

RHS of CoG

Spring

Spring

Balance

Balance

Position

kg

N.m

kg

N.m

2.0

0.20

0.204

2.00

0.15

0.36

0.71

4.0

0.75

0.183

1.80

0.80

0.30

0.53

0.00

0.51

0.00

0.122

1.20

0.95

0.45

0.53

0.00

0.51

0.00

0.00

0.51

0.00

0.00

0.51

0.00

0.00

0.51

0.00

0.00

0.51

0.00

0.00

0.51

0.00

0.00

0.51

0.00

0.00

0.51

0.00

Position

From

Forces

Forces

Moments

Clockwise
Moments

N.m

N.m

6.00

6.19

1.67

1.69

Note:

Fulcrum

Upward

Spring

Position

From

Moment
of Weight

Fulcrum

## The Sum of the moments about fulcrum is zero

To Show that Acceleration is Proportional to the Force Applied: Scaler Timer Method
Card Length

L=

0.1 m

s=

1.2 m

g=

9.81 m s

u=

L
t1

v=

L
t2

## Card Transit Initial Transit Final Acceleration

Length Time 1 Velocity Time 2 Velocity
of Card

Weight
Used

of Card
-2

L
m

t1
s

u
m s-1

t2
s

v
m s-1

a
m s-2

kg

0.10

0.350

0.29

0.260

0.38

0.03

0.200

1.96

0.10

0.310

0.32

0.215

0.47

0.05

0.300

2.94

0.10

0.260

0.38

0.178

0.56

0.07

0.500

4.91

a = v2 - u 2

0.08

## f(x) = 0.01x + 0.00

0.07
0.06

Acceleration (m.s^-1)

2s

Mass
Used

0.05
0.04
0.03
0.02
0.01
0.00
0.00

1.00

2.00

3.00 (N)
Force

4.00

5.00

6.00

0.02
0.01
0.00
0.00

1.00

2.00

3.00 (N)
Force

4.00

5.00

6.00

## Measurement of Velocity and Acceleration: Scaler Timer Method

Velocity:
Card Length
v=

L=

0.1 m

L
t

Card
Length

Transit
Time

Velocity
of Card

L
m
0.10
0.10
0.10
0.10
0.10

t
s
0.500
0.420
0.350
0.310
0.260

v
m s-1
0.20
0.24
0.29
0.32
0.38

Acceleration:
Card Length
Distance Between Gates

s=

## Acceleration Due to Gravity: g =

u=

L
t1

a = v2 - u2
2s

0.1 m

L=

v=

1.2 m
9.81 m s-2
L
t2

Transit
Initial
Time 1 Velocity
of Card

Transit
Final Acceleration
Time 2 Velocity

Mass
Used

Weight
Used

t1
s
0.500

u
m s-1
0.20

t2
s
0.370

v
m s-1
0.27

a
m s-2
0.01

kg
0.100

N
0.98

0.420
0.350

0.24
0.29

0.300
0.260

0.33
0.38

0.02
0.03

0.150
0.200

1.47
1.96

0.310
0.260

0.32
0.38

0.215
0.178

0.47
0.56

0.05
0.07

0.300
0.500

2.94
4.91

## Conservation of Momentum: Linear Air Track

Distance
Final Mass

M1 =
M2 =
L=
Mf =

0.3
0.2
0.1
0.5

kg
kg
m
kg

Distance
Time for
Initial
Initial
Distance
Combined
Final
Final
Travelled by Mass 1 Velocity Momentum Travelled by
Mass
Velocity Momentum
Mass 1
of Mass 1
Combination
Time
s1
m

t1
s

u
m s-1

PFINAL
kg m s-1

s2
m

t2
s

v
m s-1

PFINAL
kg m s-1

0.10

0.20

0.50

0.15

0.10

0.35

0.29

0.14

0.10

0.25

0.40

0.12

0.10

0.42

0.24

0.12

0.10

0.32

0.31

0.09

0.10

0.55

0.18

0.09

0.10

0.43

0.23

0.07

0.10

0.75

0.13

0.07

0.10

0.51

0.20

0.06

0.10

0.92

0.11

0.05

0.10

0.70

0.14

0.04

0.10

1.25

0.08

0.04

0.10

0.80

0.13

0.04

0.10

1.63

0.06

0.03

Conservation of Momentum
0.16
0.14

Column H
Column L

0.12

Momentum

First Mass
Second Mass

0.10
0.08
0.06
0.04
0.02
0.00

Measurement

## Measurement of g: Freefall Method

Height Period Period
#1
#2

Period
#3

h = 0.5 x g x t2

## Lowest Period Acceleration

Period Squared
Due to
Gravity

Measurement of g: H vs. T2
1.4

T1

T2

T3

s2

m.s-2

1.2

1.20

0.497

0.496

0.496

0.496

0.246

9.76

1.0

1.10

0.474

0.474

0.473

0.473

0.224

9.83

1.00

0.451

0.452

0.452

0.451

0.203

9.83

0.90

0.432

0.429

0.428

0.428

0.183

9.83

0.80

0.407

0.407

0.405

0.405

0.164

9.75

0.70

0.378

0.379

0.378

0.378

0.143

9.80

0.60

0.349

0.350

0.349

0.349

0.122

9.85

0.50

0.320

0.322

0.320

0.320

0.102

9.77

0.40

0.287

0.286

0.286

0.286

0.082

9.78

0.30

0.248

0.247

0.247

0.247

0.061

9.83

0.20

0.203

0.203

0.203

0.203

0.041

9.71

Average
g = 2 x h / t^2
g = 2 x slope of graph

9.79
slope =

4.90 m.s-2

g=

9.80 m.s-2

Height (H, m)

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

0.0
0.00

0.05

0.10

0.15

0.20

0.25

0.30

L

30 x T (s)

T (s)

T2 (s2)

cm

m.s-2

14.80
17.20
18.80
21.00
22.80
23.90
26.20
26.70
30.30
32.60

0.49
0.57
0.63
0.70
0.76
0.80
0.87
0.89
1.01
1.09

0.24
0.33
0.39
0.49
0.58
0.63
0.76
0.79
1.02
1.18

6.0
8.0
10.0
12.0
14.0
16.0
18.0
20.0
25.0
30.0

0.06
0.08
0.10
0.12
0.14
0.16
0.18
0.20
0.25
0.30

9.73
9.61
10.05
9.67
9.57
9.95
9.32
9.97
9.68
10.03

Average

9.76

1.40

## Square of Period (T^2, s^2)

30 Oscillations 1 Oscillation

1.20
1.00
0.80
0.60
0.40
0.20
0.00
0.00

0.10

0.15

0.20

Length (L, m)

Slope =
g=

Page 18

0.05

4.03
9.80

s2/m
m/s/s

0.25

0.30

0.35

0.30

0.35

Page 19

## Verification of Boyle's Law

Pressure (P) Volume (V)
105 Pa

cm3

1/V

P.V

cm-3

105 Pa.cm3

Boyle's Law
1.6

14.85
15.90
16.50
17.20
17.80
18.60
19.40
20.30
21.20
22.10

0.067
0.063
0.061
0.058
0.056
0.054
0.052
0.049
0.047
0.045

22.3
22.3
22.3
22.4
22.3
22.3
22.3
22.3
22.3
22.3

1.4
1.2

1.50
1.40
1.35
1.30
1.25
1.20
1.15
1.10
1.05
1.01

1.0
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2

Average

22.3

P x V = constant
P=kx 1
V
k = slope =

0.0
0.000

0.010

0.020

0.030

0.040

0.050

## Inverse of Volume (cm-3)

where k is a constant

22.3

Pa.cm-3

0.060

0.070

0.080

D=
0.3*D =

F (Hz)

L1 (m)

L2 (m)

(m)

512.0
480.0
426.6
384.0
341.3
320.0
288.0
256.0

0.152
0.162
0.185
0.204
0.236
0.251
0.283
0.318

0.491
0.522
0.587
0.657
0.744
0.794
0.888
0.980

0.678
0.720
0.804
0.906
1.016
1.086
1.210
1.324

1.47
1.39
1.24
1.10
0.98
0.92
0.83
0.76

-1

Speed of Sound

End Correction

Revised c = f

c (m/s)

e (m)

m/s

347.14
345.60
342.99
347.90
346.76
347.52
348.48
338.94

0.167
0.177
0.200
0.219
0.251
0.266
0.298
0.333

341.34
339.21
340.72
335.88
342.21
340.06
342.92
340.65

345.67

AVERAGE

340.37

Note:

## The graph is plotted

from the data prior to the
end-correction
calculation

600

Frequency (Hz)

500
400
300
200
100
0
0.0

0.2

0.4

0.049 m
0.015 m

0.6

0.8

1.0

1.2

1.4

## Inverse of Wavelength (m^-1)

Page 21

1.6

To Plot the Calibration Curve for an Alcohol Thermometer using a Mercury Thermometer as Standard
Standard
Length of
Thermometer Column of
Alcohol
L
C
cm
40.0
54.0
70.0
98.0
112.0
135.0
155.0
180.0
198.0
220.0
240.0

110

100
90
80

Temperature (C)

0.0
10.0
20.0
30.0
40.0
50.0
60.0
70.0
80.0
90.0
100.0

70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
0

50

100

150

200

250

300

## To Measure the Specific Heat Capacity of Water (Electrical Method)

1

Mass of Calorimeter

Mc

0.453

kg

Mcw

0.512

kg

Mass of Water

Mw

0.059

kg

Tiw

7.5

## Final Temperature of Calorimeter and Water

Tfw

18.3

Temperature Change

DT

10.8

4550.0

Cc

385.0

J/kg/C

Mc.Cc.dT

1883.6

Mw.Cw.dT

2666.4

Cw

4184.6

J/kg/C

## Heat Energy Supplied = Heat Gained by Calorimeter + Heat Gained by Water

Q = Mc.Cc.dT + Mw.Cw.dT

Page 24

## To Measure the Specific Heat Capacity of Copper (Mechanical Method)

Copper filings were used here
1

Mc

0.425

kg

Mcw

0.525

kg

Mw

0.100

kg

Tiw

8.7

Tfw

12.3

dTw

3.6

Ticf

98.4

dTcf

86.1

Mcf

0.063

kg

Cc

4180.0

J/kg/C

Mw.Cw.dT

1504.8

Cc

386.4

J/kg/C

4

## Specific Heat Capacity of Copper

Heat Energy Lost by Copper Filings = Heat Gained by Calorimeter + Heat Gained by Water

## Measuring the Latent Heat of Fusion of Ice

1

Mass of Calorimeter

Mc

0.453

kg

Mcw

0.532

kg

Mw

0.079

kg

Tiwc

79.4

Tfwci

12.6

DTcw

66.8

DTI

12.6

Mcwi

0.542

kg

Mi

0.010

kg

Cc

385.0

J/kg/C

Mc.Cc.dT

11650.3

Cw

4180.0

J/kg/C

Mw.Cw.dT

22058.7

Mi.Cw.Dti

526.7

Lf

3.32E+06

## Temperature Rise of Ice

Final Mass of Calorimeter + Water + Ice

## Heat Lost By Calorimeter

Specific Heat Capacity of Water

J/kg

## Measuring the Latent Heat of Vaporisation of Water

1

Mass of Calorimeter
Mass of Calorimeter and Cooled Water
Mass of Water at Start

Mc
Mcw
Mw

0.453
0.532
0.079

kg
kg
kg

## Initial Temperature of Calorimeter and Water

Final Temperature of Calorimeter and Water
Temperature Rise of Cal and Water

Tiw
Tfw
Dtcw

7.5
43.3
35.8

C
C
C

## Temperature Fall of Steam

Final Mass of Calorimeter + Water + Steam

DTs
Mcws
Ms

56.7
0.539
0.007

C
kg
kg

## Specific Heat Capacity of Copper

Heat Gained By Calorimeter
Specific Heat Capacity of Water
Heat Gained By Cold Water
Heat Lost By Steam

Cc
Mc.Cc.dT
Cw
Mw.Cw.dT
Ms.Cw.DTs

390.0
6324.8
4180.0
11821.9
1635.3

Lv

2.39E+06

Page 28

J/kg/C
J
J/kg/C
J
J
J/kg

Page 29

Joules Law

## Joule's Law: The Heating Effect of an Electric Current

Initial Temp

Final Temp

Current

Temp Change

Current Squared

T1 (C)

T2 (C)

I (A)

T2 T1 (C)

I2 (A2)

22.3

23.4

0.50

1.1

0.25

23.4

27.7

1.00

4.3

1.00

27.7

35.7

1.50

8.0

2.25

34.4

48.3

2.00

13.9

4.00

48.3

68.2

2.50

19.9

6.25

66.5

97.8

3.00

31.3

9.00

H = I2 x R x t

Joule's Law
Temperature Change (*C)

35.0
30.0

25.0
20.0
15.0
10.0
5.0
0.0

0.0

1.0

2.0

3.0

4.0

5.0

6.0

7.0

8.0

9.0

Page 30

10.0

Tempera

10.0
5.0
0.0

0.0

1.0

2.0

3.0

4.0

5.0

6.0

7.0

Joules Law
8.0
9.0

Page 31

10.0

## To Measure the Resistivity of Nichrome Wire

Wire
Micrometer Corrected
Diameter Zero Error Diameter
mm
mm
mm

AVERAGE

Corrected
Diameter
m

p=RxA/L
Cross
Wire
Rc / L Resistivity
Sectional Resistance Resistance Resistance Length (L)

Area (m^2)
Rm ()

Rc ()
m
/m
.m

1.324

0.012

1.312

1.31E-03

1.35E-06

1.06

0.86

0.20

0.25

0.80

1.08E-06

1.295

0.012

1.283

1.28E-03

1.29E-06

1.30

0.86

0.44

0.50

0.88

1.14E-06

1.312

0.012

1.300

1.30E-03

1.33E-06

1.50

0.86

0.64

0.75

0.85

1.13E-06

1.306

0.012

1.294

1.29E-03

1.32E-06

1.70

0.86

0.84

1.00

0.84

1.10E-06

1.291

0.012

1.279

1.28E-03

1.28E-06

1.83

0.86

0.97

1.25

0.78

9.97E-07

1.317

0.012

1.305

1.31E-03

1.34E-06

2.10

0.86

1.24

1.50

0.83

1.11E-06

1.320

0.012

1.308

1.31E-03

1.34E-06

2.30

0.86

1.44

1.75

0.82

1.11E-06

1.295

0.012

1.283

1.28E-03

1.29E-06

2.60

0.86

1.74

2.00

0.87

1.12E-06

1.293

0.012

1.281

1.28E-03

1.29E-06

2.87

0.86

2.01

2.25

0.89

1.15E-06

1.314

0.012

1.302

1.30E-03

1.33E-06

3.08

0.86

2.22

2.50

0.89

1.18E-06

1.295

1.29E-03

1.32E-06

0.85

1.11E-06

1.307

Resistance
R (Ohms)

Temperature
T (*C)

9.93

13.7

10.28

22.4

18

10.51

31.6

16

10.76

43.1

11.32

52.8

11.32

63.2

11.70

71.7

12.23

83.4

12.78

92.5

## Resistance vs. Temperature for a Metallic Conductor

20

Resistance (Ohms)

14

12
10
8
6
4
2
0
0

10

20

30

40

50

60

Temperature (*C)

Page 33

70

80

90

100

Page 34

nductor

80

90

100

Page 35

Page 36

## Resistance vs. Temperature Characteristic for a Thermistor

Resistance Temperature
R (Ohms)
T (*C)

200

176.0

11.0

152.0

14.5

180

83.0

29.0

160

49.0

41.0

36.0

49.0

24.0

58.0

16.0

68.0

13.0

76.0

9.0

90.0

## f(x) = 254.3472534815 exp( -0.0390537077 x )

Resistance (Ohms)

140
120
100
80
60
40
20
0
0

10

20

30

40

50

60

Temperature (*C)

70

80

90

100

## To Investigate the Variation of Fundamental Frequency vs Length for a Stretched String

The Resonance Point is found for a series of tuning forks by varying the Length of the wire
Fundamental
Frequency
f

Length
L

1/L

fxL

Hz

m.Hz

173.0

0.80

1.25

138.40

193.0

0.70

1.43

135.10

230.0

0.60

1.67

138.00

273.0

0.50

2.00

136.50

335.0

0.40

2.50

134.00

455.0

0.30

3.33

136.50

200

675.0

0.20

5.00

135.00

100

800

700

Frequency (Hz)

-1

600
500
400
300

Slope =

135.6

Hz.m

0.0

1.0

2.0

3.0
1/Length

4.0

5.0

6.0

## To Investigate the Variation of Fundamental Frequency vs Tension for a Stretched String

The Resonance Point is found for a series of tuning forks by varying the Tension of the string
Fundamental
Frequency

Tension

Sq. Root
Tension

F
Hz

T
N

T0.5

500

450

15.0

3.87

400

304.0

20.0

4.47

350

342.0

25.0

5.00

371.0

30.0

5.48

402.0

35.0

5.92

431.0

40.0

6.32

456.0

45.0

6.71

Frequency (Hz)

264.0

300
250
200
150
100

Slope =

68.03

50
0
0

Page 39

## Current vs Voltage Curve for a Metallic Conductor:

Voltage Current Resistance
Volts
Amps
Ohms
V
I
R
0.25

8.03

4.00

0.50

7.94

6.00

0.75

7.97

8.00

0.99

8.06

10.00

1.26

7.96

Average

7.99

Resistance = 1 / slope
Slope =

0.13

A/V

R=

7.69

Ohms

1.40

## f(x) = 0.13x - 0.00

1.20

Current (Amps)

2.00

Metallic Conductor

1.00
0.80
0.60
0.40
0.20
0.00
1.00

2.00

3.00

4.00

5.00

6.00

7.00

Voltage (V)

8.00

9.00

10.00 11.00

## Current vs Voltage Curve for a Filament Bulb:

Current Resistance

Volts

Amps

Ohms

0.00

0.00

#DIV/0!

1.00

0.20

5.00

2.00

0.30

6.67

3.00

0.35

8.57

4.00

0.38

10.53

5.00

0.39

12.82

6.00

0.40

15.19

Filament Bulb
0.45
0.40
0.35
0.30

Current (Amps)

Voltage

0.25
0.20
0.15
0.10
0.05
0.00
0.00

1.00

2.00

3.00
4.00
Voltage (V)

5.00

6.00

7.00

Current vs Voltage Curve for a Copper Sulfate Solution with Copper Electrodes:
Voltage

Current

Resistance

Volts

Amps

Ohms

4.5

0.00

0.00

#DIV/0!

4.0

2.00

0.64

3.12

4.00

1.24

3.23

6.00

1.97

3.05

8.00

2.53

3.16

10.00

3.26

3.07

12.00

3.81

3.15

## The electrodes take part in the chemical

reaction (anode is consumed here)

3.5
3.0

Current (Amps)

2.5
2.0
1.5
1.0
0.5
0.0
0.0

2.0

4.0

6.0
8.0
Voltage (V)

10.0

12.0

14.0

## Current vs Voltage Curve for a Semiconductor Diode:

Forward Bias

Reverse Bias

Semiconductor Diode
Voltage

Current

Voltage

Current

Volts

milliamps

Volts

microamps

mA

uA

100

80
0.00

0.00

0.00

0.10

0.70

-0.40

-0.50

0.20

1.30

-0.80

-0.60

0.30

2.30

-1.20

-1.20

0.40

4.10

-1.60

-1.38

0.50

10.00

-2.00

-1.90

0.60

22.00

-2.40

-2.23

0.70

47.00

-2.80

-2.51

0.80

100.00

-3.20

-2.87

60

Current (milliAmps)

0.00

40

20

0
-4

-3

-2

-1

0
-20

Voltage (V)