Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 65


Developing Mentoring Program




In Greek mythology (The Odyssey), Mentor was a man who befriended and advised Telemachus, the son of Odysseus. The goddess Athena would assume Mentors form when she visited Telemachus.

A mentor is an individual with expertise who can help develop the career of a mentee. The mentor guides, trains, advises, and promotes the career development of the mentee. A mentor is an experienced guide, trustworthy advisor, a personal champion, a constructive critic, a motivator, a listener. A mentor wants the protg to succeed!

Mentoring schemes can support :

Specifically identified groups Development and workbased Learning programmes Individuals or organisations through change or transition. Improved effectiveness of organisations and individuals.

Facilitated mentoring schemes may be introduced for a variety of reasons

Identify potential more effectively Induct new staff more quickly Improve the retention of staff Encourage and support high flyers Encourage and support ethnic minority and disadvantaged groups Encourage and support women to break through the glass ceiling Support selfdevelopment and workbased Encourage and support mentoring in community initiatives such as mentoring capable but disadvantaged Support organisational change Encourage personal development Help individuals cope with transitions such as moving into a new job or role.

(Jones & Jowett, 1997)

Mentoring Functions in Career

Helping the mentee learn the ropes and prepare for career advancement. Coaching Challenging assignments Exposure and visibility Protection

Mentoring Functions in Psychososial

Helping the mentee develop a sense of competence and clarity of identity. Role-Modeling Acceptance and confirmation Counseling Friendship

The Benefits of Mentoring

Values And Principles of Mentoring

Recognising that people are okay (Hay, 1995) Realising that people can change and want to grow (Hay, 1995) Understanding how people learn Recognising individual differences Empowering through personal and professional development Encouraging capability Developing competence Encouraging collaboration not competition Encouraging scholarship and a sense of enquiry Searching for new ideas, theories and knowledge Equal opportunities in the organisation Reflecting on past experiences as a key to understanding Looking forward (Reflexion) and developing the ability to transfer learning and apply it in new situations Realising that we can create our own meaning of mentoring (Hay, 1995 & Jowett, Shaw & Tarbitt, 1997)

Stages of Mentoring

Outcomes of Relationship




Initiation Stage
Initiation is the phase where the mentoring relationship is established. Mentors and protgs introduce themselves, define goals, and begin sharing information. Two-way learning takes place in this phase. It is a shorter phase of the mentoring relationship.

Mentoring Checklists
Why have I become a mentor/mentee? What do I offer/ what do I want? What significant issues might arise? What do I feel strongly about? Which are the areas where I prefer my mentor/mentee to match me over which I am neutral which I would like us to be different? What about issues of trust and respect? What are my own psychological/ personal/ thinking/ working styles? How do they affect the way I interact with others? What mentoring skills do I want my mentor to have? How much time will we have? Where will we meet? What mutual contacts are we likely to have? How might that affect the mentoring? What is my attitude towards self development? Who has been mentor to me. What did I gain? Who else is involved in this process (eg senior management, Human Resource Division,mentees manager)?

Hay (1995)

Cultivation Stage

Cultivation begins as the mentor provides advice and guidance to the protg. The protg will develop skills and gain a broader understanding of his or her role, career path, and professional development. The protg works toward a goal and the mentor supports the protg in their efforts.

Example Review Questions (1)

Example Review Questions (2)

Example Review Questions (3)

Separation Stages
Goals will be reached. Knowledge will be shared. Priorities and availability may change. The time will come for the mentoring relationship to come to an end. It may be initiated by either the mentor or the protg, or it could be by mutual decision. During this phase, open and honest communication is critical and will help the individuals move through this transition stage. Two-way communication and learning that was established during the initiation phase can help support the two-way communication that should occur during this phase.

Reasons for ending include

Scheme/project/placement completes its term One or other partner moves away to another job or role Inappropriate matching Personality clash/lack of bonding The relationship is not fulfilling the needs particularly of the mentee Partners do not fulfil their commitment to turn up for meetings

Redifinition Stage
The mentor and protg roles will not exist indefinitely. Two professionals will become more like peers. This last phase of the mentoring relationship aims to redefine the roles of the individuals into a new, professional relationship that may continue indefinitely.

Learning Process
4 stages in the learning cycle (Lewis, 1996)
The Activist who is comfortable at the experience stage and enjoys getting involved in new experiences and doing things The Reflector who likes to take time and think things through from various angles before acting The Theorist who assimilates, integrates, synthesises information into rational schemes, systems, theories, principles, logic or concepts for explanation. The Pragmatist who values new ideas, wants to see if they work in practice and enjoys problem solving

Mentoring skills

A Mentor is ...
teacher/ educator diagnostician critic counsellor expert energiser sponsor taskmaster guide interpreter sounding board motivator devils advocate translator and decoder confidante organisational culture and values

time manager learning consultant protector process consultant planner coach

friend catalyst adviser target setter


role model


Good Mentoring:
Set Specific, Realistic Goals and Deliverables
Many agencies manage by milestones Setting specific goals, deliverables, and promotes concrete activity Achieving modest, short term goals promotes sense of progress Frequent review of goals and timeline is a valuable reality check; allows for adjustments and re-focusing

Mentoring Scheme (Conway, 1994)

Building Contract
Contracting can be viewed as having four components (Hay, 1995): The procedural contract The professional contract The personal contract The psychological contract

Mentee Needs
Guidance in a general or specific professional area Series of questions or issues Broad career development Early career development Ethical and moral guidance Assistance in navigating professional seings, institutions, structures, and politics Professional identity development guidance

Advice to Potential Mentees

Get mentors! Internal mentors help with current organizational issues. External mentors help with larger career issues and future organizational moves. One mentor is unlikely to fulfill all developmental needs Be proactive Adopt a learning orientation Set SMART developmental goals Specific Measurable Attainable

Role of Mentees
Seek counsel and advice, not a supervisor who directs actions. Be aware of potential pitfalls: Overbearing mentor, mentor exploitation of mentees work. Be sensitive to the difference between asking for help/advice from your mentor and demanding favors from your mentor. Synthesize lessons learned from all mentors become your own person. Recognize dynamics of relationship.

Advice to Potential Mentors

Recognize that mentee may be uncomfortable asking for help break ice by sharing some of your career experiences Stay in your zone of expertise/experience Be clear that mentee sets pace of relationship Advise, do not manage Extend mentees developmental network suggest additional mentors to address unique needs

Roles and Characteristics of Mentors

Acts as an experienced role model Provides acceptance, encouragement, and moral support Provides wisdom, advice, counsel, coaching Acts as a sponsor in professional organizations, supports networking efforts Assists with the navigation of professional se ings, institutions, structures, and politics Facilitates professional development Challenges and encourages appropriately to facilitate growth Provides nourishment, caring, and protection Integrates professional support with other areas such as faith, family, and community Accepts assistance from mentee in mentors professional responsibilities within appropriate limits Enjoys the opportunity to pass on their wisdom and knowledge and collaboration with early career professionals

Mentor Attributes
Available Willing to spend Intelligent extra time with Challenging students Offers opportunities Innovative for community Invites to Field outreach Personable Similar political Renowned views Enjoys Mentoring Sets clear goals Has necessary lab resources Attends conferences with students

Unavailable Poor Feedback Insensitive Arrogant Disorganized Not funded Fails to offer constructive criticism Expects too much Overworked Overly protective

Good Mentor

Relationship Types
Established career and early career Professor to student Professional to professional Peer mentoring (same developmental level with specific experiential differences) Friendship Parent-like features can be present Task-focused versus relationship-based Daily contact versus less frequent contact Short- versus long-term mentorships Collegial collaborations

Advice for New Mentors

Be a good listener Build a relationship Dont abuse your authority Foster independence Provide introductions Be constructive Find your own mentors

Four Potential Dysfunctions in Mentoring Relationships

Psychosocial Bad intent toward other Career-related Negative Sabotage Relations (bullies, (revenge, silent enemies) treatment, career damage) Difficulty Spoiling (conflict, binds) (betrayal, regret, mentor off fast track)

Good intent toward other

Scandura, T. A. (1998)

Emerson writes: (A mentor) is a mind that startles us, that elevates our feelings by sharing our views of life.

Differences Between Coaching & Mentoring

Coaching To correct The coach Immediate situation Heavy on telling Mentoring To support and guide The mentee Long-term Heavy on listening

Goals Initiative Focus Roles


Traditional 1. The mentor is more influential and hierarchically senior 2. The mentor gives, the protg receives, the organization benefits Developmental Alliance 1. The mentor is more experienced in issues relevant to mentees learning needs 2. A process of mutual growth


Traditional 3. The mentor actively champions and promotes the cause of the protg 4. The mentor gives the protg the benefit of their wisdom Developmental Alliance 3. The mentor helps the mentee to things for themselves 4. The mentor helps the mentee develop their own wisdom


Traditional 5. The mentor steers the protg through the acquisition of experience and resources 6. The primary objective is career success Developmental Alliance 5. The mentor helps the mentee towards personal insights from which they can steer their own development 6. The primary objective is personal development


Traditional 7. Good advice is central to the success of the relationship 8. Social exchange emphasizes loyalty Developmental Alliance 7. Good questions are central to the success of the relationship 8. The social exchange emphasis learning

Formal Mentoring Programs

Program length is specified Purpose of program is to help early career psychologists establish and develop their careers Program participation is voluntary. Matching of mentors and mentees uses input from participants : Interest areas in psychology Demographics Experiences

Formal Mentoring Programs

Advocate developmental networks Monitoring program: Relationships should end as soon as they become dysfunctional Evaluation of program Little research on formal mentoring programs. Available research supports informal mentoring as a stronger relationship with better outcomes. No current research examining quality of formal mentoring programs and their outcomes.
(Wanberg, Welsh, & Hezlett, 2003)

Matrix of Types of Developers and Development Functions in Organizational Socialization

Career-related: Coaching mentee with strategies for meeting job expectations Career-related: Challenging mentee with stretch assignments/goals Career-related: Enhancing the mentees exposure and visibility Career-related: Protection of mentee from potentially negative contacts with other org. members. Career-related: Sponsorship of mentees career development Psychosocial: Role Modeling Psychosocial: Counseling with work relationships Psychosocial: Counseling on developing work/career-related competencies Psychosocial: Counseling with workfamily balance Psychosocial: General acceptance and confirmation
(Chao, in press)

Developer is org. superior to the mentee

Developer is org. peer to the mentee

Developer is org. subordinae to the mentee

Demographic match

Professional/ Interest area match

Geographical location match

+ + + + + + +

+ +

0 0 + + 0 + + 0

+ + 0 + + 0 + +

+ + 0 + + +

+ + + 0 +


0 +

0 +

+ +

+= likely function for this type of developer, 0 = possible function for this type of developer, - = unlikely function for this type of developer

Regular meeting schedule Set agenda for meetings Know what is expected of you Actively inform what you are doing Listen actively Ask questions

Multiple Mentors: Necessity

Ways to make it work: Clear roles and expectations Good relationship among mentors Complementary experience Potential problems Unclear expectations Disagreement or competition Inefficient/overlap

Distance Mentoring
How to use e-mail
Use e-mail to set up meetings (face-toface or phone), clarify plans/goals, pose non-time urgent questions, review plans, maintain contact. Dont use e-mail to give critical or complex feedback, provide impressions of others behavior, provide impressions of third parties, exchange sensitive information.

Distance Mentoring
Communication Challenges Listen for nonverbal cues (e.g., pregnant pauses, voice tone, tempo, volume) Push for specific information, clarify meanings Summarize agreements


Mismatch of mentor/mentee Mismatch of expectations Reluctant mentor/mentee Over zealous mentee Relationship not valued in the organisation Gender mismatch Cultural mismatch Race mismatch Emotional involvement

Broken confidentiality Conflicting roles manager/ assessor/mentor Impact on others Obstructions from/conflicts of others, eg mentees line manager, colleagues, partners Parameters/boundaries not agreed in advance

Other Problems (NBS, 1999)

Personal incompatibility of mentor and mentee Frustration of time constraints/workload Impact of shift pattern and difficulty with access between mentor/mentee Difficulty in sustaining sufficient numbers of mentors Danger that mentorship becomes a paper exercise Lack of cooperation from colleagues

Problems With Cross-Gender Mentoring

Most common form of business mentoring: male mentor and male mentee. Other forms:
Male mentor and female mentee (most common) Female mentor and male mentee Female mentor and female mentee (rare)

Advice for Same-Gender and Cross-Gender Mentoring

Keep relationship professional Be sensitive to other peoples reactions and potential rumors Avoid perception of personal relationship Meet in public venues Transparency of relationship

After the Program Ends

Many relationships come to a natural end when a mentee learns enough to be independent from specific mentors. New mentoring relationships with others may be more beneficial than continuing an exhausted relationship. Program end may not mean the end of the relationship informal mentoring can continue if both parties agree. Pilot program will assess how mentoring met needs of both mentees and mentors.

The APAs Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct : five general principles and 10 standards (APA, 2002).

Beneficence and Nonmaleficence Fidelity and Responsibility Integrity Justice Respect for Peoples Rights and Dignity

Advantages of Mentoring
Advantages for the mentee:
Career advancement Salary Organizational/professional identification

Advantages for the mentor:

Career enhancement Passing the torch to a new generation Learning from mentee new technologies, new developments, important features of next generation

Disadvantages of Mentoring
Disadvantages for the mentee:
Overdependence on the mentor Micro-management from the mentor Negative halo from mentor who fails

Disadvantages for the mentor:

Mentee dependence on mentor Time, energy commitment to mentee Negative halo from mentee who fails