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Chapter 4 Reading Guide Classical Civilization in the Mediterranean: Greece and Rome THE PERSIAN TRADITION In what ways

did the Persians influence the Mediterranean zone? What Persian empire will rise up during Romes reign? PATTERNS OF GREEK AND ROMAN HISTORY What ancient civilizations influenced the Greeks? What type of political organization did the Greek civilization have? Why did Greece not have a single political unit? Who took advantage of a warring Greece? GREEK AND ROMAN POLITICAL INSTIUTIONS How was the Mediterranean political system like India and China? How did the Greeks choose the assembly that ran their government? Why? Who was considered a citizen in Greece? What was the most common political framework? How did Rome adapt the Greek system of government? What did the Romans value in government? What was the role of the Senate before and after the formation of empire? What did the Romans rely on to hold their empire together? How was Roman law an improvement to either justice systems? What was a benefit of being a Roman citizen? (Opinion: How might this help to maintain their empire?) What other things was the government concerned with/responsible for? Why would a government sponsor bread and circuses? How did this achieve that end? What was the Roman attitude toward other religions? Christians? IN DEPTHTHE CLASSICAL MEDITERRANEAN IN COMPARATIVE PERSPECTIVE List up to 5 similarities among the classical civilizations. List 3 areas of difference. Compare/Contrast who was considered the lowest class? What bond each society together despite its emphasis on a social hierarchy? RELIGION AND CULTURE How were the Greek-Romans different from India and China? How did the Roman empire aid Christianity? When did Christianity see an upsurge in reference to the pendulum of the Roman empire (rise/fall)? Why did the native Greco-Roman religion not meet the needs of the people? Since the state religion didnt meet their needs, who did they turn to for moral guidance? What is the Socratic principle? How is the Socratic principle related to other Greek achievements? In what area of science did the Romans exceed the Greeks? ECONOMY AND SOCIETY IN THE MEDITERRANEAN List the 4 characteristics listed in italics. What did most of the population do for a living? What happened to these people when larger landowners took their land? The poor soil of Greece forced them to do what? How is trade and empire connected? Create a spectrum of classical civilizations attitude toward merchants from Friendly to Merchant to Loath Merchant. How are slaves, empire and attitude toward technological innovation for food connected? What caused the Mediterraneans unfavorable balance of trade with India and China? Know what balance of trade means.