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Third Crusade

The Third Crusade (11891192), also known as the Kings' Crusade, was an attempt by European leaders to reconquer the Holy Land from Saladin. It was largely successful, but fell short of its ultimate goal, the re-conquest of Jerusalem The capture of Jerusalem by Saladin in 1187 Having made himself sultan of Egypt, Saladin united the Moslems of Syria under his sway and then advanced against the Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem. The Christians met him in a great battle near the lake of Galilee. It ended in the rout of their army and the capture of their king. Even the Holy Cross, which they had carried in the midst of the fight, became the spoil of the conqueror. Saladin quickly reaped the fruits of victory. The Christian cities of Syria opened their gates to him, and at last Jerusalem itself surrendered after a short siege. Little now remained of the possessions which the crusaders had won in the East. The Third Crusade is organised The news of the taking of Jerusalem spread consternation throughout western Christendom. The cry for another crusade arose on all sides. Once more thousands of men sewed the cross in gold, or silk, or cloth upon their garments and set out for the Holy Land. When the three greatest rulers of Europe - King Philip Augustus of France, King Richard I of England, and the German emperor, Frederick Barbarossa assumed the cross, it seemed that nothing could prevent the restoration of Christian supremacy in Syria. These great rulers set out, each at the head of a large army, for the recovery of the Holy City of Jerusalem. King Richard raises Money for the Third Crusade King Richard I of England (afterwards given the title of 'Coeur de Lion', the "Lion-hearted," in memory of his heroic exploits in Palestine) was the central figure among the Christian knights of this crusade. He raised money for the enterprise by the persecution and robbery of the Jews the imposition of an unusual tax upon all classes the sale of offices, dignities, and the royal lands

When someone expostulated with him on the means employed to raise money, he declared that "he would sell the city of London, if he could find a purchaser." The Death of Frederick Barbarossa, the German Emperor The German crusaders, attempting the overland route, was consumed in Asia Minor by the hardships of the march and the swords of the Turks. The Germans under Frederick Barbarossa were the first to start. This great emperor was now nearly seventy years old, yet age had not lessened his crusading zeal. The Emperor Frederick, according to the most probable accounts, was drowned while crossing a swollen stream, and the most of the survivors of his army, disheartened by the loss of their leader, returned to Germany. The Third Crusade - the Siege of Acre The English and French kings finally mustered their forces beneath the walls of Acre, which city the Christians were then besieging. It is estimated that 600,000 men were engaged in the investment of the place. After one of the longest and most costly sieges they ever carried on in Asia, the crusaders at last forced the place to capitulate, in spite of all the efforts of Saladin to render the garrison relief. The Third Crusade - the Capture of Acre in 1191 The expedition of the French and English achieved little, other than the capture of Acre. Philip and Richard, who came by sea, captured Acre after a hard siege, but their quarrels prevented them from following up this initial success. King Philip soon went home, leaving the further conduct of the crusade in Richard's hands.

The Third Crusade - King Richard and Saladin The knightly adventures and chivalrous exploits which mark the career of Richard in the Holy Land read like a romance. Nor was the chief of the Mohammedans, the renowned Saladin, lacking in any of those knightly virtues with which the writers of the time invested the character of the English hero. At one time, when Richard was sick with a fever, Saladin, knowing that he was poorly supplied with delicacies, sent him a gift of the choicest fruits of the land. And on another occasion, Richard's horse having been killed in battle, the sultan caused a fine Arabian steed to be led to the Christian camp as a present for his rival. For two years did Richard the Lion-hearted vainly contend in almost daily combat with his generous antagonist for the possession of the tomb of Christ. King Richard in the Holy Land 1191 - 1192 The English king remained in the Holy Land. His campaigns during this time gained for him the title of "Lion-hearted," by which he is always known. He had many adventures and performed knightly exploits without number, but could not capture Jerusalem. Tradition declares that when, during a truce, some crusaders went up to Jerusalem, Richard refused to accompany them, saying that he would not enter as a pilgrim the city which he could not rescue as a conqueror. The Truce between King Richard and Saladin The English king remained for longer in the Holy Land than the other leaders. King Richard and Saladin finally concluded a truce by the terms of which Christians were permitted to visit Jerusalem without paying tribute, that they should have free access to the holy places, and remain in undisturbed possession of the coast from Jaffa to Tyre. King Richard then set sail for England, and with his departure from the Holy Land the Third Crusade came to an end. The Ransom of King Richard King Richard on his return from the Holy Land was shipwrecked off the coast of the Adriatic. Attempting to travel through Austria in disguise, he was captured by the duke of Austria, whom he had offended at the siege of Acre. The king regained his liberty only by paying a ransom equivalent to more than twice the annual revenues of England.

The Second Crusade

It was the first of the crusades to be led by European king - Louis VII of France Louis VII, king of France, was led to undertake the crusade through remorse for an act of great cruelty that he had perpetrated upon some of his revolted subjects. - Conrad III of Germany Conrad III, emperor of Germany, was persuaded to leave the affairs of his distracted empire in the hands of God, and consecrate himself to the defence of the sepulchre of Christ The Second Crusade - 1147 - 1149 The success of the Christians in the First Crusade had been largely due to the disunion among their enemies, but the Muslims learned in time the value of united action, and in 1144 A.D. succeeded in capturing Edessa, one of the principal Christian outposts in the East. The fall of the city of Edessa, followed by the loss of the entire county of Edessa, aroused Western Europe to the danger which threatened the Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem and led to another crusading enterprise The Second Crusade and the Origin of the Religious Orders of Knighthood In the interval between the Second and the Third Crusade, the two famed religious military orders, known as the Hospitallers and the Templars, were formed. A little later, during the Third Crusade, still another fraternity, known as the Teutonic Knights was established. The objects of all the orders were the care of the sick and wounded crusaders, the entertainment of Christian pilgrims, the guarding of the holy places, and ceaseless battling for the Cross. These fraternities soon acquired a military fame that was spread throughout the Christian world. They were joined by many of the most illustrious knights of the West, and through the gifts of the pious acquired great wealth, and became possessed of numerous estates and castles in Europe as well as in Asia The Cause of the Second Crusade - The Fall and Massacre at Edessa In the year 1146, the city of Edessa, the bulwark of the Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem on the side towards Mesopotamia, was taken by the Turks, and the entire population was slaughtered, or sold into slavery. This disaster threw the entire West into a state of the greatest alarm, lest the little Christian state, established at such cost of tears and suffering, should be completely overwhelmed, and all the holy places should again fall into the hands of the infidels The Second Crusade - The Preaching of St. Bernard The apostle of the Second Crusade was the great abbot of Clairvaux, St. Bernard. Scenes of the wildest enthusiasm marked his preaching. The scenes that marked the opening of the First Crusade were now repeated in all the countries of the West. St. Bernard, an eloquent monk, was the second Peter the Hermit, who went everywhere, arousing the warriors of the Cross to the defence of the birthplace of their religion. When the churches were not large enough to hold the crowds which flocked to hear him, he spoke from platforms erected in the fields The Failure of the Second Crusade The Second Crusade, though begun under the most favorable auspices, had an unhappy ending. Of the great host that set out from Europe, only a few thousands escaped annihilation in Asia Minor at the hands of the Turks. Louis and Conrad, with the remnants of their armies, made a joint attack on Damascus, but had to raise the siege after a few days. This closed the crusade. As a chronicler of the expedition remarked, "having practically accomplished nothing, the inglorious ones returned home." The strength of both the French and the German division of the expedition was wasted in Asia Minor, and the crusade accomplished nothing

The First Crusade

Preaching of the Crusade On the 27th of November 1095 at the end of a church council at Clermont, Pope Urban II launched the 1stnd Crusade The Pope had managed to draw together a number of issues and concerns of the late eleventh-century society and enveloped them into a single, popular idea Whoever for devotion alone, not to gain honour or money, goes to Jerusalem to liberate the Church of God can substitute this journey for all penance Urban laid great emphasis on crusading as a penitential act There was a tradition where Popes became involved with war Pope Leo IX had fought the Normans of Sicily in 1053 The Holy Sepulchre was the ultimate goal of the crusade Indulgences played an important role

Preparation for the Crusade Urban wrote letters asking for support He toured Northern France seeking recruits for the crusade personally To buy chainmail, horses and supplies for oneself it would cost 4 years of a knights annual salary Crusading was expensive

The Crusade sets out It is estimated that 60,000 people went on crusade 10% of these people were knights 90% were servants , pilgrims, and hangers-on (women, children, the poor, the old and the sick) These last groups were a major handy-cap to the main forces as they also needed to be fed and protected The Pope regarded the crusade as a papally-directed enterprise and had therefore not invited any secular monarchy to become involved The armies of the great nobles arrived at Constantinople between 1096-97 There were problems with discipline, there was also a language barrier Emperor Alexius was expected to join and lead the crusade, but the trouble caused by Peter the Hermits crusaders and the size and strength of the main forces caused Alexius great concern All leaders had to swear oath to Alexius The westerners were reliant on the Greeks for supplies after hard negotiation Raymond of Saint Gilles took the oath to maintain the emperors life

The Muslim Near East The Islamic world was complicated and turbulent very much to the crusaders advantage There was a power vacuum in Asia Minor and northern Syria The Muslims failed to recognise the crusade as an army of religious colonisation, and evidence suggests that they saw it as another raid from the Byzantine Empire rather than an army set on the capture and settlement of land

The Crusade in Asia Minor and the siege of Antioch In May 1097 the crusaders began the siege of Nicaea in Asia Minor By mid-June they had joined the western armies and the city soon surrendered and was taken into Byzantine hands By mid-September the crusade began to split up Bohemond of Tarantos nephew, Tancred, raided areas of Cilicia and captured a number of towns, including Tarsus and Adana Baldwin of Boulogne, Godfrey of Bouillons brother headed further east towards the city of Edessa This territory was controlled by the Christian Armenians who welcomed the crusaders support against the Muslims that surrounded them Baldwin was soon adopted as heir to the country although he quickly side-lined the Armenian rulers and by March 1098 he had set up the first of the Latin settlements in the Levant The county of Edessa was a fertile region located astride the Euphrates river and in the forty-six years the crusaders held the area it would provide important food and resources for the other settlements There was a substantial amount of intermarriage between the Franks and the Armenians The main crusading army had pushed on across the Anatolian plateau and in 1097 arrived at the city of Antioch in northern Syria The city itself was strongly defended with a powerful ring of walls it was well provisioned and had a formidable citadel high above the main settlement Antioch was a site of great religious importance as the home of the apostle Luke and the seat of one of the five patriarchal seats in the Christian Church The siege of Antioch lasted 8 months The crusaders endured terrible conditions including the bitterly cold Syrian winter The crusaders ran short of food supplies most of their horses died and the cost of all foodstuffs was hugely inflated The Franks explained this dilemma by reasoning that they had incurred Gods disfavour In June 1098 the crusaders gained some success, Bohemond of Taranto chose to ignore the oaths to Alexius and to set up an independent principality at Antioch Before dawn on the 3rd of June 1098 a rope was lowered from the walls of Antioch and the crusaders began to swarm over the walls a terrible massacre took place and much booty was taken but the defenders withdrew to the citadel which meant that the crusaders had only taken the outer shell of Antioch The crusaders themselves were besieged as the forces from Mosul arrived outside the city walls trapping them between the relief force and the Muslims in the citadel Franks deserted including Count Stephen of Blois, he met Alexius on his return through Asia Minor and this led to Alexius turning back as the whole enterprise was a forgone failure Bohemond claimed that the Byzantines had broken the agreement to provide military support and this in turn released the crusaders from their obligation to return captured lands to the Greeks Only a miracle could save the crusaders that in effect is what happened, a pilgrim claimed to have had a vision in which St Andrew revealed to him where the Holy Lance, the lance which had pierced Christs side during the crucifixion On the 14th of June the relic was discovered and this endangered such religious fervour that morale in the Christian army was transformed On the 28th of June 1098 the Franks lined up outside the city and after performing some complex military manoeuvres, probably borne out of the battle-hardness and cohesion acquired during three years on campaign, they forced the Muslims to flee

Bohemond was able to establish his principality, but the breaking of his oath to Alexius frustrated the Greeks long-term intentions of re-establishing their influence in northern Syria this meant that the relations between Antioch and Byzantium would be marked by periods of considerable tension

The Siege of Jerusalem In December 1098 the Franks besieged the town of Maarrat an Numan Once again supplies became and insure and there are reports that the crusaders resorted to cannibalism to sustain themselves On the 7th of June 1099 the Franks finally reached Jerusalem The city was controlled by Egyptian Shii forces The Christians made little progress in the early stages of the siege On the 15th of July Godfrey of Bouillons men managed to fill the moat and cross on to the ramparts and enter the city Jerusalem fell to the crusaders and after years of effort and toil the accumulated tensions the march spilled over into an appalling massacre of the Muslim and Jewish defenders Three weeks later an Egyptian force was defeated at Ascalon and the success of the First Crusade was assured The crusaders believed that God had blessed their expedition for it to have succeeded

The Crusading Movement and the Latin East, 10951204

Explain why Pope Urban II called the First Crusade [12] The First Crusade was a military expedition from 1096 to 1099, to regain the Holy Lands taken in the Muslim conquest of the Levant, ultimately resulting in the recapture of Jerusalem. It was launched in 1095 by Pope Urban II with the primary goal of responding to an appeal from Byzantine Emperor Alexius I Komnenos, who requested that western volunteers come to his aid and help to repel the invading Seljuk Turks from Anatolia. An additional goal soon became the principal objectivethe Christian reconquest of the sacred city of Jerusalem and the Holy Land and the freeing of the Eastern Christians from Islamic rule. The First Crusade was largely concerned with Jerusalem, a city which had not been under Christian dominion for 461 years, and the crusader army's refusal to return the land to the control of the Byzantine Empire, the status of the First Crusade as defensive or as aggressive in nature remains controversial. The First Crusade was part of the Christian response to the Muslim conquests, and was followed by the Second Crusade to the Ninth Crusade. It is now impossible to assess exactly why the First Crusade occurred, the truth being lost to history, although many possible causes have been suggested by historians some of these are the increase in violence in the east to de stabilize that area, the expansion of the roman church over the Greek Orthodox church, the pope was interested in reuniting the western and eastern churches and the reduction of Islamic power. Until the crusaders' arrival the Byzantines had continually fought the Seljuks and other Turkish dynasties for control of Anatolia and Syria. The Seljuks, who were orthodox Sunni Muslims, had formerly ruled the Great Seljuk Empire, but by the time of the First Crusade had divided into several smaller states after the death of Malik-Shah I in 1092. How important was religious fervour to the success of the First Crusade? [24] Leadership was a key factor which contributed to the success of the First Crusade was the quality of the crusaders leadership. They were led by experienced princes who had seen combat in numerous wars. This competent leadership can be seen through the tactics which they used. An example of this was shown on June 30th 1097 when Bohemond's army was surrounded from all sides by a Turkish army. The papal legate Adhemar of Le Puy performed a clever diversion of crossing the mountains to go around the enemy and flank them from behind. According to Baldwin, this change in tactics "...caused them to flee in panic and confusion" Despite this evidence which showed the crusaders leadership as positive, there are also examples of the leaders not acting as a unified force. In particular was the growing tension between Raymond and Bohemond. Furthermore, some of the main leaders were driven to a degree by their own ambition and this led to mistakes. An example of this is the massacre of 300 Norman troops who Baldwin of Boulogne had forced to camp outside the walls of his newly captured town of Tarsus because he did not trust them and hence they were slaughtered by the town's former garrison under nightfall. Asbridge describes this massacre as a vicious affair, "...beheading some, slaughtering others...leaving few alive" Urban phrased his appeal for Holy War in 1095 in the context of remission of sin. The growing religious intensity of the age, signified by the Investiture Contest, along with the Christianising evolution of the knighted, military class, meant that the promise of the remission of sin was extremely appealing to a religious, warrior aristocracy.[4] It is easy to overemphasise the religious motivation of Crusaders, but it was common for the Christian knight to seek both genuine religious redemption and wealth in the form of captured booty from the enemy and all these factors helped in the process of preaching and organising the great expedition to the east. Motivation provided by the indulgence; the crusade as pilgrimage and the importance of the crusader vow and the promise of remission of sins, and crusade as a penitential act.

Asbridge: "...crusaders demonstrated a capacity for intense religious devotion" The size of the crusader army caused many problems. Supplies were continuously at a shortage however they overcame this. The main reason they managed to do this was for them to make allies within the region. Though there were some troubles between the crusaders and the Byzantines, the Byzantine Emperor Alexius I was willing to help the crusaders with a small military force, supplies and engineers. The engineers in particular were very important as they enabled siege engines to be built which was very important in the capture of towns. The capture of towns was important as it provided supplies for the crusaders and allowed them to continue their journey therefore the alliance with Alexius was a necessity in the success of the Crusade. Similarly, another very important alliance which was made was with the Armenians. There are numerous examples where the Armenians helped out the Crusaders. With their help, the crusaders were able to capture Edessa and form the first crusader state called the County of Edessa and Baldwin was made leader of this. It was also an Armenian guard who Bohemond bribed at Antioch to open the cities gates. Furthermore, it was an Armenian commander who helped the crusaders capture Jerusalem by surrendering his tower on the main walls to them. Without the help of an Armenian at Jerusalem, a lengthy siege would have occurred and the Crusaders would have run out of supplies. Baldwin of Boulogne also had an Armenian called Pakrad on his staff that knew the area well and provided much help on military tactics. Another ally whom the Crusaders had was the Christian people which inhabited the east. Whenever they could, they offered supplies however they were not as influential as the Armenians or Byzantines as there is evidence which showed that most of the Christians were quite content with their Muslim overlords. These allies which the Crusaders made were very important as the First Crusade would have not been successful if they had ran out of supplies. One of the most important reasons for the success of the first crusade was the disunity within the Muslim nations in and around the holy land and their underestimation of the threat to which the crusaders posed. During the time of the first crusade, Egypt, Syrian, Anatolia, and Palestine were under the control of the Muslims. However, as they were culturally and politically fragmented, this contributed to the success of the first Crusade. These differences can be seen through the internal rivalry which had been going on between competing territories. Anatolia and Syria were controlled by the Sunni Seljuk's, and used to be unified in one big empire but in 1092 the Seljuk sultan died and his sons quarrelled over who would succeed him. So the sultan's once large empire was split between the competing sons. This fragmentation which appeared in the Eastern countries was very important as if they were combined, the force which would be formed would have been too strong for the invading crusaders. The Byzantines did call for crusader help, although they did not expect the large lumbering force that arrived at the walls of Constantinople, the number is presumed to range from between 50,000 to 60,000 men with 10% being well armed knights and the other 90% being hangers on, people whom had no training, lacked military credentials and the necessary items to travel to the Levant. The Byzantines also contributed to the success of the first crusade through the provision of guides and supplies during the crossing of Anatolia and at Antioch.

Explain why knights went on the Second Crusade [12] The rise of Zengi The Popes message in Quantum Preadecessores Bernards preaching at Vezelay and Speyer Generic spiritual motives including the remission of sins Family traditions of crusading King Louis decision to go to Jerusalem and events at Vitry The news of the fall of Edessa

Knights went on the Second Crusade for a variety of reasons including the rise of Zengi, the news of the fall of Edessa and the Popes message in Quantum Preadecessores. Furthermore, family traditions developed after the 1st Crusade played a role in the sense knights felt it to be their duty to go on crusade. The sense of family tradition ties in with the generic spiritual motives for venturing on crusade, including the remission of sins in the sense that it was an added bonus. In some part King Louis decision to go to Jerusalem played a less significant role, although may have attracted potential crusaders to hazarding the expedition which was the 2nd Crusade. How far was the Second Crusade a failure because it attempted to achieve too much? [24] In this essay I will explore the 2nd Crusade and the reasons for its failure, including the scale of the endeavour, the lack of Byzantine support among others. The Second Crusade was a primarily a failure due to its attempt to achieve too much, although the poor leadership from Louis and Conrad, the leaders of the crusade, played a significant role in the eventual collapse of the crusade. The fact that the crusade was a war on three fronts, the effort to the Holy Land, Iberia and the Baltic meant that it overstretched both of the numbers and supplies of the crusade. It also made communication extremely difficult; it spread the crusaders focus too broadly leading to its loss. The lack of Byzantine support links into this as without the assistance of the Byzantines in the 1st Crusade with the provision of guides, supplies and engineers the likely outcome of the 1st Crusade would have been failure, the complete lack of support, due to their peace treaty with the Muslims. The conduct of past crusaders such as Bohemond of Taranto in the 1st Crusade and its aftermath also supplemented the reasons as to why Byzantium refused to assist the crusade as Bohemond had refused to hand over captured lands to the Byzantines after the failure of the Byzantines to provide reinforcements for the crusade after encountering Stephen of Blois as he returned to Europe after deciding the crusade was a lost cause, convincing the Byzantines the same. The scale of the endeavour, a war on three fronts, the dissipation of effort to the Holy Land, Iberia and the Baltic The loss of maritime support for Louis and Conrad. Lack of Byzantine support The lack of leadership from Louis and Conrad The lack of a clear aim in the Holy Land Nur al-Din and Muslim unity. Good answers are likely to/may show an awareness that events in Anatolia were of key importance in the failure of the crusade

Explain why Byzantium was hostile to the Second Crusade [12] The political situation in the Near East, relations between Emperor Manuel and the Seljuk Turks in Anatolia, the Sultan of Rum

Peace treaty between Byzantine Empire and Seljuk Turks The aftermath of the First Crusade, Bohemond and Antioch

Refusing to give over lands, Bohemond remains prince of Antioch Cultural and religious differences The conduct of past crusaders Doctrinal tensions between the Orthodox and Catholic Churches The campaigns of Emperor John and the political situation in the early 1140s The behaviour of participants crossing Byzantine territory Manuels relations with Roger II of Sicily

How important was Muslim unity to the failure of the Second Crusade? The scale of the endeavour, a war on three fronts, the dissipation of effort to the Holy Land, Iberia and the Baltic The loss of maritime support for Louis and Conrad. Lack of Byzantine support The lack of leadership from Louis and Conrad The lack of a clear aim in the Holy Land Nur al-Din and Muslim unity Explain why Pope Eugenius III called the Second Crusade [12] In December 1144, the first crusader state, the county of Edessa had fallen to the Muslims. The response by the papacy was a call to crusade through a papal bull, Quantum Preadecessores The Pope sought to stimulate a major crusading effort by exhorting western knights with the glorious deeds of their fathers Eugenius sought to define the crusading privileges which participants would earn. The weakness of the Crusader states in manpower The rise of Zengi and Muslim unity under Jihad. Some of the following short term/immediate factors: The papal pronouncement was issued in December 1145 and then reissued in 1 March, 1146 to assert papal control over the movement at a time when King Louis VII was considering leading an expedition The leadership crisis amongst the Christians in the Near East and the Kingdom of Jerusalem in particular.

To reach higher levels, candidates will need to show the inter-relationship of the reasons given, for example they might make detailed reference to the content of Quantum Preadecessores How far was the failure of the Second Crusade the responsibility of the Franks of Outremer? [24] Factors suggesting the role of the Franks of Outremer in the failure of the Second Crusade might include: The weak leadership and power vacuum provided by King Baldwin III and his mother Melisende Divisions over crusade aims between King Louis, Count Raymond and Count Joscelin The events at the council of Acre in June 1148 and divisions between the Palestinian lords and the crusaders The decision to attack Damascus, an ally of Jerusalem and the events of the siege. Factors suggesting other reasons for failure might include: Lack of help from Byzantium in Anatolia, the losses suffered by the German and French armies Poor leadership by the western Kings The crusades lack of focus and breadth of aims. Good answers are likely to/may show an awareness that crusading provided a weak response to the long-term strategic weaknesses of the Crusader states in terms of manpower and geography, or the key issue of Muslim unity in comparison to the position in the 1090s. Explain why the Third Crusade took place [12] The decline of the Latin kingdom of Jerusalem and Saladins victory at Hattin The deep divisions within crusader society, especially the succession crisis. Generic, spiritual motivation and the message and privileges contained in the Papal Bull, Audita tremendi, penance, faith and chivalric virtue Royal motives of prestige, candidates may develop the motives of Frederick Barbarossa, King Richard and King Philip II The impact of the loss of Jerusalem, and the need to avenge the loss of Christs patrimony, the shock of its loss, including the death of the Pope. To reach higher levels, candidates will need to show the inter-relationship of the reasons given, for example they might expand on the three and half year gap/delay between the crusades launch and the battle of Hattin

How far was the failure of the Third Crusade due to lack of manpower? [24] The loss of Frederick Barbarossa and the German contingent The death of King William II and the loss of the Sicilian fleet The size of the crusade contingents from France and England. The divisions between King Richard and King Philip, and especially the disagreements over the throne of Jerusalem Disagreement over purpose, the issue of Jerusalem or Egypt Richards need to leave to secure his kingdom from the actions of Philip and John. Good answers are likely to/may show awareness that many historians think the crusade was not a failure. Reference may be made to the territory gained, the impact of Arsuf on Saladins reputation and the healed divisions over the kingship Explain why Pope Innocent III called the Fourth Crusade [12] Innocents determination to restore Christian control over the Holy Land, in particular the reconquest of Jerusalem Pope Innocents desire to reassert Papal control over the crusading movement, especially after the crusade of Emperor Henry VI The fragile position of the Crusader states after the death of the King of Jerusalem, Henry of Champagne The loss of Jerusalem in 1187 and the failure of the Third Crusade in 1192 The opportunities presented by the death of Saladin in 1193 and divisions within the Muslim world Innocents desire to stabilise European politics and end conflict between secular powers, especially England and France How far was the failure of the Fourth Crusade the responsibility of Enrico Dandolo? [24] His role in creating the treaty with the crusade envoys His motives regarding Egypt, this theory may be questioned Dandolos role in the diversion to Zara in autumn 1202 and to Constantinople in June 1203. The role of the envoys and their over-estimation of numbers The Hagenau plot and the role of young Alexius The theory of accidents. The failure of young Alexius to fulfil his agreement with the crusaders in 12031204 Good answers are likely to/may show awareness that failure only became inevitable after the sack of Constantinople in April 1204 and that to many contemporaries the conquest of Byzantium and the re-unification of the Church were successes

Explain why the Peoples Crusade of 1096 failed [12] Peters lack of skill and control, the nature of his rag-tag army Events such as Nish and defeat at Nicaea Reference to lack of military participants/skill, lack of discipline and the limited number of knights The attitude of lay authorities such as the Kings of Hungary and Bulgaria and the Emperor of Byzantium Lack of preparation, that Peter and Hermit led tens of thousands of pilgrims enthused with crusader zeal in 1096 before the official departure date Explanation of the factors which led to defeat, perhaps focused around events in Asia Minor and lack of discipline, defeat by Kilij Arslan The issue of supplies. To reach higher levels, candidates will need to show the inter-relationship of the reasons given, for example they might stress the lack of cohesion and organisation in contrast to the more successful second wave How important was the recapture of Jerusalem as a motivation for participants in the First Crusade? [24] The lure of Jerusalem and the Holy Sepulchre may be linked to issues such as the crusade as a penitential pilgrimage, the crusader vow, the remission of sins and indulgence and the spiritual commitment of crusaders stirred by tales of the mistreatment of pilgrims Idealism and piety, the attraction of the Holy Sepulchre and the Holy Places The condition of Jerusalem and access to for pilgrims. Materialism/greed Issues such as the knightly ethos or vendetta The ambitions of individuals such as Bohemond of Taranto Explain why Edessa was captured in 1144. [12] The power vacuum among the Christians in N. Syria following the death of King Fulk in 1143 and of John, Emperor of Byzantium in late 1142 The weakness of Jerusalem under Queen Melisende. Divisions within the Franks, Ill will between the Prince of Antioch and the Count of Edessa the Franks needed a strong king to maintain Christian unity The rise of Muslim unity in North Syria under Zengi of Mosul, his capture of Aleppo, Maarret and Barin and then the garrison at Edessa History Growing Muslim unity under the concept of Jihad Frankish states weaknesses in geography and manpower The aftermath of the Battle of the Field of Blood in 1119.

Count Joscelins absence in December and Raymond, the prince of Antiochs refusal to help defend the city. To reach higher levels, candidates will need to show the inter-relationship of the reasons given, for example they might highlight the unique features of Edessa; its geographical and political isolation. How far was the failure of the Second Crusade due to the lack of help from Byzantium? [24] The difficulties faced by Louis and Conrad crossing Anatolia, lack of byzantine guides and supplies Manuels relationship with the sultanate of Rum Events at Dorylaeum and Attalia Lack of clear aims and focus Poor leadership and decision-making by Louis and Conrad The decision to attack Damascus in July 1148. Good answers are likely to/may show an awareness that the weaknesses of the Second Crusade in leadership, lack of clear aims, lack of aid from Byzantium, all bear direct comparison with the strengths of the First Crusade Explain why the West did not provide help to the Crusader states in the 1180s [12] Angevin/Capetian rivalry, the youth of the new French King, Philip II King Henrys age and the lack of a strong King in Jerusalem The failure of Pope Alexanders bull in 1181 and Patriarch Heracliuss mission in 1184. The long-term impact of the failure of the Second Crusade The impact of King Baldwin IVs victory at Montgisard in 1177 Relations between the Papacy and Emperor Frederick Barbarossa of Germany Tensions between King Henry and his sons To reach higher levels, candidates will need to show the inter-relationship of the reasons given, for example they might stress the weakness of crusades which were by their very nature temporary and this did not resolve the predicament of the Crusader states-they needed Latin settlers and an increase in the forces permanently garrisoned in Outremer How important was the leadership of Saladin to the collapse of the Crusader states in 1187? [24] His strategy in 1187 and the events of the battle of Hattin The manner in which he united the Muslim world under his leadership and the numerical strength this provided the impact of Jihad The political divisions within the leadership of the Kingdom of Jerusalem The poor decision-making of King Guy of Lusignan King Baldwin IVs accession in 1174 may be seen as a turning-point Good answers are likely to/may show awareness that the Crusader states faced a crisis including long-term structural weaknesses and lack of help from Byzantium and the west.