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Community Health Terminology/Vocabulary

Case management - optimizes self-care capabilities of individuals and families and the capacity of systems and communities to coordinate and provide services. Community a community is usually defined by its boundaries. Boundaries may be geographic, such as those defined as a city, county, state, or nation or may be political; precinct and wards may determine them a people, location and social system. Community-based nursing nursing care in the community and its components: nursing practice, skills and competencies. Culture contributes to the overall character of the community and, in turn, influences its health needs. Environment - the physical environment includes the air, water, and soil through which exposure to chemical, biological and physical agents may occur. Epidemiology is the study of the distribution and determinants of health related states or events in specified populations and the application of this study to the control of health problems. Ethics ethical dilemmas in community-based care may require different leadership skills than those essential in the acute care setting. When practicing in the community, nurses must take a leadership role in creating a culture of following ethical standards. Ethnocentrism - refers to the idea that ones own ways are the only way or the best way to behave, believe, or do things. Health care reform is a general rubric used for discussing major health policy creation or changes. Nurses have an important role to play in health care reform beginning by being prepared for practice in community settings where highly developed skills in assessment, communication, interdisciplinary collaboration, and working with culturally diverse populations are imperative. Health Maintenance Organization a type of group plan which is prepaid, structured, a managed system in which providers deliver a comprehensive range of health care services to enrollees. Health People 2010/2020 Recommendations from Healthy People 2010 provide a foundation for Healthy People 2020three goals from Healthy People 2020 are: Attaining higher quality, longer lives free of preventable disease, disability, injury, and premature death; achieving health equity, eliminating disparities, and improving the health of all groups, and promoting quality of life, healthy development, and healthy behaviors across all life stages. Home health care in the future, the way home care is provided may change but more individuals will have health insurance, increasing access to services such as home care.

Managed care has increasingly become an important provider of care because its central element is cost containment. Thus, cost containment as an important element of health care is here to stay. Population a population based approach considers intervening at all possible levels of practice. Interventions may be directed at the entire population within a community, the systems, that affect the health of those populations, and/or the individuals and families within those populations know to be at risk. Primary prevention is commonly defined as prevention of the initial occurrence of disease or injury. Examples of primary prevention activities include health teaching and counseling about immunizations, family planning services, or classes to prepare people for retirement. Public health nursing nursing interventions or what the nurse can do at the individual, family and community level. There is a list of 17 interventionsall but the 17th intervention are performed at three different levels of practice: individual and family-focused interventions, community-focused interventions or systems interventions. Secondary prevention focuses on early identification of disease or disability with prompt intervention to prevent or limit disability. Tertiary prevention maximizes recovery after an injury or illness to allow the individual to more quickly return to an optimal state of health. Most care provided in acute care facilities, in clinics, by home care nurses, and in skilled nursing facilities focuses on tertiary care. World Health Organization Researches, reports on and is involved in publicizing global health issues.