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PREMARITAL HIV TESTING IS IMPORTANT TO WEDDING

COUPLES

TABLE OF CONTENTS

NO TITLE PAGE

1 1.0 In class activities 2

2 2.0 Introduction 3

2.1 Title 3

2.1.1 Reason for choosing the title 3

2.1.2 General purpose 3

2.1.3 Specific purpose 3

2.1.4 Central ideas 3

2.1.4.1 Definition of HIV 3

2.1.4.2 Symptoms of HIV 5

2.1.4.3 The Effect and Causes of HIV 6

2.1.4.4 Ways to prevent from getting HIV 7

2.1.4.5 The Advantages of Having HIV Testing before get Married 7

3 3.0 Body 8

3.1 Definition of HIV 8

3.2 Symptoms of HIV 9

3.3 The Effect and Causes of HIV 10

3.4 Ways to prevent from getting HIV 11

3.5 The Advantages of Having HIV Testing before get Married 12

4 4.0 Conclusion 13

5 References 14

6 Evaluation form 15

7 CD 16

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1.0 IN CLASS ACTIVITIES

Week Date Class activities


1 6/1/2009 Introduction to BEL492
2 13/1/2009 Lectures on public speaking
3 20/1/2009 Lectures on introduction
4 27/1/2009 Mid term break (Chinese New Year)
5 3/2/2009 Lectures on preparation outline
6 10/2/2009 Lectures on student portfolio
7 17/2/2009 Lectures on bibliography
8 24/2/2009 Presentation1
9 3/3/2009 Trip to Bank Negara Malaysia and Pemodalan Nasional Berhad
10 10/3/2009 Briefing about preparation outline
11 17/3/2009 Class cancel
12 24/3/2009 Presentation 2 – 1st group
13 31/3/2009 Presentation 2 – 2nd group
14 7/4/2009 Lecture
15 11/4/2009- Study leave

19/4/2009
16 20/4/2009- Final examination

10/5/2009
17 11/5/2009 Semester break
2.0 INTRODUCTION
2.1 Title:

“Premarital HIV Testing is Important to Wedding Couples”

2.1.1 Reason for Choosing the Title:

2.1.1.1 I am choosing this title because I am concerns regarding the rise


in HIV infection among women in recent years where statistics shows that
in Malaysia women (aged 15+) living with HIV in 2007 are about 21,000.

2.1.2 General Purpose:


To inform

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2.1.3 Specific purpose:

To inform the audience that the premarital HIV testing which has become
official to Muslims couples in Malaysia is important and should be exten-
ded to all religions.

2.1.4 Central Ideas:

2.1.4.1 Definition of HIV

2.1.4.1.1 According to Wikipedia(2009) Human immunodeficiency


virus (HIV) is a lentivirus1 (a member of the retrovirus family) that
can lead to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), a condi-
tion in humans in which the immune system begins to fail, leading
to life-threatening opportunistic infections. Previous names for the
virus include human T-lymphotropic virus-III (HTLV-III), lymphaden-
opathy-associated virus (LAV), and AIDS-associated retrovirus
(ARV).

2.1.4.1.2 Jill Cadman (July 2003) states that HIV stands for Human
Immunodeficiency Virus that causes AIDS. While many viruses can
be controlled by the immune system, HIV targets and infects the
same immune system cells that are supposed to protect us from ill-
nesses. These are a type of white blood cell called CD42 cells. HIV
takes over CD4 cells and turns them into virus factories that pro-

1
Lentivirus:"slow" virus characterized by a long interval between infection and the onset of symptoms.
HIV is a lentivirus as is the simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV), which infects nonhuman primates.
2
CD4+ T cells: white blood cells that orchestrate the immune response, signaling other
cells in the immune system to perform their special functions. Also known as T helper cells,
these cells are killed or disabled during HIV infection.

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duce thousands of viral copies. As the virus grows, it damages or


kills CD4 cells, weakening the immune system.

2.1.4.1.3 According to Maria G. Essig, MS, ELS (06/06/2007) HIV


(human immunodeficiency virus) is a virus that attacks the immune
system, the body’s natural defense system. Without a strong im-
mune system, the body has trouble fighting off disease. Both the
virus and the infection it causes are called HIV. White blood cells
are an important part of the immune system. HIV invades and des-
troys certain white blood cells called CD4+ cells. If too many CD4+
cells are destroyed, the body can no longer defend itself against in-
fection. The last stage of HIV infection is AIDS (acquired immun-
odeficiency syndrome). People with AIDS have a low number of
CD4+ cells and get infections or cancers that rarely occur in healthy
people. These can be deadly.

2.1.4.2 Symptoms of HIV

2.1.4.2.1 According to Maria G. Essig, MS, ELS (06/06/2007) the HIV may
not cause symptoms early on. People who do have symptoms may mis-
take them for the flu or mono. Common early symptoms include:

2.1.4.2.1.1 Fever

2.1.4.2.1.2 Sore throat

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2.1.4.2.1.3 Headache

2.1.4.2.1.4 Muscle aches and joint pain

2.1.4.2.1.5 Swollen glands3

2.1.4.2.1.6 Skin rash

2.1.4.2.2 Unknown author from www.epigee.org/health/hiv (2009) said that


as the infection progresses, people with HIV grow increasingly susceptible
to illnesses and infection that don't normally affect the healthy population.
Without treatment, people infected with HIV can expect to develop AIDS
eight to ten years after HIV infection. Taking HIV medications, however,
can slow down this progression. In the later stages of HIV, before it pro-
gresses to full blown AIDS, signs of HIV infection can involve more severe
symptoms include:

2.1.4.2.2.1 Chronic yeast infections or thrush

2.1.4.2.2.2 Fever and/or night sweats

2.1.4.2.2.3 Easy bruising

2.1.4.2.2.4 Bouts of extreme exhaustion

2.1.4.2.2.5 Unexplained body rashes

3
The term "swollen glands" refers to enlargement of one or more lymph nodes. In a child, a node is con-
sidered enlarged if it is more than 1 centimeter (0.4 inch) in diameter.

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2.1.4.2.2.6 Appearance of purplish lesions on the skin or inside

mouth

2.1.4.2.2.7 Sudden unexplained weight loss

2.1.4.2.2.8 Chronic diarrhea lasting for a month or more

2.1.4.3 The Effect and Causes of HIV

2.1.4.3.1 According to Sandra K. Trisdale, Ph.D (July 2003) HIV infection


is caused by the human immunodeficiency virus. HIV cannot be spread by
casual contact such as kissing or sharing drinking glasses with an infected
person. You can get HIV from:

2.1.4.3.1.1 Infected blood

2.1.4.3.1.2 Semen

2.1.4.3.1.3 Vaginal fluids

2.1.4.3.1.4 Mother-to-child

2.1.4.3.1.5 Sexual contact.

2.1.4.3.1.6 Sharing drug needles

2.1.4.4 Ways to prevent from getting HIV

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2.1.4.4.1 According to Maria G. Essig, MS, ELS (06/06/2007) the HIV can be
spread by people who don't know they are infected. To protect yourself and oth-
ers:

2.1.4.4.1.1 Practice safe sex


2.1.4.4.1.2 Don't have more than one sex partner at a time
2.1.4.4.1.3 Talk to your partner before you have sex the
first time
2.1.4.4.1.4 Don't drink a lot of alcohol or use illegal drugs
before sex
2.1.4.4.1.5 Don't share personal items
2.1.4.4.1.6 Never share needles or syringes with anyone

2.1.4.5 The Advantages of Having HIV Testing before get married

2.1.4.5.1 Unknown author from www.medscape.com (2007) said that the advant-
ages of having HIV testing are:

2.1.4.5.1.1 Couples are free from any problem that can affect their family
relationship

2.1.4.5.1.2 Couples can have a good and healthy lifestyle

2.1.4.5.1.3 It can prevent the babies from being infected by HIV

2.1.4.5.1.4 Reduce HIV transmission from being spread to other person

3.0 BODY

3.1 Definition of HIV

3.1.1 According to Wikipedia(2009) Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a


lentivirus (a member of the retrovirus family) that can lead to acquired immun-

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odeficiency syndrome (AIDS), a condition in humans in which the immune sys-


tem begins to fail, leading to life-threatening opportunistic infections. Previous
names for the virus include human T-lymphotropic virus-III (HTLV-III), lymphaden-
opathy-associated virus (LAV), and AIDS-associated retrovirus (ARV).

3.1.2 Jill Cadman (July 2003) states that HIV stands for Human Immunodefi-
ciency Virus that causes AIDS. While many viruses can be controlled by the im-
mune system, HIV targets and infects the same immune system cells that are
supposed to protect us from illnesses. These are a type of white blood cell called
CD4 cells. HIV takes over CD4 cells and turns them into virus factories that pro-
duce thousands of viral copies. As the virus grows, it damages or kills CD4 cells,
weakening the immune system.

3.1.3 According to Maria G. Essig, MS, ELS (06/06/2007) HIV (human immunode-
ficiency virus) is a virus that attacks the immune system, the body’s natural de-
fense system. Without a strong immune system, the body has trouble fighting off
disease. Both the virus and the infection it causes are called HIV. White blood
cells are an important part of the immune system. HIV invades and destroys cer-
tain white blood cells called CD4+ cells. If too many CD4+ cells are destroyed,
the body can no longer defend itself against infection.The last stage of HIV infec-
tion is AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome). People with AIDS have a
low number of CD4+ cells and get infections or cancers that rarely occur in
healthy people. These can be deadly.

3.2 Symptoms of HIV

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3.2.1 According to Maria G. Essig, MS, ELS (06/06/2007) the HIV may not cause
symptoms early on. People who do have symptoms may mistake them for the flu
or mono. Symptoms may appear from a few days to several weeks after a per-
son is first infected. The early symptoms usually go away within 2 to 3 weeks.
Common early symptoms include:

3.2.1.1 Fever
3.2.1.2 Sore throat
3.2.1.3 Headache
3.2.1.4 Muscle aches and joint pain
3.2.1.5 Swollen glands (swollen lymph nodes4)
3.2.1.6 Skin rash

3.2.2 Unknown author (2009) said that as the infection progresses, people with
HIV grow increasingly susceptible to illnesses and infection that don't normally af-
fect the healthy population. Without treatment, people infected with HIV can ex-
pect to develop AIDS eight to ten years after HIV infection. Taking HIV medica-
tions, however, can slow down this progression. With treatment, it can take ten to
15 years or more before you develop AIDS. In the later stages of HIV, before it
progresses to full blown AIDS, signs of HIV infection can involve more severe
symptoms include:

3.2.2.1 Chronic yeast infections or thrush (yeast infection of the mouth)

3.2.2.2 Fever and/or night sweats

3.2.2.3 Easy bruising

3.2.2.4 Bouts of extreme exhaustion

4
Lymph nodes are glands that play an important part in your body's defense against infection. They pro-
duce lymph, which travels throughout your body in the lymph system, and filters impurities from the body

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3.2.2.5 Unexplained body rashes

3.2.2.6 Appearance of purplish lesions on the skin or inside mouth

3.2.2.7 Sudden unexplained weight loss

3.2.2.8 Chronic diarrhea5 lasting for a month or more

3.3 The Effect and Causes of HIV

3.3.1 According to Sandra K. Trisdale, Ph.D (July 2003) HIV infection is caused by
the human immunodeficiency virus. HIV cannot be spread by casual contact such as
kissing or sharing drinking glasses with an infected person. You can get HIV from:

3.3.1.1 Infected blood (blood-to-blood contact)

3.3.1.2 Semen

3.3.1.3 Vaginal fluids

3.3.1.4 Mother-to-child (breast milk)

3.3.1.5 Sexual contact. Most people get the virus by having unprotected sex with
someone who has HIV (no condoms or other barrier devices)

3.3.1.6 Another common way of getting the virus is by sharing drug needles with
someone who is infected with HIV

3.4 Ways to prevent from getting HIV


5
Diarrhea- loose, watery stools occurring more than three times in one day--is a common problem that
usually lasts a day or two and goes away on its own without any special treatment.

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3.4.1 According to Maria G. Essig, MS, ELS (06/06/2007) the HIV can be spread
by people who don't know they are infected. To protect yourself and others:

3.4.1.1 Practice safe sex. Use a condom every time you have sex (in-
cluding oral sex) until you are sure you and your partner are not infec-
ted with HIV.

3.4.1.2 Don't have more than one sex partner at a time. The safest
sex is with one partner who has sex only with you.

3.4.1.3 Talk to your partner before you have sex the first time. Find
out if he or she is at risk for HIV. Get tested together and retested 6
months later. Use condoms in the meantime.

3.4.1.4 Don't drink a lot of alcohol or use illegal drugs before sex. You
might let down your guard and not practice safe sex.

3.4.1.5 Don't share personal items, such as toothbrushes or razors6.

3.4.1.6 Never share needles or syringes with anyone.

3.5 The Advantages of Having HIV Testing before get married

6
A razor is a bladed tool primarily used in the shaving off of unwanted body hair.

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3.5.1 Unknown author from www.medscape.com (2007) said that the advantages
of having HIV testing are:

3.5.1.1 Couples are free from any problem that can affect their family rela-
tionship

3.5.1.2 Couples can have a good and healthy lifestyle

3.5.1.3 It can prevent the babies from being infected by HIV

3.5.1.4 Reduce HIV transmission from being spread to other person

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4.0 CONCLUSION

As the conclusion wedding couples should have HIV testing before they get mar-
ried in order to have a good and happy family. The compulsory pre-marital HIV testing
especially for Muslims aims to prevent the transmission from spouse to spouse or to fu-
ture offspring. However, the HIV test is only useful at that point in time; it does not guar-
antee one or both parties will not be exposed to future risk of HIV.
After all persons can lead full and healthy live for his/her entire life with their love
by having premarital HIV testing before they get married.

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REFERENCES

http://aids.about.com

http://health.yahoo.com/article/healthwise--hw151408-credits/

http://hivinsite.ucsf.edu/global?page=cr08-my-00

http://www.epigee.org/health/hiv_symptoms.html

http://www.globalhealth.gov/

http://www.wrongdiagnosis.com/h/hiv_aids/causes.htm

www.fast-accurate-hiv-testing.com

www.HelpTheHumanity.org

www.iasociety.org

www.private-hiv-test.com

www.wikipedia.com

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EVALUATION FORM

NAME: NUR ATHIRAH BT NGAH

CODE: BACHELOR OF FINANCE (BM222)

BEL CODE: BEL492

CLASS: BBHR3A

Preparation /5
Format /1
Introduction /0.5
Body /5
Conclusion /0.5
Language /8
Total /20

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