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PWM INVERTERS

CONTENTS CONTENTS
1. Single-Phase Half-Bridge Inverter 2. Single-Phase Bridge Inverter 3. Three-Phase Inverter 4. Three-Phase PWM Inverter 5. Sinusoidal PWM 6. Modified Sinusoidal PWM 7. Sinusoidal PWM 3-Phase 8. 60-Degree Modulation 9. Transformer Connection 10. Single-Phase Current Source 11. Three-Phase Current Source 12. Variable DC Link Inverter 13. AC Filters 14. Summary

Textbook: Chapter 6
Dr. Adel Gastli PWM Inverters 2

Single-Phase Half-Bridge Inverter

vo (t ) = 2VS sin nt n =1,3,5,. n for n = 2, 4,..

=0

Vo ( rms ) = Vo1( rms ) =

VS VS d = 2 2 = 0.45 VS
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2VS 2

Performance Parameters
Von HFn = for n > 1 Vo1 1 THD = Vo1 1 DF = Vo1 DFn =
n = 2,3,..

2 Von

Total Harmonic Distortion factor

2

Von 2 n = 2,3,.. n

Distortion factor

Distortion factor of nth harmonic

- Frequency is closest to fundamental - Amplitude is greater than or equal to 3% the fundamental PWM Inverters 4

LOH 3% Vo1

Example 6.1 (Homework)

Study the example by yourself. Simulate the circuit and check the results. (Use any software) (Life-long learning)

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Single-Phase Bridge Inverter

4VS vo (t ) = sin nt n =1,3,5,. n =0 for n = 2, 4,..

VS2 d = VS

4VS = 0.90 VS 2
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R = 10, L = 31.5mH , C = 112uF , f o = 60 Hz , Vs = 220V , = 2 f = 377 rad / s X L = jn L = j11.87 n , X c =

2 2

Example 6.3
j j 23.68 = nC n

1 23.68 2 Z n = R + n L = 10 + 11.87 n nC n 11.87 n 23.68 n = tan 1 10n 10 vo (t ) = 4VS sin nt n n =1,3,5,. for n = 2, 4,.. 4VS 1 n R 2 + n L nC
2

=0

vo (t ) = io (t ) = Z n n n =1,3,5,.

sin(nt n )

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a. The instantaneous output voltage

v0 (t ) = 280.1sin(377t ) + 93.4 sin(3 377t ) + 56.02 sin(5 377t ) + 40.2 sin(7 377t ) + 31.12 sin(9 377t ) + L
Dividing the output voltage by the load impedance and considering the appropriate delay due to the load impedance angles, we can obtain the instantaneous load current as

i0 (t ) = 18.1sin(377t + 49.72) + 3.17 sin(3 377t 70.17 o ) + sin(5 377t 79.63o ) + 0.5 sin(7 377t 82.85o ) + 0.3 sin(9 377t 84.52o ) + L
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b. The peak fundamental load current is Im1=18.1A. The rms current at fundamental frequency is I01=12.8A c. Considering up to 9th harmonic, the peak load current,
2 2 2 2 2 Im = Im I I I I + + + + m3 m5 m7 m9 1

= 18.12 + 3.17 2 + 1.0 2 + 0.52 + 0.32 = 18.41A

The rms harmonic load current is

Ih =

2 2 Im Im 1

18.412 18.12 = = 2.38 A 2

2 2 Im Im 1 = 18.59% I m1
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THD =

d. The rms load current is The total load power is

I0

I m 18.42 = = 13.02 A 2 2

P0 = I 02 R = 13.02 2 10 = 1695W

The fundamental output 2 2 P = I R = 12 . 8 10 = 1638.4W 01 01 power is e. The average supply current f. The peak transistor current

I p I m = 18.41A

The maximum I p 18.41 I0 permissible rms I Q max = = = = 9.2 A 2 2 2 transistor current is

Dr. Adel Gastli PWM Inverters 10

g. The waveforms of the output voltage and current and their fundamental components are shown below.
30 v /10
0

01

Q1,Q2
0

D1,D2

Q3,Q4

D3,D4

-10

-20

-30

0.002

0.004

0.006

0.008 0.01 0.012 0.014 Time, (sec) PWM Inverters

0.016

0.018
11

h. The conduction time of each transistor is found approximately from the previous waveforms as

tD =

T 1 tQ = 6.031 10 3 2 120 = (8.333 6.031) 10 3 = 2.302ms 49.72 180 377

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Notes:
This example can be repeated for different types of loads (R, RL, RLC) with an appropriate change in load impedance ZL and load angle n Gating sequence is as follows:
Generate two square-wave gating signals vg1 and vg2 at an output frequency f0. The gating signals vg3 and vg4 should be the logic invert of vg2 and vg1 respectively. Signals vg1 and vg3 drive Q1 and Q3, respectively, through gate isolation circuits. Signals vg2 and vg4 drive Q2 and Q4, respectively, without any gate isolation circuits.

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THREE-PHASE BRIDGE INVERTER

Three Single-Phase Inverter Three-phase Bridge Inverter
180o Conduction 120o Conduction

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Three Single-Phase Inverter

9 9 9 9 12 transistors 12 diodes 3 transformers Risk of voltage unbalance

Transformer secondary windings can be connected in Y or . connection eliminates triplen harmonics (3, 6, 9,..)
Dr. Adel Gastli PWM Inverters

Figure 6.4
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180o Conduction

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vab=vbc=vca=0
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Line-to-line rms voltage

2 vL = 2

2 / 3

V d (t ) 0
2 s

1/ 2

2 = Vs = 0.8165Vs 3

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vLn =

Phase rms voltage

2Vs vL vp = = = 0.4714Vs 3 3
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/ 3 2 / 3

120o Conduction

vab

vbc

vca

van = 0 Vs 2 V vcn = s 2 vbn =

Note: The waveforms of phase voltages are the same as the waveforms of line voltages with the only difference in the amplitudes (Vs/2 instead of Vs)
Dr. Adel Gastli PWM Inverters 21

van =

2Vs n + cos sin n t 6 6 n =1, 3, 5,K n

2Vs n cos sin n t vbn = 6 2 n =1, 3, 5,K n 2Vs 7 n cos sin n t vcn = 6 6 n =1, 3, 5,K n

vline = 3v ph
Dr. Adel Gastli PWM Inverters 22

Voltage Control of Single-Phase Inverters

Single-Pulse-Width modulation Multiple-Pulse-Width Modulation Sinusoidal-Pulse-Width Modulation Modified Sinusoidal-Pulse-Width Modulation Phase Displacement control

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Single-Pulse Width Modulation

vo (t ) = 4VS n sin sin nt n 2 n =1,3,5,.

d=

= t t 2 1
T 2

= MTs = M
Modulation index M=Ar/Ac

Switching Period

V0 ( rms ) =

2 2

( + ) / 2

( )/2

Vs2 d = Vs

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Figure 6.11
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Pulse width
T t1 = 1 = (1 M ) s 2
t2 =

2 T = (1 + M ) s 2
Prove these two t1 and t2 equations

d = = t2 t1 = MTs
Ts = T 2

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Harmonic Profile for p =1

vo (t ) = 4VS n sin sin nt 2 n =1,3,5,. n

The dominant harmonic is the third. DF increases significantly at a low output voltage (small M). Figure 6.12
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cr cr

(Magnitude Vc , Switching Period Tss=T/2) c Change frequency

27 28

Change vr to change the modulation index and hence the output voltage rms

Compare vcr cr with a dc reference signal vr r ve =vcr -v r>0 gate signal vg =0 e cr r g =vcr -v r<0 gate signal vg =1 ve e cr r g vg should be multiplied by a unity pulse g signal vzz with 50% duty cycle at =vg *v z a period of T vg1 g1 g z vg2 g2 is obtained by inverting the square signal vzz.
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Multiple-Pulse PWM
d = = tm +1 tm
T = MTs = M 2p
V0( rms ) = = p

/ p + / 2
/ p / 2

Vs2

Vs
Figure 6.13
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Harmonic Profile for p =5

Bn = 4VS n 3 sin sin n + m n 4 4 m =1
2p

sin n + + m 4

vo (t ) =

n =1,3,5,.

Bn sin nt

(See textbook for detailed calculation of Bn)

Note that the harmonics variation as a function of output voltage has decreased.
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Sinusoidal PWM
m dm = = tm +1 tm
vo (t ) =
n =1,3,5,.

Bn sin nt

Vo ( rms ) = VS

m m =1
2p

vo=Vs(g1-g4)
More practical

LOH = 2p-1
p: number of pulses per half a cycle
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Harmonic Profile for p =5

4VS n m 3 m m Bn = sin sin n m + sin n + m + 4 4 4 m =1 n
2p

vo (t ) =

n =1,3,5,.

Bn sin nt

LOH = 2p-1=9
Significant decrease in DF and harmonics content. Commonly used in industrial applications
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Peak Fundamental versus M

For M<1 the maximum output voltage over the input voltage ratio varies linearly with M. For M>1, the inverter operation is called

overmodulation.

Overmodulation leads to basically square waveform and add more harmonics. (Not recommended)
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Modified Sinusoidal PWM

m dm = = tm +1 tm

Carrier signal is modified

Because of the nature of sine waveform, the width of pulses does not change much with the modulation index near the peak of the sine.
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Harmonic Profile for p =5

Less number of switching of power devices between 60o and 120o Reduction of switching losses Increase of fundamental component. Harmonic characteristics are improved.
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Phase Displacement
Full-bridge is equivalent to summation of two half-bridge inverters where vbo is shifted 180o from vao.

vab = va 0 vb 0
To vary the output voltage amplitude, the phase shift of 180o can be varied from 0o to 180o.
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Phase Displacement
V0 ( rms ) = Vs va 0 = vb 0 = vab =

4Vs 0 0 V01 2

Fundamental rms is a function of the phase displacement angle .

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Phase Displacement
To obtain a quarter-wave symmetry at 90o it is possible to shift the gate signal g1 by and g3 by 180o-.
2Vs sin n(t ) va 0 = n =1, 3, 5,L n vb 0 = vab = V01 = 2Vs sin n(t + ) n n =1, 3, 5,L 4Vs cos(n )sin (nt ) n =1, 3, 5,L n 4Vs cos( ) 2

vao Vs/2 -Vs/2 vbo Vs/2
180o- 180o+

-Vs/2 van Vs
180o

-Vs

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Voltage Control of Three-Phase Inverters

Sinusoidal Pulse-Width Modulation 60o PWM Third-Harmonic PWM Space Vector modulation
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Sinusoidal PWM 3-Phase

It is similar to single-phase SPWM but with 3-reference sine waveforms shifted by 120o each.

fc mf = fo
Frequency modulation ratio should be odd multiple of 3.
Dr. Adel Gastli PWM Inverters

vab=Vs(g1-g3)

39

All phase voltages are identical but 120o out of phase without even harmonics. Harmonics multiple of 3 are identical in amplitude and phase in all the 3-phases. Thus, the ac output line voltages do not contain the harmonics multiple of 3.
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60-Degree Modulation
Similar to the modified PWM seen earlier.
Flat top between 60o and 120o

Less switching losses Utilizes more available dc voltage Higher fundamental in both phase and line voltages All triplen harmonics are absent in three-phase voltages.
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Harmonic Reduction Phase displacement control Bipolar output voltage notches Unipolar output voltage notches 60-Degree modulation Transformer connections
Dr. Adel Gastli PWM Inverters 42

Phase Displacement Control

It was seen that the nth harmonic can be eliminated by a proper choice of displacement angle if:

cos(n ) = 0 or 90o = n
Thus, the 3rd harmonic can be eliminated if:

= 30o
Dr. Adel Gastli PWM Inverters 43

Bipolar Notches
A pair of unwanted harmonics at the output of singlephase inverters can be eliminated by introducing a pair of symmetrically placed bipolar voltage notches as shown below.

v0 ( ) = v0 ( + )
Half-wave symmetry

only odd harmonics (i.e. n=1,3,5,)

vo ( ) = vo ( )
Point symmetry
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A1n = 0
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vo (t ) =

n =1,3,5,.

Bn sin nt

2 /2 4Vs 1 Bn = sin( n )d sin( n )d + sin( n )d 1 2 0 4Vs [1 2 cos n1 + 2 cos n 2 ] = n For B3 = B5 = 0 1 = 23.62o and 2 = 33.3o

These type of equations can be solved iteratively or using specialized program such as MathCAD or MATLAB Symbolic Toolbox.
Dr. Adel Gastli PWM Inverters 45

Example of Matlab program for solving such equations clear, syms a1 a2 equ1 ='1-2*cos(3*as1)+2*cos(3*as2)'; equ2 ='1-2*cos(5*as1)+2*cos(5*as2)'; [as1,as2] = solve(equ1, equ2); a1=double(as1)*180/pi; a2=double(as2)*180/pi; for n=1:length(a1) if(a1(n)+a2(n)<=90) n1=n; break end end a=[a1(n1) a2(n1)]
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4Vs Bn = n

where

1 < 2 < L < k <

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Example 6.4
A single-phase full-wave inverter uses multiple notches to give bipolar voltage as shown in Figure 6.38 and is required to eliminate the fifth, seventh, eleventh, and thirteenth harmonics from the output wave. Determine the number of notches and their angles.

Figure 6.38

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Solution
For elimination of the fifth, seventh, eleventh and thirteenth harmonics we should have:

B5 = B7 = B11 = B13 = 0
That is m=4 notches per half wave.
1 2 cos(51 ) + 2 cos(5 2 ) 2 cos(5 3 ) + 2 cos(5 4 ) = 0 1 2 cos(7 ) + 2 cos(7 ) 2 cos(7 ) + 2 cos(7 ) = 0 1 2 3 4 1 2 cos(111 ) + 2 cos(11 2 ) 2 cos(11 3 ) + 2 cos(11 4 ) = 0 1 2 cos(131 ) + 2 cos(13 2 ) 2 cos(13 3 ) + 2 cos(13 4 ) = 0

1 = 10.55o 2 = 16.09o 3 = 30.91o 4 = 32.87 o

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Unipolar Voltage Notches

Similarly to bipolar notches symmetrical unipolar notches can also be introduced.
/2 4Vs 1 sin( n ) d sin(n )d + 2 0 vo (t ) = Bn sin nt 4Vs [1 cos n1 + cos n 2 ] = n =1,3,5,. n For B3 = B5 = 0 1 = 17.83o and 2 = 37.93o

Bn =

4V Bn = s n

m k ( ) ( ) 1 + 1 cos n k for n = 1,3,5,... k =1

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Transformer Connection
Output voltages of two or more inverters may be connected in series through a transformer to reduce or eliminate certain unwanted harmonics.

Phase shifted by 60o.

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Transformer Connection
/3

Elimination of third (an all triplen) harmonics

vo1 (t ) = A1 sin t + A3 sin 3t + A5 sin 5t + ... vo 2 (t ) = A1 sin(t ) + A3 sin 3(t ) + A5 sin 5(t ) + ... 3 3 3 vo = vo1 + vo 2 = 3 A1 sin(t ) + A5 sin 5(t ) + .. 6 6
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Current Source Inverter

Voltage Source Inverter
Voltage control Current varies with load impedance Current control

Vdc

Vdc

Current Source Inverter

voltage varies with load impedance
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For continuous current flow, 2 switches must always conduct.

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Single-Phase Current Source (Contd)

Conducting Switches

io IL -IL 0 0
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Single-Phase Current Source (Contd)

See Eq. (6.28) p.249

io (t ) =

I o1( rms ) =

4I L sin 2 2

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Three-Phase Current Source (Contd)

Y-Load Connection From Eq. (6.16a)

ia (t ) =

ia (t ) =

4I L n sin sin (nt ) 3 n =1, 3, 5,.. n

I a1( rms ) =

4I L sin 2 3
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Alternative Configuration

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Current Control Techniques

PWM, SPWM, MSPWM, and other techniques can be applied to vary the load current and improve the quality of its waveform.

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Advantages of the CSI

The advantages of the CSI are:
Since Idc is controlled and limited, misfiring of switches, or short-circuit, would not be a serious problem. The peak current of power devices is limited. The commutation circuits for thyristors are simpler. It has the ability to handle reactive or regenerative load without freewheeling diodes.
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Disadvantages of the CSI

A CSI requires a relatively large reactor to exhibit current-source characteristics and an extra converter stage to control the current. The dynamic response is slower than that of the VSI. Due to current transfer from one pair of switches to another, an output filter is required to suppress the output voltage spikes.
Dr. Adel Gastli PWM Inverters 62

Variable DC Link Inverter

Varying the modulation index (or pulse width) and maintaining the dc input voltage constant has shown that a range of harmonics would be present on the output voltage. The pulse width can be fixed to eliminate or reduce certain harmonics and the output voltage can be controlled by varying the level of the dc input voltage.
Dr. Adel Gastli PWM Inverters 63

Variable DC Link Inverter (Contd)

Drawbacks:
Requires additional converter. Power cannot be fed-back to the source.
Dr. Adel Gastli PWM Inverters 64

AC Filters
Output of the inverter is chopped AC voltage with zero DC component. In some applications such as UPS, high purity sine wave output is required. An LC section low-pass filter is normally fitted at the inverter output to reduce the high frequency harmonics. In some applications such as AC motor drive, filtering is not required.
Dr. Adel Gastli PWM Inverters 65

AC Filters (Contd)
LOW PASS FILTER L + voi C + voF LOAD

voi

voF

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Commonly used output filters

C C filter filter is is very very simple simple but but draws draws more more reactive reactive power. power.

LC LC tuned tuned filter filter can can eliminates eliminates only only one one frequency. frequency.

CLC CLC filter filter is is more more effective effective in in reducing reducing harmonics harmonics of of wide wide bandwidth bandwidth and and draws draws less less reactive reactive power. power.
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AC Filters (Contd)
Usually the nth and higher order harmonics would be reduced significantly if the filter impedance Zfn is much smaller than that of the load ZLn, and a ratio 1:10 is normally adequate in most of the cases.
Z fn Z Ln 10

(Study example 6.7 p. 294)

Dr. Adel Gastli PWM Inverters 68

AC Filters (Contd)
Square waveform No control in harmonics and output voltage magnitude

vo (t ) =

=0

The filter size is dictated by the VA ratings of the inverter.

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AC Filters (Contd)
PWM waveform Harmonics are pushed to higher frequencies. Cut-off frequency of the filter is increased Hence the filter components (i.e. L and C) sizes are reduced.
Trade off for this flexibility is complexity in the switching waveforms.
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vo (t ) =

n =1,3,5,.

Bn sin nt

Vo ( rms ) = VS

m m =1
2p

LOH = 2p-1
p: number of pulses per half a cycle

Summary
An inverter can convert a fixed dc voltage to a variable or fixed ac voltage and/or frequency. Various modulation techniques can be used to vary the output voltage. With appropriate choice of switching angles, specific harmonics can be eliminated.