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to Invest in
Development &
Humanitarian
Relief
FY2014
4 List of InterAction Member Organizations

Introduction
5 What is Poverty-Focused Development and Humanitarian Assistance?
6 Compassionate and Moral Leadership
8 Invest in Future Trading Partners
Choose to 9 Alleviating Poverty is Key to America’s Security
Invest in 10 Results Start With Transparency and Accountability
11 InterAction FY2014 Funding Recommendations Summary Table
Development &
Humanitarian Investing in Long-Term Development
Relief 13 Global Health Programs
15 Maternal and Child Health
FY2014 17 Family Planning and Reproductive Health
19 Nutrition
21 Malaria
23 Tuberculosis
Contents 25 Neglected Tropical Diseases
27 HIV/AIDS, PEPFAR and the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria
29 NIH Global Health
31 CDC Global Health
33 Development Assistance
35 Food Security and Agriculture
37 Microfinance
39 Basic Education
41 Climate Change Response (Bilateral)
43 Climate Change Response (Multilateral)
45 Biodiversity
47 Water
49 Millennium Challenge Account
51 International Organizations and Programs
53 International Development Association
55 Global Agriculture and Food Security Program
57 International Fund for Agricultural Development
59 McGovern-Dole International Food for Education and Child Nutrition

Humanitarian Relief to Cope with Disasters and Crises


61 International Disaster Assistance
63 Migration and Refugee Assistance
65 Emergency Refugee and Migration Assistance
67 Food for Peace Title II

Creating the Conditions for Development and Peace


69 Contributions to International Peacekeeping Activities
71 Peacekeeping Operations

Strengthening U.S. Development Capacity


73 USAID Operating Expenses

75 Other Key Development and Humanitarian Accounts


Cover photo:
Esther Havens,
Concern WorldWide 77 InterAction FY2014 Budget Table

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InterAction Member Organizations
ACDI/VOCA GOOD360 PCI
Action Against Hunger USA Habitat for Humanity International Perkins International
ActionAid International USA Handicap International USA Physicians for Peace
Adeso Heart to Heart International Plan International USA
Adventist Development and Relief Agency International Heartland Alliance Planet Aid
(ADRA) Heifer International Plant with Purpose
African Medical & Research Foundation Helen Keller International Population Action International
African Methodist Episcopal Service and Development HelpAge USA Population Communication
Agency (AME-SADA) Helping Hand for Relief and Development Presbyterian Disaster Assistance and Hunger Program
Aga Khan Foundation USA HIAS Project C.U.R.E.
All Hands Volunteers Himalayan Cataract Project Refugees International
Alliance for Peacebuilding Humane Society International (HSI) Relief International
Alliance to End Hunger The Hunger Project Religions for Peace
American Friends Service Committee Information Management and Mine Action Programs (IMMAP) RESULTS
American Jewish Joint Distribution Committee INMED Partnerships for Children ReSurge International
American Jewish World Service InsideNGO Salvation Army World Service Office
American Red Cross International Services Institute for Sustainable Communities Save the Children
American Refugee Committee Interchurch Medical Assistance, Inc. (IMA World Health) Seva Foundation
AmeriCares International Catholic Migration Commission (ICMC) ShelterBox USA
America’s Development Foundation (ADF) International Center for Not-for-Profit Law Society for International Development (SID)
AmericasRelief Team International Center for Research on Women (ICRW) Solar Cookers International
Amigos de las Américas International Emergency and Development Aid (IEDA Relief) Solidarity Center
Ananda Marga Universal Relief Team (AMURT & AMURTEL) International Foundation for Electoral Systems (IFES) Stop Hunger Now
Baptist World Alliance International Housing Coalition (IHC) Transparency International USA
Basic Education Coalition (BEC) International Medical Corps Trickle Up Program
Bethany Christian Services Global, LLC International Medical Health Organization (IMHO) Unitarian Universalist Service Committee
Bethesda Lutheran Communities International Orthodox Christian Charities (IOCC) United Cerebral Palsy
BRAC USA International Relief & Development United Methodist Committee on Relief
Bread for the World International Relief Teams United Nations Foundation
Bread for the World Institute International Rescue Committee (IRC) United States International Council on Disabilities (USICD)
Brother’s Brother Foundation International Social Service—United States of America U.S. Climate Action Network (USCAN)
Buddhist Tzu Chi Foundation Branch, Inc U.S. Committee for Refugees and Immigrants
Build Change International Youth Foundation U.S. Fund for UNICEF
CARE IntraHealth International, Inc. VAB (Volunteers Association of Bangladesh)
Catholic Relief Services Islamic Relief USA WaterAid America
CBM Jesuit Refugee Service/USA Water for South Sudan
CDA Collaborative Learning Projects Jhpiego – an affiliate of The Johns Hopkins University WellShare International
Center for Civilians in Conflict Joint Council on International Children’s Services Winrock International
Center for Health and Gender Equity (CHANGE) Keystone Humane Services International Women for Women International
ChildFund International Latter-day Saint Charities Women Thrive Worldwide
Church World Service Life for Relief and Development World Concern
Concern America LINGOs World Connect
CONCERN Worldwide U.S., Inc. Lutheran Immigration and Refugee Service World Food Program USA
Congressional Hunger Center Lutheran World Relief World Learning
Convoy of Hope MAG America World Neighbors
Counterpart International Management Sciences for Health (MSH) World Rehabilitation Fund
Creative Learning MAP International World Renew
Development Gateway Medical Care Development World Society for the Protection of Animals
Direct Relief International Medical Emergency Relief International (Merlin) World Wildlife Fund
Disability Rights Education and Defense Fund (DREDF) MedShare International World Vision
The Eagles Wings Foundation Mennonite Central Committee U.S. Zakat Foundation of America
Education Development Center (EDC) Mercy Corps
Episcopal Relief & Development Mercy-USA for Aid and Development ASSOCIATE MEMBERS
Ethiopian Community Development Council Millennium Water Alliance Center for Justice and Peacebuilding, Eastern Mennonite
Family Care International Mobility International USA University
Feed the Children National Association of Social Workers Disaster Resilience Leadership Academy (DRLA) at Tulane
Food For The Poor, Inc. (FFP) National Cooperative Business Association University
Freedom from Hunger ONE Campaign Enough Project: a project of the Center for American
Friends of ACTED One Economy Corporation Progress (CAP)
Friends of the Global Fight Operation USA Global Master’s in Development Practice Secretariat of the
Giving Children Hope Oxfam America Earth Institute at Columbia University
Global Communities Pact Transnational NGO Initiative of the Moynihan Institute of
GlobalGiving Pan American Development Foundation Global Affairs at Maxwell School of Syracuse University
Global Health Council Pan American Health and Education Foundation (PAHEF)
Global Links PATH (as of 3/27/13)
Global Washington Pathfinder International

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InterAction’s
FY2014 Funding 180+ InterAction member NGOs
are supported by millions
of private contributions,
Recommendations for
Foreign Assistance 1.5 million
volunteers and more than
InterAction is the nation’s leading policy advocate

60,000
for international humanitarian relief and development
programs and represents millions of Americans who
provide financial support to over 180 U.S.-based
nongovernmental organizations (NGOs). InterAction Christian, Jewish, Muslim and Buddhist
member organizations are faith-based and secular,
large and small, and deliver the kinds of services that
congregations and faith communities
save and improve lives, while promoting self-sufficiency
around the world.

The following pages outline InterAction’s FY2014


funding recommendations for the U.S. government’s
poverty-focused international development and
humanitarian relief programs. Our recommendations
are built on decades of field experience partnering with Humanitarian relief programs help save lives and
local communities to deliver assistance. alleviate the suffering of those who have been affected
by natural and man-made disasters such as conflict,
We hope these one-pagers will help members of drought and floods by providing emergency access to
Congress, their staff and other U.S. policymakers food, medical assistance, water and shelter.
improve the lives of those most in need: the poorest
and the most vulnerable. We look forward to working
with you in the coming year to promote U.S. leadership
The United States has a unique role
in ending global poverty and addressing humanitarian InterAction member NGOs are mostly funded by private
crises. donations: about 70% of funds are raised privately.1 While
NGOs are not as reliant on congressional appropriations
as in the past, we still believe in robust U.S. investments
What is poverty-focused development
in development because the U.S. government has a
and humanitarian assistance? unique role to play in reducing global poverty.
Poverty-focused development assistance refers to
foreign aid that helps the world’s poorest and most The United States has the unparalleled ability to
vulnerable citizens. convene a broad range of stakeholders from the
public, private, corporate and nonprofit sectors who
Development programs help people and countries together have the resources and expertise to develop
lift themselves out of poverty, building better lives for more integrated country strategies to address extreme
themselves and their children. These programs build poverty. NGO partners are a key pillar of this collective
sustainability by helping family farmers increase their force, leveraging the generosity of millions of individual
productivity, improving health care, getting children to Americans who trust and financially support NGOs.
attend and stay in school, or providing access to safe
water and sanitation. 1 InterAction analysis of members’ 2009 IRS Form 990s.

5
Our compassion, and for some our faith, Victims of
calls us to do the right thing the 2004
Indian Ocean
InterAction’s more than 180 member organizations tsunami receive
support poverty-focused development and supplies sent
by the U.S.
humanitarian relief because we believe America can
be a force for good in the world. Helping those most in
need is a moral imperative. Whether driven by religious
convictions or a sense of common humanity, we share
the view that the United States should be a moral
leader in helping people around the world who live in
extreme poverty.

Photographer’s Mate 3rd Class Rebecca J. Moat/U.S. Navy


We believe our actions should fit our values. We
believe every person has dignity and rights that
cannot be denied, including life, liberty and the pursuit
of happiness. People around the world share our
aspirations: a desire to create better lives for their
children with access to basic necessities such as clean
water, nutritious food, safe shelter, education and
health care.

2.47 billion Ocean tsunami and the famine in the Horn of Africa, to

people the millions of people in Syria who have been forced to


flee their homes, needs are increasing at an alarming
rate. The United States should be there to help them
around the world live on get back on their feet.

less than By investing a tiny fraction of our national budget – less


than 1% – we can provide people emergency access

$2 per day to food, medical assistance, water and shelter. And we


can help them begin the process of healing and moving
one step closer to resuming normal life.

Children are precious wherever they are born. With the Success is achievable
right investments, America can be a force for change
to make sure every person has the opportunity to A great example of success
help themselves. It is a fundamental part of who we is PEPFAR – the President’s
are as Americans; whatever our political background, Emergency Plan for AIDS
we firmly believe the United States has a role to play Relief. Initiated with bipartisan
in advancing prosperity for the world’s poor and support by President George
vulnerable people. W. Bush, PEPFAR has
directly supported lifesaving
antiretroviral treatment for
Increased needs around the world over 5 million men, women
Robust levels of assistance are needed now more than and children in 2012. Since
ever to meet the needs created by a dramatic increase its inception, millions of
in natural disasters, armed conflict, drought and famine people have been able to once again become healthy,
worldwide. From the Haiti earthquake, the Indian productive members of their communities.

6
Destroyed buildings in
Jacmel, Haiti following
the 2010 earthquake.

United States Air Force


When the United States makes an investment, others India graduates from college even though her parents
follow suit. Nations in Europe, Asia or the Americas, did not finish grade school.
and other private donors, leverage and amplify the
investments made by the United States. The Global When we choose to invest in humanity, we help all
Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria is a great people to live with dignity.
example of this leveraging. While the United States
is the Global Fund’s largest donor, the U.S. portion is
capped at one-third of total contributions. This means
that for every $1 contributed by the United States, at
least $2 must come from the international community.

Creating self-sufficiency
We believe foreign assistance plays a critical role in
creating self-sufficiency in developing nations. Effective
aid helps people help themselves. After all, the greatest In September 2012,
human dignity is being able to provide for oneself and InterAction members pledged
one’s family. This is why we invest heavily in programs
that “teach people how to fish.”

It is also why we strongly support programs that grant


$1 billion
people access to the resources they need to start their in private, nongovernmental
own businesses and invest in their futures. resources to help small-holder
We know this is not easy. But we see the fruits of our farmers improve their yields and
labor every day, such as when a microloan helps a better provide for their families.
woman in Kenya start a business, or when a child in

7
Invest in future trading partners
While InterAction’s support for poverty-focused “U.S. businesses understand that
development assistance stems primarily from our belief diplomacy and development assistance
that it is the right thing to do, there are also strong
economic reasons why investing in foreign assistance
play vital roles in building economic
can help Americans at home. prosperity, protecting our national
security, and promoting America’s
Now, more than ever before, U.S. economic growth
is linked with global trade: about 95% of the world’s humanitarian values. The International
consumers are overseas, representing 80% of the Affairs Budget is critical to U.S.
world’s purchasing power.1 For American businesses economic engagement with the world,
to prosper, they will most likely need to find people
beyond our borders to buy their goods. By helping especially at a time when there is a
people around the globe to increase their economic wide recognition of the need to boost
buying power, we help them buy American products U.S. exports to create American jobs.”
and grow our economy here at home.
– U.S. Chamber of Commerce
In numerous instances when the U.S. has Letter to Congress, March 29, 2011
invested in building markets overseas,
the investment has more than paid
for itself. South Korea, Taiwan and
These economic benefits are
Colombia – once recipients of our
also surprisingly inexpensive.
aid – are all now major U.S. trading
At less than 1% of the federal
partners. In fact, two-thirds of
budget, foreign assistance
America’s top 15 trading partners
programs bring remarkable
were once recipients of U.S. foreign
dividends for a relatively small
assistance. This should not come as
investment. Whether your interest
a surprise, since developing countries
is in preserving America’s global
represent some of the fastest growing
economic edge or in growing jobs here
markets in the world. Today, they already
at home, supporting poverty-focused
purchase over half of all U.S. exports, a number
development assistance is a smart, cost-
that is only growing with time.2
effective investment and one that is likely to bring great
One of the best ways of creating jobs at home is benefit to the U.S. for years to come.
through international trade, which already supports
one in three U.S. manufacturing jobs. As of 2010, 1 “Over 50 Top Business Leaders Urge Congress to Support
over 38 million U.S. jobs depended on global trade, International Affairs Budget,” USGLC. http://www.usglc.org/
downloads/2012/07/FY13-Business-Leaders-Letter-to-Congress.pdf.
representing over one-fifth of all jobs in our country. In
Texas and California alone, over 7 million jobs depend 2 Ibid.
on global trade.3 That trend is only likely to grow in the
3 “Trade and American Jobs,” Business Roundtable. http://
future as our economy becomes further intertwined businessroundtable.org/uploads/studies-reports/downloads/Trade_
with those overseas. and_American_Jobs.pdf.

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Alleviating poverty is key
to America’s security
We live in an interconnected world and work in
partnerships to address global problems like hunger,
disease and human rights abuses. When we do so, we
demonstrate our core values and the kind of leadership
that builds goodwill toward the United States.

Most global problems do not require military solutions.


To alleviate poverty, halt the spread of disease and
prevent conflict, we need strong diplomatic and
assistance programs. By failing to make adequate

Alissa Everett
investments in nonmilitary policy tools, we miss
important opportunities to create shared prosperity
and enhance our own security.
Recent U.S. National Security Strategies see our
Helping responsible governments gain strength national security apparatus as three-pronged, with
and create the environment for their own citizens defense, diplomacy and development each having
to succeed is a smart investment in global stability. important roles. As a group of retired flag and general
People who have a stake in their society, and the officers from all branches of the U.S. Armed Services
opportunity to create their own future and express their wrote in a March 2012 letter to Congress: “We firmly
concerns are less likely to be angry, frustrated and believe the development and diplomacy programs in
resentful towards the United States. the International Affairs Budget are critical to America’s
national security … Development and diplomacy keep
us safer by addressing threats in the most dangerous
“We firmly believe the development and corners of the world and by preventing conflicts before
they occur.”1 The 2010 National Security Strategy
diplomacy programs in the International similarly calls international development “a strategic,
Affairs Budget are critical to America’s economic, and moral imperative for the United States.”
national security.” U.S. foreign policy has long been guided by the belief
– Military Leaders Letter to Congress that people are more peaceful and less likely to become
entangled in conflict when they have hope, dignity and
the power to shape their own destinies: when they have
a sense of human security. One of the best ways to
A wise investment create an environment of peace around the world is to
Why is it that, year after year, America’s military and support poverty-focused development assistance.
diplomatic leaders ask Congress to support our
international development budget? It is because they
believe that robust U.S. investment overseas can help
1 U.S. Global Leadership Coalition, Military Leaders’ Letter to Congress,
prevent conflict, spread peace and security, and give March 27, 2012. http://www.usglc.org/wp-content/uploads/2012/03/
people hope in their futures. NSAC-Letter-2012.pdf.

9
Results start with transparency
and accountability
NGOs don’t just advocate for resources. We support
ongoing, comprehensive efforts to modernize and
reform the way aid is delivered. Transparency and
accountability are key components of successful and
effective aid delivery.

Today’s fiscal climate requires us to take a fresh look at


the best way to maximize impact from limited taxpayer
resources while responding to humanitarian crises
and tackling global poverty. America provides aid to
countries worldwide and taxpayers deserve to know
that their money is being invested wisely and that it
improves people’s lives.

Where governments are weak, corrupt


and unaccountable, the U.S. should
support communities directly to
meet their own needs.

Our vision of effective assistance

Augusto Camba
Our vision of effective aid delivery focuses on people,
not governments. Where governments are legitimate,
have measures in place to prevent corruption, have the government accountable and lets local development
capacity to do what is needed and are accountable to actors give their own feedback on the quality of that
their own citizens, the United States should support assistance.
their development agendas. But where governments
are weak, corrupt and unaccountable, the United We applaud the U.S. decision to publish aid information
States should support communities directly to meet under the International Aid Transparency Initiative
their own needs and strengthen their ability to demand (IATI). The purpose behind IATI is to make information
better performance from their governments. about aid spending easier to find, use and compare.
InterAction has encouraged the administration
to publish information from all U.S. agencies that
More effective aid
distribute foreign aid to the Foreign Assistance
Recent international conferences on strengthening Dashboard (www.foreignassistance.gov), a website
the effectiveness of foreign assistance have focused devoted to showing where our foreign aid money goes
on enhancing transparency and accountability. At and the impact of that assistance. We have also called
the November 2011 conference in Busan, South for the establishment of an advisory panel on U.S.
Korea, donors promised to publish comprehensive foreign aid transparency to provide guidance on how
and timely information on the resources devoted the United States can become more transparent.
to development using a common standard
that allows information to be compared. Timely, We firmly believe these actions will improve
comprehensive, accessible and easily comparable transparency and accountability in foreign assistance
information on how aid dollars are spent, and the and significantly improve the return on investment of
results of that aid, allows Americans to hold our American taxpayer dollars.

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InterAction FY2014 Funding Recommendations

FY2014 Funding
Recommendations
Accounts and Subaccounts (in $ thousands)

Global Health Programs – USAID 3,268,000


Maternal and Child Health 750,000
Family Planning in All Accounts 750,000
Nutrition 200,000
Vulnerable Children 23,000
HIV/AIDS 350,000
Malaria 670,000
Tuberculosis 400,000
Neglected Tropical Diseases 125,000
Global Health Programs – State (PEPFAR Only) 4,492,860
Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis & Malaria 1,650,000
NIH Global Health 605,700
CDC Global Health 362,900
Development Assistance 3,175,000
Food Security and Agriculture in All Bilateral Accounts 1,445,000
Microfinance 265,000
Basic Education in All Accounts 925,000
Climate Change in Bilateral Accounts 468,000
Biodiversity in All Accounts 200,000
Water in All Accounts 400,000
Millennium Challenge Account 900,000
International Organizations and Programs 385,000
International Development Association 1,408,500
Global Agriculture and Food Security Program 158,330
International Fund for Agricultural Development 32,243
McGovern-Dole International Food for Education & Child Nutrition 209,500
Least Developed Countries Fund & Special Climate Change Fund 50,000
Green Climate Fund 5,000
Strategic Climate Fund 100,000
Clean Technology Fund 300,000
International Disaster Assistance 1,600,000
Migration and Refugee Assistance 2,800,000
Emergency Refugee & Migration Assistance 100,000
Food for Peace Title II 1,840,000
Contributions to International Peacekeeping Activities 2,179,000
Peacekeeping Operations 257,000
USAID Operating Expenses 1,400,000

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Global Funding History

Health
Programs
FY2014 Recommendation: Enacted

$9.41 billion FY13 CR Post-Sequestration (estimated)


FY14 InterAction Recommendation

Purpose Justification
State and USAID global health Investments in global health save lives and ensure the progress
funding helps to reduce child made thus far is not lost. Since national borders do not stop the
mortality, slow the spread of spread of disease, addressing global health issues is also important
diseases such as HIV/AIDS, respond to protect the health of Americans.
to health emergencies, prevent
malnutrition and support initiatives U.S. global health programs have treated approximately 5.1 million
such as the President’s Malaria people living with HIV and prevented HIV transmission to millions
Initiative and President’s Emergency more.1 Immunization programs save more than 3 million lives each
Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR). year2 and in FY 2011 alone, the President’s Malaria Initiative and its
Relatively modest investments by partners distributed more than 42 million long-lasting insecticide-
the United States have not only treated mosquito nets and provided treatment to 45 million
saved lives, but also improved the individuals.3 Programming also addresses diseases such as polio,
economic growth and stability of tuberculosis and neglected tropical diseases – as well as preventing
developing nations. malnutrition, decreasing maternal mortality, improving infant health,
developing new health technologies and vaccines, and assisting
women with the proper timing and spacing of pregnancies.

Global health efforts also focus on training capable health workers


throughout developing nations in order to strengthen health
systems abroad. Building the capacity of country health systems
ensures healthier and safer populations, creates more prosperous
economies and reduces dependency on foreign aid.

Additionally, global health programs develop and implement new


technologies and tools to help countries get ahead of health
For more information, contact:
challenges. Sustaining U.S. investments in global health is crucial;
Erin Jeffery
health problems will only be more expensive and difficult to resolve
Advocacy and International Development
Coordinator
in the future.
InterAction
ejeffery@interaction.org

13
References
1 “World AIDS Day 2012 Update,” PEPFAR. http://www.pepfar.gov/funding/results/index.htm.

2 “Combination Prevention in PEPFAR: Treatment,” PEPFAR. http://www.pepfar.gov/documents/organization/183299.pdf.

3 “Sixth Annual Report to Congress,” President’s Malaria Initiative. http://pmi.gov/resources/reports/pmi_annual_execsum12.pdf.


Maternal
Funding History

and Child
Health
FY2014 Recommendation: Enacted

$750 million FY13 CR Post-Sequestration (estimated)


FY14 InterAction Recommendation

Purpose Justification
Funding for maternal and child Investing in MCH is critical to making good on U.S. commitments
health (MCH) programs supports as a global leader in maternal and child health and to build
proven, cost-effective interventions health and prosperity for the world’s children. Each year, USAID
that protect the lives of children interventions help save the lives of more than 6 million children
and mothers. In 2012, the United under the age of 5 and help significantly reduce maternal deaths
States led the world in pledging from pregnancy-related causes.1 These interventions range from
to end preventable child deaths prenatal care and preventing maternal deaths during childbirth to
in a generation. To make a pediatric immunizations and child nutrition.
down payment on this and other
commitments, the United States However, each year, 6.9 million children under the age of 5 die from
should provide a least $750 million preventable causes such as pneumonia, malnutrition, diarrhea
for MCH. and malaria;2 and each day, approximately 800 women die from
preventable causes during pregnancy and childbirth.3

MCH funding supports cost-effective interventions like vaccines


and nutritional supplements, and trains community health workers
on basic prevention, treatment and management of maternal and
child illness, such as malaria, diarrhea, pneumonia and malnutrition.
Scaling up these programs will help put a stop to child and
maternal mortality. MCH funding also fulfills U.S. commitments
to polio eradication and the Global Alliance for Vaccinations and
Immunizations (GAVI).

Additionally, funding for child and maternal health is directly


connected to funding for global nutrition, water and sanitation,
For more information, contact:
UNICEF, PEPFAR and global health research supported by NIH
Erin Jeffery
and CDC.
Advocacy and International Development
Coordinator
InterAction
ejeffery@interaction.org

15
Success Story:
Community Health Huts Save Lives in Senegal
In 2007, Sadio’s first child, Matar, died at just 9 months old, from diarrhea
and respiratory infection. The nearest health post was a 7.5-mile round trip
— too far to travel for a poor family with a sick baby. Now she has 2-year-old
twins, Adama and Awa, who also suffer from recurrent respiratory troubles.
But things are different this time around.

ChildFund International is in its second year as lead on a $40 million


community health grant from USAID to establish health care services
for children and families throughout Senegal, whose 800 doctors are

ChildFund International
concentrated in the capital, Dakar. The project provides community-level
health huts staffed by trained health workers, traditional birth attendants
and outreach workers — all volunteers — to provide basic health care and
teach about hygiene, nutrition and more. These volunteers spread their
knowledge throughout their communities.

By the grant’s end in 2015, ChildFund and its partners — Africare, Catholic Relief Services, Plan International,
World Vision, and Senegal’s Enda Graf Sahel and Enda Santa — will have established 2,151 health huts and 1,717
outreach sites nationwide, in both rural and underserved urban areas. The project also focuses on neglected
tropical diseases and education about the health dangers of female genital cutting.  By 2015, 9 million people
across Senegal will have access to health care, which will be networked from the national to the community level.

A health hut was built in Sadio’s village in 2010. “My twins have never suffered from diarrhea or malaria because I
wash my hands with soap and water before giving them food,” she explained. “And we sleep under bed nets.” She
added that one of the twins, Adama, often struggles with respiratory infection, and that the health volunteers refer
her for professional care when she needs it. Sadio watches, but she no longer worries.

References
1 “USAID Maternal and Child Health,” USAID. http://www.usaid.gov/what-we-do/global-health/maternal-and-child-health.

2 “Committing to Child Survival: A Promise Renewed, Progress Report 2012,” UNICEF. http://uni.cf/QQB5wA.

3 “Maternal Mortality” World Health Organization. http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs348/en/index.html.


Family Funding History

Planning and
Reproductive
Health
FY2014 Recommendation: Enacted

$750 million FY13 CR Post-Sequestration (estimated)


FY14 InterAction Recommendation

Purpose Justification
Funding in this account expands According to the Guttmacher Institute, in 2012 the use of modern
access to voluntary contraceptive contraceptives in the developing world prevented an estimated 218
and family planning methods, million unintended pregnancies, 55 million unplanned births, 138
reduces maternal mortality and million abortions, 118,000 maternal deaths and 1.1 million infant
improves infant health. Since deaths.2 Family planning provides women with the ability to time
1965, the 27 countries with the and space pregnancies.
largest USAID investments in
family planning have increased These programs are cost-effective and deliver real and sustainable
contraceptive use from under 10% results. Data from seven countries across three continents shows
to 37%, and reduced the number of that for every dollar invested in family planning, there are significant
children per family from more than savings to governments in the health and education sectors,
6 to 4.5.1 ranging from $2 in Ethiopia to more than $6 in Bangladesh and
Guatemala, and up to $9 in Bolivia.3 Additionally, several countries,
including Brazil, Mexico, Korea and Thailand, no longer require U.S.
government support for family planning programs.4

One hundred members of Congress signed a letter on December


19, 2012, requesting $1 billion for family planning for FY2014; and
while InterAction supports that amount, we believe $750 million is
the absolute minimum to continue these essential programs.

For more information, contact:


Erin Jeffery
Advocacy and International Development
Coordinator
InterAction
ejeffery@interaction.org

17
Success Story:
Giving Women Control of Their Futures
In the Amhara region of Ethiopia, Masreshah Abebe
works to improve the health of women. A health
extension worker, she routinely walks from one end of
her village to another to reach her neighbors — a trip
that can take more than an hour.

“When I first started,” she remembered, “women were


a voiceless group. Few used family planning. But that
is changing.”

Sala Lewis/Pathfinder
With support from USAID, Abebe delivers family
planning and reproductive health services to 1,700
households. “I track the number of women who use
family planning, and there has been real change.”

Across Ethiopia, more women are able to make choices about their bodies and their futures. Preliminary data
from the 2011 Ethiopian Demographic and Health Survey show that Ethiopia’s contraceptive prevalence rate has
increased from 29% to 96% in just six years.

Abebe will do whatever she can to sustain this remarkable achievement. But she cannot do it alone. So today, she
stands, surrounded by more than 60 community members. They file in from every side to sit in folding chairs and
lean against fences, to take part in a “Community Conversation.”

Guided by Abebe and other project staff, villagers discuss problems they face, such as today’s topic: early
marriage. To change villagers’ minds about this long-held practice, which can have devastating effects on girls,
Abebe has enlisted the help of influential religious leaders.

Abebe steps to the side, granting Alam Ababa the floor.

“This tradition of early marriage has done more harm than good for our girls,” he says. “Parents must no longer
arrange marriages or force them to have too many children. We must send our girls to school.”

Ababa turns to Abebe, who is beaming. “There are many good messages from our health extension workers, and
we must listen.”

References
1 “Family Planning,” USAID. http://www.usaid.gov/what-we-do/global-health/family-planning.

2 “Costs and Benefits of Investing in Contraceptive Services in the Developing World,” Guttmacher Institute (2012).

3 “Family Planning Saves Lives,” Population Reference Bureau. http://www.prb.org/pdf09/familyplanningsaveslives.pdf.

4 “Fast Facts: Family Planning,” USAID. http://transition.usaid.gov/our_work/global_health/pop/news/issue_briefs/fp_fastfacts.pdf.


Funding History

Nutrition
FY2014 Recommendation: Enacted

$200 million FY13 CR Post-Sequestration (estimated)


FY14 InterAction Recommendation

Purpose Justification
Despite the far-reaching Malnutrition, one of the world’s most serious yet least addressed
consequences of malnutrition development challenges, contributes to the death of some 2.5
and its impact on child mortality, million children under 5 each year.1 For the 165 million children
nutrition has been a low priority characterized as stunted,2 malnutrition is a life sentence, resulting in
on global health and development irreversible physical and cognitive damage.
agendas. InterAction recommends
$200 million in the Global Health Research has shown that early nutrition, particularly during the
Programs account to adequately 1,000 days between a woman’s pregnancy and her child’s second
fund integrated nutrition programs birthday, can determine the future of a person’s health, educational
and recommends additional focus attainment and lifetime earning potential. Thus, poor nutrition
on the integration of nutrition within becomes a significant drain on economic productivity and a burden
Feed the Future. on health care systems, making progress on poverty alleviation
harder and costlier to achieve. In some cases, child malnutrition
costs as much as 11% of a country’s GDP.3

Yet globally, nutrition funding represents only 0.3% of total official


development assistance4 and 1.2% of the FY2012 Global Health
Programs account within the U.S. foreign assistance budget.

Research has found that every $1 invested in nutrition generates


For more information, contact:
as much as $138 in better health and increased productivity.5 U.S.
Katie Lee
Advocacy and Policy Coordinator for
government investments and continued leadership are critical
International Development to achieving a significant and lasting progress in preventing
InterAction malnutrition.
klee@interaction.org

Erin Jeffery
Advocacy and International Development
Coordinator
InterAction
ejeffery@interaction.org

19
Success Story:
Community Health Workers Teach Parents about Nutrition
Chisomo Boxer is a community health worker in Malawi. He is
proud that no children under 5 have died in his village since it
opened its health clinic two years ago. But he was afraid that
3-year-old Vekelani might be the first.

“He had swelling of his face, legs and both feet,” said Boxer. “He

Elvis Sukali/Save the Children


lost his appetite and his skin was very shiny. These are signs of
edema, and his case was very serious. There are four grades of
edema; his was grade three, which meant his life was in danger.”

Boxer told the boy’s parents they must take Vekelani to the
hospital right away. Boxer was very concerned about Vekelani because a child’s development in the first few years
will inform the rest of his life. But when Boxer checked back two days later he was surprised they had not gone.

“They are superstitious. They thought someone was using witchcraft and black magic against their children. They
said that was the only possible explanation for why their children were sick so much.”

Boxer went back to the family’s house many times to try to convince them to take Vekelani to the hospital. Finally,
after three weeks, he succeeded.

The district hospital admitted Vekelani to its outpatient therapeutic program and gave him a ready-to-use-food:
a special mixture of powdered milk, peanut paste, vitamins and minerals. Vekelani likes it, and his health is
improving gradually.

Boxer, who was trained in Save the Children’s community-based maternal and newborn care (CBMNC) program
funded by USAID/Child Survival 22, still visits the family often to check on Vekelani’s progress and to counsel the
parents about nutrition and hygiene. “I go with them to their garden and give advice about how to make balanced
meals,” he said. “They are beginning to take my recommendations.”

“The last time I was there, for the first time, Vekelani looked happy and he smiled at me!”

References
1 “Committing to Child Survival: A Promise Renewed – Progress Report 2012,” UNICEF. http://www.unicef.org/publications/files/APR_Progress_
Report_2012_11Sept2012.pdf.

2 Ibid.

3 Black, R.E., L.H. Allen et al. “Maternal and child undernutrition – global and regional exposures and health consequences,” The Lancet, 2008, Vol.
371.

4 “World Bank Global Monitoring Report: 2012: Food Prices, Nutrition and the Millennium Development Goals,” World Bank. http://siteresources.
worldbank.org/INTPROSPECTS/Resources/334934-1327948020811/8401693-1327957211156/8402494-1334239337250/Full_Report.pdf.

5 “Copenhagen Consensus Challenge Paper,” Copenhagen Consensus, 2012.


Funding History

Malaria
FY2014 Recommendation: Enacted

$670 million FY13 CR Post-Sequestration (estimated)


FY14 InterAction Recommendation

Purpose Justification
Malaria funding prevents and Malaria is prevalent in 106 countries and imposes significant costs
treats illness and death associated to both individuals and governments. Direct costs such as illness,
with malaria. Annually, 216 million treatment or premature death have an estimated price tag of at
people contract malaria and 655,000 least $12 billion per year.1
individuals die as a result. Eighty-six
percent of malaria deaths occur in U.S. investments through the bilateral President’s Malaria Initiative
children under the age of 5. Thanks and the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria have
to the leadership of the President’s had a significant impact on containing the disease and creating
Malaria Initiative, the U.S. operates innovative tools and technologies poised to deliver further successes:
in 19 countries to combat this
• 50 countries are on track to reduce malaria incidence
disease.
by 75% by 2015;2

• Estimated new cases of malaria have decreased by


17% globally since 2000;

• The overall annual malaria death toll has declined from 985,000 to
655,000 people – a 26% reduction in global malaria mortality;3 and

• U.S. funding has advanced several vaccine candidates into the


human testing stage.

Malaria prevention and treatment programming is a model of cost-


effective success: by sharing responsibility, we are saving millions of
lives while strengthening emerging economies and health systems.
In 2012, the United Nations released a study showing that for every
For more information, contact:
$1 invested in malaria control in Africa, on average, $40 is returned
Erin Jeffery
Advocacy and International Development
in higher economic growth. The gains, however, are fragile, and
Coordinator retreating on investment now would not only reverse today’s progress
InterAction but also allow malaria to reemerge. Luckily, the costs are small:
ejeffery@interaction.org
• $4 – provides an insecticide-treated bed net that lasts three years.

• $1.40 – provides artemisinin-based combination therapy


treatment for an adult.

• $0.60 – provides rapid diagnostic testing for children and adults.4


21
Success Story:
Local Volunteers Help Prevent Malaria
Mumile lives with her husband and their new baby in the village
of Wakuan in northeastern Ghana, near the Togo border.
Malaria is endemic there, and since the nearest health clinic
is 10 kilometers (over six miles) away, protective measures like
mosquito nets and antenatal care can prevent emergencies and
save lives.

With support from USAID, Episcopal Relief & Development and


its malaria prevention partnership, NetsforLife, are working with
Ghanaian partner ADDRO (the Anglican Diocesan Development
and Relief Organization) to address the need for preventive care
at the grassroots level. Active in 17 countries throughout sub-
Saharan Africa, NetsforLife is training local volunteers, called
malaria control agents (MCAs), to educate their communities
about malaria, hang nets in homes, and provide follow-up to

Harvey Wang/Episcopal Relief & Development


ensure the nets are being properly used and maintained. In
many places, the MCAs also do broader health monitoring
and advocacy, including encouraging pregnant women to
seek out prenatal care. This helps ensure that they receive the
recommended number of check-ups during pregnancy, along
with IPTp (Intermittent Preventive Treatment in pregnancy) to
protect them from malaria.

MCAs visited Mumile in Wakuan, stressing the importance of IPTp for malaria protection during pregnancy, a time
when women and the babies they are carrying are especially vulnerable to infection. For Mumile and her newly
expanded family, having mosquito nets above their sleeping areas and using IPTp has had a major impact.

“I visited the hospital at least six times a year [due to malaria] and it was taking a heavy toll on my finances,” said
Mumile. “But since last year [when I received the mosquito net] I have not visited the hospital except for my IPTp,
which the volunteers told me was necessary for my health. I am very happy and want to thank them for doing this.”

References
1 “Impact of Malaria,” Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2010).

2 “World Malaria Report,” World Health Organization. http://www.who.int/malaria/publications/world_malaria_report_2012/en/index.html.

3 “World Malaria Report 2011,” World Health Organization. http://www.who.int/malaria/publications/atoz/9789241564403/en/index.html.

4 Ibid.
Funding History

Tuberculosis
FY2014 Recommendation: Enacted

$400 million FY13 CR Post-Sequestration (estimated)


FY14 InterAction Recommendation

Purpose Justification
Tuberculosis (TB) is a contagious, As TB has no borders, strong global TB control is in the national
airborne disease that infects interest of the United States to prevent a costly increase in TB
approximately 8.8 million people cases, particularly of drug-resistant TB. Drug-resistant TB poses a
per year, nearly one-third of whom particular challenge to domestic TB control due to high treatment
are also living with HIV, and kills costs, estimated at $100,000-$300,000 per case.1 It is estimated
about 1.4 million people annually. TB that in some countries, the loss of productivity attributed to TB is
funding is used to find and treat the 4-7% of a country’s GDP.2
disease, prevent the development of
drug-resistant strains, and support However, significant progress has been achieved: from 1995-2011,
the research and development of 51 million TB patients were treated successfully through TB control
new tools to fight the disease. programs – saving up to 20 million lives. Globally, deaths due to TB
have fallen by more than one-third since 1990.3 With continued and
sustained funds, by 2014, the United States will have:

• Successfully treated at least 85% of TB cases detected in


countries with established U.S. government programs;

• Diagnosed and treated at least 57,200 new multidrug-resistant


TB cases; and

• Contributed to a 50% reduction in TB deaths and disease


burden since 1990.

Congress authorized $4 billion in funding over five years in 2008,


an authorization level that congressional appropriations have never
For more information, contact: reached. InterAction therefore believes $400 million – a number with
Erin Jeffery strong congressional support – is a reasonable down payment on
Advocacy and International Development that commitment, which will hopefully allow for further deployment
Coordinator of updated diagnostics and drug regimens as well as increased
InterAction development and introduction of new tools.
ejeffery@interaction.org

23
Success Story:
Local Leader Encourages TB Testing
Grace Tsawe runs a prayer camp in the Lower Manya Krobo District of Ghana
where, on clinic days, she sees over 100 patients, many of whom suffer from
tuberculosis (TB). Until recently, Tsawe did not refer her patients to health
facilities, because she believed only prayer could heal them. However, last
year, she developed a persistent cough and began losing weight. When
months of prayer did not alleviate her symptoms, Tsawe finally visited a
hospital where she was diagnosed with TB. Six months of TB treatment cured
her of all TB symptoms. Having learned of Tsawe’s role in the community
as a prayer leader, the hospital’s TB coordinator asked to teach her about
TB screening. She agreed and, with support from the USAID-funded TB
CARE project, the TB coordinator trained Tsawe to identify patients with TB
symptoms and refer them to the hospital for testing.

In 2010, approximately 21,000 Ghanaians developed TB, and, of these, 34% of


the cases were never detected. One possible explanation for the nation’s poor
TB control is that many Ghanaians believe TB is a spiritual illness and rely on
prayer for healing, rather than medical care. For those who eventually do seek
treatment, it is often too late to avert death. To address these challenges, TB
CARE has been implementing new standard operating procedures for TB screening at health facilities in Ghana
for over two years. The project is also training health teams to educate community leaders, such as Tsawe, to
identify TB symptoms and make timely referrals.

Tsawe’s recovery from TB has inspired her to train other prayer camp owners in TB screening and referrals. She is
also now using radio and TV interviews to encourage TB testing in her community.

References
1 US House of Representatives TB Elimination Caucus letter. 2012.

2 R.Laxminarayan, et. al. “Economic Benefit of TB Control,” Policy Research Working Paper 4295. World Bank. 2007.

3 “Global Facts on Tuberculosis, 2012,” World Health Organization. http://www.who.int/tb/publications/factsheet_global.pdf.


Neglected Funding History

Tropical
Diseases
FY2014 Recommendation: Enacted

$125 million FY13 CR Post-Sequestration (estimated)


FY14 InterAction Recommendation

Purpose Justification
Funding for Neglected Tropical Each year, 400,000 people die from NTDs.1 But as little as 50
Diseases (NTDs) helps to prevent, cents per person per year can provide prevention treatment
control, eliminate and eradicate against the most common NTDs. Over the past five years, the
17 diseases that infect 1 billion of U.S. government has leveraged taxpayer dollars and $3.1 billion in
the world’s poorest people. One in donated medicines to provide 584.6 million safe and effective NTD
six people worldwide suffer from treatments to approximately 257.9 million people.2
NTDs such as dengue, rabies, river
blindness, leprosy, trachoma and The World Health Organization estimates that in addition to industry
hookworm. These diseases are contributions – such as pharmaceutical drugs – it would only cost
deadly, debilitating and can cause $2 billion to prevent and treat all individuals at risk of contracting an
blindness, disfigurement, disability, NTD from 2012 to 2015.3 It is critical that the ongoing NTD control
cognitive developmental delays and programs be supported and continued in order to reach all those
social stigma. afflicted, in addition to supporting research for new tools to fight
NTDs.

Currently, NTD research and development (R&D) programs are


underfunded. R&D for new tools is essential to ultimately combating
NTDs; however, USAID – which plays a unique and critical role in
product development for new NTD technologies – does not fund
NTD R&D. Unfortunately, many current NTD medications have
severe side effects. Research into these diseases could lead to
new vaccines, better drugs and improved diagnostic tools. Strong
support for successful control and elimination programs, combined
with robust funding for NTD R&D is the key to success against
For more information, contact: NTDs.
Erin Jeffery
Advocacy and International Development
Coordinator
InterAction
ejeffery@interaction.org

25
Success Story:
Education Campaigns Help Stop Neglected Tropical Diseases
Maroua, the bustling capital of the Far North Region of Cameroon, is an extremely
hot, dry and dusty city with a population of approximately 250,000 people.
Recently, the city has struggled to achieve high coverage rates for various public
health initiatives.

Launched in 2010 and continuing today, a campaign by the Neglected Tropical


Disease Control Program to combat onchocerciasis and lymphatic filariasis
reaches Maroua and all 28 health districts of the Far North Region. Knowing that
social mobilization strategies would be essential to achieve high coverage rates,
Helen Keller International and the Ministry of Health use a variety of innovative
channels to communicate the need for everyone to participate in drug distribution

Helen Keller International


events. Ministry leaders appear on popular radio programs, traditional storytellers
spread the word, and engaging posters catch people’s attention on nearly every
street corner.

One poster used during the campaign pictures a man with a very swollen leg, one of the symptoms of lymphatic
filariasis. A man who was suffering unknowingly, from lymphatic filariasis saw the poster and noticed that his
leg looked just like that of the man in the poster. Armed with this new information, he immediately visited his
health center and was happy to learn that drugs to alleviate the symptoms of his disease would be distributed
to him for free. Thanks to the public awareness campaign, not only did this man seek and receive treatment, but
now he also is an active community health educator who travels house-to-house and mobilizes his neighbors to
participate in the campaign against lymphatic filariasis and onchocerciasis so that others do not suffer like he has.

Due to social mobilization strategies, significant progress has been made in reaching vulnerable populations in
Maroua. As a result, 84% of the people at risk of lymphatic filariasis have received essential treatment in 2011.
These results would not be possible without crucial funding from USAID.

References
1 U.S. Department of State (2011) Foreign Operations Congressional Budget Justification Fiscal Year 2011: Vol. 2.

2 “USAID’s Neglected Tropical Diseases Program,” USAID. http://www.neglecteddiseases.gov/about/index.html.

3 “Accelerating work to overcome the global impact of Neglected Tropical Diseases: A Roadmap for Implementation,” World Health Organization.
http://whqlibdoc.who.int/hq/2012/WHO_HTM_NTD_2012.1_eng.pdf.
HIV/AIDS, PEPFAR Funding History

and the Global


Fund to Fight AIDS,
Tuberculosis and
Malaria
FY2014 Recommendation:
Enacted

$350 million
for USAID’s HIV/AIDS programs
FY13 CR Post-Sequestration (estimated)
FY14 InterAction Recommendation

$4.49 billion
for PEPFAR
Justification
PEPFAR combats HIV/AIDS through prevention, treatment, care
$1.65 billion
for the Global Fund
and the strengthening of health systems through bilateral and
multilateral programs. As of September 30, 2012, PEPFAR had
directly supported antiretroviral treatment to almost 5.1 million
people. In FY2012 alone, PEPFAR directly supported HIV testing
Purpose and counseling for more than 49 million people and provided care
and support for nearly 15 million people – including more than 4.5
Funding for State and USAID for
million orphans and vulnerable children. By reaching nearly 750,000
HIV/AIDS programs supports the
HIV-positive pregnant women in FY2012 with drugs to prevent
President’s Emergency Plan for
transmission of HIV from mother to child, PEPFAR helped avert
AIDS Relief (PEPFAR), the Global
230,000 HIV infections in newborn children.1
Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis
and Malaria, and other multicountry Global Fund: As of December 2012, the Global Fund had provided
initiatives. This funding is used to HIV/AIDS treatment to 4.2 million people, as well as service to 1.7
prevent, treat and care for those million pregnant women to prevent transmission of HIV to their
infected with HIV/AIDS and to build children. In addition, the Global Fund has distributed 310 million
country-level capacity to transfer insecticide-treated bed nets, detected and treated 9.7 million
operation of HIV/AIDS programs to cases of tuberculosis, and treated 290 million cases of malaria. On
implementing countries. average, the Global Fund saves 100,000 lives each month.2

The Global Fund works in close partnership with PEPFAR and


the President’s Malaria Initiative to create highly successful
collaboration around the world. The U.S. is the Global Fund’s
largest donor; however, by law, the U.S. contribution is capped
For more information, contact: at one-third of total contributions. This means that for every
Erin Jeffery
$1 contributed by the U.S., at least $2 must come from the
Advocacy and International Development international community.
Coordinator
InterAction Funding for the Global Fund is critical to ensuring that we build on
ejeffery@interaction.org the successes of the past decade and that we can provide care
to the millions around the globe waiting for access to antiretroviral
therapies, tuberculosis treatments and insecticide-treated nets.

USAID’s HIV/AIDS programs scale up proven interventions, while


promoting newly-developed innovations and best practices.

27
Funding for two essential partnerships – the Commodity Fund and the International AIDS Vaccine Initiative – help
increase condom availability and promote the development of an effective HIV vaccine.

The global fight against HIV/AIDS is at a critical juncture. The knowledge and innovations acquired over the last
10 years have brought the end of the HIV/AIDS epidemic within reach. The United States must not let current
budgetary constraints undo the success of the past few years. If we do not act, we may lose our best chance to
end this epidemic.

Success Story:
Living Long, Full Lives With HIV/AIDS
All her life, Laurence, who is 70 and HIV-positive, has struggled to care for herself
and her family. Then in 2010 she joined an Internal Savings and Lending Group
(ISLG) and started taking nutrition classes through the Higa Ubeho program in
Rwanda, implemented by Global Communities/CHF International. With the loan
she obtained through the ISLG and the skills she learned in nutrition training, she
was able to make her farm a source of fresh, healthy vegetables for herself and her
family. She began generating a sustainable income from the extra crops she grew.
She now has access to treatment, health insurance and electricity in her home.

Laurence also shares her training with people in her village who are replicating
her methods. Laurence said that because of the program, “I am no longer sick all
the time. And though I have health insurance, I hardly ever have to go to hospital

Laura Gingerich
anymore. Not only am I not a burden to anyone, I also am supporting others by
teaching them the importance of improved nutrition. I am proud that I have gained
knowledge and skills that I can use the rest of my life.”

The Higa Ubeho program, which is funded by USAID and PEPFAR, works with people in Rwanda living with
HIV/AIDS, orphans and other vulnerable children to reduce the impact of the disease on their lives, and works
with local institutions to increase their access to education, psychosocial support, medicine and food. It serves
more than 70,000 families in 20 districts to develop sustainable ways of coping with the health and economic
challenges that affect the most vulnerable communities in Rwanda.

References
1 “World AIDS Day 2012 Update: Latest PEPFAR Results,” PEPFAR. http://www.pepfar.gov/funding/results/index.htm.

2 “Fighting AIDS,” The Global Fund. http://www.theglobalfund.org/en/about/diseases/hivaids/.


Funding History

NIH Global
Health
FY2014 Recommendation: Enacted

$605.7 million FY13 CR Post-Sequestration (estimated)


FY14 InterAction Recommendation

Purpose Justification
National Institutes of Health As a premier research institution, NIH conducts and supports a
(NIH) Global Health funding range of biomedical and behavioral research activities, as well as
supports basic and applied training for young scientists. Continued investments in medical
scientific research to identify new scientific research help lead to new, innovative, and life-saving
interventions and more effective technologies and medicines that improve health and combat
ways to improve health and combat disease both in the United States and around the world.
disease. These research activities
are complemented by programs that Global health research at NIH spans 27 institutes and centers,
train new researchers and scientists including the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases,
in partner countries so they can which continues to lead in global breakthroughs to combat HIV/
better undertake future global AIDS, malaria, tuberculosis and neglected tropical diseases. NIH
health research. funding also supports the Fogarty International Center, which
supports approximately 400 research and training projects with
more than 100 U.S. universities that partner with other research
institutions around the world.

NIH-supported research, which led to the codiscovery of HIV, has


saved an estimated 14.4 million years of life since 1995 through
AIDS therapies alone.1 NIH research has also led to other medical
breakthroughs, such as treatments for HIV-associated coinfections,
the development of the first microbicide gel effective for preventing
HIV/AIDS, strategies to prevent mother-to-child transmission of the
HIV/AIDS virus and steps to developing a malaria vaccine.

Sustained funding for NIH’s global health research and training


For more information, contact:
activities is critical to identifying new cures, finding more efficient
Erin Jeffery
and effective interventions to combat disease, and facilitating the
Advocacy and International Development
Coordinator
training of new researchers, all while supporting U.S. universities
InterAction and research jobs.
ejeffery@interaction.org

29
Success Story:
NIH Discovery Turning the Tide Against River Blindness
Onchocerciasis, commonly known as river blindness, affects
37 million people with an estimated 180 million people in Africa
at risk. Transmitted to humans through bites of blackflies,
individuals who become infected experience intense itching,
severe skin disfiguration, and – with years of repeated exposure
– permanent blindness. In addition to its health effects, the
disease leads to massive economic losses when productive
agricultural lands are abandoned for fear of infection. Although
a treatment exists, it needs to be taken for up to 20 years by the
entire affected community through mass drug administration.
Once free from the disease, communities must be closely

PATH/Allison Golden
monitored to prevent reintroduction of the disease and the need
for additional mass drug administration.

Scientists at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) discovered


an antigen to river blindness that could lead to easier testing. However, there was little interest from potential
commercial partners in pursuing its production because companies did not see much potential profit in
manufacturing a test for a disease rampant in poor countries. Utilizing the discovery of NIH scientists, PATH, a
nonprofit global health organization, developed a simple, rapid test that could accurately diagnose river blindness
and partnered with the NIH to evaluate the technology. PATH identified Standard Diagnostics, Inc., as a partner
for manufacture and distribution, and the two organizations are working to develop a commercially viable test for
use in affected countries. Because of a discovery made in NIH labs, people living in remote areas can get tested
in their own communities. This will improve their lives and help eliminate river blindness in Africa.

Funding for NIH’s global health program allows for research that provides valuable innovations in our collective
response to river blindness and other diseases. Ultimately, U.S. investment enables communities to overcome
tremendous health challenges that limit economic productivity and perpetuate poverty.

References
1 “Estimating the impact of antiretroviral therapy: regional and global estimates of life-years gained among adults,” NIH, National Center for
Biotechnology Information. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3173805/.
Funding History

CDC Global
Health
FY2014 Recommendation: Enacted

$362.9 million FY13 CR Post-Sequestration (estimated)


FY14 InterAction Recommendation

Purpose Justification
Centers for Disease Control and As one of the premier public health agencies in the world, the
Prevention (CDC) global health CDC works in partnership with ministries of health, international
funding helps track diseases, organizations and other partners to strengthen global health
provides public health leadership, capacity, increase security and support evidence-based global
assists foreign ministries of health health programs. It makes significant contributions to global health
in strengthening their research and research and development, monitors and tracks infectious diseases
laboratory infrastructure, and trains worldwide, alerts researchers when new disease strains emerge,
new health professionals. This type and provides critical intelligence for the control and prevention of
of collaboration draws on the CDC’s diseases.
technical expertise and improves
the ability of partner countries to With over 60 years of experience, CDC works alongside foreign
lead in the future. ministries of health to prevent the spread of disease worldwide.
CDC is a key partner in the U.S. President’s Emergency Plan for
AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) in over 75 countries and provides technical
assistance on how to implement the latest science, such as scaling
up HIV treatment and preventing mother-to-child transmission.
CDC is also a leader in global immunization and disease eradication
efforts. For example, CDC programs helped reduce the number
of new polio cases globally by more than 99% between 1988 and
2010,1 and the CDC-led global campaign to eradicate Guinea worm
disease has helped reduce the disease burden from 3.5 million
cases per year in 1986 to near eradication today.2

The CDC also continuously investigates and responds to disease


For more information, contact: outbreaks, such as the measles outbreak in 2010 in four African
Erin Jeffery
countries. The CDC’s efforts address critical global issues while
Advocacy and International Development also protecting the health of Americans. Continued, sustained
Coordinator funding for CDC programs is crucial.
InterAction
ejeffery@interaction.org

31
Success Story:
Saving Lives Through Cervical Cancer Screenings and Treatments
During her annual exam at a health clinic, Mariam Cissé, a
41-year-old mother of three who is HIV positive, was screened
for cervical cancer using a technique called visual inspection
with acetic acid (VIA). This technique is a cost-effective
alternative to the Pap smear. During a VIA screening, a doctor or
nurse swabs the cervix with acetic acid, the main component of
vinegar. If there are precancerous cells, the cervix turns white.

Toure Oumar/Jhpiego
Cissé’s cervix showed a large white lesion.

She was stunned – a screening a year earlier had been negative.


But as an HIV positive woman, Cissé was at greater risk to
develop aggressive precancerous lesions. Her lesion was too large for the routine treatment. Normally, doctors
use a freezing technique known as cryotherapy to destroy abnormal tissue. This would not help Cissé and she
was worried.

Hope arrived in the form of a phone call. A midwife told Cissé that the University Hospital Centre could treat large
cervical lesions using loop electrical excision procedure (LEEP), which uses a thin wire heated by electric current
to cut away the cells. Not only was the treatment available, but it was also free. Cissé was successfully treated.

Greater access to screening and treatment drastically reduces the number of deaths from cervical cancer.
Jhpiego – an affiliate of Johns Hopkins University – is working with the U.S. Centers for Disease Control, the
President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief, and National HIV/AIDS Care and Treatment Program to make
screening and treatment available to the women in Côte d’Ivoire. Since 2009, the number of screening and
treatment sites has grown to 20. To date, 7,343 HIV-positive women have been screened with VIA. Of these
women, 429 women – including Cissé – have been treated for precancerous lesions.

These are important strides in a country where only 5.8% of women are screened for cervical cancer every three
years, and where almost 70% of the 1,600 women who are diagnosed annually with cervical cancer die from the
disease, according to the World Health Organization.

“I am a living testimony to the success of this approach,” said Cissé. “Other women could have the same chance.”

References
1 “Post-Polio Syndrome Face Sheet,” National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke. http://www.ninds.nih.gov/disorders/post_polio/detail_
post_polio.htm.

2 “Guinea Worm Frequently Asked Questions,” CDC. http://www.cdc.gov/parasites/guineaworm/gen_info/faqs.html.


Funding History

Development
Assistance
FY2014 Recommendation: Enacted

$3.175 billion FY13 CR Post-Sequestration (estimated)


FY14 InterAction Recommendation

Purpose Justification
The Development Assistance (DA) Despite the fact that the Development Assistance (DA) account is at
account is the bedrock of U.S. the core of U.S. investments in creating sustainable, self-sufficient
investments to help the world’s societies, funding for the account has remained flat since FY2010.
poorest obtain access to education This is even more concerning given increasing food prices, threats
and clean water, grow nutritious to development from climate events, expanded engagement by
food, protect the environment, geopolitical competitors and historic opportunities to advance
promote economic development, democracy in the Arab world.
support good governance, respond
to climate change and create The recommended $3.175 billion is the minimum level necessary
more sustainable, self-sufficient to cover the challenges and opportunities in each major sector
democratic societies. (including food security and agriculture, microfinance, basic
education, climate change, biodiversity and water), without squeezing
out other equally worthwhile programming, such as democracy
funding, economic growth, trade capacity-building, technology,
innovation and evaluation. The $3.175 billion level reflects the Senate
FY2013 funding level plus an increase in $125 million over the Senate
FY2013 funding levels for basic education. For more details, see the
sectoral justifications on the following pages.

For more information, contact:


Katie Lee
Advocacy and Policy Coordinator for
International Development
InterAction
klee@interaction.org

Erin Jeffery
Advocacy and International Development
Coordinator
InterAction
ejeffery@interaction.org

33
Food Funding History

Security and
Agriculture
FY2014 Recommendation:

$1.445 billion
Enacted
FY13 CR Post-Sequestration (estimated)
FY14 InterAction Recommendation
across all bilateral accounts

Purpose Justification
The recommended $1.445 billion Globally, 870 million people suffer from malnutrition and hunger,1
funding level for Food Security while some 2.5 million children under 5 die each year from
and Agriculture includes support malnutrition.2 Hunger and malnutrition rob poor people of healthy,
for Feed the Future programs and productive lives and stunt the mental and physical development
food security programs in frontline of future generations. Food price volatility and extreme weather
states: $1.2 billion would fund Feed patterns, such as those that caused the droughts in the Horn
the Future at the Senate FY2013 of Africa and the Sahel, are pushing more and more people into
level, while an additional $245 extreme hunger and malnutrition.
million, based on the President’s
FY2013 budget request, is needed After decades of declining support for farmers in developing
to ensure food security in frontline countries, renewed U.S. leadership has sparked a global
states. commitment to helping people feed themselves. Feed the Future
takes a comprehensive and sustainable approach to agricultural
development. Investments focus on country-owned plans
developed through engagement with local government and civil
society, and emphasize the importance of gender, nutrition,
climate change and natural resource management. Drawing upon
resources and expertise of agencies across the U.S. government,
this initiative is helping countries, including 19 focus countries,
transform their agriculture sectors to sustainably grow enough food
to feed their people. In FY2011, U.S. agricultural assistance helped
1.8 million farmers adopt improved technologies or management
practices, and reached nearly 9 million children through nutrition
programs such as micronutrient supplementation and food
For more information, contact: fortification.3
Katie Lee
Advocacy and Policy Coordinator for Additionally, with food prices remaining volatile and weather
International Development patterns threatening water availability and agricultural productivity,
InterAction it is critical that we maintain or increase the level of funding for Feed
klee@interaction.org the Future and agricultural development in the frontline states of
Afghanistan, Pakistan and Iraq, in order to help promote stability in
these areas.

35
Success Story:
“Passing On the Gift” for Sustainability
The Yaajeende Agricultural Development Program in Senegal’s
eastern regions is transforming the lives of one million
individuals in 100,000 households, and is part of USAID’s
Feed the Future project. Yaajeende means “abundance” or
“prosperity” in the local Pulaar language, and reflects the goals

Oliver Asselin/Heifer International


of the project: to improve the nutrition and income of one million
people across 60 regional communities.

The project brings together five organizations: Counterpart


International, Heifer International, Manobi Inc., The National
Cooperative Business Association, and Sheladia Associates Inc.

For its part, Heifer is placing livestock (poultry, sheep and goats) among 5,500 households. Using the “passing
on the gift” model, families who receive one of the 12,000 sheep and goats or 12,500 poultry will then pass on the
offspring to their neighbors. Through this process the program will reach 19,500 households over five years.

“When you are poor, you will never neglect the sheep because they are a way to move forward,” said Kumba
Daranjay, president of a farmers association. “You know how bad poverty is, and you don’t want to go back. The
sheep will help feed our children and take care of their health.”

Heifer International estimates the increased economic activity resulting from the project will double the household
incomes of farmer participants, which in turn will substantially reduce the number of underweight children
and allow them to grow and reach their full potential. The livestock will not only allow families to better feed
themselves, it will also give them money so that they can send their children to school.

References
1 “The State of Food Insecurity in the World,” Food and Agriculture Organization. http://www.fao.org/docrep/016/i3027e/i3027e.pdf.

2 “Committing to Child Survival: A Promise Renewed – Progress Report 2012,” UNICEF.

3 “Feed the Future Progress Report 2012,” Feed the Future. http://feedthefuture.gov/resource/feed-future-progress-report-2012.
Funding History

Microfinance
FY2014 Recommendation: Enacted

$265 million FY13 CR Post-Sequestration (estimated)


FY14 InterAction Recommendation

Purpose Justification
Microfinance provides access to An estimated 2.5 billion people have no access to formal financial
financial services like credit or services.1 Microfinance began as a way to finance self-employment
savings for the world’s poor and ventures by poor people who had few employment or income-
marginalized people, enabling poor generating opportunities or who could not obtain credit. It has
families to start businesses or meet since expanded to include poor households’ management of their
health, education, or emergency finances through savings, credit and insurance for such things as
needs, thus helping them lift enterprise, education, housing and health care. U.S. microfinance
themselves out of poverty. assistance focuses on improving access to these financial services
for the very poor (those living on less than $1.25 a day) and the
people most marginalized by the societies in which they live.

Public funding is critical for reaching these populations because


very little private foreign investment capital in microfinance goes to
the countries with the greatest need – or to the most marginalized
populations within these countries. For instance, in sub-Saharan
Africa, which has the highest percentage of people living in extreme
poverty of any region, 640 of the 800 million of the people in the
region have no access to any financial institution – microfinance or
otherwise.2 USAID microenterprise funding plays a critical role in
expanding financial opportunities for the underserved in these high-
need countries.

Strong congressional support has demonstrated U.S. leadership in


microfinance and microenterprise development, recognizing these
tools as a cost-effective and successful way to reduce poverty
For more information, contact: and promote economic growth. In FY2011, U.S. microenterprise
Jeremy Kadden development assistance helped provide approximately 3 million
Senior Legislative Manager people in 50 countries with the financial means to start or grow a
InterAction business and help lift themselves out of poverty.3
jkadden@interaction.org

37
Success Story:
Supporting Entrepreneurs with Microloans
Two years ago, Hemmin Omar Ali opened a chewing gum
factory in Iraq with a $5,000 loan from Relief International.
Hemmin had decided he could be more competitive by
selling trading cards with the gum. So he used the loan to
purchase machinery to print the cards and seal them in foil
packets.

His vision worked. His chewing gum business became very


successful and he paid off his loan. At the height of his
business, monthly revenue exceeded $200,000 and Hemmin
employed 83 people, but foreign competitors from Turkey
drove down price and profit. It was time for a change.

Relief International
Hemmin came up with a new plan, once again finding his
niche in the market. His plan was simple: make potato chips
that are cheaper, better and local. (Currently most potato
chips sold in the region are imported from Iran.)

With a stellar repayment record, Hemmin was able to reach out to Relief International’s microfinance program.
Because he had already demonstrated his creditworthiness by repaying his first loan, and because he had
developed a solid business plan, Hemmin secured a larger $10,000 SME loan to launch the new venture.

Entrepreneurs in the developing world often lack access to basic financial services. The doors of traditional banks
often remain closed to entrepreneurs with high aspirations but limited means. Relief International’s program, which
received its startup funding from a $2.9 million USAID grant, is designed to fill this gap. By providing initial capital
to entrepreneurs like Hemmin, these micro and small business loans support the dreams of local entrepreneurs
and promote economic development.

References
1 “Measuring Financial Inclusion: The Global Findex Database,” The World Bank Development Research Group. http://www-wds.worldbank.org/
external/default/WDSContentServer/IW3P/IB/2012/04/19/000158349_20120419083611/Rendered/PDF/WPS6025.pdf.

2 “2011 Microfinance in Africa: State of the Sector Report: Closing the Gap,” CARE. http://www.care.org/getinvolved/advocacy/access-africa/pdf/
CARE-Access-Africa-Closing-the-Gap-2011.pdf.

3 Based on a cost per beneficiary of $85 as determined from 107 projects that provided information on borrowers, savers, microenterprises or total
number of employees from USAID. “Microenterprise Results Reporting [in 2011],” USAID. http://pdf.usaid.gov/pdf_docs/PDACT959.pdf.
Funding History

Basic
Education
FY2014 Recommendation:

$925 million
Enacted
FY13 CR Post-Sequestration (estimated)
FY14 InterAction Recommendation
across all accounts

Purpose Justification
U.S. support for basic education Today, 61 million children1 and 71 million adolescents2 worldwide
furthers the alleviation of global are not in school. Roughly half of these out-of-school children live
poverty, strengthens societies, in areas affected by conflict and/or fragility.3 And these numbers
fosters stability and security, continue to grow. Moreover, many millions of children receive an
spurs domestic economic growth, education of such poor quality that they leave school lacking basic
reinforces gains in global health, literacy and numeracy skills.4
and enhances U.S. global leadership
and influence. Education is a cost Basic education programs help alleviate poverty through economic
effective and sustainable way to growth. No country has achieved rapid economic growth without
equip millions with the tools they investing in education.5 Every $1 spent on education generates as
need to better their lives and forge a much as $10 to $15 in economic growth.6 Educating the world’s
path to self-sufficiency. poor also is essential for growing the stable trading partners that
U.S. export markets require and enhancing security worldwide.
Population rates are rising in countries with the highest illiteracy
rates.7 Education has a stabilizing effect on youth populations, with
each additional year of formal schooling for males reducing their
risk of becoming involved in conflict by 20%.8

The recommended funding level is $125 million over the FY2012


level, a modest increase that would extend quality primary school
education to approximately 1.25 million more children.9 Over the
last 10 years, great strides have been made, with the number of
out of school children dropping by 47 million.10 Strong investment
in education will help maintain this progress and help achieve the
goals of the USAID Education Strategy, which aims to improve
For more information, contact: reading skills for 100 million learners and increase equitable access
Jeremy Kadden for 15 million learners in conflict and crisis areas by 2015.
Senior Legislative Manager
InterAction
jkadden@interaction.org

39
Success Story:
Increasing School Enrollment in Kenya
Mary Andrew Kopulo grew up in a poor family in rural
Kenya, the fourth of 11 children. As a girl, she struggled
to get an education. This experience inspired her to
start a preschool so her students would have a chance
at a better life.

“Simply getting girls to attend school is an achievement


here where many girls get married very young,”
Kopulo said. She started Vilwakwe Children Centre
in Mombasa’s squatter settlements where there is no

Aga Khan Foundation U.S.A.


public school. From seven students, enrollment grew in
five years to 395, nearly half of them girls. She started a
nutrition program and a girls’ forum with activities that
boost girls’ skills and confidence. When the landlord
locked the school for inadequate washroom facilities,
Kopulo applied for a grant from Aga Khan Foundation and the Education for Marginalized Children in Kenya
(EMACK) program.

Funded by USAID, EMACK improves early childhood development facilities, learning methods, and tools
for reaching girls and other underserved groups. In helping Kenyan schools scale-up a robust education for
everyone, EMACK trains hundreds of teachers and provides small grants to informal schools like Kopulo’s to
improve the classroom environment. It has supported 767 preprimary, primary and secondary schools with
efforts tailored to gaps in the education system. To strengthen teaching skills for working with students from
marginalized groups, EMACK has trained over 6,900 teachers (over half of them women). More profoundly, it
fosters transparency in education by involving communities in school management, engaging 4,436 members
of committees and boards of governors from 860 schools in training sessions. In remote areas, enrollment has
increased by 74.1%.

“My greatest hope is that my students believe in education to achieve their dreams,” explained Kopulo.
“Education is the only thing that will break the poverty cycle for their families.”

References
1 “EFA Global Monitoring Report 2012: Youth and Skills: Putting Education to Work,” UNESCO, 2012. (Hereinafter “UNESCO GMR 2012.”)

2 Ibid.

3 “Last in Line, Last in School 2009: Donor Trends in Meeting Education Needs in Countries Affected by Conflict and Emergencies,” Save the
Children, 2009.

4 “EFA Global Monitoring Report 2009: Overcoming Inequality: Why Governance Matters,” UNESCO, 2009.

5 “Education and the Developing World,” Center for Global Development, 2004.

6 UNESCO GMR 2012.

7 Ibid.

8 “Doing Well out of War,” The World Bank. http://www.uio.no/studier/emner/sv/statsvitenskap/PECOS4010/h12/undervisningsmateriale/war.pdf.

9 “EFA Global Monitoring Report 2010: Reaching the Marginalized,” UNESCO, 2010.

10 UNESCO GMR 2012.


Climate Change Funding History

Response
(Bilateral)

FY2014 Recommendation:

$468 million
Enacted
FY13 CR Post-Sequestration (estimated)
FY14 InterAction Recommendation
across all bilateral accounts1

Purpose Justification
Through the U.S. Global Climate Bilateral investments concerning climate change and extreme
Change Initiative (GCCI), USAID weather are essential to meet the basic needs of poor people and
bilateral climate funds target protect critical forest areas and biodiversity. Climate change could
the most vulnerable countries reduce agricultural productivity in many developing countries by up
to support adaptation to climate to 50% by 2020.2
impacts and countries with
significant opportunities to Every dollar invested in adaptation can generate returns of
mitigate greenhouse gases $1.45-$3.03 for communities.3 Investments in adaptation, clean
through clean energy development energy and sustainable landscapes promote global security,
and sustainable landscape minimize instability, reduce the cost of disasters, address global
management. USAID integrates hunger and health, protect long-standing U.S. investments in
its climate work into food security, global development and conservation, and increase economic
global health, democracy, and other opportunities for U.S. businesses and workers. In fact, the United
development priorities, as well as States could create 280,000-850,000 new jobs by garnering just
multilateral efforts. 14% of the clean technology market in the developing world.4

Since GCCI started in 2010, examples of USAID’s accomplishments


include helping six countries develop and implement strategies for
increasing economic growth with lower emissions, and providing
23 countries with early warning systems and other tools to improve
water management, agriculture, health and postdisaster recovery.5

Based on FY2013 Senate funding levels, InterAction recommends


$468 million for GCCI bilateral assistance, including $190 million
for adaptation, $165 million for clean energy and $113 million for
For more information, contact:
sustainable landscapes programs.
Katie Lee
Advocacy and Policy Coordinator for
International Development
InterAction
klee@interaction.org

41
Success Story:
Reclaiming Degraded Land Reduces Malnutrition
Ibarogan was a parched, dusty village nestled upslope
from a small ephemeral waterway in the Tahoua Region
of Niger. With little rainfall and poor soil, farmers relied
on subsistence crops such as millet and cowpeas, and
barely harvested enough food to feed their families. The
region also had limited access to other food sources and
malnutrition was widespread.

Recently, however, Ibarogan’s famers began to see

NCBA CLUSA International


significant improvement in their ability to produce more and
better-quality crops as a result of joining the USAID-funded
Arziki Project implemented by CLUSA International. The
project promoted climate change adaptation (CCA), which
helped farmers reclaim degraded land so they had access
to more fertile land and can grow more nutritious crops.

Ibarogan’s community built stone check dams along the village’s stream. Each check dam was buttressed at the
water’s peak flow point to reduce powerful stream flows during high-intensity storms. Along the streambed, the
villagers built rock walls to reduce soil erosion and improve water infiltration. On the improved, moisture-laden
land, farmers now plant dolique, a legume eaten by humans and livestock and worth $1,000 per hectare.

Ibarogan has long struggled to overcome droughts, malnutrition and an almost complete lack of natural resources.
With the help of CLUSA International, in partnership with USAID, the village tackled these challenges. The farmers’
crops improved, and villagers reclaimed land and created fertile garden plots, reducing malnutrition and raising the
standard of living.

References
1 Does not include funding provided through the ESF account for the Least Developed Countries Fund (LDCF) and Special Climate Change Fund
(SCCF).

2 “Climate Change Adaptation and Mitigation in the Food and Agriculture Sector,” United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization. ftp://ftp.fao.
org/docrep/fao/meeting/013/ai782e.pdf.

3 “Policy Brief: Climate Change – Why Community Based Adaptation Makes Economic Sense,” CARE. http://www.careclimatechange.org/files/
adaptation/PolicyBrief_Why_CBA_Makes_Economic_Sense_July12.pdf.

4 “Getting Back in the Game: U.S. Job Growth Potential from Expanding Clean Technology Markets in Developing Countries,” World Wildlife Fund,
2010.

5 “Global Climate Change,” USAID. http://www.usaid.gov/climate/.


Climate Change Funding History

Response
(Multilateral)

FY2014 Recommendation: Enacted

$455 million
FY13 CR Post-Sequestration (estimated)
FY14 InterAction Recommendation
*Includes funding for the Least Developed Countries Fund and Special Climate Change Fund, the Green
across all multilateral accounts1 Climate Fund, the Strategic Climate Fund and the Clean Technology Fund.

Purpose Justification
USAID multilateral climate Extreme weather is raging across the world, with Australia suffering
investments such as the Least massive forest fires from a record-shattering heat wave, Pakistan
Developed Countries Fund (LDCF), enduring unanticipated flooding, and more than 3,500 extreme
Strategic Climate Change Fund weather events in the U.S.2,3 Addressing climate change requires
(SCCF), Climate Investment Funds U.S. action to help secure strong international response.
(CIFs) and Green Climate Fund
(GCF) complement and leverage InterAction recommends $50 million for the LDCF and SCCF. The
U.S. bilateral investments to LDCF helps least-developed countries prepare and implement
address the frequency and intensity country-driven National Adaptation Programs of Action that
of very costly extreme weather identify and prioritize urgent adaptation needs. The SCCF supports
events that are likely to worsen with country-driven adaptation and technology transfer programs that
climate change, as temperatures are integrated into national development and poverty-reduction
continue to rise and affect weather strategies, and catalyzes funding from other bilateral and
patterns. multilateral donors.

Based on FY2013 Senate funding levels, InterAction recommends


$400 million for the CIFs: $300 million for the Clean Technology
Fund (CTF), and $100 million for the Strategic Climate Fund (SCF).
The CTF promotes scaled-up financing for transformational low-
carbon technology deployment that demonstrates significant
reductions in greenhouse gas emissions. The STF includes
programs that integrate climate risk and resilience, increase energy
access through renewable energy use, and support efforts to
reduce deforestation and forest degradation.
For more information, contact:
InterAction recommends $5 million to support start-up costs
Katie Lee
for the Green Climate Fund (GCF). Launched in 2011 with broad
Advocacy and Policy Coordinator for
International Development
international support, the GCF is intended as the primary financial
InterAction mechanism through which developed countries will support
klee@interaction.org developing country efforts to address climate change.

43
Success Story:
Better Irrigation Techniques Ensure Food for All
Burkina Faso and its citizens constantly struggle
with food security issues due to dwindling water
resources and deteriorating pastures. This lack
of access to reliable sources of nutritious food
has led to more disease and child malnutrition.

The Least Developed Countries Fund put


$2.9 million into the Strengthening Adaptation
Capacities and Reducing the Vulnerability to
Climate Change project in 2008, which focused
on the local level, working in six villages to
develop strategies to adapt to climate change
and thereby increase economic prospects and
food security.

This project successfully established climate-


resilient irrigation techniques, developed livestock feed storage facilities, new wells, and training for farmers in
climate-resilient agricultural management with the objective of increasing food security and promoting sustainable
agricultural development. Women and children are particularly vulnerable to negative effects of climate change,
partly because of gender roles and their lack of control over assets. To address these challenges, the project
provides women goat and sheep farmers with credit for stock and inputs. Women are also in charge of stocking
and managing the stores of drought-resilient seeds.

References
1 Does not include multilateral assistance of $13 million in the International Operations and Programs account to support the Intergovernmental
Panel on Climate Change and the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Note that funding is provided through the ESF
account for the Least Developed Countries Fund and Special Climate Change Fund.

2 Lyall, Sarah. “Heat, Flood or Icy Cold, Extreme Weather Rages Worldwide,” The New York Times, January 13, 2013. http://www.nytimes.
com/2013/01/11/science/earth/extreme-weather-grows-in-frequency-and-intensity-around-world.html?pagewanted=all.

3 For a tally of the extreme weather events in the U.S., see http://www.nrdc.org/health/extremeweather/.
Funding History

Biodiversity
FY2014 Recommendation:

$200 million
Enacted
FY13 CR Post-Sequestration (estimated)
FY14 InterAction Recommendation
across all accounts

Purpose Justification
U.S. biodiversity programs protect Sustainable development depends on healthy ecosystems. Yet
some of the most at-risk natural according to experts, less than one-fifth of the world’s forests are
landscapes by improving natural intact, over half of global fish stocks are overexploited, and by the
resource management. This end of the century up to two-thirds of all species will be on the brink
conserves species and ecosystems of extinction.1 People living in poverty, especially in rural areas, feel
while also ensuring clean water, the most immediate impact when these systems are at risk, as they
promoting rural stability, boosting often draw their livelihoods directly from forests, fields, rivers and
health, securing environmental oceans.
resources and reducing poverty for
millions of people. Funding of $200 For three decades, USAID has helped boost ecological, economic
million is consistent with the FY2012 and environmental sustainability. In 2010 alone, USAID helped at
enacted level and the Senate least 930,000 people increase their incomes through sustainable
FY2013 recommended level. natural resource management and conservation activities.2

The recommended funding level would help improve natural


resource management of approximately 70 million hectares of
biologically significant areas – places around the world critical to
survival of unique, rare and endemic species.3 Conserving just 25%
of the world’s highest biodiversity areas would secure 56% of the
value of the benefits provided by ecosystems to humankind (e.g.,
clean water) on which 1.1 billion of the world’s poorest people rely.4

For more information, contact:


Katie Lee
Advocacy and Policy Coordinator for
International Development
InterAction
klee@interaction.org

45
Success Story:
Sustainable Fishing Through Private-Public Partnerships
When the fishermen in her village began to
struggle to catch anything from Lake Niassa,
Jerusa wondered what her family would do
to survive. Her father and husband were both
fishermen, and she worried what her children
would do with an empty lake. The creation of the
Lake Niassa Aquatic Reserve in 2011 assured
Jerusa that her children would not go hungry and

Helena Telkänranta/WWF-Canon
that a host of new opportunities would provide
them with a brighter future than before.

Lake Niassa in Mozambique is one of the richest


aquatic ecosystems on the planet, and the main
source of food and income for hundreds of local
communities. For years, it suffered as illegal
fishing, mining and piracy depleted fish stocks and destroyed livelihoods for villagers like Jersua who live off the
lake. USAID funding brought international organizations and local communities together to create a new future.

The private-public partnerships between international and local groups produced new policies that promote
sustainable fishing, new economic opportunities in tourism, and a team of community rangers to protect the rich
biodiversity of Lake Niassa. Local people have also received training about wildlife, natural resource management,
and sustainable fishing practices, building local capacity for a sustainable future for Jerusa, her children and their
lake.

References
1 “The Nature of Development,” InterAction. http://www.interaction.org/document/nature-development-full-report.

2 “Conserving Biodiversity and Forests,” USAID. http://www.usaid.gov/what-we-do/environment-and-global-climate-change/conserving-biodiversity-


and-forests.

3 “Biodiversity Conservation and Forestry Programs: 2011 Report,” USAID. http://transition.usaid.gov/our_work/environment/biodiversity/pdf/


biodiversity_report_2011.pdf.

4 “Global Biodiversity Conservation and the Alleviation of Poverty,” Conservation International. http://www.conservation.org/publications/Pages/Will-
Turner_Global-Biodiversity-Conservation-Alleviation-of-Poverty.aspx.
Funding History

Water
FY2014 Recommendation:

$400 million
Enacted
FY13 CR Post-Sequestration (estimated)
FY14 InterAction Recommendation
across all accounts

Purpose Justification
U.S. funding for water programs Water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) affects virtually every aspect
provides access to safe drinking of development: education, food security and agriculture, nutrition,
water and proper sanitation to health, women’s empowerment and environmental protection.
millions of people in poverty across
the world. This funding improves • Annually, $260 billion in economic losses are associated with
water and sanitation in schools, inadequate water and sanitation services.1
clinics, hospitals and households;
• Each year, children miss 443 million school days due to water-
and helps local communities
related illness.2
operate and maintain lasting water
and sanitation projects. In FY2011, U.S. funding improved water access for more than 3.8
million people and sanitation facilities access for 1.9 million. Every
dollar spent on WASH generates an estimated $4.30 in increased
productivity and decreased health care costs.3

The $400 million request ($85 million above FY2012) would


provide 8 million people with access to sustainable water and
sanitation services – 850,000 more than in FY2012.4 Private sector
contributions from NGOs, religious organizations and corporations
would multiply the impact of this investment.

Ongoing U.S. investment has paid off: 87% of the world’s


population now has access to safe drinking water and 61% to
improved sanitation.5 However, with 783 million people lacking
access to safe drinking water and 2.5 billion lacking access to
For more information, contact: sanitation,6 much work remains.
Erin Jeffery
Advocacy and International Development
Coordinator
InterAction
ejeffery@interaction.org

47
Success Story:
Restoring Rainwater Collection Equipment Restores Hope
Aiqire Mire was in trouble. Devastating drought in
northwest Somalia left him with only eight goats
to support his family, including six children. As a
herdsman, this was his only source of income. His
wife was forced to herd neighbors’ animals, and his
older children scraped for work to help the family.
Like most families in this region, they also lacked
access to clean water. World Concern met with
village elders and worked with them to rehabilitate
Mire’s berkad, a semiunderground water reservoir.
A few days of heavy rainfall filled the berkad,
allowing Mire to support his family by selling water.

World Concern
Ongoing drought conditions in Somalia have left
more than 2 million people in need of emergency
aid. Many people rely on seasonal rains, which are sporadic and unreliable. Less than 30% of the population in
northwest Somalia has access to drinking water, and no permanent surface water sources are available. Berkads
provide a simple, sustainable means of capturing rainwater that would otherwise be lost.

With support from the Office of U.S. Foreign Disaster Assistance, World Concern partners with villagers in hard-hit
rural areas of Somalia to build and rehabilitate berkads, supplying life-giving water and much-needed income in
this devastated region.

References
1 “Global costs and benefits of drinking-water supply and sanitation interventions to reach the MDG target and universal coverage,” World Health
Organization. http://www.who.int/water_sanitation_health/publications/2012/global_costs/en/index.html.

2 “Human Development Report 2006: Beyond scarcity: Power, poverty and the global water crisis,” UN Development Programme, 2006.

3 “Global costs and benefits of drinking-water supply and sanitation interventions to reach the MDG target and universal coverage,” World Health
Organization, 2012.

4 Estimate of $100 per person.

5 “Progress on Sanitation and Drinking-Water: 2010 Update,” World Health Organization. http://www.unicef.org/eapro/JMP-2010Final.pdf.

6 “Progress on Drinking Water and Sanitation: Joint Monitoring Programme Report 2012,” WHO/UNICEF, 2012.
Millennium Funding History

Challenge
Account
FY2014 Recommendation: Enacted

$900 million FY13 CR Post-Sequestration (estimated)


FY14 InterAction Recommendation

Purpose Justification
The Millennium Challenge The MCC signs compacts with countries that are competitively
Corporation (MCC) was created selected based on independent and transparent policy indicators.
by Congress in 2004 with Selected countries then identify their priorities for achieving
bipartisan support as an innovative sustainable economic growth. MCC compacts can include
international assistance agency projects in agriculture, water/sanitation, transportation (roads,
charged with reducing global bridges, etc.), finance, anticorruption, and health and education.
poverty through enhancing For example, a compact in Ghana has helped build a critical
economic growth. Using a compact- section of highway, while a compact in Indonesia is working to
based model, the MCC forms prevent childhood growth stunting and malnourishment.
program-oriented partnerships with
developing countries committed With five compacts coming to completion in 2013 and the
to good governance, economic possibility of new eligible candidates in 2014, the MCC is well
freedom and investing in their positioned to sign several modestly sized agreements in FY2014,
citizens. as well as to continue building on its existing programs. Allocating
$900 million should provide sufficient funding for the MCC to
continue to engage in important partnerships that increase
economic growth and good governance in developing countries.

The MCC’s work has produced constructive and sustainable policy


changes in countries implementing compacts and in those seeking
to qualify for MCC candidacy. It is also a leader in pioneering
many best development practices including transparency, gender
integration and country ownership.

For more information, contact:


Melissa Kaplan
Advocacy Manager for Aid Reform and
Effectiveness
InterAction
mkaplan@interaction.org

49
Success Story:
Fighting Food Insecurity and Famine in Mali
“The problem of water is very serious during the dry season,”
said Boury Barrie, a farmer in the village of Beldinadji in Mali, “but
for the first time this year, people are staying where they are for
the harvest.” From 2009-2012, ACDI/VOCA, as part of a project
funded by the Millennium Challenge Corporation, helped train
Barrie and 10,000 other seminomadic herders to farm rice. The
project established a modern farm irrigation system in the drought-
and famine-prone plains of northern Mali, bringing a measure of
food security to this fragile area.

The former herders learned to grow irrigated rice using careful


water management techniques and best practices in soil
conservation and fertility. They then grew and sold $7,744,000
worth of rice over the last two seasons. By the end of the project,
the newly-minted rice producers were earning an average of
$1,000 per hectare in a country where the average annual income

Leigh Hartless/ACDI/VOCA
is $700 per year.

Severe droughts have hit Mali’s long stretches of desert plains


three times in the last 10 years, and rainfall patterns are expected
to grow even less predictable. The low rainfall in 2011 had
particularly disastrous consequences for the growing season: the poor harvest spiraled into food insecurity and
famine in the greater Sahel region, leaving 19 million people without enough food.

However, even in that time of scarcity, these farmers produced a surplus. “Everybody thought herders were
incapable of successfully developing the land that the project has given us,” Demba Diallo, a chief of one of the
resettled villages, remarked. “With all the positive impacts we are seeing, we are organizing ourselves to better
overcome defeats.”
International Funding History

Organizations
and Programs
FY2014 Recommendation: Enacted

$385 million FY13 CR Post-Sequestration (estimated)


FY14 InterAction Recommendation

Purpose Justification
This account funds U.S. voluntary This account supports organizations that reduce poverty across the
contributions to various developing world:
international organizations. This
funding allows the United States • UN Children’s Fund – UNICEF ensures the survival and well-
to work with other countries to being of children worldwide, focusing on immunization, early
address problems that benefit childhood development, education, HIV/AIDS and child protection.
from international coordination
• UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs – UN
and cooperation. Funding these
OCHA coordinates the international response to humanitarian
agencies supports global health,
crises to better provide assistance to disaster victims.
democracy and governance, human
rights, humanitarian response • UN Development Program – The UN’s primary development
and other areas of concern to agency, UNDP’s programs combat poverty, promote democracy
Americans. and rule of law, protect the environment, and support crisis
prevention and recovery.

• UN Women – UN Women helps meet the most urgent needs of


women and girls by supporting women’s full participation in a
country’s political, economic and social life.

• Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human


Rights – OHCHR works to ensure the enforcement of universally
recognized human rights norms, including by promoting both the
ratification and implementation of major human rights treaties
and respect for the rule of law.

For more information, contact: • Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change/UN Framework


Kari Fuglesten
Convention on Climate Change – Supporting the IPCC
Legislative Coordinator for Humanitarian Affairs generates state-of-the art assessments and technology to better
InterAction prepare for climate impacts. Investing in the UNFCCC helps
kfuglesten@interaction.org generate a global response to climate change.

• UN Population Fund – UNFPA is the largest multilateral provider


of reproductive health services in the world. Its programs help
reduce maternal and child mortality.

51
Success Story:
Connecting Rural Ugandans to Innovative Technology
“What is taking place in the world, what’s happening in Libya. I can
see what is happening there – the political instability,” said 12-year-
old Simon Wokorach from Gulu, Uganda.

Simon wants to be a journalist when he grows up, a goal that has


been made much more tangible thanks to the installation of one of

Yannick Tylle/UNICEF
UNICEF’s “Digital Drums” at a youth center near his town. Simon’s
interest in and knowledge of the problems that face the rest of the
world serve as a strong testament to the importance of access to
information – especially among youth as they form their opinions of
the world and seek the skills, knowledge and independence they need to become successful, healthy adults.

In Uganda, only about 10% of people have access to the Internet. The majority of Ugandans live in rural settings
with little to no access to information about health, education and job training. The most isolated and vulnerable
children and youth are hit the hardest by this lack of access, as they cannot benefit from the services and
resources that could empower them, improving their health, safety and future.

The Digital Drum, a simple, solar-powered computer made from two low-cost oil drums welded together, was
created and built by UNICEF and its partners to respond to lack of access to information. These sustainable,
sturdy and low-cost computers are preloaded with dynamic multimedia content on health, education,
employment training and other services; and they offer Internet connections. They provide rural Ugandan
communities, and children like Simon, with access to vital information and services they need. UNICEF’s Digital
Drum was recognized as one of Time Magazine’s 50 Best Inventions of 2011.

The International Organizations and Programs account supports the United States government’s voluntary
contribution to UNICEF, which in turn supports UNICEF’s programs to save children’s lives, as well as successful
investments in innovation and technology such as the Digital Drum.
International Funding History

Development
Association
FY2014 Recommendation: Enacted

$1.41 billion FY13 CR Post-Sequestration (estimated)


FY14 InterAction Recommendation

Purpose Justification
Funding for the International The IDA, known as the World Bank’s “Fund for the Poorest,” is one
Development Association (IDA), an of the largest development financiers in the world’s least developed
international financial institution countries. Since its inception, IDA has distributed $255 billion in
that is part of the World Bank, grants and interest-free, long-term loans, averaging $15 billion
leverages U.S. foreign assistance annually in recent years and directing approximately half of those
dollars and supports antipoverty funds to Africa.1
programs in the poorest developing
countries with long-term, no IDA plays a critical role as facilitator and financier of development
interest loans. projects in areas such as infrastructure, institutional development and
technical support. Between 2000 and 2010, IDA built or rehabilitated
over 73,000 miles of roads, enough to circle the globe nearly three
times, and maintained another 84,000 miles.2 IDA financing leverages
the efforts of other donors, helping developing countries create the
systems and capacity they need to use donors’ funds.

IDA is funded in three-year replenishment cycles. In 2010, 51


countries contributed $49.3 billion for July 2011 through June 2014.
By 2015 with these funds, IDA estimates it can:

• Immunize 200 million children;


For more information, contact:
Katie Lee • Extend health services to over 30 million people;
Advocacy and Policy Coordinator for
International Development • Give 80 million more people access to improved water sources;
InterAction
klee@interaction.org • Help build more than 49,500 miles of roads; and

Erin Jeffery • Train and recruit over 2 million teachers.3


Advocacy and International Development
Coordinator Funding IDA at $1.4085 billion would fulfill the second installment of
InterAction
the United States’ IDA current cycle commitment of $1.3585 billion
ejeffery@interaction.org
and cover $50 million to fund the Multilateral Debt Relief Initiative,
which provides a group of low-income countries with 100% relief
on eligible debt from three multilateral institutions.

53
Success Story:
Dramatically Reducing Bolivian Infant Mortality Rates
In 1999, Bolivia struggled with some of the highest maternal and infant
mortality rates in Latin America. The Bolivian government looked to the
International Development Association (IDA) for help. Together, they worked to
create the Health Sector Reform Program to deliver better health care to poor
families across the country.

In just two years, the number of births attended by trained health workers
increased by 81%, and the number of children treated for pneumonia rose

Sara Sywulka
by 65%. Immunization coverage also jumped by 15% and the Bolivian
government ramped up its spending on vaccines from $500,000 to $3 million.

To build on these successes, IDA funded a project in 2001 to further reduce the infant mortality rate and to
expand health coverage to an additional 2 million people by sending additional health teams with indigenous
community support to the poorest regions of Bolivia. This program contributed to an overall 29% decrease in the
infant mortality rate across the country.

References
1 “IDA History,” World Bank. http://www.worldbank.org/ida/ida-history.html.

2 “The World Bank’s Fund for the Poorest,” World Bank. http://www.worldbank.org/ida/what-is-ida/fund-for-the-poorest.pdf.

3 “World Bank’s Fund for the Poorest Receives Almost $50 Billion in Record Funding,” World Bank. http://go.worldbank.org/F5A0QOJ8K0.
Global Funding History

Agriculture and
Food Security
Program
FY2014 Recommendation: Enacted

$158.3 million FY13 CR Post-Sequestration (estimated)


FY14 InterAction Recommendation *Program originated in FY11

Purpose Justification
Funding for the Global Agriculture Most of the world’s poor and hungry people live in rural areas and
and Food Security Program depend on agriculture to support themselves and their families.
(GAFSP), a multidonor trust fund U.S. investments in GAFSP, a critical part of Feed the Future, are on
managed by the World Bank, target to meet the $475 million the U.S. originally pledged through
provides predictable, transparent, FY2013 and have mobilized funding from eight other government
long-term investments in country and private sector donors. Last October, the U.S. pledged up to
and regional strategic agriculture $475 million over the next three years (FY2014-16) with the intention
and food security plans to increase that for each dollar the U.S. contributes, other donors will contribute
agricultural production, link two. The recommended funding level of $158.3 million is one-third
farmers to markets, reduce risk of the new U.S. three-year commitment to the program.
and vulnerability, improve rural
livelihoods and provide technical GAFSP improves coordination of donor support for strategic,
assistance to governments. country-led agricultural and food security plans to produce better
development results on the ground. Launched in April 2010, so far
nine donors have pledged more than $1.2 billion to its operations.
The United States should continue its investment in the Public
Sector Window, which supports strategic country-led or regional
programs and has allocated over $650 million for grants in 18
countries. GAFSP estimates that these 18 projects will help more
than 7 million people become more self-sufficient.1

For more information, contact:


Katie Lee
Advocacy and Policy Coordinator for
International Development
InterAction
klee@interaction.org

55
Success Story:
Boosting Rwandan Smallholder Agriculture
Esther Nyiramanywa’s land was once barren,
which was unsurprising given that – like most
of the land in Rwanda – it was on the side of a
steep hill. Rain ran down the hill taking the soil’s
nutrients with it. Nyiramanywa fed her family
from that land with difficulty.

Today is a different story. Today Nyiramanywa’s


farm produces more food than she ever
imagined and she is making 10 times the amount

Katie Campbell/ActionAid
of money she made last year from her farm. She
and her husband are doing so well that they
have been able to build a new house, grow a
wider variety of fruits and vegetables and send
their children to school.

What was it that made such a quick and lasting difference for Nyiramanywa? It was terraces, built by her
community and funded by a government of Rwanda initiative partially funded by the Global Agriculture and Food
Security Program (GAFSP), a multilateral trust fund with support from the United States. These terraces have
created flat farmland on the steep hills for Nyiramanywa’s entire community. With an initial investment of $6 million
from the government of Rwanda, GAFSP support has allowed the program to expand by providing another $50
million in funding, enough to reach 6,000 farmers just like Nyiramanywa.

GAFSP is an innovative trust fund that invests in country-owned plans and helps governments to fill gaps or test
new advances in sustainable smallholder agriculture with medium- to long-term investments. U.S. leadership on
the GAFSP Public Sector Window has garnered a total of almost $1 billion from 10 donors including nontraditional
donors like South Korea. This funding is helping to improve the lives and livelihoods of more than 8 million people
in 18 countries across Africa, Asia and Latin America.

References
1 “GAFSP Fact Sheet,” GAFSP. http://www.gafspfund.org/gafsp/sites/gafspfund.org/files/Documents/GAFSP_Combined_2Page1_Sept2012.pdf.
International Funding History

Fund for
Agricultural
Development
FY2014 Recommendation: Enacted

$32.2 million FY13 CR Post-Sequestration (estimated)


FY14 InterAction Recommendation

Purpose Justification
The International Fund for IFAD is the leading multilateral investor in the livelihoods of poor,
Agricultural Development (IFAD) is rural agricultural producers and plays a critical leadership role in
dedicated to enabling poor, rural positioning small-holder farmers at the center of global efforts to
people in developing countries to strengthen food security. IFAD has over 35 years of experience in
overcome hunger and poverty. IFAD working with small-holder farmers’ organizations, and has a sharp
supports smallholder farmers and focus on gender equality and women’s empowerment.
poor rural producers, especially
women, as well as focusing on Food and fuel price volatility, the global economic recession and
food security and agricultural extreme weather events threaten to increase hunger, poverty and
development to help reduce poverty. political instability in many developing countries. Recent gains in
the fight against hunger and poverty are at risk, and the world’s 500
million small-holder farmers face complex challenges in a rapidly
transforming rural economy. IFAD’s approach to these challenges
recognizes that with strategic support and investments, small-
holder farmers – particularly women – have enormous potential to
help achieve global food security.

Funding of $32.2 million in FY2014 represents the second


installment of the U.S.-pledged contribution of $90 million to IFAD’s
ninth replenishment period (2013-15). It also begins to address
arrears the United States has accrued in recent years. This funding
is critical to increasing global food security, supporting small-holder
agriculture, and building the resilience of rural communities in
developing countries.
For more information, contact:
In recent years, IFAD’s robust and far-reaching institutional reforms
Katie Lee
have significantly improved in its overall effectiveness and impact,
Advocacy and Policy Coordinator for
International Development
as confirmed by several recent independent assessments.1 This
InterAction improved effectiveness and efficiency will support IFAD’s effort to
klee@interaction.org help 80 million poor people in rural areas pull themselves out of
poverty between 2013 and 2015.2

57
Success Story:
Strengthening Civil Society to Tackle Poverty
At the heart of every human experience is the desire to
survive and prosper: to imagine how your life could be
better and then have the means to change it yourself.
Yet, every day, nearly 870 million people – one in
eight of the world’s inhabitants – suffer from chronic
undernourishment and cannot fulfill their most basic
needs, let alone attain their dreams or desires. They
represent the largest segment of the world’s poor: the

Joseph Luna
almost 900 million poor women, children and men who
live in rural areas. They are the small-holder farmers,
poor rural producers, herders, fisherfolk and migrant workers, the artisans and indigenous peoples whose daily
struggles seldom capture world attention. Yet they are at the center of everything that the International Fund for
Agricultural Development (IFAD) does.

In addition to providing loans and grants to developing country governments for projects to eliminate poverty,
hunger and malnutrition, IFAD also provides grants to key partner institutions. One such example is a grant IFAD
made to the Alliance to End Hunger for its National Alliance Partnership Program. With this funding, the project
works with similar alliances in Ghana, Kenya and Uganda to help them strengthen the capacity of civil society to
participate, in a sustainable way, in the development, implementation, and monitoring and evaluation of country-
led agricultural development, food security and nutrition policies and activities. It has also helped them to build
their organizational and financial capacity; diversify their coalitions, with particular emphasis on engaging farmers’
and producers’ organizations; and increase their capacity to engage in policy and advocacy at the national level.

References
1 “Report on the Consultations on the Ninth Replenishments of IFAD’s Resources,” IFAD. http://www.ifad.org/gbdocs/repl/9/iv/e/REPL-IX-4-R-2-
Rev-2.pdf.

2 “IFAD’s 2013 Results-Based Programme of Work and Regular Capital Budgets,” IFAD. https://webapps.ifad.org/members/eb/107/docs/EB-2012-
107-R-2-Rev-1.pdf.
McGovern-Dole Funding History

International Food
for Education and
Child Nutrition

FY2014 Recommendation: Enacted

$209.5 million FY13 CR Post-Sequestration (estimated)


FY14 InterAction Recommendation

Purpose Justification
Funding for the McGovern-Dole Every year, some 2.5 million children die from an entirely
International Food for Education preventable condition: malnutrition.1 According to the World Food
and Child Nutrition Program Programme, 66 million children go to school hungry every day.2
provides donations of U.S. UNICEF reports an estimated 130 million school-age children in the
agricultural products, as well as world’s poorest countries are undernourished and would be eligible
financial and technical assistance, for school feeding programs.3
for school feeding and maternal
and child nutrition projects in low The McGovern-Dole program provides school-age children in
income, food-deficit countries poverty-stricken countries with what is often their only full meal of
that are committed to universal the day — at an average cost of $40 per student per year — and is
education. InterAction recommends a cost-effective means of supporting education, child development
$209.5 million for FY2014, consistent and food security.4 Currently, the U.S. Department of Agriculture
with the FY2010 (USDA) funds 36 active agreements with 17 cooperating sponsors
enacted level. in 28 countries, assisting more than 4.3 million women and children
through programs such as McGovern-Dole.5

Since 2000, when the predecessor to the McGovern-Dole food


program was established, USDA has provided nutritious meals
to more than 22 million children in 41 countries and boosted
school attendance by an estimated 14% overall and by 17% for
girls.6 Additionally, over the last 45 years, more than 37 national
governments have successfully taken over school meal programs
launched by donor countries, NGOs and international organizations,
including Brazil and India, which now operate two of the largest
For more information, contact: school meal programs in the world.7
Katie Lee
Advocacy and Policy Coordinator for
International Development
InterAction
klee@interaction.org

59
Success Story:
Giving Families Tools to Feed Themselves
When her husband lost his job, Bibi Hur feared that
she would have no choice but to watch her young
daughter be sold off to a 60-year-old man with two
wives. Hur has seven children – three girls and four
boys – and her family is extremely poor.

In Afghanistan, particularly in Badghis province


where Hur lives, people are grappling with
widespread poverty and high unemployment rates.
Even when there is work, it often doesn’t generate
enough income to meet a family’s basic needs.
Through the Food for Education (FFE) program

World Vision
funded by U.S. Department of Agriculture’s
(USDA) McGovern-Dole Program, World Vision is
working with the communities in Badghis and Ghor
provinces to change this.

By engaging with USDA/FFE, Hur was not only able to ensure that her daughter would not be sold off in marriage,
but also that her children could return to school. In 2004 she was identified as a very poor but respected woman
by the village elders, and was subsequently hired as a cleaner at a USDA/FFE target school. This provided her and
her family with desperately needed income. But this was just the beginning.

Hur also enrolled in the adult literacy classes provided through the program. She continued to night school,
graduating in 2010 with a high score, and then became a rural teacher for the local girls’ school. This position
allowed her to earn enough money to properly feed her children and send them back to the school.

For Hur and the many others involved in the program the positive impact of McGovern-Dole cannot be overstated.
“My life has experienced a remarkable change for the better,” Hur said.

References
1 “Committing to Child Survival: A Promise Renewed – Progress Report 2012,” UNICEF, 2012.

2 “Two Minutes to Learn About: School Meals,” World Food Programme. http://documents.wfp.org/stellent/groups/public/documents/
communications/wfp249632.pdf.

3 Tracking Progress on Child and Maternal Nutrition,” UNICEF. http://www.unicef.org/publications/files/Tracking_Progress_on_Child_and_Maternal_


Nutrition_EN_110309.pdf.

4 Determined by dividing beneficiaries and funding levels from FY2008-2011. Figures taken from annual U.S. International Food Assistance Reports.

5 “U.S. International Food Assistance Report 2010,” USDA and USAID. http://transition.usaid.gov/our_work/humanitarian_assistance/ffp/fy2010.
ifarreport.pdf.

6 UNICEF, “Tracking Progress” supra.

7 “Roadmap to End Hunger,” The Roadmap Group, including 1,000 Days, Alliance to End Hunger, Bread for the World, CARE, Catholic Relief
Services, Congressional Hunger Center, Mercy Corps, Oxfam America, Save the Children, Women Thrive Worldwide, and World Food Program
USA. http://usa.wfp.org/sites/default/files/u-6876/FINAL-roadmap_layout_web.pdf.
International Funding History

Disaster
Assistance
FY2014 Recommendation: Enacted

$1.6 billion FY13 CR Post-Sequestration (estimated)


FY14 InterAction Recommendation

Purpose Justification
These funds enable USAID’s Office Robust funding for the International Disaster Assistance (IDA)
for U.S. Foreign Disaster Assistance account helps OFDA provide life-saving assistance following natural
(OFDA) to respond to international and man-made disasters, including conflicts, floods, earthquakes
emergencies. It meets the needs and droughts. This funding must be provided at the start of the
of conflict- and disaster-affected fiscal year so the United States can respond quickly and effectively
people; addresses protracted to unpredictable disasters, such as the humanitarian emergency in
emergencies; and supports disaster Syria, without reducing U.S. assistance to ongoing crises such as
risk reduction activities (programs those in South Sudan and the Democratic Republic of the Congo.
that help people prepare for and
mitigate the impacts of disasters). Global needs are mounting, with crises around the world driving
This is also the primary account for global IDP numbers to over 27 million – nearly double the world
addressing the needs of internally refugee population. Despite facing similar challenges, IDPs receive
displaced persons (IDPs). far less international support than refugees. U.S. assistance for
someone forced from their home should not hinge on whether he or
she has crossed a national border.

IDA also funds disaster risk reduction (DRR) activities, which build
the ability of communities to prepare for and recover from disasters.
DRR is chronically underfunded, yet it is invaluable. World Bank
research has found that DRR investments can yield a 7-to-1 ratio of
savings to investment.1

The recommended funding level includes $366 million for cash-based


emergency food assistance for critical voucher programs, local
and regional purchase of food, and related cash-based emergency
assistance efforts that enable rapid delivery of assistance. The
For more information, contact:
remaining $1.234 billion is the recommended base for IDA.
Kari Fuglesten
Legislative Coordinator for Humanitarian Affairs
InterAction
kfuglesten@interaction.org

61
Success Story:
Creating a Sustainable Future for South Sudanese Families
Achok Deng Agok, 45, has a story similar to nearly an entire generation of
South Sudanese. She lost her husband in the civil war and fled with her
children to the north where she lived and worked for nearly half her life.

It was not until July 2011, when the Republic of South Sudan claimed
independence, that Deng made the journey back to her home country with
her family. “We came here with nothing but the clothes we were wearing,”
says Deng. “We had no land, no home and no money; and we have been
relying on the goodwill of my husband’s family to survive.”

Concern Worldwide is helping returnees like Deng build a sustainable


future in South Sudan by partnering with community-based organizations
like Aweil Project Agriculture Development (APAD). “The first thing we
need to do is help them earn a sustainable living,” explained Michael Piol,
executive director of APAD. “Food aid was for the war time. Now we must
stand on our own feet; only then can we truly develop to greater things.”

Concern Worldwide
Concern and APAD secured a minimum of two acres of land each for 500
vulnerable families living in the area. With support from the Office of U.S.
Foreign Disaster Assistance, Concern gave the farmers quality-assured
seeds. “With one acre of land each family can grow eight or nine sacks of sorghum (198 pounds each),” Piol noted.
“This is enough to feed their family all year and also gives them seeds to plant for next year’s harvest.”

Another woman farmer, Adut Atak Atak, believes that 2013 will be different than any other before it. “Until now
we have been surviving only with the help of others,” she predicted. “This year we will be able to feed ourselves. I
know it.”

References
1 U.S. Geological Survey and the World Bank estimated that an investment of $40 billion would have prevented losses of $280 billion in the 1990s.
“Natural Disaster and Disaster Risk Reduction Measures: A Desk Review of Costs and Benefits,” U.K. Department for International Development.
http://www.unisdr.org/files/1071_disasterriskreductionstudy.pdf.
Migration Funding History

and Refugee
Assistance
FY2014 Recommendation: Enacted

$2.8 billion FY13 CR Post-Sequestration (estimated)


FY14 InterAction Recommendation

Purpose Justification
This account enables the State Armed conflicts in countries like Syria, Mali, Somalia, Iraq and
Department’s Bureau of Population, Afghanistan forced people to flee across borders at a faster rate in
Refugees, and Migration (PRM) to 2012 than in any other year this century.1 This account helps meet
provide basic lifesaving assistance the needs of these refugees, whose survival depends heavily on the
for refugees and to maintain the international humanitarian system. Robust funding for this account
U.S. commitment to a strong is also critical to assist the growing number of displaced people in
refugee resettlement program. This protracted crisis situations and to support innovative, long-term,
funding supports the United Nations sustainable policies that can reduce the costs of responding to
High Commissioner for Refugees, emergencies.
the International Committee of the
Red Cross, and other international Most refugees live in precarious conditions; reductions in
humanitarian agencies and assistance mean they will lack access to the most basic elements
nongovernmental organizations. of survival: health care, safe shelter, clean water and education.
Refugees often cannot safely return home, and 80% of the world’s
refugees are hosted in developing countries with little capacity to
support them. U.S. investment shows host nations that we support
their efforts to shelter and provide for the most vulnerable.

The recommended funding level would advance the protection of


women and girls, internally displaced persons, victims of sexual
and gender-based violence, and stateless persons. It would also
support more effective implementation of the U.S. government’s
urban refugee principles and its protracted refugee initiative; and
improve access to traditionally underfunded solutions-oriented
programs such as education and livelihoods for these vulnerable
For more information, contact: groups. Investing in these important activities lays the groundwork
Kari Fuglesten for refugees to become more self-sufficient and less aid-dependent
Legislative Coordinator for Humanitarian Affairs in the long run.
InterAction
kfuglesten@interaction.org

63
Success Story:
Vulnerable Conflict-Displaced People Supporting Themselves
Abdul Rahman sustained injuries that left him permanently
disabled when a car bomb blew up near his home. Two
brothers, sadly, were both killed in the explosion. After the
accident, Rahman stayed inside to avoid the discrimination
against people with disabilities that is common in Iraq.
However, the continuing conflict forced Rahman to join
the ranks of Iraq’s internally displaced persons (IDPs) and
move to Baquba. Displaced from his home region, with
only an elementary-school education and limited mobility,
Rahman’s future looked bleak.

When Mercy Corps started a vocational training program


in Baquba, local community leaders nominated Rahman to
participate. He attended daily trainings for a month to learn
about computer maintenance. When he was selected as
one of 13 trainees to receive an internship, Rahman used

Tupungato/Shutterstock.com
his first monthly stipend to buy a second-hand computer to
practice his new skills. His hard work earned him a full-time
job after his internship.

Rahman’s training and internship were part of a Mercy


Corps program to build relationships between host communities and IDPs and refugees so that they can thrive
in their new communities. Funded by the State Department’s Bureau for Population, Refugees, and Migration,
the program helped build permanent solutions for extremely vulnerable groups, such as women and people with
disabilities, by giving them the skills to resolve conflicts and secure employment.

Rahman was one of over 480 IDPs and refugees from six conflict-affected regions in Iraq who received training. He
cannot believe the transformation: “I’m working and receiving my own salary without depending on anyone else. I
have skills that enabled me to find a new job … I’m so excited that I finally have a chance to become independent.”

References
1 “UNHCR Global Trends 2011,” United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees. http://www.unhcr.org/4fd6f87f9.html.
Emergency Funding History

Refugee and
Migration
Assistance
FY2014 Recommendation: Enacted

$100 million FY13 CR Post-Sequestration (estimated)


FY14 InterAction Recommendation

Purpose Justification
The Emergency Refugee and This emergency account provides a critical source of funding during
Migration Assistance fund is a unanticipated crises, and therefore should be fully funded in FY2014
drawdown account designed to up to its authorized ceiling of $100 million. In 2012, these funds
ensure that the U.S. government were used to support PRM’s response to the needs of refugees
has sufficient resources for refugee who fled the crisis in Sudan’s South Kordofan and Blue Niles states,
assistance in unanticipated and as well as to provide protection and support for the hundreds of
urgent humanitarian crises. The thousands of Malian refugees in the Sahel.
Department of State’s Bureau of
Population, Refugees, and Migration To enhance our country’s capacity to respond quickly and
(PRM) uses this funding to meet effectively to unanticipated crises, two structural changes to this
unexpected and urgent refugee and account should be undertaken. First, the funding ceiling should
migration needs. be doubled to $200 million, as this ceiling has remained stagnant
over the last decade and recent years have put significant stress
on regular funding. Second, the Secretary of State, rather than the
President, should be given the power to authorize the use of funds
from the ERMA fund to speed up the response to emergencies. The
current requirement of a presidential certification is cumbersome
and too often results in unnecessary and costly delays in delivering
critical assistance.

For more information, contact:


Kari Fuglesten
Legislative Coordinator for Humanitarian Affairs
InterAction
kfuglesten@interaction.org

65
Funding History

Food for
Peace Title II
FY2014 Recommendation: Enacted

$1.84 billion FY13 CR Post-Sequestration (estimated)


FY14 InterAction Recommendation

Purpose Justification
Food for Peace Title II programs A core source for funding humanitarian assistance, each year Food
provide emergency food assistance for Peace Title II (FFP) uses donated agricultural commodities to
to people affected by natural meet the emergency food needs of up to 100 million people facing
disasters, food security crises acute hunger due to conflicts or natural disasters.1 Through the
and conflict. Its programs also United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) appropriations,
promote resilience and long-term FFP also provides multiyear funding for development programs
food security through multiyear that increase resilience of communities and reduce the need for
investments in nutrition, agricultural emergency assistance.
productivity and diversifying
household incomes of smallholder Since FFP began in 1954, more than 3 billion people in 150
farmers and vulnerable populations. countries have benefited from U.S. food aid,2 and the prevalence
The recommended $1.84 billion of stunting among children under 5 has been reduced by an
matches the FY2010 enacted level. average of 2.4% per year.3 Yet 870 million people still suffer from
malnutrition and hunger,4 while some 2.5 million children die each
year from malnutrition.5 Over the past two years, according to the
World Food Programme, the annual global food assistance need
has been roughly $6.5 billion; it will likely remain similar in 2014. Due
to global food price volatility, increasingly frequent weather-related
food security crises, and continuing conflict in many parts of the
world, these needs are not expected to decline.
For more information, contact:
Katie Lee Despite these issues, the FFP appropriation has declined steadily:
Advocacy and Policy Coordinator for from a total (including supplemental) appropriation of $2.32 billion
International Development in FY2009 to $1.47 billion in FY2012. Supporting FFP at $1.84
InterAction
billion would maintain U.S. leadership in providing emergency food
klee@interaction.org
assistance, while also acknowledging increased U.S. contributions
Kari Fuglesten to food security in other accounts.
Legislative Coordinator for Humanitarian Affairs
InterAction
kfuglesten@interaction.org

67
Success Story:
Helping Children to Grow Up Strong in Guatemala
For Lucia, joining a food program with her 16-month-
old baby, Maria, was a life-changing decision.
Maria was often sick, underdeveloped and inactive,
which worried her mother. By attending monthly
educational sessions, which were taught in the local
language, Q’eqchi, Lucia gained the knowledge she
needed to make healthier choices for her children.
Using this new knowledge, Lucia has seen the
health of each family member – especially Maria –

Maria Kasparian/Mercy Corps


noticeably improve.

In the northern highlands of Guatemala, the signs


and symptoms of malnutrition are a common sight:
stunted growth, underweight bodies and visible
fatigue. According to a study by the World Food Programme, Guatemala has the highest rate of malnutrition in Latin
America. Common misconceptions about nutrition (such as the belief that breast milk is insufficient to quench a
baby’s thirst) make it difficult for mothers to incorporate healthy practices into their cooking. But Mercy Corps is
empowering women to change.

The Mother-Child Community Food Diversification Program (PROCOMIDA in Spanish) is a six-year program funded
by USAID’s Office of Food for Peace that strives to prevent malnutrition before it starts. Through the program,
Mercy Corps distributes food rations to impoverished families and educates mothers and caregivers on their
children’s nutritional needs, as well as proper food handling and household sanitation. They participate in monthly
cooking demonstrations, learning how to best use their food rations with local produce to prepare nutritious meals.
PROCOMIDA also connects mothers with local health services, so they are better able to seek professional help
when it is needed – ensuring that their children stay healthy.

References
1 “A Roadmap for Continued U.S. Leadership to End Global Hunger.” http://womenthrive.org/sites/default/files/docs/resources/final-roadmap_
layout_web.pdf. (hereinafter “Roadmap”)

2 “What is Food for Peace?” USAID. http://transition.usaid.gov/our_work/humanitarian_assistance/ffp/ .

3 Roadmap, supra.

4 “The State of Food Insecurity in the World,” Food and Agriculture Organization. http://www.fao.org/docrep/016/i3027e/i3027e.pdf.

5 “Committing to Child Survival: A Promise Renewed – Progress Report 2012,” UNICEF. http://www.unicef.org/videoaudio/PDFs/APR_Progress_
Report_2012_final.pdf.
Contributions Funding History

to International
Peacekeeping
Activities
FY2014 Recommendation: Enacted

$2.179 billion FY13 CR Post-Sequestration (estimated)


FY14 InterAction Recommendation

Purpose Justification
This account funds the United Roughly 120,000 UN peacekeepers are deployed in 15 missions on
States’ assessed obligations to four continents, a nearly three-fold increase over the last 10 years.
UN peacekeeping missions. These These operations all originate with the UN Security Council and
peacekeeping missions support and are managed by the UN Department of Peacekeeping Operations.
implement the terms of ceasefires UN peacekeeping missions advance U.S. interests by resolving
and peace agreements; enhance the conflicts, restoring peace and enhancing regional stability. Strong
protection of civilian populations U.S. financial support plays a critical role in ensuring these missions
during armed conflict; protect and are successful and have the resources needed to address complex
promote human rights; support the conflict situations and advance peace around the world.
organization of elections; assist in
restoring the rule of law; and build Overall, peacekeeping has proven to be a successful, cost-efficient
government capacity. way to promote international peace and security. A RAND study
found multinational UN forces far better suited than unilateral U.S.
forces to perform peacekeeping responsibilities.1 The Government
Accountability Office concluded UN peacekeeping is eight
times less expensive than funding a U.S. force2 and the Office of
Management and Budget (OMB) gave the CIPA account its highest
grade under its Program Assessment Rating Tool, a diagnostic tool
that measures the effectiveness of federal programs. Another study
found that in the first three years after a conflict, UN peacekeeping
missions have a substantial effect on economic growth. National
economies in post-conflict countries with peacekeeping missions
grow at nearly a 2.5% faster rate than the economies of post-
conflict countries without UN missions.3

For more information, contact:


Kari Fuglesten
Legislative Coordinator for Humanitarian Affairs
InterAction
kfuglesten@interaction.org

69
Success Story:
A Peaceful Future for Timor-Leste
With the last United Nations peacekeepers brought
in to restore peace and stability in Timor-Leste
(East Timor) boarding a plane home in December
2012, the Southeast Asian nation is emerging from
decades of violence.

A positive future for Timor-Leste was not always in


the cards. The Indonesian army’s quarter-century
grasp on the island claimed the lives of more than
200,000 through violence, hunger and illness.

However, today Timor-Leste is a functioning

United Nations
democracy with two free and fair presidential and
parliamentary elections facilitated by the UN under
its belt. The UN leaves a democratically-elected legislature that is 38% female – the highest representation of
women in parliament in the entire Asia-Pacific region.

The UN Peacekeeping mission in Timor-Leste (UNMIT) has left behind a fully self-sufficient Timorese national
police force. UNMIT strengthened Timorese police by helping to recruit, vet and train police officers; support
relationships between the police and judiciary; and promote human rights and address gender-based violence.

And Timor-Leste and Indonesia have built a new relationship, while Indonesia has also waged its own efforts to
end government corruption and elect accountable leaders.

The nation’s path to recovery – including a steady investment from the United Nations – has been a long one. But
it is a model that saved lives, enabled an operational democracy, and created huge potential for economic growth.

References
1 “The UN’s Role in Nation-Building,” RAND Corporation. http://www.rand.org/content/dam/rand/pubs/monographs/2005/RAND_MG304.sum.pdf.

2 “Peacekeeping: Cost Comparison of Actual UN and Hypothetical U.S. Operations in Haiti,” U.S. House Subcommittee on Oversight and
Investigations, Committee on International Relations. http://www.gao.gov/new.items/d06331.pdf.

3 “World Development Report 2011 Background Paper: Post-Conflict Recovery and Peacebuilding,” World Bank. https://openknowledge.worldbank.
org/bitstream/handle/10986/9184/WDR2011_0010.pdf?sequence=1.
Funding History

Peacekeeping
Operations
FY2014 Recommendation: Enacted

$257 million FY13 CR Post-Sequestration (estimated)


FY14 InterAction Recommendation

Purpose Justification
This account funds multilateral UN U.S.-funded programs that train, equip and support the deployment
and regional peacekeeping and of foreign security forces for international peacekeeping operations
security forces, as well as training are essential to improving international security, sustaining and
programs that increase the capacity consolidating peace settlements, promoting institutions that
of relevant countries to participate preserve the rule of law, and enhancing the protection of civilians in
in such forces. conflict areas.

Professional, well-equipped international peacekeepers reduce


the burden on the United States by mitigating protracted armed
conflict and consolidating peace at a fraction of the cost of U.S.
intervention – a mere 12 cents to the dollar according to the
Government Accountability Office.1 Funding at this level will ensure
continued U.S. investments for these critical programs, which
enable the United States to enhance the capabilities of our partner
nations, expand the pool of properly trained peacekeepers and
promote international security.

For more information, contact:


Kari Fuglesten
Legislative Coordinator for Humanitarian Affairs
InterAction
kfuglesten@interaction.org

71
Success Story:
Seeding Stability in a Fragile State
Somalia has witnessed dramatic changes in the past year. After
more than 20 years without a stable, central government, the Federal
Government of Somalia was established in 2012. A new president,
Hassan Sheikh Mohamud, has taken office as part of the transition to a
permanent Somali government. And in January 2013, Somalia and the
United States reestablished diplomatic relations after more than two
decades.

The African Union Mission in Somalia (AMISOM) and its United Nations
partner, the UN Support Office for AMISOM (UNSOA), have played a
major role in this transformation. AMISOM forces have consolidated

pavalena/Shutterstock.com
control over the capital region, thereby expanding opportunities
to address humanitarian need in Mogadishu and establish basic
governmental functions.  In turn, this has enabled the government to
attract much-needed foreign investment, and lay the groundwork for
meaningful reform of the Somali security forces.

As the mission seeks to operate in more parts of Somalia, the effective integration and equipping of new units
should be prioritized. All AMISOM forces must continue to be trained in human rights and international humanitarian
law, and their compliance ensured through practical support. This will enhance AMISOM’s ability to protect Somali
civilians, while also serving as a positive example for Somalia’s nascent army and police.

Continued U.S. support through the Peacekeeping Operations is critical to maintain the nascent progress in this
fragile and critical country – just as it is essential to efforts to respond to other crises around the world.

References
1 “Peacekeeping: Cost Comparison of Actual UN and Hypothetical U.S. Operations in Haiti,” U.S. House Subcommittee on Oversight and
Investigations, Committee on International Relations. http://www.gao.gov/new.items/d06331.pdf.
USAID Funding History

Operating
Expenses
FY2014 Recommendation: Enacted

$1.4 billion FY13 CR Post-Sequestration (estimated)


FY14 InterAction Recommendation

Purpose Justification
USAID Operating Expenses U.S. foreign policy objectives – both short- and long-term –
improve efficiency and ensure U.S. require USAID engagement around the world. Cuts to the USAID
taxpayer dollars are spent properly operating budget do not reduce those requirements; they
and in a manner ensuring the stretch the agency ever thinner, leading to reduced efficiency,
greatest maximum benefit for our effectiveness and oversight. After years of counterproductive cuts
nation’s investment while meeting in staffing, the Development Leadership Initiative, initiated by the
the needs of the world’s most Bush administration and continued by the Obama administration,
vulnerable populations. has allowed USAID to hire additional staff. These recent staffing
increases have given USAID the capacity to implement programs
and capitalize on technological innovations that foster solutions to
complex development problems.

Staffing levels must be sustained for USAID to carry out


humanitarian and development assistance programs effectively
and to have the technical capacity to assess what is working
and what is not. They are also needed to uphold USAID’s part of
the three-legged national security stool: defense, diplomacy and
development. Full operational funding for USAID also supports
USAID Forward, a package of reforms designed to strengthen,
streamline and optimize the way USAID does business.

Fully funding USAID’s Capital Investment Fund enables USAID


to modernize and improve information technology (IT) systems.
Importantly, this fund also allows USAID to work with the State
Department to construct facilities that will keep our civilian
For more information, contact: representatives serving their country abroad safe.
Jeremy Kadden
Senior Legislative Manager
As USAID strives to increase accountability, transparency and
InterAction efficiency, up-to-date information management systems are
jkadden@interaction.org vital. This funding will support continued modernization of such
systems, as well as consolidation of USAID and State Department
IT platforms as prescribed by the Quadrennial Diplomacy and
Development Review (QDDR).

73
Success Story:
Making USAID More Effective and Accountable
Given tight budget constraints, USAID has recently focused on better policy
planning, program design, and monitoring and evaluation to increase its
effectiveness in delivering aid. While still a work in progress, a signature effort of
the agency entitled USAID Forward has already led to several key improvements.

USAID Forward brings a focus on results-based outcomes by:

1. better aligning resources with the priorities of local civil society


organizations and partner countries;

2. promoting sustainable development through building local capacity; and

3. identifying new innovations that can be scaled up to achieve better results.

Notable progress includes the completion of 186 high-quality evaluations designed to translate lessons from
the field into new program designs, which will increase efficiency and effectiveness. In addition, USAID used its
strategic planning process to reprioritize program focus, phasing out 38 food security and global health programs
too small to have a meaningful impact.

Under USAID Forward, the agency has doubled the amount of mission funding invested in local governments,
increasing countries’ capacities to lead their own development. At the same time, the agency carries out risk
assessments of governments to protect against potential corruption in the aid process. As USAID Administrator
Rajiv Shah stresses, “country ownership doesn’t mean blank checks for governments.”

The USAID Forward initiative has made this progress possible. It is an investment that clearly pays off, for our
government, American taxpayers and our international development partners around the globe.
Other Key Development and Humanitarian Accounts
InterAction also supports funding for the following accounts, which help
reduce poverty and respond to disasters and crises around the globe.

Other Key Long-term Development Accounts


Inter-American Foundation
African Development Foundation
Enterprise for the Americas Multilateral Investment Fund
Asian Development Fund
African Development Fund
Debt Restructuring
Global Environment Facility
Economic Support Fund – Poverty-focused Project Funding

Other Key Humanitarian Accounts


Refugee Resettlement
Complex Crises Fund

Other Key Transition Accounts


Conflict Stabilization Operations
Transition Initiatives
Economic Support Fund – Transition Funding

Other Key USAID Operating Accounts


USAID Capital Investment Fund
USAID Inspector General Operating Expenses

Other Key Development-Enabling Accounts


Contributions to International Organizations
Economic Support Fund – Democracy and Governance
Middle East and North Africa Incentive Fund
Democracy Fund
National Endowment for Democracy
Peace Corps
Development Credit Authority
Overseas Private Investment Corporation
Treasury Technical Assistance
Inter-American Development Bank/Investment Corporation
Asian Development Bank
African Development Bank
European Bank for Reconstruction and Development

75
InterAction FY2014 Recommendations for International Development and Humanitarian Assistance Accounts
InterAction FY2014 Recommendations for International Development and Humanitarian Assistance Accounts

FY13 FY 14
FY13
FY11 Final CR Presidential FY14
FY10 Total Continuing
Enacted FY12 Enacted Post- Request InterAction
($ in thousands) Enacted Resolution
(w/ 0.2% (including Sequestration Total Recommen-
(including including OCO
across-the- OCO) including OCO (Enduring + dation
supp) (Estimated)*
board cut) (Estimated)* OCO)

International Affairs Total (Function 150) 58,593,103 50,196,872 54,939,307 53,167,000 50,455,483 51,958,966
State, Foreign Operations Total 56,605,700 48,203,400 53,343,000

Global Health Initiative (GHP - USAID & State) 7,874,000 7,829,310 8,167,860 8,470,000 8,038,030 8,315,000 9,410,860
Global Health Programs - USAID 2,515,000 2,495,000 2,625,000 2,750,000 2,609,750 2,645,000 3,268,000
Maternal and Child Health 549,000 548,900 605,550 626,085 594,155 680,000 750,000
Family Planning in all accounts 648,500 613,770 610,000 630,686 598,521 534,000 750,000
Nutrition 75,000 90,000 95,000 98,222 93,212 95,000 200,000
Vulnerable Children 15,000 15,000 17,500 18,093 17,171 13,000 23,000
HIV/AIDS 350,000 349,300 350,000 361,869 343,414 330,000 350,000
Other Infectious Diseases, total 981,000 968,100 1,033,000 1,068,031 1,013,561
Malaria 585,000 618,800 650,000 672,043 637,768 670,000 670,000
TB 225,000 224,600 236,000 244,003 231,559 191,000 400,000
Neglected Tropical Diseases 65,000 76,800 89,000 92,018 87,325 85,000 125,000
Global Health - State (PEPFAR Only) 4,609,000 4,585,810 4,242,860 4,070,000 3,862,430 4,020,000 4,492,860
Global Fund to Fight AIDS, TB & Malaria 750,000 748,500 1,300,000 1,650,000 1,565,850 1,650,000 1,650,000
NIH Global Health 587,610 619,300 581,000 581,000 551,369 625,264 605,700

77
CDC Global Health 354,403 340,265 347,600 347,600 329,872 393,024 362,900
Development Assistance 2,520,000 2,518,950 2,519,950 2,845,350 2,700,237 2,837,812 3,175,000
(FtF only)
Food Security & Agriculture in all bilateral accounts 1,169,833 1,167,493 1,170,000 1,287,815 1,222,136 1,060,000 1,445,000
Microfinance in all accounts 265,000 264,470 265,000 291,685 276,809 265,000 *The FY13 CR did
Basic Education in all accounts 925,000 923,150 800,000 880,557 835,649 925,000 not specify exact
Climate Change in all Bilateral accounts 507,200 522,900 481,500 529,985 502,956 468,000 468,000 funding levels for some
Biodiversity in all accounts 205,000 204,590 200,000 220,139 208,912 200,000 accounts. For the Global
Water in all accounts 315,000 314,370 315,000 346,719 329,037 400,000 Health (USAID) and
Gender in all accounts 1,650,000 Development Assistance
Millennium Challenge Corporation 1,105,000 898,200 898,200 898,200 852,392 898,200 900,000 (DA) subaccounts,
International Organizations and Programs 394,000 354,290 348,705 348,700 327,000 320,645 385,000 FY13 funding levels are
International Development Association 1,334,500 1,232,530 1,325,000 1,358,500 1,289,217 1,503,800 1,408,500 estimated based on a
Global Agriculture and Food Security Program 99,800 135,000 135,000 128,115 135,000 158,330 proportional distribution
International Fund for Agricultural Development 90,000 29,440 30,000 30,000 28,470 30,000 32,243 of the additional funding
McGovern-Dole International Food For Education & Child for FY13 for Global Health
Nutrition 209,500 199,101 184,000 184,000 174,616 185,126 209,500 (USAID) ($125 million) and
Least Developed Countries Fund & DA ($325.4 million) overall. 
Special Climate Change Fund 50,000 35,000 35,000 35,000 33,215 50,000 First, each subaccount’s
Green Climate Fund 5,000 proportion of the total
Strategic Climate Fund 75,000 49,900 49,900 49,900 47,355 68,000 100,000 Global Health (USAID) or
Clean Technology Fund 300,000 184,630 184,630 184,630 175,214 215,700 300,000 DA funding level in FY12
was calculated. This
International Disaster Assistance 1,305,000 863,270 975,000 1,599,661 1,518,078 2,045,000 1,600,000 proportion was multiplied
Migration and Refugee Assistance 1,850,000 1,686,620 1,875,100 2,798,950 2,656,204 1,760,960 2,800,000 by the additional funding
Emergency Refugee and Migration Assistance 45,000 49,900 27,200 27,200 25,813 250,000 100,000 provided and added to
Food for Peace Title II 1,840,000 1,497,000 1,466,000 1,435,000 1,361,815 0 1,840,000 FY12 subaccount level
Contributions to International Peacekeeping Activities 2,221,500 1,883,931 1,828,182 2,006,000 1,886,000 2,094,661 2,179,000 of funding to create the
Peacekeeping Operations 331,500 304,390 383,818 383,000 366,000 347,000 257,000 estimate.
USAID Operating Expenses 1,388,800 1,347,300 1,347,300 1,347,045 1,278,346 1,399,200 1,400,000
InterAction Also Supports Strong Funding for These Key Accounts in FY2013
InterAction Also Supports Strong Funding for These Key Accounts in FY2014
FY13 FY 14
FY13
FY11 Final CR Presidential
FY10 Total Continuing
Enacted FY12 Enacted Post- Request
($ in thousands) Enacted Resolution
(w/ 0.2% (including Sequestration Total
(including including OCO
across-the- OCO) including OCO (Enduring +
supp) (Estimated)*
board cut) (Estimated)* OCO)

Other Key Poverty Accounts


Inter-American Foundation 23,000 22,454 22,500 22,500 21,353 18,100
African Development Foundation 30,000 29,441 30,000 30,000 28,470 24,000
Enterprise for the Americas Multilateral Investment Fund 25,000 24,950 25,000 15,000 14,235 6,298
Asian Development Fund 105,000 0 100,000 100,000 94,900 115,250
African Development Fund 155,000 109,780 172,500 172,500 163,703 195,000
Debt Restructuring 60,000 49,900 12,000 12,000 11,388 0
Global Environment Facility (GEF) 86,500 89,820 89,820 129,400 122,801 143,750
ESF - Poverty-focused Project Funding

Other Key Humanitarian Accounts


Refugee Resettlement - HHS 769,789 769,789 730,530
Complex Crises Fund 50,000 39,920 40,000 40,000 37,960 40,000

Other Key Transition Accounts


Conflict Stabilization Operations (State and AID) 150,000 39,920 43,500 43,500 41,282 45,207
Transition Intitiatives 55,000 56,695 56,695 53,804 57,600

78
ESF - Transition Project Funding

Other Key USAID Operating Accounts


USAID Capital Investment Fund 185,000 129,740 129,700 129,700 123,085 117,940
USAID IG Operating Expenses 54,400 44,910 51,000 51,000 48,399 54,200

Other Key Development-Enabling Accounts


Contributions to International Organizations 1,682,500 1,578,651 1,551,000 1,560,000 1,480,440 1,573,454
ESF - Democracy and Governance Project Funding
Middle East and North Africa Incentive Fund 580,000
Democracy Fund 120,000 114,770 114,770 114,770 108,917
National Endowment for Democracy (NED) 138,000 117,764 117,764 117,764 111,758 103,450
Peace Corps 400,000 374,250 375,000 375,000 355,875 378,800
Development Credit Authority (Program Account only) [By transfer,
not direct appropriations] 25,000 29,940 40,000 40,000 37,960 40,000
OPIC (Credit Subsidy only) 29,000 18,079 25,000 25,000 23,725
Treasury Technical Assistance 32,100 25,448 27,000 27,000 25,623 23,500
Inter-American Development Bank/Investment Corporation 74,670 20,958 79,670 111,153 105,484 102,020
Asian Development Bank 0 106,373 106,586 106,586 101,150 106,586
African Development Bank 0 0 32,418 32,418 30,765 32,418