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This Excel package was created as a teacher's aid in the school laboratory / classroom / compu

1
2
3

A teachers demonstration tool to illustrate data handling


A tool for the plotting of graphs both for the experiments themselves or past exam que
It may also be used to check and plot student data before leaving the laboratory

Created By:

James Frawley

Revision:

Date:

1/7/2009

Copyright James Frawley


For non-commercial purposes on

Please leave feedback / suggesti


Second Level Support Service Ho

Helpful Hints:
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All red data (except the slope on the graphs) is to be entered / input by the user of this
All black and blue data represent answers computed using the data entered in the red cell
(Otherwise the formulae will be overwritten!!)
The tables, charts and graphs are directly printable without needing to edit page break

ory / classroom / computer room. It can be used as:

selves or past exam questions


ing the laboratory

ames Frawley
mercial purposes only !

feedback / suggestions on the Physics


Support Service Homepage Forum

input by the user of this package


ata entered in the red cells - this should never be changed

eeding to edit page breaks.

To Measure the Focal Length of a Concave Mirror


Measurement

Object

Image

Focal

Distance Distance

Length

cm

cm

cm

15.00

60.50

0.067

0.017

0.083

12.02

20.00

30.00

0.050

0.033

0.083

12.00

25.00

23.00

0.040

0.043

0.083

11.98

30.00

20.50

0.033

0.049

0.082

12.18

35.00

18.00

0.029

0.056

0.084

11.89

40.00

17.00

0.025

0.059

0.084

11.93

45.00

16.50

0.022

0.061

0.083

12.07

50.00

15.90

0.020

0.063

0.083

12.06

55.00

15.50

0.018

0.065

0.083

12.09

10

60.00

15.10

0.017

0.066

0.083

12.06

-1

cm

f
-1

cm

f
-1

cm

All data above is measured in units of cm


0.083

0.090

From the Graph we see:

cm^-1

Intercept = 1/f =

0.083 cm-1

Focal Length = f =

12.05 cm

12.05 +cm
= -0.994x
0.083

0.070
0.060
0.050
0.040
0.030
0.020
0.010
0.000
0.000

Focal Length of Concave Mirror

Intercept = 1/f =
0.080
Focal Length =
f=
f(x)

Remember:

12.03

Average Focal Length (cm)

1/v

All data here is measured in units of cm

0.010

0.020

0.030

0.040

1/u

0.050

0.060

0.070

0.080

0.090

1
f

0.030
0.020
0.010
0.000
0.000

0.010

0.020

0.030

0.040

1/u

0.050

0.060

0.070

0.080

0.090

To Measure the Focal Length of a Convex Lens


Object

Image

Focal

Distance Distance

Length

cm

cm

cm-1

cm-1

cm-1

cm

20.00

66.40

0.050

0.015

0.065

15.37

25.00

40.60

0.040

0.025

0.065

15.47

35.00

27.60

0.029

0.036

0.065

15.43

45.00

23.20

0.022

0.043

0.065

15.31

55.00

21.50

0.018

0.047

0.065

15.46

65.00

20.10

0.015

0.050

0.065

15.35

75.00

19.20

0.013

0.052

0.065

15.29

85.00

18.80

0.012

0.053

0.065

15.39

95.00

18.40

0.011

0.054

0.065

15.41

10

100.00

18.20

0.010

0.055

0.065

15.40
15.39

Average Focal Length


All data above is measured in units of cm
Intercept = 1/f =

0.065

Focal Length = f =

cm-1
15.38

cm

Focal Length of Convex Lens


0.080
0.070
0.060

f(x) = -1.004x + 0.065

0.050

1/v

Measurement

0.040
0.030
0.020
0.010
0.000
0.000 0.010 0.020 0.030 0.040 0.050 0.060 0.070 0.080

1/u

Refractive Index of a Glass Block:


Measurement

Angle of

Angle of

Angle of

Angle of

sin i

Incidence

Refraction

Incidence

Refraction

i (Degrees)

r (Degrees) i (Radians) r (Radians)

sin r

Index
n

25.0

16.0

0.436

0.279

0.423

0.276

1.53

30.0

19.0

0.524

0.332

0.500

0.326

1.54

35.0

22.0

0.611

0.384

0.574

0.375

1.53

40.0

25.0

0.698

0.436

0.643

0.423

1.52

45.0

28.0

0.785

0.489

0.707

0.469

1.51

50.0

30.0

0.873

0.524

0.766

0.500

1.53

55.0

33.0

0.960

0.576

0.819

0.545

1.50

Average Refractive Index (n)

1.52

n = sin i
sin r

Snells Law - Glass Block


1.0
0.9

From the Graph:

f(x) = 1.48x + 0.02

Slope = n =

0.8
0.7
0.6

Sin i

Refractive

0.5
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1
0.0

0.0

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

Sin r

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

1.0

1.52

Measurement of the Refractive Index of a Liquid

Beaker 1
Beaker 2
Beaker 3
Beaker 4
Beaker 5

Real
Depth
cm
10.70
8.10
7.30
6.10
4.90

Apparent
Depth
cm
8.00
6.20
5.50
4.50
3.90

Average Refractive Index

Refractive
Index
n
1.34
1.31
1.33
1.36
1.26
1.32

Units of cm are used in the experiment above


Slope of Graph = n =

1.32

n = Real Depth
Apparent Depth
Ideal Value for the Refractive Index of Water = 1.33

Refractive Index of a Liquid


12.0

f(x) = 1.37x - 0.29

10.0

Real Depth (cm)

Measurement

(Water is used here)

8.0
6.0
4.0
2.0
0.0
0.0

1.0

2.0

3.0
4.0 Depth
5.0 (cm)6.0
Apparent

7.0

8.0

9.0

To Measure the Wavelength of Monochromatic Light (Sodium Vapour Lamp):


Diffraction Grating has:

600 lines/mm

==> Grating Constant (d):

d=

1.67E-06

Spectrometer Zero Error Reading ==>

...
REMEMBER..

d=

1
(lines/mm) x 1000

0.3 Degrees to RHS

n.A = d.sin(Theta)

LHS

RHS

Order of

Angle (Theta)

Corrected

Angle for

Image

for nth Image

Angle for

nth Image

Measured

nth Image

Theta

Degrees

Degrees

Radians

45.0

45.3

0.791

0.711

5.92E-07

20.4

20.7

0.361

0.353

5.89E-07

0.3

0.0

0.000

0.000

#DIV/0!

20.7

20.4

0.356

0.349

5.81E-07

45.2

44.9

0.784

0.706

5.88E-07

Average Wavelength

Sin Theta

Wavelength

5.88E-07

A = d.sin(Theta)
n

0.600

sin(Theta)
n

A = d x (slope)
A = 5.90E-07 m

0.500

Sin Theta

Slope = 0.354

f(x) = 0.355x - 0.002

0.700

A = Wavelength of Light used


Slope of Graph =

Sin Theta vs. Order of Image

0.800

0.400

Column F
Linear (Column F)

0.300
0.200
0.100
0.000
0

0.5

1.5

Order of Image (n)

2.5

To Investigate the Laws of Equilibrium for a Set of Coplanar Forces:


Weight of Metre Stick
Position of Centre of Gravity
Note:

W=
CoG =

1.20 N
0.505 m

Use the Centre of Gravity as the Axis of rotation in this experiment


Positions below are read directly from the metre stick
LHS of CoG
Masses

Weights

RHS of CoG

Spring

Spring

Weight Distance Moment

Balance

Balance

Reading

Position

kg

N.m

kg

N.m

2.0

0.20

0.204

2.00

0.15

0.36

0.71

4.0

0.75

0.183

1.80

0.80

0.30

0.53

0.00

0.51

0.00

0.122

1.20

0.95

0.45

0.53

0.00

0.51

0.00

0.00

0.51

0.00

0.00

0.51

0.00

0.00

0.51

0.00

0.00

0.51

0.00

0.00

0.51

0.00

0.00

0.51

0.00

0.00

0.51

0.00

Position

From

Downward Clockwise Anti-

Forces

Forces

Moments

Clockwise
Moments

N.m

N.m

6.00

6.19

1.67

1.69

Note:

Spring Masses Weights Weight Distance

of Weight Balance Balance

Fulcrum

Upward

Spring

Position

Reading Position

From

Moment
of Weight

Fulcrum

The Net Force acting is approximately zero

The Sum of the moments about fulcrum is zero

To Show that Acceleration is Proportional to the Force Applied: Scaler Timer Method
Card Length

L=

0.1 m

Distance Between Gates

s=

1.2 m

g=

9.81 m s

Acceler. Due to Gravity


u=

L
t1

v=

L
t2

Card Transit Initial Transit Final Acceleration


Length Time 1 Velocity Time 2 Velocity
of Card

Weight
Used

of Card
-2

L
m

t1
s

u
m s-1

t2
s

v
m s-1

a
m s-2

kg

0.10

0.350

0.29

0.260

0.38

0.03

0.200

1.96

0.10

0.310

0.32

0.215

0.47

0.05

0.300

2.94

0.10

0.260

0.38

0.178

0.56

0.07

0.500

4.91

a = v2 - u 2

Acceleration vs. Force


0.08

f(x) = 0.01x + 0.00

0.07
0.06

Acceleration (m.s^-1)

2s

Mass
Used

0.05
0.04
0.03
0.02
0.01
0.00
0.00

1.00

2.00

3.00 (N)
Force

4.00

5.00

6.00

0.02
0.01
0.00
0.00

1.00

2.00

3.00 (N)
Force

4.00

5.00

6.00

Measurement of Velocity and Acceleration: Scaler Timer Method


Velocity:
Card Length
v=

L=

0.1 m

L
t

Card
Length

Transit
Time

Velocity
of Card

L
m
0.10
0.10
0.10
0.10
0.10

t
s
0.500
0.420
0.350
0.310
0.260

v
m s-1
0.20
0.24
0.29
0.32
0.38

Acceleration:
Card Length
Distance Between Gates

s=

Acceleration Due to Gravity: g =


u=

L
t1

a = v2 - u2
2s

0.1 m

L=

v=

1.2 m
9.81 m s-2
L
t2

Transit
Initial
Time 1 Velocity
of Card

Transit
Final Acceleration
Time 2 Velocity

Mass
Used

Weight
Used

t1
s
0.500

u
m s-1
0.20

t2
s
0.370

v
m s-1
0.27

a
m s-2
0.01

kg
0.100

N
0.98

0.420
0.350

0.24
0.29

0.300
0.260

0.33
0.38

0.02
0.03

0.150
0.200

1.47
1.96

0.310
0.260

0.32
0.38

0.215
0.178

0.47
0.56

0.05
0.07

0.300
0.500

2.94
4.91

Conservation of Momentum: Linear Air Track

Distance
Final Mass

M1 =
M2 =
L=
Mf =

0.3
0.2
0.1
0.5

kg
kg
m
kg

Distance
Time for
Initial
Initial
Distance
Combined
Final
Final
Travelled by Mass 1 Velocity Momentum Travelled by
Mass
Velocity Momentum
Mass 1
of Mass 1
Combination
Time
s1
m

t1
s

u
m s-1

PFINAL
kg m s-1

s2
m

t2
s

v
m s-1

PFINAL
kg m s-1

0.10

0.20

0.50

0.15

0.10

0.35

0.29

0.14

0.10

0.25

0.40

0.12

0.10

0.42

0.24

0.12

0.10

0.32

0.31

0.09

0.10

0.55

0.18

0.09

0.10

0.43

0.23

0.07

0.10

0.75

0.13

0.07

0.10

0.51

0.20

0.06

0.10

0.92

0.11

0.05

0.10

0.70

0.14

0.04

0.10

1.25

0.08

0.04

0.10

0.80

0.13

0.04

0.10

1.63

0.06

0.03

Conservation of Momentum
0.16
0.14

Column H
Column L

0.12

Momentum

First Mass
Second Mass

0.10
0.08
0.06
0.04
0.02
0.00

Measurement

Measurement of g: Freefall Method


Height Period Period
#1
#2

Period
#3

h = 0.5 x g x t2

Lowest Period Acceleration


Period Squared
Due to
Gravity

Measurement of g: H vs. T2
1.4

T1

T2

T3

s2

m.s-2

1.2

1.20

0.497

0.496

0.496

0.496

0.246

9.76

1.0

1.10

0.474

0.474

0.473

0.473

0.224

9.83

1.00

0.451

0.452

0.452

0.451

0.203

9.83

0.90

0.432

0.429

0.428

0.428

0.183

9.83

0.80

0.407

0.407

0.405

0.405

0.164

9.75

0.70

0.378

0.379

0.378

0.378

0.143

9.80

0.60

0.349

0.350

0.349

0.349

0.122

9.85

0.50

0.320

0.322

0.320

0.320

0.102

9.77

0.40

0.287

0.286

0.286

0.286

0.082

9.78

0.30

0.248

0.247

0.247

0.247

0.061

9.83

0.20

0.203

0.203

0.203

0.203

0.041

9.71

Average
g = 2 x h / t^2
g = 2 x slope of graph

9.79
slope =

4.90 m.s-2

g=

9.80 m.s-2

Height (H, m)

f(x) = 4.90x - 0.00

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

0.0
0.00

0.05

0.10

0.15

0.20

Square of Period (T2, s2)

0.25

0.30

The Simple Pendulum

The Simple Pendulum: Measurement of g


L

30 x T (s)

T (s)

T2 (s2)

cm

m.s-2

14.80
17.20
18.80
21.00
22.80
23.90
26.20
26.70
30.30
32.60

0.49
0.57
0.63
0.70
0.76
0.80
0.87
0.89
1.01
1.09

0.24
0.33
0.39
0.49
0.58
0.63
0.76
0.79
1.02
1.18

6.0
8.0
10.0
12.0
14.0
16.0
18.0
20.0
25.0
30.0

0.06
0.08
0.10
0.12
0.14
0.16
0.18
0.20
0.25
0.30

9.73
9.61
10.05
9.67
9.57
9.95
9.32
9.97
9.68
10.03

Average

9.76

Simple Pendulum: T^2 vs. L


1.40

Square of Period (T^2, s^2)

30 Oscillations 1 Oscillation

f(x) = 3.97x + 0.01

1.20
1.00
0.80
0.60
0.40
0.20
0.00
0.00

0.10

0.15

0.20

Length (L, m)

Slope =
g=

Page 18

0.05

4.03
9.80

s2/m
m/s/s

0.25

0.30

0.35

0.30

The Simple Pendulum

0.35

Page 19

Verification of Boyle's Law


Pressure (P) Volume (V)
105 Pa

cm3

1/V

P.V

cm-3

105 Pa.cm3

Boyle's Law
1.6

14.85
15.90
16.50
17.20
17.80
18.60
19.40
20.30
21.20
22.10

0.067
0.063
0.061
0.058
0.056
0.054
0.052
0.049
0.047
0.045

22.3
22.3
22.3
22.4
22.3
22.3
22.3
22.3
22.3
22.3

f(x) = 22.2x + 0.0

1.4
1.2

Pressure (105 Pa)

1.50
1.40
1.35
1.30
1.25
1.20
1.15
1.10
1.05
1.01

1.0
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2

Average

22.3

P x V = constant
P=kx 1
V
k = slope =

0.0
0.000

0.010

0.020

0.030

0.040

0.050

Inverse of Volume (cm-3)

where k is a constant

22.3

Pa.cm-3

for this mass of gas at this specific temperature

0.060

0.070

0.080

Measurement of the Speed of Sou

Measurement of the Speed of Sound in Air

D=
0.3*D =

Frequency Antinode 1 Antinode 2 Wavelength 1/Wavelength


F (Hz)

L1 (m)

L2 (m)

(m)

512.0
480.0
426.6
384.0
341.3
320.0
288.0
256.0

0.152
0.162
0.185
0.204
0.236
0.251
0.283
0.318

0.491
0.522
0.587
0.657
0.744
0.794
0.888
0.980

0.678
0.720
0.804
0.906
1.016
1.086
1.210
1.324

1.47
1.39
1.24
1.10
0.98
0.92
0.83
0.76

-1

Speed of Sound

End Correction

Revised c = f

c (m/s)

e (m)

m/s

347.14
345.60
342.99
347.90
346.76
347.52
348.48
338.94

0.167
0.177
0.200
0.219
0.251
0.266
0.298
0.333

341.34
339.21
340.72
335.88
342.21
340.06
342.92
340.65

345.67

AVERAGE

340.37

Note:

Frequency vs. 1/Wavelength

The graph is plotted


from the data prior to the
end-correction
calculation

600

f(x) = 347.77x - 2.13

Frequency (Hz)

500
400
300
200
100
0
0.0

0.2

0.4

0.049 m
0.015 m

0.6

0.8

1.0

1.2

1.4

Inverse of Wavelength (m^-1)

Page 21

1.6

To Plot the Calibration Curve for an Alcohol Thermometer using a Mercury Thermometer as Standard
Standard
Length of
Thermometer Column of
Reading
Alcohol
L
C
cm
40.0
54.0
70.0
98.0
112.0
135.0
155.0
180.0
198.0
220.0
240.0

110

f(x) = 0.49x - 16.46

100
90
80

Temperature (C)

0.0
10.0
20.0
30.0
40.0
50.0
60.0
70.0
80.0
90.0
100.0

Alcohol Thermometer Calibration Curve

70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
0

50

100

150

200

Alcohol Column Length (cm)

250

300

Specific Heat Capacity of Water

To Measure the Specific Heat Capacity of Water (Electrical Method)


1

Mass of Calorimeter

Mc

0.453

kg

Mass of Calorimeter and Water

Mcw

0.512

kg

Mass of Water

Mw

0.059

kg

Initial Temperature of Calorimeter and Water

Tiw

7.5

Final Temperature of Calorimeter and Water

Tfw

18.3

Temperature Change

DT

10.8

Joulemeter Reading (Energy Supplied)

4550.0

Specific Heat Capacity of Copper

Cc

385.0

J/kg/C

Heat Gained By Calorimeter

Mc.Cc.dT

1883.6

Heat Gained By Water

Mw.Cw.dT

2666.4

Cw

4184.6

J/kg/C

Specific Heat Capacity of Water

Heat Energy Supplied = Heat Gained by Calorimeter + Heat Gained by Water

Q = Mc.Cc.dT + Mw.Cw.dT

Page 24

(BY CONSERVATION OF ENERGY)

To Measure the Specific Heat Capacity of Copper (Mechanical Method)


Copper filings were used here
1

Mass of Copper Calorimeter

Mc

0.425

kg

Mass of Calorimeter and Cold Water

Mcw

0.525

kg

Mass of Cold Water

Mw

0.100

kg

Initial Temperature of Calorimeter and Water

Tiw

8.7

Final Temperature of Cal., Water and Filings

Tfw

12.3

Temperature Increase of cal + water

dTw

3.6

Initial Temperature of Copper Filings

Ticf

98.4

Temperature Decrease of Copper Filings

dTcf

86.1

Mass of Copper Filings Added

Mcf

0.063

kg

Specific Heat Capacity of Water

Cc

4180.0

J/kg/C

Mw.Cw.dT

1504.8

Cc

386.4

J/kg/C

Heat Gained By Water


4

Specific Heat Capacity of Copper

Heat Energy Lost by Copper Filings = Heat Gained by Calorimeter + Heat Gained by Water

Mcf.Cc.dTcf = Mc.Cc.dTw + Mw.Cw.dTw

(BY CONSERVATION OF ENERGY)

Measuring the Latent Heat of Fusion of Ice


1

Mass of Calorimeter

Mc

0.453

kg

Mass of Calorimeter and Warm Water

Mcw

0.532

kg

Mass of Warm Water at Start

Mw

0.079

kg

Initial Temperature of Calorimeter and Water

Tiwc

79.4

Final Temperature of Calorimeter, Water and Ice

Tfwci

12.6

Temperature Fall of Cal and Water

DTcw

66.8

DTI

12.6

Mcwi

0.542

kg

Mass of Ice Added

Mi

0.010

kg

Specific Heat Capacity of Copper

Cc

385.0

J/kg/C

Mc.Cc.dT

11650.3

Cw

4180.0

J/kg/C

Heat Lost By Warm Water

Mw.Cw.dT

22058.7

Heat Gained By Water at 0 C to raise to TF

Mi.Cw.Dti

526.7

Lf

3.32E+06

Temperature Rise of Ice


Final Mass of Calorimeter + Water + Ice

Heat Lost By Calorimeter


Specific Heat Capacity of Water

Latent Heat of Fusion of Water/Ice

Mw.Cw.dT + Mc.Cc.dT = Mi.Cw.Dti + Mi.Lf

J/kg

(BY CONSERVATION OF ENERGY)

Heat of Vaporisation of Water

Measuring the Latent Heat of Vaporisation of Water


1

Mass of Calorimeter
Mass of Calorimeter and Cooled Water
Mass of Water at Start

Mc
Mcw
Mw

0.453
0.532
0.079

kg
kg
kg

Initial Temperature of Calorimeter and Water


Final Temperature of Calorimeter and Water
Temperature Rise of Cal and Water

Tiw
Tfw
Dtcw

7.5
43.3
35.8

C
C
C

Temperature Fall of Steam


Final Mass of Calorimeter + Water + Steam
Mass of Steam Added

DTs
Mcws
Ms

56.7
0.539
0.007

C
kg
kg

Specific Heat Capacity of Copper


Heat Gained By Calorimeter
Specific Heat Capacity of Water
Heat Gained By Cold Water
Heat Lost By Steam

Cc
Mc.Cc.dT
Cw
Mw.Cw.dT
Ms.Cw.DTs

390.0
6324.8
4180.0
11821.9
1635.3

Lv

2.39E+06

Latent Heat of Vaporisation of Water

Mc.Cc.dT + Mw.Cw.dT = Ms.Lv + Ms.Cw.DTs

Page 28

J/kg/C
J
J/kg/C
J
J
J/kg

(BY CONSERVATION OF ENERGY)

Heat of Vaporisation of Water

Page 29

Joules Law

Joule's Law: The Heating Effect of an Electric Current


Initial Temp

Final Temp

Current

Temp Change

Current Squared

T1 (C)

T2 (C)

I (A)

T2 T1 (C)

I2 (A2)

22.3

23.4

0.50

1.1

0.25

23.4

27.7

1.00

4.3

1.00

27.7

35.7

1.50

8.0

2.25

34.4

48.3

2.00

13.9

4.00

48.3

68.2

2.50

19.9

6.25

66.5

97.8

3.00

31.3

9.00

H = I2 x R x t

Joule's Law
Temperature Change (*C)

35.0
30.0

f(x) = 3.34x + 0.43

25.0
20.0
15.0
10.0
5.0
0.0

0.0

1.0

2.0

3.0

4.0

5.0

6.0

7.0

8.0

9.0

Square of Current (A^2)

Page 30

10.0

Tempera

10.0
5.0
0.0

0.0

1.0

2.0

3.0

4.0

5.0

6.0

7.0

Joules Law
8.0
9.0

Square of Current (A^2)

Page 31

10.0

To Measure the Resistivity of Nichrome Wire


Wire
Micrometer Corrected
Diameter Zero Error Diameter
mm
mm
mm

AVERAGE

Corrected
Diameter
m

p=RxA/L
Cross
Measured Lead / Meter Corrected
Wire
Rc / L Resistivity
Sectional Resistance Resistance Resistance Length (L)

Area (m^2)
Rm ()

Rc ()
m
/m
.m

1.324

0.012

1.312

1.31E-03

1.35E-06

1.06

0.86

0.20

0.25

0.80

1.08E-06

1.295

0.012

1.283

1.28E-03

1.29E-06

1.30

0.86

0.44

0.50

0.88

1.14E-06

1.312

0.012

1.300

1.30E-03

1.33E-06

1.50

0.86

0.64

0.75

0.85

1.13E-06

1.306

0.012

1.294

1.29E-03

1.32E-06

1.70

0.86

0.84

1.00

0.84

1.10E-06

1.291

0.012

1.279

1.28E-03

1.28E-06

1.83

0.86

0.97

1.25

0.78

9.97E-07

1.317

0.012

1.305

1.31E-03

1.34E-06

2.10

0.86

1.24

1.50

0.83

1.11E-06

1.320

0.012

1.308

1.31E-03

1.34E-06

2.30

0.86

1.44

1.75

0.82

1.11E-06

1.295

0.012

1.283

1.28E-03

1.29E-06

2.60

0.86

1.74

2.00

0.87

1.12E-06

1.293

0.012

1.281

1.28E-03

1.29E-06

2.87

0.86

2.01

2.25

0.89

1.15E-06

1.314

0.012

1.302

1.30E-03

1.33E-06

3.08

0.86

2.22

2.50

0.89

1.18E-06

1.295

1.29E-03

1.32E-06

0.85

1.11E-06

1.307

Resistance vs Temperature for M

Resistance vs. Temperature Characteristic for a Metallic Conductor


Resistance
R (Ohms)

Temperature
T (*C)

9.93

13.7

10.28

22.4

18

10.51

31.6

16

10.76

43.1

11.32

52.8

11.32

63.2

11.70

71.7

12.23

83.4

12.78

92.5

Resistance vs. Temperature for a Metallic Conductor


20

Resistance (Ohms)

14

f(x) = 0.03x + 9.43

12
10
8
6
4
2
0
0

10

20

30

40

50

60

Temperature (*C)

Page 33

70

80

90

100

Resistance vs Temperature for M

Page 34

Resistance vs Temperature for M

nductor

80

90

100

Page 35

Resistance vs Temperature for M

Page 36

Resistance vs. Temperature Characteristic for a Thermistor


Resistance Temperature
R (Ohms)
T (*C)

Resistance vs. Temperature Curve for a Thermistor


200

176.0

11.0

152.0

14.5

180

83.0

29.0

160

49.0

41.0

36.0

49.0

24.0

58.0

16.0

68.0

13.0

76.0

9.0

90.0

f(x) = 254.3472534815 exp( -0.0390537077 x )

Resistance (Ohms)

140
120
100
80
60
40
20
0
0

10

20

30

40

50

60

Temperature (*C)

70

80

90

100

To Investigate the Variation of Fundamental Frequency vs Length for a Stretched String


The Resonance Point is found for a series of tuning forks by varying the Length of the wire
Fundamental
Frequency
f

Length
L

1/L

fxL

Hz

m.Hz

173.0

0.80

1.25

138.40

193.0

0.70

1.43

135.10

230.0

0.60

1.67

138.00

273.0

0.50

2.00

136.50

335.0

0.40

2.50

134.00

455.0

0.30

3.33

136.50

200

675.0

0.20

5.00

135.00

100

Fundamental Freq vs Length for Stretched String


800

f(x) = 134.4x + 3.6

700

Frequency (Hz)

-1

600
500
400
300

Slope =

135.6

Hz.m

0.0

1.0

Product of f x L should be a constant

2.0

3.0
1/Length

4.0

5.0

6.0

Stretched String vs Tension

To Investigate the Variation of Fundamental Frequency vs Tension for a Stretched String


The Resonance Point is found for a series of tuning forks by varying the Tension of the string
Fundamental
Frequency

Tension

Sq. Root
Tension

F
Hz

T
N

T0.5

Fundamental Freq vs. Tension


500

f(x) = 67.79x + 1.34

450

15.0

3.87

400

304.0

20.0

4.47

350

342.0

25.0

5.00

371.0

30.0

5.48

402.0

35.0

5.92

431.0

40.0

6.32

456.0

45.0

6.71

Frequency (Hz)

264.0

300
250
200
150
100

Slope =

68.03

50
0
0

SQ. Root of Tension

Page 39

Current vs Voltage Curve for a Metallic Conductor:


Voltage Current Resistance
Volts
Amps
Ohms
V
I
R
0.25

8.03

4.00

0.50

7.94

6.00

0.75

7.97

8.00

0.99

8.06

10.00

1.26

7.96

Average

7.99

Resistance = 1 / slope
Slope =

0.13

A/V

R=

7.69

Ohms

1.40

f(x) = 0.13x - 0.00


1.20

Current (Amps)

2.00

Metallic Conductor

1.00
0.80
0.60
0.40
0.20
0.00
1.00

2.00

3.00

4.00

5.00

6.00

7.00

Voltage (V)

8.00

9.00

10.00 11.00

Current vs Voltage Curve for a Filament Bulb:


Current Resistance

Volts

Amps

Ohms

0.00

0.00

#DIV/0!

1.00

0.20

5.00

2.00

0.30

6.67

3.00

0.35

8.57

4.00

0.38

10.53

5.00

0.39

12.82

6.00

0.40

15.19

Filament Bulb
0.45
0.40
0.35
0.30

Current (Amps)

Voltage

0.25
0.20
0.15
0.10
0.05
0.00
0.00

1.00

2.00

3.00
4.00
Voltage (V)

5.00

6.00

7.00

Current vs Voltage Curve for a Copper Sulfate Solution with Copper Electrodes:
Voltage

Current

Resistance

Volts

Amps

Ohms

4.5

0.00

0.00

#DIV/0!

4.0

2.00

0.64

3.12

4.00

1.24

3.23

6.00

1.97

3.05

8.00

2.53

3.16

10.00

3.26

3.07

12.00

3.81

3.15

The electrodes take part in the chemical


reaction (anode is consumed here)

f(x) = 0.32x - 0.00

3.5
3.0

Current (Amps)

This process is called Active Electrolysis

Copper Sulfate Solution

2.5
2.0
1.5
1.0
0.5
0.0
0.0

2.0

4.0

6.0
8.0
Voltage (V)

10.0

12.0

14.0

Current vs Voltage Curve for a Semiconductor Diode:


Forward Bias

Reverse Bias

Semiconductor Diode
Voltage

Current

Voltage

Current

Volts

milliamps

Volts

microamps

mA

uA

100

80
0.00

0.00

0.00

0.10

0.70

-0.40

-0.50

0.20

1.30

-0.80

-0.60

0.30

2.30

-1.20

-1.20

0.40

4.10

-1.60

-1.38

0.50

10.00

-2.00

-1.90

0.60

22.00

-2.40

-2.23

0.70

47.00

-2.80

-2.51

0.80

100.00

-3.20

-2.87

60

Current (milliAmps)

0.00

40

20

0
-4

-3

-2

-1

0
-20

Voltage (V)