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PL5933

T23
ASIA

ELEMENTARY HAND-BOOK
OF THE

^ir,

BURMESE LANGUAGE
BY

TAW SEIN

KO,

M.R.A.S.,

f.a

t.,

f.s.a.,
OFFICEK, Bri:MA.

GOVEENMENT TKANSLATOR AND HONOKAIl AHCHJJOLOQK'AI,

RANGOON:
PRINTED BY THE SUPERINTENDENT, GOVERNMENT PRINTING, HURMA.

1898.
-rc^->

J^
^1!?^
2-8-0. ]

Price, Rs.

PL 3 f 33

r^3

hdf

CORNELL
UNIVERSITY LIBRARY

DATE DUE

AUG-iHb ig?O^H

"IS Burmese lana ^'*'iiMliimiXii'' *

3 1924 022 058 931

The

original of this

book

is in

the Cornell University Library.

There are no known copyright

restrictions in
text.

the United States on the use of the

http://www.archive.org/details/cu31924022058931

ELEMENTARY HANDBOOK
OF THE

BURMESE LANGUAGE
BY

TAW SEIN

KO,

M.E.A.S., f.a.i., f.s.a.,


OFFICER, BUEMA.

GOVEENMENT TEANSLATOB AND HONOEAKY AECHaJOLOGlCAIi

RANGOON:
printed by the superintendent, government printing, burma.

i8q8.

PEEFACE.
Ars longa,
the
first

vita hrevis.

This book is divided into two parts

deals with the colloquial form of the

Burmese
Both

lan-

guage, and the second with the literary form.

are in-

tended for hard- worked

officials

and busy men engaged in

mercantile and other professions, to

whom
;

an elementary
it is for

knowledge of Burmese may be essential


reason that an attempt
practical as possible.
is

and

this

made

to

make the compilation

as

There

is,

however, no royal road to

learning

a certain
if it is

amount

of drudgery

must be faced and


;

undergone

desired to acquire any kind ot knowledge

and an acquaintance with the Burmese language does not


form an exception to the universal
rule.

The
by Mr.

compilation of this work


St.

is

due to a suggestion made

John, Burmese Lecturer, Oxford University, who

represented to the Local Government the need of a practical colloquial course in

Burmese

for the

Indian Civil Service

candidates undergoing their probationary training in


land.

Eng-

The

original scope has, however, been extended to of foreign residents in

meet the gro-wing requirements In the preparation


are due to

Burma.

of this volume,

my

acknowledgments

Maung Tun

Nyein, Extra Assistant Commissioner,

who has

often acted as

Government Translator during

my

absence on leave or deputation, for the valuable assistance


given by him.

Burma Secretariat: 7
1st October 1898.

TAW SEIN

KO.

TABLE OP CONTENTS.
Pages,

Introduction

...

...

...

...

,..

...

vi

Part

Colloquial
to the
...

...

... ...

...
... ...

... ... ...

...
...

1 1

Key

pronunciation
...
... ... ...

56
4
5

Numerical Notation

...
...
... ...
...

... ...

Time Days

...
... ...

...
...

week Names of the months The Heavens Points of the Compass


of the

...
... ... ...
... ...
...

6
ibid.

... ...
...

...
... ...

...
...
... ... ..,

...
...

Earth
Sea

... ...

...

9
^10

...

...
... ...

...
... ...

Seasons, weather, &e.

...

Persons, relationships, &e.

... ...
... ...

...

Members of the body ... Movements of the body


Ailments
... ... ...

...
... ...
...

..,
... ... ...
... ...

...
...

...

10 12 12 14 14 16 16 17
9 17 18

Wearing apparel
Professions, Trades, &c.

...
... ... ... ...

...
... ...

...
...

18 19
19
21

Servants

...
... ...

...
...

Animals
Beptiles

... ...

... ... ... ...


... ...

...
... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ...

1920
ibid.

... ...
...

Fishes
Birds
Insects
Articles of

...
...
...

... ...

... ... ...


... ... ... ... ...

...
...
...

...
...

2122 2223
23

Commerce
...

24

Metals

...

... ... ...


...

Food
Fruits

... ... ...

... ...

...

...
...

2425 2526 2627


27

Vegetables

...
-

Drink

...
...

...

...
...

.
... ... ... . ... ...

Furniture

...
...

...
...

... ...
...
...

2728 2829
29

Nationalities

Colours

,.,

... ... ...

...
... ... ...

... ... ... ...


...

30

Money

...

8031
31
31

Precious stones

... ...

Weights and measures

...
...

32
32 33

Army and Navy


Weapons Eoad
...

...
... ...

... ...
...

... ... ...

...
...

.
...

...

3334
34

... Games, amusements, &o. Words and phrases in constant use

...
,,.

... ...

...
...

35

3536

ii

Pages.
Miscellaneous questions and answers
...
... ...
...

... ... ... ... ... ...


...

.
...

3738
38
39 40 42

Weather ... Time of day...


Salutations, &c.

...

...

... ... ... ... ... ... ... ...

...
...

... ...
...

Dining-room

... ... ... ...


...

... ... ... ... ... ...

Bed-room
Boat
Office

...
...

...
...

42 43 43 44
4446 4649
49
50

40

...

... ... ...

... ...
...

Health and sickness


Miscellaneous phrases

...

50 56 62

Part 11 Literary
Chapter
Chapter
I.

...

...

... ...
...

...
... ... ...
...

...
...

57121

The Alphabet

... ... ... ...


...

5760
60

II.

Homonyms
The The The The The The The The

...
... ...
...

Chapter
Chapter
Chapter Chapter

III.

Noun
Pronoun
Adjective

... ... ...

IV.

V. VI.
VII.

... ...
...

Chapter
Chapter
Chapter
Chapter

Verb Adverb
Preposition

... ...
... ... ...

...
...
... ...

...

...
...
... ...

Chapter VIII.
IX.

...
... ... ...

6267 6871 7174 7478 7879 7980


80
ibid.

Conjunction
Interjection

X.
XI.

... ...

Syntax

...

...

81

Appendices
I.

Extracts from J4takas


Petitions
...

...

...

...

... ...

83 97
109

II.

...

...

...

95 107
121

III.

Extracts from the " Selections from the Records of the

Hhitdaw"

INTRODUCTION.
It
is

generally admitted that the

Burmese language

is difficult

to study, and

when there

are

few

suitahle text-books

and very few

competent teachers, the

difficulty to

be encountered and overcome

appears to be considerably enhanced.

The method

of teaching
l^as

Burmese has yet


yet to be worked

to be systematised,

and Burmese literature

up with that
some

critical spirit

which has been suc-

cessfully applied to

of the classical

and vernacular languages


is

of India.

But before

this

consummation

brought about, one


to his

must

try his best to study

Burmese according

own

lights.
it

The Burmese language can be made


from a philological stand- point.

interesting

by studying

Philology means, of course, the

science which traces the origin and development of a language,

and indicates

its

relationship to others.

Burmese

is

a Turanian

language as contradistinguished from an Aryan language, and


belongs to that family of languages which has been described as

Thibeto-Burman.
ing
its

A language,

like

an organism, grows, and dur-

long career of development

many

accretions cling to

it.

Some

of these accretions are thoroughly assimilated

and become
still

part and parcel of the organic growth, while others


their nature of foreign excrescences.

retain

The following examples


gjal^s is

will illustrate this remark.

The expression

made up

of

two words,

gj

(Chinese lu) to give, and alh

(PMi or Sanskrit
a charitable

3]^) giving or a gift.

The expression means

to give as
al^s

offering or to exercise charity.

Now

the word

will ever re-

main a

foreign excrescence and refuse to get assimilated.

Then
two

take the

common word

8|gQii

This occurs as 8a5o in an old lithic


It is

inscription of the twelfth century A.P,

made up

of

ii

words 8$?
Thus,

8cS (Shan g) a wife,


in

+ q = (Thibetaa o)
first in

a mother.

woman

Burmese

is

conceived

her capacity as wife

and then in her capacity

as mother.

Both the constituent parts

composing the word 8$ so are Turanian in their naturfe and they


get thoroughly assimilated.
logical, as

It

may

be said that these are tauto-

each of the component parts generally expresses the


idea.

one and the same

But

in a state of society

composed of

difPerent tribes, such a stratification of

language was inevitable.

Each

section or tribe

must have

its

peculiar dialect, and their


as the formation of

living together

must have the same tendency

well defined strata in geology.


(a

Other instances, namely, a^cooaS


to look, godSo to assist,

Tavoy localism)

to bring,

^=S

oo@g3

fate, 33Gogcj>ig,D(yoco^D a question, all

tend to cori'oborate the above

view.

Allusion has been

made above

to the existence of

San skrit and

Pali derivatives in the Burmose language.

It is a

moot qu estion
There

whether priority should be accorded to one or the other.


is,

however, reason to infer from the evidence available that San-

skrit derivatives

were introduced into the Burmese language long


in

before Pali was the form of


of the

known

Burma.

This evidence also shows that

Buddhism

first

introduced into this country was that

Northern School, which was subsequently absorbed and

assimilated

by the Southern School.


is

Like the Chinese, Thibetan, and other languages, Burmese


monosyllabic language,
every root
is
i.e.,

to say,

every word in

it is

a root, and

a word, each word consisting of a single syllable or

monosyllable to which a particle, and not an independent word may be prefixed as in oools a door oo^^s power or glory sood
; ;

food.

sentence

is

but an allocation of words whose grammatidetermined by their


respective
positions.

cal

relationship

is

iii

The grammatical apparatus being thus


of the
first

deficient, the

vocabulary

Burmese language may be divided

into three groups.


;

The
;

group would include nouns and pronouns

the second, verbs

and the remaining parts

of speech, including particles,

would be

placed in the third group.


like brick or stone,

The words

in the first

two groups are


mortar which
apparent that

and those

in the third are like


It is

cements the building materials together.

most of the words in the third group were independent words at


one time, and that they have been ground down to their present

form through years

of attrition.

An

instance
affix.

may

be cited,

namely, that of goo 5, a Burmese honorific


transcribed as
tS.

This should be

Owing

to Bengali influence, the

vowel a was

changed to

o,

and thus
and the

this td

was originally
be taken to

ta.

In Chinese ta
that any action

means

great,

affix

may
is

mean

done by a great. personage

necessaxily a great action,

In studying Burmese, one of the best ways


lytical

is

to

adopt the anainto its

method.

Each expression should be analysed

com-

ponent parts; the relationship between these words, whether that


of allocation or agglutination, should be determined,

and the
;

oriits

gin o each word should be traced as far back as possible

and

phonetic changes and gradual development should also be noted.


If this method
is

followed,

we can make some

of the words tell us

i,'tteresting tales.

Max
this

Miiller has proved conclusively that the


duliitCi,

English word daughter assumes in Sanskrit the form

milkmaid.
it

When

word came into

use, the people

who used

must have been

in a pastoral condition.
it

They had large herds


of the daughter of each

of

cows or goats, which

was the duty

family to milk every morning.

Similarly the derivation of the


appellation of the
tale,

word

"

Mranmd," the national


tell

Burmese

race,

can be made to

an interesting

Burma

is

known

to the

iv

people of Bengal as Brahmodesh, which


the Pali designation " Brahmadesa
"

is

th^"

Bengali form of

or the region or country of


Triad.

Brahma, the Creator

of the

Hindu

Now

and

are

interchangeable in the Indo-Chinese languages,

and Brahm&,
changed

became Mrahma and the


;

letter h being,

by

assimilation,

into

the

word Mrahma assumed the form Mramma.


so

Now,

and y are interchangeable,

we get the form


is
;

Myammi.
so

In the

system of Chinese transliteration each word


syllables to suit the genius of the language

cut up into mono-

we

get the

form
is

Mien (= Myam)

or

myan

ma.

In Burmese poetry

Burma

always spoken of as

(g|c^Ss

the couatry of the

Myan,

the

national appellation by which the Burmese are

known

to their
fo

neighbours, the Chinese

and in Burmese prose we get the


in

rm
@g

g^oD
C3CO

= =

Mran-ma, while

works written in Pali the form

Mramma-desa
is

invariably occurs.

The derivation

of the

word g?oj

intimately connected with that of the word JProrne.


it is
is

This word should be spelt Prohm, because the Talaing

another form of another form of

name Brohn.

Again,

Brohm

Brahm
brail

{a

and

o being interchangeable).

Therefore,

Frome means
pran

the city of Brahma.

The Burmese

call it

Pyi

= g^ =

Brahm.

Both the Talaing and Burmese forms


to the

of the
tells

word are traceable


VIS

same source

and Burmese history

that at

Prome

a tribe called the

Mranmds

arose and attained

political eminence.

Prom

the derivation of the above two words


of

we may

infer that

Burma is the meeting-point


;

two

civilizations,

namely, that of India and of China

that the Mongoloid tribes


political society, Avere

which were eventually amalgamated into a


first

brought under the influence of Hindu colonists who wor-

shipped

Brahma

and that the centre of Brahmanical influence

in

Burma was Prome.

In
other

stiidyinn,'
is

a language,

tlie

system of translating
It

it

into an-

a very good practice.

makes ns think in two languages,


had
to he achieved

and

as the results obtained have

by much

la-

bour and racking of brains, words, phrases, idioms, and the niceties of

language are retained in

otir

memory.
is

The great thing,


that one should try
as the
of

however, to be borne in mind in translation

and place himself as much as possible in the same position


writer of the original.

In

this

way, the

spirit

and energy

expression of the original would be retained in the translation.

Most students do

not, however, try to do so,

and generally en-

deavour to make the required rendering as

literally as possible;

and the

result is that the translation

is

not only tame, but hardly

conveys the thoughts and ideas of the writer in an intelligible

and

felicitous

manner.

At

the present time, there are two kinds of Burmese.

One may
would be

be called Lower- Burma Burmese, and the other Upper-Burma Burmese.

The Burmese

of

Lower Burma,

in

some

places,

something like the Prenoh patois in Jersey and the Channel


Islands
:

it

is

corrupt,
is

and

is

almost a jargon.

The pure Burin the larger


style are its

mese, however,
towns.

still

preserved in

Upper Burma

The

chief characteristics of

Upper-Burmese

conciseness, the absence of dispensable particles and affixes,


its

and

comprehensive expressiveness, grace, energy, and elegance.


style is

The Lower- Burmese


particles,

very diffuse

it

abounds in useless

and

differs

from the other

style in its laboured simplicity

and want
of

of brevity.

Any

one with a tolerably good knowledge

Burmese can

readily

distinguish the

marked

difference be-

tween the two

styles.

The popular impression amongst


language
is

foreigners
is

is

that the

Burmese
an ex-

devoid of literature.

This

not true.

It has

vi

icnsivc literature, and

its

poetry

is

exceedingly beautiful, and

may
of

be compared favourably with that of other nations.

The

cheerfulness of the people, their healthy and peaceful enjoyment


life,

their loyalty to sovereign authority, their devotion to their

religion
dlii,sm

and

institutions,

and the beautiful influence which Bud-

has exercised over their mind and character, are faithfully

pourtrayed in their literature, and especially in their poetry.


it is

And

to

be hoped that more prominence may' be given to Burmese


iii

literature in the curriculum of studies

the province.
of Pali
is

To become a Burmese

scholar, a

knowledge

essential,

for the connection between the literatures of these


is

two languages

an intimate one.
literature,

Burmese

literature

is

to a large extent based

on Pali

and, without an acquaintance with Pali, Burof

mese

studies

would not be

much

interest.

In

fact, to

study

Burmese

classics

without a knowledge of Pali, wou.ld be like

attempting to read and appreciate Milton without knowing

much

about the Bible and the mythology of Greece and Pome.

PART I.-COLLOQUIAL.
KEY TO THE PRONUNCIATION.

Consonants.
oo
>

k
'k
-)

Tinaspirated.

aspirated.

^
c

g
J

tard.
as in Za??^, English.

ng
s
's

o
so

unaspirated as in spirit.
aspirated as in saw, sea.
as

m zenith.
semr, Corunha.

go

n
[

as in

00

unaspirated.

00

[ 't

aspirated.

'd

as in

dawn.

OD
(

n
p
'p

as in napkin.

o o
>

unaspirated.
aspirated.
as

m SmZ^.
mamma.

o
oa
Gi

m
y
r

as in

as in yes.
as in rural.

^1
o
OD

as

m lovely.

w
^/i

as in weather.

th as in thaw.
as in thee.
as in heaven.

oo CO

Note. There are no English equivalents mayj however, be transliterated as follows


:

for certain combinations in

Burmese,

They

rmesG.

NUMERICAL NOTATION.

Time.
English.

The Heavens concluded.


English.

Earth concluded
English.

9
Sea.

English.

11

Persons, Relationships,

12

Persons, Eelationships, &c


English.

Burmese.

Bridegroom

13

Members op the Body continued.


English.

14

Members op the Bodt


English.

-concluded.

15

Movements of the Body


English.

continued.
Transliteration.

Burmese.
...

Swim

GqojsoD^
o^cSgoIod^

... ... ... ... ...

Ye-ku:^M

Moat ... To shoulder ... To carry in the arms To carry on the head To carry on the back
Ride Drive
... ...

Ko-'paw-^M
'Tan:^M
Paik-thi or pwe-#M

ooso3^

^o5oo^ or c^oOd^
gioSco^

Ywet-thi

ioo^ or ocj^g^soo^ ... Po:^M or g6n:po:^M soo^ ... Si:^M


godSsoo^
...
...

Maung:^M
Twet-thi

To

strike

with the ogoSoo^


the goodSsco^

elbows sideways.

To

strike with

..

'Taung:fM

elbows downwards. To strike (with the o^soo^


fist).

...

'To:^

Slap

16

Movements of the Body


English.

concluded.

17

Ailments
English.

concluded.

18

Weaking Apparel concluded.


Eii<;lish.

19

Professions, Trades, &c.-

21

22

Birds
English.

concluded.

23

24

Articles ov Commerce
English.

concluded.

26

Food
English.

concluded.

27

Fetjit
Jinghsh.

concluded

28

Drink concluded.
English.

30

31

Monet concluded.
English.

32

Weights and Mbasdiies concluded.


English.

Burmese.

35

Games, Amusements, &c


English.

concluded.
Transliteration.

Burmese.
...
...

Lottery

08

'Ti
...

Dice

33^03
O^SC^OO

An-za
Th6n:b6n-bfe:

Dominoes
Cards

...

...

CO

...

T6:
'Pfe:yaik-thi

Play at cards Squares


Chess

...
CtJ|DS

...

Kya:
Sit-da-yin

...
...
..

Checkmate
Capture a piece
Pootball (Burmese)

'Kwe-thi
Sa:thi

...

... ...

Chin:16n:
Chin:16n:'kat-thi
Set-bein:zi:

Play football
Cycling
ooScSsSs

... ...
... ...

Hunting
Shooting
Picnic

33^C^o5

A-m5:laik
Thin-nat-pyit

Gooo5oS

Byaw-bwfe:za:

Words and Phrases


Yes
...

in constant use.
...
.

ocjoSra or o^oSoooS*

Kok-ke or hok-te
Ma-hok-'pu:

No
Very well
This
GOD3Ss(

Kaung:byi
1-a-ya, or thi-ha, or

^03Gp;iCX>^

*<XlOll3l

da

That

,.

'To-a-y4 or hb-ha

Come here Go there Go away Come along Be quick


Take care Take away
*

TM-go-la-ge

Ho-go-thwa:

OgoSogDJGOOO *
cod5 or c^o5ooDb

'Twet-thwa:daw La-ge or Laik-la-ge

Myan-myan-lok
Tha-di-'ta:

OOc80OD8

Yii-thwa:

Many
cxiDS
;

colloquial
:

ten terms. (^
;

words are but Thus 00c5 := 00^ ;

naodifications, generally in pronunciation, of the writ-

00^ orS=z^;

GC03

ooc^ii odg^-i

33Gp
Gg|S
;

on

ocS

goddS

= c^SgssdS

= 0^;

= co^^g
;

^=

C^;39S=:88-1

goooii gc[3
;

c^
;

c^

^o

c^ = cx>^ii

GOOD

J.S

ODD or ol

ODD
j

=cocS

oo^oacp

q5

= =

36

Words and Pheases


English.

in constant tse

concluded.

Burmese.

37

Miscellaneous Questions and Answers.


English.
Burruese.
Transliteration.

Can (you) speak Burmese ?


Yes, a little
...

@?od

ooods ooo5 cxdcq^s or cxjodc^ cgDODcScx)


coDsii

Mya-ma-sa-gaitat-t hala: or Ba-ma-lo-pyaw:


dat-tha-la:
N5:nfe:tat-te

^'^oocSooc^

...

What
(He)
go.

did he say

?...

ajooDGgDcoco
cgDsac^db

...
...

Thu-ha-pyaw:;(^a-lfe:

said (he)

would
?

Thwa:me-de
Na:lfe-tha-la:

Do you
(I) do,

understand
partly

^dsoo^odcods

...

...

co^ooooS^dsod^oocS
og^sOi^scoDg
... ...

Ta-cho-ta-wet-na:-l^-d6

Did you not


No,
sir, (I)

hear?...

Ma-kya:hu:la:
Ma-kya:laik-pa-'kinbya:

did not

ogDso^o5oloSc}|Di

What can
(you)
(I)
?

(I)

do for

ooc^^oog|^ocx)

...

Bfe-p6n-ma-za-y a
Ife:

m a-

wish to serve the Government.

Gs^sqM^^GooSooSsgS
olcx)o6ii

A-so:ya-a-hmu-daw'tan:gyin-ba-d5
....

To

whom
belong

does (this)
?

cooSo^^Soocb

Bfe-thu-paing-f/^a-lfe:

Where
ing?
(I)

are

you go-

ooc^ogDsoc^cx)

...

B^-thwa:ma-lo-lfe:

am

going home

gSSc^c^dsgoooocS

...

Ein-go-thwaidaw-me
Be-hna-'ka-pyaw:ya-ma
\h:

now.

How many times


must
for I
(I)tell

ooc^j>8)lG(y3G|ocb

...

(you)?
sir,

Don't be angry,

8cSos^gol^^o6<5|Ds go
ooc^c^olii

am
?

forgetful.

Seik-ma-'so:-ba-ne-'kinbya:-me-dat-lo-ba
Thii-be-a-'ti-thwa:ma\q-\h:

How
As

far is

he

ojcooSaacS ogDso eg
CO"

going

far as

Mandalay

o^gcos Gspo5 gs^dS


ogDsocgii

Man:da-le:-yauk-aungthwa:ma-lo

When

did he arrive?

cxjoooSccooGcpoSoDco

Thu-be-daw-yauk-tha1^:

(He) arrived just now.

^aSoocxjcspoScooS

...

Gu-din-ga-bfe:yauk-t^

Who

says so

...

ac^ooajcgsoora

...

Da-lo-ba-lu-pyaw:^Aa-

38

Miscellaneous Questions and Answers concluded.


English.

Burmese.

Transliteration.

They

all

say so

aj{c^33:)8oqs3C^G(yD[^
ODDCXJII

Tliu-do-a:16n:-da-lo-

pyaw:gya-da-b^:
Ba-lauk-net-tha-le:

How

deep

is it ?

...

C30GOODo5^ dScOCO

Eour fathoms Whose pony is

GCOgCQ^oSoDcS
this
?

Le:lan-net-te

Da-ba-lu-myin:le:
c^^gcodQSsoIoScjIds
,,

My

pony,

sir

Kyun-daw-m y i n b a
:

'kin-bya:

Weather.
(It) is
(It) is
(It) is

very warm..,

Te-aik-te
coc6gcx)c8o5odo5

very close

..

Te-le-teik-te

very windy...
..

cooSgcoc^o5cooS
cooS^sg^DODc6

Te-ie-taik-te

(It) is very rainy


(It) is

Te-mo:ywa-de
Mo:-6n-de
Mo:the:ue-de

cloudy
raining heai^SCO^gG^COoS

(It) is
vily.

(It) is drizzling

^s Gg3o5
oooSii

G^orS 2.0Q^

Mo:'pyauk-'pyauk-ywane-dh
Mo:teik-pi
bi
o)'

(It)

has stopped rain-

^sc8o5g or ^sbg

mo:

si:

(It) is cold

qSsoooS
is

Chan:de
Le-e:taik-ne-de

A
(It)

cold

breeze

GODg33SC^o5g^00cS

blowing.
is

beginning to

^Io:ywa-za-pyu-bi

rain.

The

rains have commenced.


is

Mo:kya-bi
Mo:u-du-k6n-bi
OG^C|JO0cS

The rainy weather


over.
(It) is
(It)

hot today

...

Ga-ne-pu-dfe

thunders
^goSs;(c200oS

Mo:ch6n:d5
Mo:tl)i:kyv,e-de
j>SgGOO0c5

(It) hails

(It) is (It)

foggy
fair yester-

IIuin:we-de

was

Q G ^OD G ^ CODCOt5

Ma-ne-ga-ne-tha-de

day.

39

Time oe Day.
English.
Bui'mese.
is
Transliteration.

The day

breaking

^scoSsogg

Mo:lin:za-pyu-bi

Just at sunrise

Ne-'twet-sa-ga

Early in the morning

Ma-net-saw:zaw:
O0oS33^$CXIcb
Bfe-a-chein-ga-lfe:

What time was it ? What o'clock is it ?


It is eight o'clock
... ...

coo5j>S^D^^ora

Be-hna-na-yi-shi-ba-le:
Shit-na-yi-shi-bi

It It

is is

half -past six

G@0o5^D^^@
GODOOCS

Chauk-na-yi-gwfe:shi-bi

early

Saw:-d&

It is late (forenoon) It
is

G^gSg
G^?.^g

Ne-myin-bi
'Ne-nh-.hi

late (afternoon)
...

It is late (night) It
is is

;^in-net-pi

noon
about midnight
past midnight
in
cx)5sg315gcodo5^
,,,

Mun:te-bi
Tha-gaung-lauk-shi-bi
oo^SGolScoqjSg

It

It is

Tha-gaung-kyaw-bi
Mun:ma-te-gin-la
Mun:-ma-te-gin-la:

Come
Is
It
it

the

fore-

noon.
in the forenoon
?

was only in the


afternoon.

g^gc^g 8cooS or ^G$ GODSsyjgScooS or $s


c8gg^Socio5ii

Mun:lw5:hma-'pyit-te or na-ne-saung:hma'pyit-t5 or mun:tein:


hma-'pyit-te
Ko:na-yi-'to:bi
Le:na-yi-'to:lu-bi

It has struck nine...

c^s^o^c^sg
Gco8->:D^c^soq(

It
It

is

nearly four

...

is

already dark,,,
half

g^dSQ

Hmaung-bi
..

It will take

c^oooo^gDcSSooS
ooc^^oqsS^DG^o^

Ne-ta-wet-kya-lein-me
Ta-ne- 16n:di-ma-ne-m&

day.
(I) will stay

here the
at

whole day. He will be back


breakfast time.

o?.o5coqS?o3s^^o;j@$

Ma-net-'ta-min: sa:
gyei

G^poScSSocSn

n-thu-pyan-

yauk-lein-m5

He

is

coming in time
at

qod^g33d8
ocoii

oijcoocSS

for dinner.

]^a-za-hmi-aun g la-lein-m5
A-yon-det-ka-t h ne-d5

h u'ta-

He

was up

dawn

aa^coS odoSoo oj cxjg^


cooSii

ti -

40

Time of
English.

Day concluded.
Transliteration.

Burmese.

He came before dawn


Will he come again this evening ?

33^aS ococSaSzqoDD
oocSii

A-yon-ma-tet-'kin-tMIrt-de
...

sj^g^cxjcod^socods

Gu-iia-ne-th u ma-la:

6 n

Did he say he was coming this evening


?

;gG.?,a;[coDo6bco3s

...

Gu-fia-ne-thu
de-la:

-la

-ma

He

said he

was com-

g^oS^^ oodocSc^
cgDcoc^ii

ajj

Ne-win-gyein-la-mfe-lo-

ing at sunset.

thu-pyaw: de

Age.

What

is

(your) age

33odoSodoS GcoDo5^odb

A-tliet-ba-lauk-shi-bale:

When

were you born ?

oooSo^sooGgsoora

...

Be-don: ga-mwe: thaIh:

(I) shall

be twenty next June.


is

G^g)$co oq)S|S33ooo5 j>5coo5g^ooSii


cxjsjgoag^cSGooDSso^s
...

She

- zun-la-kya-yin-athet-hna-'se-pye-mfe

He

now but in
of
life.

the

Thu gu -ma- a-ywe-

prime

kaung: d6n:
ooDsoocSGcaDoSgsoc^
ooc6|iScoDgcxiD ^gods
cooSii

How
son

old
?
is
,

is

(your)

Tha:ba-lauk-kyi: ba-le:
'Se-linit-tha:iM-shi-the:

(He)

only ten

...

dh
g[

He

appears

young

oj^co^cxxtS cc(^
cooSii

for his age.

Thii-//ii-det-n g fe-b 6 nya-dfe

He has a very youthful appearance.


Is your father very
a2;ed
?

cxjcooSa^g^oScoSoooS...

Thu-te-a-ywe-tin-de
Min-a-'pe-o-hla-ba-la:

oSscracoos^cgooDDs

...

(He

is

about seventy q^SaooSicoDnS^g


is

...

'Kun-hna-s5-lauk-s h
bi

i-

The old man


very

still

aac^slc^sooDcqi^so^i^soD
odcSo^gcosooc^ii

A-'po:gyi:ha-kyan:gyan:
ma-ma-b5:shi-i/ie:dfe

hale

and

strong.

Salutations, &o.

Are you well? Are you quite well

od&^co^s
sjgoodSs goodSs
02^211

...

Ma-ye-la:

odo

G u-ka ung:gaung:m4ba-la:

now

41

Salutation, &o.
English.

continued.
Transliteration.

Burmese.
oDD8aooDsaD[co3s

How is your family ?


(They) are
all

Tha:ma-ya:ma-ye-la:

well
?

333soqsoD@ol|^

A:16n:ma-gya-ba-ye

Has your
(He)
is

younger

oSg^cqjDr^ocooi
cnSoDDo1g
oooScepolcS
cSic^ijiasoooS

Min-ni-pyauk -pa-la:
Thet-tha-ba-bi
B6-yaw:ga-lfe:
L5:lo-'pya:dfe

brother recovered

improving...
is it ?

What
a

ailment

(He) had fever after


fall. is

(He)

suffe

ring

pGoicpSsd^s @8g$
cooSn

from
cough.
It
is

cold and

Hna-zi:chaung:zo:'pyitne-d^

a long time since I have seen (you).

oGcgqoobgDcgg
oDODgjDqDocgbooc^i
..

Ma-twe-ya-da-kya-hlabi

I saw (him) in good


health.
Sit

Ma-ma-cha-gyk-t
ge-de

e-

down

...

o^Sol
aSsScoi^Dgc^ ^cBso::^
c^o5o|
ii

'Taing-ba

My

compliments your parents.

to

i -

b a-mya:go-

hn6k-'set-laik-pa

Have you

breakfast-

o^o5odods8oco3s

Ma-net- sa-sa:pi:ba-la:
Ma-sa:ya-if^e:bu:
]!?

ed? ... Not yet (You) have arrived


just in dinner.

ooDsqGcxDgoqs

^odcds^^j-SosgooSc^
GGpoSoDDcocSn

time for

a - z a-s a: gyein-ne-ataw-b^: yauk-la-d^"

What will (you)


take
?

cododsoco

Ba-sa:ma-15:
'Se:leik-thauk-pa

Have a

cigar

....

gso%S8goooc56\

Will you take tea

Have some
sugar.

more
my
tea

coo5ooo5q^GcoDo5oo3D! La-'pet-ye-thauk-ma-la: oogDso^ol^gooDS ... Tha-gya:yu-ba-6n:la:


oooSoooS
=q

I don't like sweet.

g^^^

^4 "^

I'a-'pet-ye-cho-gyo-makyaik-'pu:
Di-la-'pet-ye-te-kya-de

This tea
strong.
It

is

very

SodcS ooo5 g^^ cocS cq cooS


G^gScgguogDjcia^socS

is late (forenoon), I must take leave of you.

Ne-myin-hla-bi-tliwa:

ya-6n:me
6

42

Salutation, &c.
English.

concluded.
Transliteration.

Burmese.

Go

(as a polite reply

ogDSola^sGooo

Thwa:ba-6n:daw

to foregoing).

P lease
(I)

send for a car-

Gfo:> oa g oI^ S s c^o5o


oln

Ya

't a:

a -'iaw-kaing:

riage.

laik-san:ba

wish daily

for

qjSscxo

oIgoc^g^c^Si

Chan: tha-ba-ze-lo-nedaing: myit-ta-po-bade


..

(your) prosperity.
(I) shall

go^d^oIoocSii

come again

G^DoSooolcoDsfjsQcS

Nauk-ta-'ka-la-6n:me

DiNING-BOOM.
Set the table

43

Dining -eoom
English,

concluded
Transliteration,

Burmese.

Pour (me) a cup


tea

of

cooSoooSq^cogoSoo^
c^oSoSsii
...

La-'pet-ye-ta-'kwet-'t
laik-san:

Bring me a boiled egg goSggoSooo^soqb

Kyet-u-by6k-ta-16n:yu-

Take

this
is

egg away
the salt-

SgoSgojogDs
ooosgoSoooSara

...

Di-kyet-u-yu-thwa:
'Sa:gwet-b5-ma-16:
Di-pa-gan-bya:le:laik

Where
Change

...

cellar ?
this plate
...

8o8co?(g3scSc^o5

...

Bring another plate

olgoa^gDsooqSooSoflb

Pa-gan-bya:
'tat-yu-ge

hat

Bring
knife

fork and
is

oG[S).ooD8o;;[b

'Ka-yin:ne-da:yu-ge

This cup

not clean
...

So?8od|o^;cx3dooSo38,..

Di-pa-gan-16n:ha-masin-bu:

Wash
This

it

properly

gcodSsgcodSsgoosc^oS

Kaung:gaung:'se:laik
Di-sa-bw&:gin:nit-pi
Ho-pa-lin:'t6k-laik
'Se:leik-ta-leik-yu-ge

table-cloth

is

Soos^oSsgoSg
c^c^asSsojoScQoS

...

soiled

Take out that bottle Bring (me) a cigar

G3osc8Sooc8Sa;|b
^8q]ScxioSocx)

Where is
box
?

the match-

Ml:gyit-b5-ma-15:
Mi:chit-laik-san:

Strike a

match

..

SsqSo^oSoSs

Bed- ROOM.

Where is the blanket?


This bedroom
is

godSodcSscS
S^Ss^soojioScgojs

Saung-be-ma-16:
Di-eik-' kan:ma-kyfe-hla

not

very roomy

bu:
c84,5gjo5c^o5o'Ss

Take off (my shoes) Put the footstool


aside

'Pa-nat-chut-laik-san:
Chi-din-gon-go-'pfe-laik

G@cx35qcoo5c^o5

Hang up tjiis
Put
it

coat...

Ssaf^c^^coDsc^oS
tsagdb^D og5scoDsco5

Di-in:gyi-go- 'sw^:'ta: laik

in the

drawer
clean

An-zwe: d5:ma-thwin:
'ta:laik

Take

out towel

^joSj-DoqcSoolsaccScxjcS

Myet-hna-thok-pa-waa-thit-'tok

U Bed-room con eluded.


( )

English.

Burmese.

Transliteration.

Hang
Open
Leave

it

out to dry

a^o5cg5scQr>5

'T6k-hlan:laik

the door

coolgcgSo^oS

Ta-ga:'pwin-laik
Ta-ga:peik-laik
Ha-'ta:laik

Shut the door


(it)

c6o1s8oSc^o5
...
...

a jar

ODoooso^oS
(yooSgcoloScgS

Open Keep

the

window

Pa-din:bauk-'pwin
Ta-yok-kat-peik-'ta:

the Venetians shut


. .

CD^5oo58o5oODS

Light the candle Light the lamps

ooGooD6sc^6cg$8o^o5...

'Pa-yaung:daing-'tun:
laik

...

Mi:ein-mya:go-'tun:laik
Mi:za-hnyat-laik

Trim the wick Turn up the light... Turn the light down
a
little.

Mi:hmyin-laik
Mi:ne:n6:hmein-laik
GQo5scx)o5oro

Where
ney
?

is

the chim-

Pvaun;:be-ma-le:

The chimney is smoking


Extinguish the light

:;(yDSsoo8g^gcgo5G|,cooS

PYaung:ga-mi:go:'twet ue-de

s58co5 or SsgoSc^oS

Mi: nein:

laik or mi:

hmok-laik

Put down the mosquito curtain

gScooDSqc^oS
aSScpoScoooQcS

...

Chin-daung-cha-laik

am going to bed Wake (me) early to(I)

...

Eik-ya-win-daw-me
Net-'pan-gH" saw:zaw:la

4>o5cs^cilGO3G0D003|sra.

morrow.

hno:hle
... ...

Where do
sleeper

(you)sleep? cx3oSyD335oDcb
oSso85coo5c^coDg

Pe-ma-eik-tha-lfe:

Are you a light


? ?

Min:eik-'sat-ke-la:

Do you

snore

eSsGcoDoScocScocoDS
in...

..

Min:hauk-tat-tha-la:
Win-la-ba-le-zi

Let (him) come

oScODoGCOGO

Boat.

Let us go by
ready

boat...

Gcg^.CgD|(^

H]e-ue-thAva:gya-zo
'Kat-]ile-go-pyin-laik

Get the oar-boat

soSccyc^gSc^oS

45

Boat
English.
.

continued
Transliteration.

Burmese.

Where
boat

is ?

the paddle-

GC^SgoJCO oSgDtX)
OcSoOo5(^ DSO^OjjSloCODS

Hlaw-hle-b5-ma-lo:
'Kat-tet-mya:go-yu-ge
ba-la:

Have
Can

(you) brought the oars ?

(you)

sail

the Gojc^ ^o5c^o5ooc8cocoDS


oooo5a^5>

Hle-go

-ywet-taik-

boat? Bring the steering


paddle

tat-tha-la:

Pe-det-yu-ge

Have you brought


rudder
?

O3o5olc300DDS

Tet- mSb-fa-tha-lk:

Let us start Get on the bow ... Put it on the stern

ogoSgg
SsGoTc^oooS

'Twet-kya-zo

C:baw-go-tet
Pe-baw-ma-'ta:laik

OGoTyOODDSC^oS

Go up Go down
bank

the river

. .

Myit-ko-'san-thwa:
Myit-ko-s6n-laik

the river...
other

Cross to the

Ho-bet-kan:go-ku:
Di-'seik-ma-'saik

Stop at this landing

Row

hard
fast
...

Kyat-kyat-'kat

Paddle

g^g^GogS
Sg^dSsc^oS
Gg^^DGOODSgSoOSJ^OOoS

Myan-myan-hlaw
Di- chaung go- win
:

Enter

this creek

There is a sandbank ahead Is the tide running

Sbe-ma-thaung- b y i n
ta-'ku-shi-dS

GQODo5

G^OOCOOSII CqjG^

Di-ye-te fc-ne-^fe-la :kyane-^Aa-la:


-

up or down ? Get alongside the bank


Is this boat steady
(It) is
?

ODCOD8II

Kan:na:kat
Di-hle-nein-ye-M
GG^C^CXlcS

leaky
is

Ye-yo-d6
Di-hle-ba-tha:le:

What wood
boat
sea?

this
?

SccgcoscoDScx)

made

of

Can you go out to


Will
it

Pin-lfe-go-'twet-hnaing
tha-la:
GC[og5o:||?CX)D8

not sink?
sv\rira ?

... ...

Ye-ma-my6k-'pu:la:
Ye-ku:dat-tha-la:

Can you

GC|jsooo5o:coDS

46

B OAT concluded
English.

Burmese.
...

Transliteration,

Unfurl

tlie sail

|o5g|c^o5
g:;ioooSc^o2Sc^o5
ccgDoSajsols^ccDs

...
... ...

Ywet-'pyan-laik
Te-le-go-'pwin-taik
Kyauk-'su:pa-ye-la:

Sail along

midstream
brought
?

Have
I

yoti

an anchor

have brought two,


sir

j^SraoSololaoSaScjjDs...

Hna-let-pa-ba-de-'kin-

Is that rope strong

c^(^scod^Sooo3ds

...

by a: Ho-kyo: ha-'kaing-bama-la:

enough

When

shall

we
?

get

i3c^ oooSgcoo GcpoSoo


con

Ywa-go-b^-daw-yauk
pa-ma-lfe:

to the village

Ophce.
Bring a lead pencil
S)c6ajS>
...
...

'Kfe:dan-yii-ge

Sharpen

this quill...

go5GoDD5g|^c^o5
c1odgcod5c6ooc5qco

Di-hnget-taung-chunlaik

Where

is
?

my

pen-

...

Nga-ka-laung-dan- b
ma-le:
Ka-laung-lfe:yu-ge

fe-

holder

Bring a pen also ... oDGODDSoo^sc^b ... This pen is too blunt, oDGoo36o^scg?gcooSg)$ gi$oDsj33oDsa^&ii change it for a sharp pointed one
Sharpen
knife
rill these ink bottles

Di-ka-laung-t6n:lun:de Chun-gyun-ta-'ku-asa: yu-ge


Y6n:da:ga-le:thwe:laik

the

desk-

^soo^sooGcosGogsc^oS

8o qooSs
-^-"j5!i

<^

otc^

S@f^ Di-hmin-ba-lintmya-.o-ohmin-'pye-laik

Put ink
pots
Is there

in both the

oSo^s fh oqs ooqic^ oS


co^ii
oS?a^o:;j2coDs
... ...

I[min-o:-hna-16n:
16n:go-hmin-'te

za-

no red ink ? The black ink is bad


Bring a sheet of ting paper
blot-

o6^o5o3Do^o5oqs
o6|oo^[[OD9]5a^S>

Hmin-ni-ma-shi-buda: mi n-n e t- h a - a-

net-'pu:
...

Hmin-hneik-set-ku-tachat-yu-ge
Di-hmin-o:go-sin-aunff'se:laik

Wash

this

inkpot
...

clean

q63^so^ oS gssdS goos c^o5


tjjgsooa^cxc^oS
...

Take out the ruler

Myin:dan-'t6k-laik

4.7

Ofpicb
English.

continued.
Transliteration.

Burmese.
(it)

Who
Put

has taken

Ba-lu-yu-thwa:^Aa-lfe:

away ? Go and search for


(it)

(it)

Thwa:sha-gyi
Ho-sa-6k-na:hma-'ta:
laik

near that

book Take it away now..j Put it down on the


floor

Yu-thwa:daw
Kyan:baw-hma-cha-'ta:
laik
Di-sa-go-kii:laik
ododoSdoogodSocJoO^gos

Copy

this letter

...

Give him a copy


the letter

of

Sa-let-'kan-ta- z a

u n g-

thu-go-pe:laik
for
it ?

Did he apply
"Where
is ?

ajGcgDoSc OOOS S0DC03 s

Thu-shauk-taung: thala:

the appli-

QcgpcSi^DcocSocx)

Shauk-hlwa-bfe-ma'l^:

cation

Draft a reply
ileject this application

f^OD33(^5sGG1^80^o5

...

Pyan-za-a-kyan:ye:laik

GC^Do5c5DO^OC^O^o5

Di-shauk-hlwa-go
laik

pfe

Who

is

the

appli-

Gc^Do5a;jooojci)

Shauk-thu-ba-lu-le:

cant?

Did he ever apply


before
?

Thu-a-yin-gaCODS

hauk

'pu:^Aa-la:

Would he
able?

be

suit-

O^GOoScJOOODS

Thu-taw-ba-ma-la:
Di-a-16k-ko-thu-

Does he know the work ?

na

CODS

^7?a-la:

Where

did he serve previously ? did he leave


?

33oocSco oooSyaJogooSs

A-'tet-ka-be-m&-a-hmu'tan:^Aa-lfe:

Why

ooD(^Sc^ogo5oora
O0OO0GOD0o5|O0d&

Ba-'pyit-lo-'twet-tha-15:

What pay
get?

did (he)

La-ga-ba-lauk-y a
le:

Aa

Post this letter

ooc^oo^o^o5cbgD
oosBSgoISsooSc^oS

^
...

Dl-sa-go- sa-bo-daik-'t6hma-'te-laik

Put a stamp on it... Go and buy two receipt stamps

Ta-zeik-gaung:kat-laik
Pye-za-ta-zeik-gaung:

GQoDooaSScol&SjtScjcgos
OC^G^II

hna-'ku-thwa:w6-gyi

^8

Oppicb
English.

continued
TraDsliteration.

Burmese.

Buy
also

six

lialf-anna

^SJ5dsoo?odc6q85gs)16s

postage

stamps
arriv-

GgooSsjoo^sooS^ii

Hna-pya:dan-s;i-b o - ta zeik-gaung:cliauk-'ku
lc:\vc-ge

Has the mail


ed?

Gq]ooDKgDgGGpc6coDocx3D

Chaw :za-mya:yauk-laba-la:

Go

to the post office

oDc^o5c^:^Ds

... ...

Sa-bo-daik-ko-thwa:

Don't be away long


AVait for an answer

(^DBG^Go^o

Kya-ma-ne-zi-ne

g^ODGODSc*
ocxiii

...

Pyan-za-saung-ne
Sa-bo-thin:baw:be-daw'twet-ma-le:

When does the mailsteamer leave


?

oDx)Gc5Doo'^Gcooago5
ogDSGosG^

Go and enquire Go to the telegraph


office

...
...

Th\va:me:gyi
Kyi:rian:y6n-go-tliwa:

cgs^^s^c^c^Ds

Read

that telegram

c^gQs^^sodc^odoSoSs
33GG|gL^So68(gao6sogDSo
coD%

Ho-kyi:nan:za-go-'pat
san:

Has

the

Deputy
left

A-ye: baing-min: yon:


'sin:thwa:ba-la:

Commissioner
office?

When

is

(he)
?

com-

ooc5Goo?gcoDocb

...

Be-daw-pyan-l^-ma-le:

ing back

Why are you so slow ?


Go
to

ODD G[cgDS QGODDoS GODS

Ba-gyauug-da-lauk
gan-ya-^/?a-le:

le:

OD^ODC^II

and cash

the treasury this note

Ggogg|[c^G5c^o5gDDgDs
cS^ii

Di-uwge- s e t - k u - g 0ngwe-daik-hma-thwa:
le:ge

Put

this

money

into

Scgc^^Sc^c&gDca^c^oS
oc^35gg|o^o5.3^?

Di-ngwe-go

k-

't e:

the bag

ma-'te-laik

Count

it

before do-

...

Ma-'te-giu-yi-laik-6n:

ing so

How much is it ? How many bad ru...

o3GooDo5cx)

...

Ba-lauk-le:

Gg33coo5GcoD^^olcoco

Ng we-a-ba-lauk-pa-^/(a
le:

pees are there

? ?

What
(I)
(I)

do you want
very busy

CODC^9)ScOCb
OD o5 33 0:^5 1^ D S OD c6

Ba-lo-gyin-^7a-le:

am
is

...

T5-a-16k-mya:de

have no leisure
there
?

033D8aj?.

Ma-a:bu:
Ba-lu-16:

Who

49

Oppice
English.
,

concluded,
Transliteration.
...

Burmese.
...

Sign here

SG^spoacooS^cSo^s

Di-no-ya-ma-let-hmat'to:

Don't

come and
me
to-day

SoG^kcln^ooDQcpScgoS
>.

botlier

Di-ga-ne-nga-go-la-maImaung-shet-ne
Y6n:tit-t'a-di-go-yn-ge

Bring the office-box


here
Is

^8GcoggD9o^a;{5

...

there no empty box ? Gather up these papers

ccogRDc^oSy^cxjjscoDs...

Tit-ta-lut-ma-shi-bu:la:

ojg|[4jDsc^o8S8c^o5

...

Dl-set -kuthein:laik

my a -.g o

Bring an envelope...

od33o5coc8c5oC|}^

...

Sa-eik-ta-eik-yii-ge

Let (him) come

to-

^oSo^oIcxjdogcogos^s

morrow
(I) shall reply in

Net-'pan-ga-la-ba-le-zion:

due

33^^cq]GC!oooI oDg^c^oS

A-chein-kya-da w

ga

course

ocS

sa-pyan-laik-mfe

Health and
I

Sickness.

am not very well...


call

cq\8 gx-dSsgcodSs obd


cqs

Kya-n6k-kaung:gaung:
raa-ma-bu:
'Se:'sa-ya- 1 a
-

Go and
Take

a doctor
letter to

gsos socp oogoddc5 ogDs


GoTS>

yauk

thwa:'kaw-ge
Di-sa-'sa-ya--wun-'si-go-

this

oD3ospo$o8c^a;[ogDs...

the Civil Surgeon

yii-thwa:
aoGpo$ cogcoico ol g^d
co5cco
oj$Doo|so^G3po55i|[coDs

What

did the Assist?

'Sa-ya-wun-ga-le:ga-bapyaw:laik-tha-lfe:

ant Surgeon say

Did you get


hospital?

to the

Lu-na-dan:go-yauk-'ke
ye-la:

Show (me)
scription

the pre-

caosoDgoSs

...

'Se:za-pya-zan:

Where
Ask

is

the com-

goosgooSosodsooc^oc^

'Se;'paw-tha-ma:bfe-maIh:

pounder ?
for a renewal of
G308Gi^t|soo5GOODSs^
this

Di-'se:

ye

myo

't

t-

mixture
.

ta.ung:ge
oSascoosaaQGi^cooSGcjio

You

are very pale .. the matter

Min-a -tha: a -y e-tfe'pyaw-d6


Ba-'pyit-tha-16:
7

oooS

What

is

ooD@5ood&

...

50

Health and Sickness


English,

concluded.
Transliteration.
...

Burmese.

Are (you) taking any


medicine
?

goosodsg^ooodds

'Se:sa:ne-tha-la:

Are (you)

all right

sjGqiDo5ooD3s

...

Gu-pyauk-pa-la:

now
I
Is

am

a little better to-day

og^,

gooSgcoS oooSodd

Ga-ne-taw-da w - thet
tlia-de

oooSii

your house well


ventilated
?
(it) in a sanitary condition ?

oSsSSood GcooSccccgoS
Goo^SsS^coDgu

Min-ein-ha-le-win-ledwet-kaung:ye-la:
Than-^/iari-shin:shin:
shi-ye-la:

Is

oo^^ooljiSs^Ss^s^coos...

Is

this

quarter
?

30G^5^fDGcpolooSs|[raDs

Di-a-yat-ma-yaw:
kin:ye-la:

ga

healthy

I am suffering from an attack of jungle fever


Is
it

g.->5q|Ds

cjjosg^cocS

...

B[nget-'pya:'pya:ne-de

intermittent

33Qoo533cq]^cx)coDs

...

A-tet-a-kya-shi-^^a-la:

Take
Is

this febrifuge

33(j|3go5G^osc^Gcx)Do5

Di-a-'pya:byat-'se:go-

thauk
your appetite impaired
?
...

oogSsqioSoooDDs
oD?q|o5cooDDg

or

33

'Ka-dwin:pyet-tha-la: or a-sa:pyet-tha-la:
Di-a:do:ze:go-thaukkyi-zan:
Di-'se:-16n:ne-ma-te-bu:

Try

this tonic

8 oaDsc^s goos c^ goodoS

(ggSoSs

These
(I)

do not agree with (me)


pills

SGaosoqs^.oco^o^s

...

asthma

am troubled with almost


don't (you) go for a

goc^Ssc^:^ ciSgS^D 00 odoS

^a-daing:lo-b5:yingyat-na-'ta-de

every night

Why

oddg^dS godg@d6s gco


c^GaciSoDoliaog^sraii

Ba-gyaung-le-byaung:
le-hlwfe:a-yat-ta-ba:

somewhere
cliange.

ma-thwa:15:

MlCELLANEOTJS PhEASES.

What

is

the market

oolsccys oogcodoS go1o5

Sa-ba:ze:ba-lauk-pauktha-15:

paddy ? run very prices The this year high He trades in paddy
price of

oocou

Sj.SoooSG'qjSGooDSsoooS

Di-hnit-t5-ze:kaung:d5

ojoolsajsoooS

...

Thu-sa-b4:ku:d6

51

MiscELLAKBOus Phrasbs
English.
Burmesfi.
I

Continued.
Transliteration.

Is that

man

a tim?

c^c^oodooSgsISscods

...

Ho-lti-ha-thit-gaung:
te:

ber-trader
(I)

do not

know

for

oaoooSocSo^s

...

A-tat-ma-thi-bii:

a certainty
(I)

am

not sure

... ...

og@ococ5o:;^s

...

Ma-pyaw:dat-'pu:
.

(I)

cannot say
like

os^^Sojs GcoSsoGp^ojjoocS

... ..,

Ma-'so-hnaing-bti:

Looks

an
a

as-

Be-din-'sa-y4-ne-tu-d^

trologer

Have you
scope
?

horo-

oS^ocaoood^s^odds

...

Min-ma-za-da-sbi-yela:

Wby
'

don't

(you)
cast ?

cx3Dg8c^O)DcoD^ooc2)

Ba-'pyit-lo-za-da-ma'pwe-^Aa-16:
Di-a-tbi:lia-tauk-tat-t5

bave one
Tbis fruit ous
is

poison-

Ssa c8s cod goodoS


oocS

odcjS

Tbis

is

not poison

...

GloasBcSaocfcSoqs

...

Da-a-'seik-ma-bok-'pti:
Di-bnit-du:yin:!^^i:

Durians are
tbis year

cbeap

Sj.6g2G|s^sGoloooS

...

paw:

de
cheap...
cxjjgoIgoIsiscS
...

He bad

(it)

Tb1i-paw:baw:ya-de
Tba-yet-tlii:blaing-d6n:

He

arrived

while

odg[o5o8 c6o^so:jGGpo5

mangoes were abundant are Mangosteens scarce and dear


Bring that
proof coat

cooS

thu-yauk-t5
Min:gut-tbi:sba:d5

oSgcgoSoSs^^Dsooc^

...

water?

c^^sooDssfi^ajjb

...

Ho-mo:ga-in:gyi-yu-ge

Does

it

rain daily

G?.cSsq8aDa>oDDs

...

Ne-daing:mo:ywa-^Aala:

When

will they start


?

oogSgooooI ooc^oog^^

ploughing

^
ajg^ ccoSog^DS ooo5j.5 cggs^oora
oogodoS ^looSs

Be-daw-ga-15-sa-'tungya-ma-le:

How many

pairs of

Thu-ma-16-dun-nwa:
be-hna-shm:sbi-if/^a^^'

oxen has plough ' be ? Look out for a milch

.^ods^dsq
ol

No-za:na-ma-ta-gaungsba-zan:ba

co^
This pony small
is

very

Sg5coSco5ooo5

...

Di-myin:t^-nge-d5

52

Miscellaneous Phrases
Englisb,

continued.
Trausliteratiou.

Burmese.

Does he

trot well

gcos odoS gcodSs goddSs


ogDsli^coDg

Le:bet-kaung:gaung:
thwa:ye-la:

(His) head

is

mean

go16s as cocS

... ...

Ga\ing:a-d5 Na-gya\v:ne:nfe:yaw-de
Myet-16n:taw-da\v-shi-

The

ears are inclined

^oscgD^^GoqjooocS
4]o5o^sgco5gc5^|[
cogcocSoocoD;

to droop

The eyes
good

are fairly

..,

ye
?
...
...

Does he shy

Thwe-dat-tha-la:

His quarters good

are

cc&cqGcooB%aD(

...

Tin-gya-kaung-.de

He He

is

also thick-set
?

ocjoocSco^sgcwoSsodgS
[^Soj^sodcods
... ...

Du-de-le:kaung:de
Pyaing-bd:^/ta-la:

Has he been raced


doesn't racer

look a
does he
trot,

(5gSs^,oa|jcz^s

Pyaing-myin:ne-ma-tubu:

What paces know ?


canter,

oooSsacgDs^scooBoDoi

Ee-a-th\va:myo:tat-thale:

Swinging walk,
gallop

|cosq^3ii gcososoSii cqt

Hnwc:

Ian: do:, le: bet,

ambling,

Gq]DSsGooDo5ii33 0Doq|ii
ccj^gii

thon: gyaung: dauk, a-tha-gya, don:

What

will

you
?

sell

coGcoDo5^.GGp68ocx)

...

Ba-lauk-ne-yaung:ma1^:

(him) for

Has he a high
Of what breed dog?

action? coo5good6sg|otds
is

...
...

Let-kaung:ye-la:
Da-ba-'k\ve:myo:16:

this

olooDGgstHsco

^He) is a cross betweeu ahull and


a

GgscSojs^. 5^s osoc^oS


GgsoSoqiooDobii

'Kwe:ba-lu:ne-pa-go:-ame:laik- k we s a t' :

Pegu hound
c^ GgsoS odsc^ odo5 66

kya-d-i-be

Kill that pariah dog

Ho-'kwe: win

z a

go

c^o5

that-pyit-laik
...

Are

(you) fancier ?

dog-

Ggsoloo^D^cocoDt

'Kwe:wa-t]ia-na-slii-^/?a
la:

You can
pup
It

liave that

c^GgsooGcosoj^Gcoo

...

Ho-'kwe: ga-le yu-daw


:

has good points...

cgsoGoooSscooS

...

'K\ve:za-kaung:de
Di-taw: ma-a-me: gyi: paw:ye-la:

A.re big

game abnud?

GcoDgD33&@8Gc"| snoods

ant in this jungle

63

Miscellaneous Phrases
English.

continued.
Translitevation.

Burmese.

How many
are there ?

beaters

33>

g^doSoood?

cooSjjiS

A-mfe: cliauk- tha-ma:


bfe-hna-yauk-slii-^Aa-

gcdo5ccSii

Let the

men on

the

ooo5$dsto oj ^ds goodSs

Let-na ga
:

-lu-mya:

outskirts beat well

GooaSssqiDoScpGon

kaung: gaung: chauk


pe-zi
...

Are you not


yet
?

tired

oSsoGODccso:;j?coDg

Min: nia-maw:
la:

the: bu:

He
(I)

is

tired

and pant-

cxjGODcc^o5G^g

...

Thu-maw:

lo-haik-ne-bi

mg
am
feeling very
GcicoSogg
...

Ye-ngat-hla-bi
'Ka-na-na: pi: n^-15-z&,sa: gya-6n: zo
Di-a-ni:

thirsty.

Let us

rest

little

oaD^Ds|i o^,coc^od ods

and take
Is'nt there

tiffin

(33^
SsoIsos^ds^d Gq<^Sso^
ccjjsco^g

a well
?

somewhere near
This
is

a-na: ma-yedwin: ma-shi-bu: la:


1 h it-pin-te-a-yeikkaung: dh

a very shady

odSo5 ooo53o^5goodSs
oocS
8yDGooD(a9o5^|[coDS
...

i -

tree

Are there any jungle


fowl here
? is

Di-ma-taw: gyet-shi-yela:

What

foot-print

alcoDcgspcS

...

Da-ba-chi-ya-lfe:

this?

To whom does
Ions'? ^o

this

ScgcgoSc^cxioj^ScDora

Di-mye-gwet-ko-ba-lupaing-^Aa-15:

piece of land be-

Can

(you) show (me)

Gg^c?3o5ci]3Sc^
ooos

g^6| Mye-ne-na-meik-mya:
go-pya-hnaing-ye-la:
Mye-shin-ba-l^-^/jd-ma:
1^-

its

boundaries

Is the

landholder a cultivator?
it ?

Ggj^SoDDoocSooaDscoDs

Has he sublet

cgc^cMsoSgl sodsodoods
ScooSoo ool?
cgoSoocg)

My e-go-ta-'sin
sa: fha-la,:

h n g a:

What
What

is

the outturn

ca

gcodoS

Di-lfe-ga-sa-ba: ba-lauk-

of this
is

paddy field ? (its) sowing


?

'twet-tha-le:

i^sools odo5j^5cq5s

gc^

Myo:

sa-ba: be-hna-tin:

capacity

^d^
gSscS^sc^ogDscoTt"
...

kyi: ya-i^^a-lfe:

Go and call the groom

Myin: dein: 'kaw-ge

go-thwa:

54

Miscellaneous Phrases continued.


English.

Burmese.
G[CODS[y8c^o5

Transliteration.

Get the carriage


ready
Is tliere

la-'ta: pyin-laik

room
?

in the
CODS

Myin:zaung: ma-ne-yashi-the:ye-la:

stable

Has

the pony been given his feed ?

gSsC^330DG^s(SOCODS
GqOC^o5^o3^S

Myin: go-a-sa-kywe:pi:
ba-la:

Do not water him yet


Harness him now
Drive to
office
...

Ye-ma-taik-ne-6n:

OD^gaD^SOODSoScOOO
odi^cSoSc^godSs

Ka-gyo: ta-za-sin-daw
Sa-bo-daik-ko-maung:
Let-ya-bet-ko-hle

the

post

Turn Turn

to the right

...
...
...

to the left

OD o5 b 00 06 c^ c 0^

Let-we: bet-ko-hle

Drive straight

on

ooj^oq^godSs
ocjs|sc^G^cggc^o5
...

Te-de-maung:

Put out the saddle in the sun Bring the reins and
girths also

Kou:
laik

hni:

go-ne-hlan:

0)o5(c^so68ccSc^DSol (X^

Zet-kyo: wun: bat-mya:

ba-yu-ge
^5s C^DSC^

Burnish the stirrups

gQdS G33d5

Nin: mya: go-pyaungaung- talk -laik

Where

is

the mart?

gqsodoocSqcx)

Me: dwa-be-ma-le:
Mi: ifAaing: pyat-thwa:
bi

ingale

The tail Put

strap

(crup-

sci^5sgcSogD8(

per) has snapped.

the bridle on

...

335oo5oo^
olsq8c^g)c^c^o5

6k-'ket-'te

B/emove the
stall

head-

Pa-chat-ko-chut-laik

Do

not go to

law
in

3lGCODo5^og80COc5^o
/

...

Da-lauk-ne-yon: matet-ne

merely for
(I) shall sue court

this

him

cxjcO^cocpsgoc^

Thu-go-ta-ya: swe:

me

(I)

shall

prosecute

cx^oO^sa^joqSooS or aj-

T h u -go-a-hmu-lok-m^
or thu-go-ya-za-wut-

him

o8Gp(>iOcSooocS

hmu-sw6: me

What

is

the charge

^sjjoScxioSc^ CO
COGpJO^OOCCjJCX)

S\Ye:gyet-be-lo-le:

Who is
ant?

the complain-

Ta-ya-lo-ba-lu-le:

55

Miscellaneous Phrases
English.

continued.
Transliteration.

Burmese.

The accused has absconded

coGpsSogoScgs^

...

Ta-ya-'kan-'twet-pye:

M
cxj.og^?c^ole|soo5
...

Attach

his property

Thu-pyit-si: go-wa-yan:

kat
Issue a warrant for
his arrest
oqoCoosc^olG[S8cxjcS

Thu- go

'pan: ho-wa-

yan: 'tok
^st^^cxjo cspoSsj^

Issue a summons for the attendance of that witness


Is this

o^oooS

Yon: go-la-yauk- y a n
ho-thet-the-go-tha'n han,-za-cha

cooc^oogD^oDg
ScxjcoDsag^cooS og^odS
qjoSogcSojcoDg

man a revenue
?

Di-lu-ha-a-'kun- d a w-

defaulter

ma-'saung-pyet-kwetthu-la:

Show me the tax


ceipt

re-

sag^cooScgoDc^goSg
33g|Gcx)S ogcS g&g qjSs

A-'kun-daw^-pye-za pya-zan:

-go

He has come to apply


for a remission of

A-'kun-daw-lut-n e i n

coDgScajDoSc^
cocS
ooi^sagr^Syjasc^

cxjood

chan:tha-g winshauk-'po-thu-la-d5 Be-a-c h e t-mya-go- a


che-pyu-shauk-tha-lfe:
B6-lo-thet-the-shi-^ ^ a
16:

revenue

On what grounds
does he apply
there
? is ? is

33Gg
...

Gcg]3o5cocd

What evidence
The evidence
sufficient

cc5c^oon5GOD^coc2)

in-

oDo5GOD5q]o5 oo^goodoS
oqs

Thet-the-'kan-gyet-malon-lauk-'pti:

(He)

will be brought

(^oodsodoSgosq^^'^o

sago

up

for perjury

e^cSSaoS

Hmu-^Aa-thet-the-'kanhmu-ne-a-swe: 'k a nya-lein-m6


Da-da-mya-taik-ya,-b a pyit-si: ma-hok-'pu:
la:

Is not this dacoited

alcxjDsgc^oSGpol
ot^oSo^scods

og^so

property

Were

the
?

dacoits

ooDsgc^osgooooS^oSoloo
=>^'
'

Da-mya-mya-m a
net-pa-^Aa-la

et

armed

This opium-eater is c8|soDsooD^spologgS5 Di-bein: za: ha-'ko: jkcoo55cx;}@8cooS ha-pyit-si: let-'kana receiver of stolen thu-'pyit-t6 property cxjcxjs^scods Thu-lu-zo: la: ... Is he a bad eharacter?

56

Miscellaneous Phrases
English.

concluded.
Transliteration.

Burmese.

Hand

liim

over to
the

aj.c^c^cSS odoh^ds coo5

TLu-go-pa- lei k-th


raya: let-at-laik

ii:

tbe police

saSd^oS
Gp!, gooac^ ^dsco^Ii
CODS
S[Dcogi3ocjgsoDc(;{c&
...

Do you know
track law
^V ho
is
?

Chi-ya-gan-u-pa-de- gona: le-ye-la:

the

headman
?

Di-ywa-^a-ywa-tha-gyi:
ba-lii-16:

of this village

PART

II

-LITERARY.
I.

CHAPTER
The

The Alphabet.
following are the letters in the Burmese alphabet

Vowels.
Short
:

Long
iV.5.
33D
;

33

a
6t

g^ *

g u g
zt

^ . c e 33 e:

^ or gi^d _ aw: ^

333

g[^5 aw (long) 3^
is

33DS

and

33,

but a modified form of being a niggaliita or nasal breathing is, strictly speak-

(with the heavy accent)

ing, not a vowel.

The symbols
'

of the

vowels

are-

Short

Long

..

.3

or ...y

G....3

Gutturals

00

Palatals

68

ception of 3 in

most

which has superseded o in used in g^s * a o. in ooicS {cassia floridci) and of are not bazaar, as well as the cerehral letters and the liquid g used in words of purely Burmese origin. The pronunciation of When a word the classified consonants needs some explanation.
gcolSsii

a peacock, of

od

eases, of

jj

is

preceded hy another which ends with the

first letter of
its

the classes of classified consonants, that word retains

any of normal

pronunciation, f

Examples.
( (go5ooos
(.

kyet tha
:

{normal.)
[abnormal.)

33)CX)Ds

ame
:

thk

rj^Ss} shit
(c^ss{

'ku

[normal.)

ko

gu

[abnormal.
(normal.)

r oooBoof^ tat thi

oSoD^

'kin thi

[abnormal).

rs^Bq^B 6k

chok

[normal.)

l^qiS

myo gyok
:

[abnormal.)
of consonants with

The following tables show the combination vowels, and of consonants with consonants
Consonant with Vowel.
Consonant.

69

The combinations with


00
00

36
GO

+ +

33
33Dg
cxj

=
=
good

and coot are formed kan

as follows

cooi ka:

The forms

oo 08

may
ocj5

take consonantal finals

oDo5 ket c85 keik

k6k

goo^S

kaung
it is

When

3^
3^o5

is

combined with any consonant

pronounced

ai.

3^5

= aik. = aing.
Consonant with Consonant.

Consonant.

60
in

ciation to them, the

difficulty

understanding Burmese
spelling
is

or-

thography

is

greatly enhanced.

The words, whose

con4.

sidered doubtful, are those having for their final consonants oo

o o.

An

intelligible differentiation can, however, be

made by bearing in

mind

that the idea of contact or contiguity runs through all Burrest of the verhs in
o5 or ?.

mese verhs ending in 5 and S,* and that the which this idea is not involved take the final

CHAPTER
The borrowed alphabet
of

II.

Homonyms.
Aryan
origin
is

inadequate to repre-

sent phonetically the sounds of a tonal non- Aryan tongue and has

probably reduced the number of tones in the Burmese language.


This reduction mu.st have affected the

homonyms which

are

com-

mon

to the Indo-Chinese family.


ooSs =:
ooSs

A small unripe fruit.

coSs

0%%
o^s

= A scorpion. = To be free. = A flower. = To be fatigued.


Phonetic Changes.

The literary form of the Burmese language is slightly different from the colloquial. Certain words are not pronounced as they are written, and there are laws which regulate such phonetic
changes.
("aj

When

a final consonant

is

followed by a nasal

it is

nasal-

ized

by assimilation
335qo5

= G330pS(2a = $S*3 =
OdSs
or

gBSooS
G330SSGO ^S^D

...
....

To

di^eam.

To lOUO foV.

...

To

be aiigrkccd.

* o5

to

join.

og6?

to stretch

out

(so as to

be in close contact).

61

(b)

Somet-imes the inherent vowel u or u


c^G^^oS
o:jC[6

is

elided
book.

oG[^o5
ooG^S

...A native
...A
king.

Scqcps
cjd^g

cx^
ajsc^
(c)

= = = =

Scoqps
oc^s
o3i

...A queen.

...A pagoda, ...A


soldier.

=: coc^
g)

...A
is

ferry.
is

The
ya.

aspirate in

sha

omitted and the letter

pronounced

as

G|

38SGg\oSg= ^Scs^oSs
33Gp^
(d)

... ...

cr 01071

prince.

=
=

s3GpS[

An
4

official.

The

letters co ba ot o
cncS

pa and o* ma are interchangeable


sA;'W.

008 (pronounced oo8)...

ooDsg
(e)

QODsg

...

dacoit.

The

initial

consonants are aspirated

...

8
^c6

= =

before.

3^o5

...To draw.
...
...

^S

oB

= =

|5
5S

To

6e able.

Ink.
jis/ia.

(/)

cg)(=cQ

+ oo + c)is Gcg|Do5 = GjjDoS


c^go5 =: ^go5
oac^Ss

pronounced
... ...

To
^<

petition.

To conceal.
all.

33^Ss

...

(g)

In words beginning with u or


:

for its final the initial

ii the initial vowel takes consonant of the following syllable and u is

changed into u

go8
SsGSDoS
gsGolSs
*

= =
=

g^S

g^S

...A
...

cave.

B<2|3o5

The

brain.

gGcgoSs t

...

The head.
invariably changed into

Mersui O In the dialect of the people of Tavoy and Tosee. pony. A @5 @5 ^Bs igSi

is

gGC^oSsil the final consonant of t In the case of


0011

is

the unaspirated form of

i. e.,

62
is

(h)

The

initial

consonant

sometimes softened
... ...

08
Qcq<^%
{i)

=
=

gS
Gc^g?
of

To To

throio.

he thorough,

The inherent nasal


0606
cools

an

initial syllable is

dropped

o?sco$(g3s

= aoo5 = = oddTs = = ooo@D8 =:

sooS
cools
oo>^(?s

... ...

Hair.

...

A door. A plate.
To
allude
to.

{j

Various phonetic values are assigned to ^.

^= ^= ^=

as Gi^ yi as as

...

^>^

q^pyiii 30^ se
Punctuation.

...

A plank. A weir.

Three marks are used in


I

Burmese punctuation, namely,

II

and
first

II

II

The
end
first

corresponds to the English

comma,

the second to the

period at the end of a sentence, and the third to the period at the
of a paragraph.

A paragraph may

also begin with

11

"

The
it.

mark

is

falling out of use, the seccnd being substituted for


of a

In separating the constituent elements


the

compound, however,

mark

is still

used.

CHAPTER
Nouns may be divided

III.

The Noun.
and concrete, according to into or simple and meauing, compound, according to their their form. Abstract nouns are formed by prefixing aa or affixing q|o5 or
into abstract

gSs to a verb

to do,

becomes sag or

(3Ss or

^o5 deed, action,

e.g.,

o:S(^33gj.533Gg30DgSo^

= =

His dccd and word do not


correspond.
If there

=^^=@Ss
^o^oojoSu

o^ogSsaa^js

were no such action,


is

there would be no results.

d^"^^^'^^"

Such an action

improper.

63

The

prefix 3d does not always convey an abstract idea, as for


:

instance

33god833(^5

a watchman.
house.

Nouns are simple, ascqa man, oSS a may he formed


(a)

Compound nouns

by uniting
[D

t-wo

nouns
-\-

a village
a sword

O0D3

= A villager. + aSS a house = A scabbard, e.g.,


oods

a son

g]^Dap^I^DooDgc^c^o5coD@co^ii=

oDDSsSSgoS^cqioD^ii
(6)

=
:

The villagers came out. The scabbard slipped down.

by uniting a noun and a verb


od6s
[

a road
a debt
the sun

-j-

(q

to

show

G^

+ +

ods to eat

oS

to enter

coSsgooGcaDoSglgGjo^ii

= A guide. = A debtor. = Sunset, e.g., = (You) must


guide.

engage

(5y6j>S(oDgc:^ooG(x>Dooj

= =
:

The

|5^ii
G^oS^^ocjGGpoSoDDoo^ii
(<?)

creditor and the debtor cannot come to an agreement.

He

arrived at sunset.

by uniting a verb and a noun


G^
to dwell

c^5 to sit

+ +

sSS a house
'^

a place

= A dwelling-house. = A seat, e.g.,

c^cjc^G^cSSoqS^ooDgco^ii

=
=

That cave has been

converted into a dwellinghouse.


late

G^Do5cqigoq3Gpo5oo3^iic8S
GpoG|[G$oo^ii
(d)

Hc Came
noun
or a

and had
seat.

to

go without a
verb, and a
:

by uniting a noun, a an agent or doer


gSs a horse

word signifying
cavalry

8 to

ride

+ oq^ a soldier = A

man
3^s

+ o8| ^0 watch + ^^ signifying an agent = A potter, e.g., = (He) came opportunely (gSs8saj5l jooj.833qo5odS
a pot or doer
GGpoScoDOD^ii

with 200 cavalrymen.

cxjjc^GaoqSsao^Sgoa^scS^s

= He

is

a potter by profes-

cjopSgSoo^ii

sion.

64

Number.

The plural
gular.
4iDsi:

is

formed by adding

i^osii

or

cii

many,

to the sin-

is

generally used in connection with inanimate things,


Tlie

and

c^ii

in connection with persons or animate things.


c^^jdsc^ii

com-

bination of the two affixes as in


colloquial

men

is

admissible in the

form

of the language.

Singular.

65

In the case of rational beings different words

may be
afl&x

used, to

express the masculine and feminiae genders, or the

may

be joined to the masculine form in order to denote the feminiae gender.

Masculine.

66

affix of the

nominative case

godSgodSoo^codoo^h

Maung Maung

comes.

The

affix

may

he omitted

god6god6coooo^ii
of the Ablative Case.

OD is also one of the affixes

It denotes

that an action issues from an agent and also indicates narration.


aj(X)SDODf5ii
... ...

ojcocoDolccjiGoTco^ii

Se He

speahs.
calls
:

"please come."

^D

is

generally used in an explanatory sense, and should he dis-

tinguished from the Locative affix yon


cxjjgDogDSG^o^ii

As regards
{OD^DII
COD8II
(j^CODSII

him, he must go.

cogD HOODS

II

(^ooD 811

dcuotc contradistlnction.
")

>

CODC^O^u

As
c^

regards

Maung Maimg, he must The Accusative Case.


:

come.

needs no explanation
c]cGosolii
...

Give

(it) to

me.

The natural tone


always changed
to

of a

noun

or pronoixn

which takes

this affix is

an abrupt one.

The Genitive
(^

Case.

the affix of the Genitive Case

may sometimes

be dispensed
is

with, and the noun or pronoun standing in that case

always pro-

nounced with an abrupt tone


oSscogt^Dii
...

Hoy al property,

clog^sii
ajj.0D3;j5ii

...
...

My property,
Sis
book.

The Dative
Of the
affixes of the

Case.

Dative Case

332? is generally

used to express

the Pali dative.


ajo33DSG08olii
...

Give
or

(it)

to him.

The natural tone


of the genitive case

of a
is

pronoun which takes the affixes always changed to an abrupt one. But this

noun

67

change as well as the other in the case of the accusative affix is not generally indicated in the literary form of the language.
o signifies

c^

motion towards a place


...

@^^c^DsoogSii
CO signifies

[Se) goes
:

to

Prome.

motion towards

si,

person

33GG[S^5Q0335qo^ii

...

Must be

delivered to the

Deputy

Commissioner.

The Ablative Case.


0011

5 indicate motion
G|$a:|$^ooooDoo^ii

from a place, person


...

or object

^33G|5gogDSG[o^ii

...

(Se) comes from Rangoon. Must go from here.

The Instrumentative Case.


j>S

or 8 denotes an instrument with which an action


:

is

per-

formed

CXDDS

pc

ODOSOO^II

(Se)
39D8gSii

kills ivith

a sword.

g(35 denote the cause of an effect

Maung Pyu
The tone
changed
to of a

dies on account of him.

noun

or pronoun which takes

gQdS

as its affix

is
:

an abrupt one in the colloquial form of the language


ocjJoG^dS
...

By

him.
"t

The Locative Case.

Strictly speaking, the affixes of the Locative Case are Prepositions

of place.
-ojS

j^S

-l

I'

in a house.

68

CHAPTER

IV.

The Pronoun.
Personal Pronouns.
The Burmese language
ings.
is

prolific iu

Personal Pronouns

but

they are generally dispensed with in polite speech and

official writ-

In writing or conversation they vary according to the social

or official status of the addressee.

Personal Pronouns of the First Person.


cl is

the primitive foi'm.

It

is

used by superiors to inferiors.

It frequently occurs in royal orders and religious works.


og]|^5 or o^ll^

tracted into
of
cq)o

means a little slave. This form may be conThe modern tendency being to hide the origin the word, Upper Burmans now write cq]^5 (masculine) and
cq]^5ii

(feminine) for ogj|5 and ogjio respectively.

og$Gco5

means the
ogj^cooSt^s

slave of a

Mgh

personage, not necessarily

royal

and

means of

the family of such slates.

oqcpsii

* the

word used

in addressing a high personage

may

be

prefixed to o^jfccoS or cg?GooSi^sii


cgGco5c^3s in the singular is intermediate
og]^Gco5<^8ii 33og]^ J,

between ogj^cxS and


is

both in the masculine and feminine,


of the rural parts of

in use
c^cSn

Arakan and some meaning " self," is used


in

Burma
tlio

Proper.
c^ii

for "

" in both genders,

a contrac-

tion of clc we,

is

sometimes used both in

colloquial and

literary forms of the language.

Personal Pronouns of the Second Person.


odS is the general

form in

use.

^5

is

used to children or to
o5s or godSoSs is a

inferiors
polite

who
of

are low in the social scale.


^Sii
n

form

g^

and ac^aSs are the feminine forms of


A Buddha
;

* This

is

a degeneratecl form of q|oi

top, pinnacle.

(oqepg)

is

the highe.st

king (oaj^ScqGps) and queen (osj^SSoCjGps) are the of all sentient beings; a personages rtspeetively in a kingdom female oSo^Gpgll which is tlie highest male and
shortened form of CXDoSoqGpSU (written oS(yos and pron.mnced oScjjDs) is UM/d to an addressee, placed in a higher position I'.y the rui|uiremeuts of etiquette and conventionality.

69

oSs

and god6o6s
c^oSii

language
cocSii

with

its
:

both genders
c^oSii

In the colloquial form of the with the plural ogoSc^ii (also pronounced ro^J, and plural cc6cii (also pronounced os^o), are used in the first to denote familiarity with, and the second
respectively.

inferiority of, the addressee.

with

its

plural c^oScg or

c^o5,oii is

used colloquially mostly


according to the senior-

among women.
5[5

a novice, with the prefix god6 or

c^ii

ity or otherwise of the speaker, is used

by women in addressing

men.
or

(^f^S

(pronounced '^<^)

is

used colloquially

among men

without any distinction as to the age of the speakers.


5^8
godS'I

* a lord, master, owner,


to

is

used as a polite form of


themselves, while gS

address

by women

men

as well as
to wives.
"cljiSii

among
gooS
is

a is used only

by husbands

is,

however,

now

con-

sidered to be inferior to <^W

used as a literary form of


its

address
oocoDii

among monks.
contracted from qIodcod a giver, with

feminine form

oocoDoii is

used by p6ngyis in addressing the

laity.

In addressing superiors or equals oS(yDs=:oSciqqps (masculine),

and

5^5

(feminine), f are used.

c^gSgcoSsd^iSii c^oScooSssj^SgoSii os

5^So::^spsii

335|5gcSoqGpsii are reserved for pongyis,

members

of royal

families,

and

officials of

high rank.

(xi is

Personal Pronouns of the Third Person. used either in the masculine or feminine. Eor

ocjc^

they,

qSscg and ooSsc^

may be

tended to be conveyed.
of as
is
ooSscgii

when a deprecatory meaning is inThe enemy in the field is always spoken


used

88 is used in the Possessive Case Eor ccjc^ii There no Pronoun in Burmese to express the Neuter Pronoun it, which is always indicated by the repetition of the noun with the

word

qSsii

prefixed to

it.

Pronouns op
Burmans
A Burmese

Cotjiitest.

address people of oflBcial or social standing by the name of the trade or profession followed by them. They seldom use
*

kiog would sign himself as


is

GCoS

or

GOoS^SII

335[S4]DSll in the singular,

higher than

SSj^Sll

minister of high standing

is

always addressed as GCq|8<J)S5^Soqspjll

70

but say sacqs^SoSs in addressing a Deputy Commissioner, cosp in speaking to a teacher, doctor, or master
oSgDSii

or

5[Sii

sir,

mechanic.
able elderly

In speaking to monks they describe themselves as ooo^


It is polite to call a respect-

GooS or ooo^godSq your disviple.

man

cxjcpsooooD tlie

builder of a pagoda, gojidSsododd

the builder of a lajanng or monastery, oqScoooo the builder of a


zayat, cogoodSscocxjd the builder of a tazaung
;

and to use the correos|5330ii oDGaoDSssaon

sponding feminine forms

oqspssaaii

Gaj]Ds33oii

in speaking to a respectable elderly lady.

Besides these, terms

signifying blood relationship are used to express intimacy, endear-

ment, or politeness; as oao^s grandfather; ssa^oi grandmother


33QCO father
;

33go mother
;

osSc^ elder brother


sister
;

ssSo elder sister

^ younger

brother

^q
Sfc.

younger

odds

son; ods daughter

gQs grandchild, Sfc,

The Relative Pronoun.


The Relative Pronoun
is

expressed by godd and co^ii which are,

strictly speaking, adjectival


(

and verbal
aj
...

affixes respectively, as,

GOOD
^e

odod5

<

He

who

teaches.

The Reelexive Pronoun.


c^cSc^S or simply o^c^ self,
c1>-:^oS

is

the sign of the Reflexive


;

Pronoun

myself

s^.c^cS himself.

The Interrogative Pronoun.


ooc^o^jii

o^o^

wliO

oocS or

o^od^
:

which or what.

The following pailicles are used gative Pronouns as well as Verbs


GODD or ODGODDii
ODDS

in connection with Interro-

...In written language.


...

or

ojoDDSii

In spoken, language.

^^s or
CO
o^s

oD^^sii
oDC&ii
^

...In written language.


...

or

2n spoken language.

or oDo^s

The use
thus
:

of ccds or ododdsn
is

and

cb or oocoii

may
:

be differentiated
affirmation or

the former

used

negation, and the latter

when the reply is a simple when it is otherwise

71

)-

OD^33G(^DS8y$ODCOD8
cxio5ooco3cx)OT

... ...

Is

tMs tvue?
?

Where do you come from

The Demonstrative Pbonoun.


The Demonstrative Pronouns
oD^ii^iiqSs this,

are

c^)ii

and

o^ (Coll.

odSs that.

The Compound Relative Peonoun.

Compound

Relative Pronouns are formed by preiixing

o^

to a
:

Pronoun and adding 3^ not say, to the combination thus farmed


B^cx^os^
...

whosoever.
whatsoever.

o^oD^33Gpo3^

...

The
cf^Ss

Distribtitive Pronoun.

The Distributive Pronouns are


every, c^o5iic^oScii33o8s3oo8s each.

The Indeeinitb Pronoun.


The
Indefinite

Pronouns are
330qgll

dSoSSsH OoSsiI

330^8^ H pOO^U 333618sil ODOODII OOC^DS all;


oo61
;
h

some

33(93511 codsii

odojs other

33^ 3d(^S whatever


;

c^o^GcDD
that sort
;

this,

such

g^fc^cooD

of this sort

o^cx^good

of

o^c^goodii

ssc^goodii 33cx)c^cgoo3ii oooSo^good

of

what sort; co^^w

coi^coQ^

anything

odi^cogoddoSii cogoo3o5

GCJODoSlI cogsgsil OoJlSoTsil

03gs03GC3o5ll 33[gScCj^ ally OUC.

CHAPTER

V.

The Adjective.
The sign of the Adjective is co^ or gcodh as Comparison denotes the gradation of increase observed in the employment of the Adjective.
comparison are expressed by
goddSs godo good.

or decrease to be

The degrees

of

Comparative
better

o:>o

surpassing or excelling,

as, ood^'goodSsgood

Superlative

aqs

extremity, as sogc^dSss^s best.

Sometimes

to denote the

or 933?o5 below,

m&j

comparative degree, 33ooo5 over, above, be used according as the standard of com-

72

parison

is lesser
:

or greater in quantity or quality tlian the thing

eompared with

aDo5qn5ooo5t^GO(^o^ shall be

more than

ten

days

ooc6g[o5g330o5go5]ogog[q^ shall he less than ten days.

The
is

suffix

isli

in English, as in yellowish or reddish,


particle oo oo Avhose vocalic
it is

is

ex-

pressed in

Burmese by the
ol

component
:

assimilated to that of the word to which


-|-

attached

coco

^ = =
is

olcoDooD

...
...

Yellowish.

^
&

+ + +
o5ii

coco =: |c8cB coco


coco
is
|5|o:jcq

Reddish.
Whitish.
SlacTiish.
;

...
...

iobcb

The

particle

of the

same

signification

but
is

its

mode

of

coalescence with a word

different.

When
^5^^

o5

prefixed to a

word the

latter is reduplicated as

sweetish.

These two

particles are used in the colloquial form of the language only.

Quantitative Adjectives.

The Quantitatives Adjectives


33cqs
tohole, all;

are

ss^^snsa^^scoSii S^so^Jn feio, little; ssq^dsh

many

oa^ssooSii some.

Ntjmeeatives.

be noticed.

Numeral Adjectives one peculiarity is to number expresses twenty or more the Adjective is preceded by the noun, and the ])article 33 is inserted before the numerative of the class to which the noun belongs.
In the use
of Cardinal

When

the

qco$s3Dolsj.Ssoc6

...

Tioenty pongyis.
gg|

Sometimes the
is

particle sd

is

omitted and the word


:

inimber,

placed after the numerative

cjgsGG[ JO or 5.80^5*

...

Tioenty men.

gSs

8sGS|

JO
{^'E^go'ISs

...

Twenty ponies.

Sometimes

goISs or

is

used to denote the aggregate

number
ojcolSg |.8cooS
c(jjgsGC|{j^Gol5s
...

JO

...

Twenty men. Total number

of

men

20.

* ODO^S

Ten.

73

In expressing Ordinal Numbers, Pali words are generally used,


as

og
qc8oo
ooc8oo

...

First.

...
...

Second.
Third,
8fG.,8i-c.

Sometimes cgDoS may be used


^8s{G(gDo5
...

to express

an Ordinal Number

Second.

In connection with Numeral Adjectives the nature of what has


been conveniently termed numeratives
languages.

may

be explained.

These

numeratives are a peculiar feature of the Chinese and Indo-Chinese


connote
physical attributes.
:

its

They express the nature of the object denoted and The following numeratives are in
head

common

use

cxjcgsooSs...

A rich

man.

GooDoSu in

speaking of
GooDoSoqjos

human beings jGooDoS ... Two men.


...

8^so 9 Gcx)Do5
olsii

Three women.

In speaking

of rulers, pongyis,
is

and persons

of high social

or official rank, this particle


oSsoools
G|co^soools

used

...A
...

ruler.

A pongyi.

aospoools

...A teacher.

is

used in speaking of inaaimate objects which, have no other


oDs^clssj

numerative
...

Five

tables.

s to ride.

Vehicles and riding animals take this numerative


G^ooDSjs
... ...

Two

carriages.

gSscnSs
3CJI1

One pony.

Buddhas, pagodas, images, and parahaihs (native books)


:

take tbis numerative

ajsps 9acj
c{G|^o5jaj

... ...

Four Buddhas, pagodas, or images.

Two parahaihs

Numeratives explain the physical attributes of the objects they


qualify

10

(
a

74

ioi

flat

^o5a6oD(yDg

one pice.

q^flrit

and thin; tjgcoqS one plank ; o^\[coqS one sheet


t^s^'H' five pots ; ^%c\icxi% five

of p)cip)er.
o^s

round or cylindrical;
]}ipes.

o5 elongated
cjoDScooSs

coyoooSs a hoat-

sword ; c^odoSs a spear.


stiff; afGSoocqDSs

g^dSs long and


g30d8

s^^'c^.

building;

gSSoogcodS

a house;

gojidSsoogoodS

oS

ft

^r^e or

any

tiling long, as thread, hair,

&c.

co^sdsoS five palmyra trees; cooS')oE: five hairs; qi^ goS ^e threads.

In the absence
as such

of specific numeratives the

noun

itself is

used

gjDo^sQD
[go^sg

...

Three

villages.

Three towns.

CHAPTER
The Verb
is

VI.

The Verb.
modified by mood, tense, and voice.
:

There are two moods


three tenses
:

the Indicative and the Imperative

and

the Present, the Past, and the Future.

THE INDICATIVE MOOD.


Present Tense.
Singular.
cqj^SogDSco^
ooSogDjoo^.
... ...
...

Plural.

I go. You go.

cgs^Scgc^DggoD^

...
...

TFe go.

coScgogDsgoD^

You

go.

cQDg^soo^
Note. C^

Se goes.

^^W^^

...They go.

is

the plural affix of the Pronoun, and

is

that of the Verb.

75

The Past
o^ii oSSa^ii

tense
3311

is

expressed by
or
8Sll COgg.ll

ii*

^iif

o^sii

and the Future by


indicate the Impergodo)

G033II

The bare Verb without any affix is used to ative Mood, as coSogDs you go ; or godo (Coll.
to the Verb, as coSogDsccoo or ooSogDSGooon

maybe

affixed

The other moods

are expressed

by

affixes signifying

power,

permission, conditionality, &c.

The Potential Mood


ability,

is

expressed by |8 denoting power or

and the Conditional by cgjS if. There is no difference between a Substantive and a Substantive
Bathing

Infinitive.

(or to bathe) is

good

...

GG|^s(gSsGoo3S8oo^ii

Voice.

no Passive Voice in the Burmese og^h however, express passivity and language. The particles 5ii may be construed as signs of the Passive Voice. he absence of this Voice is compensated by the peculiar way of forming Active Verbs from Passive and vice versa. The Active form of a Verb is expressed by the aspirated initial consonant; and this form may be modified into a Passive one by dropping the aspirate
Strictly speaking, there
is
c^ii
'J

thus,

This rule holds good throughout the whole range of the Burmese languao'e, except in the single instance of ^cS to draw out, which retains the
q|
;

to let fall (Active)

og to he fallen (Passive).

same form both in the Active and Passive. There are two other words in which usage has permitted some deviation from the
general rule, in that the conjunct consonant ya
{oo) in

the Active

form

is

changed

into ra
I

(g[)

in the Passive.

cqooS

cgooS

To frighten.
To crush or pulverise.

To

be frightened.

To be crushed or pulverised.
CX)^ and
(^ which

* The Past tense is sometimes expressed by signs of the " aorist " or-" historical teuse."

may

l,e

called the

t Or

Perfect tense.

speaking, 2) and cq% express the Pluperfect Tense and ^sf These lenses, however, are not recognized by the Bvirmese These two Verbs are pronounced by the Arakanese with the sound of Gl (ra).
strictly

the

76

Verbal Appixes.
s
cqj

(pronounced

3^s

in

the colloquial)

signifies

repetition

|5ogDsgso^ii

I shall go
Gp

again ; otherwise,

it is

a/orm

of entreaty

ooDolsii

please come.

ooS
GOOoSs

'

Signify suitability or expediency.

Cp

ooo c^

oo5
GcooBs J

Should not be

killed.

oq?n

(^11

j5(^ii cocogSgii oq?cx!co^sii goii goc^ii

oo^ are

all assertive

afl&xes denoting the conclusion of a sentence.


Gqjii

GC0911 gsGoooii Gcoii Gcooii

coS signify a

command

Gq)

GODO
jSc^o
BsGCXJO o
_,

L
j>S

GCO GODO coS

You

go.

signifies prohibition or priority

oaps^S
ooBapt^B
08
:

...

Do

not go.

oil)

... J)o you go before. or command couched in polite an entreaty signify

lan-

guage

Gos

<

Give or please give.


is

GO

is

the sign of causation, and


GoiGoii

used in

official

orders

Give, or
or
GG|o

l6t

(him) be given.

bii

c^oSii
;

GODO

are used colloquially in an imperative

sense

as
oDob
cqcS^cS
...
... ...

Come.
Take.

;^osGco3 or GS|o

Go,

77

ttjjoJii

G^oa^ii

ogii

'o^sii

(Coll.)

abu cod

signify the continuance of


:

an

act,

and are the signs of the Progressive tense


r
CCJjoS

OgDS

Going.
3b
003

J
:

G[
cx)

signifies obligation
is

ogosqo^ must go.

always used in a negative sense


o3S5a)ogD2oDgS
...

{Se) goes without sleeping.


is

8 signifies that a fault or offence

admitted or implied

o3oS8c^
1D

...

(J) killed.

denotes commiseration,
o^ajo3GoogGco^3(
...

That poor boy

is

dead.
state

@8 denotes ^^a^ a /ac^ ^as passed from a


to that of reality
:

of contingency

cgDsgSoo^

...

(2) did go.


:

coc6 or oojoSii signifies ^^/Jess, suitability

oDsogoS

... ...

datable.

oDs^SocgoS
ro)5ii

Tempting food.
:

godS^i GpDGooSii

coo5god5 are gerundial affixes


r,
GCX)5ll

as

o5s@s^o5(y^6Goo5ijj

gcogodSii

or
C53o5gOd5|1

After the king had died.


|5
oooS

can: c^ds^Sco^u
(1) habit: odsodoSco^
(2)
...

(iZe)

Congo.
eats.

(Se)

natural propensity
goSqjcocSoD^

(A) bird flies.

(3) ndtural q^uality

8GCODo5<X>o5cX)^

...

Arsenic

is

poisonous.

78

GOGODD or oIgogodd (also written gcsodS or gocdddSh to indicate

prolonged articulation) olcocoos and goxicd^sh are imprecative affixes expressing a desire for an event to happen, and are used at
the end of oaths, introductions, prefaces, &c. goooIgogodd or gcxioIgocxjds .., May (i) die

Vehbs op Courtsey. The polite nature of the Burmese language admits of the use of a variety of expressions to denote the same act done by persons
of different social or ofQcial rank, as

ODSOD^

...

To

eat.
...
...

^6oqG^5-^Gcx3Soo^GooSijji-oo^
qaD$s-o:j[^sGosGoo5i^-cx)^

Gcocx)^

...

To die

A Mng eats. A pongyi eats.

5|Sa:^cS-^cSgiDCGoo5i^-oD^...

A
A

enjoys king dies : (literally the pleasures of the nat country.)


2)d'iigi/i

G[oD$s-cjj*Gco5(^-OD^

...

dies

(literally flies

away.)
gc6gDorjGp8-o^gD|oa:j
GcoSi^-oD^ii

...A

BtiddJia
H^ana.)

dies

(enters nir-

cgDScx)^

...

Togo

5[6o:^si6-s,oo5Goo5g^^^Gco5(;j^-

A
,4

king goes

(moves

tlie

oD^ii

golden
...

feet.)

qcx)^s-(Gco5i^-0D^

A pdiui'ji goes.
BiiddJia goes (on. a sionary tour.)

gcSg^oqeps-GaoDODlJcxji^cog GcoS^-oD^ii

mis-

aSSoo^

...

To

sleep

...A Icliig sleeps. ... Apxjngyi sleeps. When the three classes of personages, namely, the king or anv member of his family, the monk and the Buddlia are spoken of, the honorific affix qco%<^ must be invariably used.
5[6QrjG[8-orGcoBGoT-oo^
g^cx)$s-c8$god5i^-co^

CHAPTEll
3
is

VII.

The Adverb.
Sometimes an Adjective or a Verb may be changed into an Adverb by reduplication
the Adverbial
affix.
* ^^.iw -enerally wiiltbi.

[q|

tu

return.

79

Adjectiv

80

Those of place are


ogSii
|ii

^311

ooS at, in, on;

33%i\\

sa^Ds about,

near

3o*"5

or

ogS

among, out of
;

coGog^ooS along

before; g^doS behind; sacooSn fxsGuT over, above; g33do5 below; aaogSsn cgS among, loitUn ; ooSoo^
g[

around ;
across.

aagDSii

o5g3g
;

betioeen, betwixt

sacg?

beyond
cScod

33@S or 330 without

obc

into

oocooS

amidst ;

CHAPTER
Copulative
:

IX.

The Conjunction.
j-Sii^
:

and ; ocdooo not only

but

also.

nor

Disjunctive
;

yoaolsii

qSsgSn @S besides; gSoo eithe)

or, neither

c^oojcS or.
GooSoo^siic^GooSoogSgii
::opo2Sii

Adversative:
though,

od8ooo3s * but, al'

lUatire
Telic
:

cggS^n c^g^dS therefore.

liSsa^ii co^Shod^ssc^Ssii g(c^dSiigoddgQd8ii g^odds *

Because.

CHAPTEU
The

X.

Interjection.

Interjections express sudden emotions which


in expressions differing according as
tlie

may
is

find utterance

feeling

one of admir-

ation, delight, pity, dislike, astonishment, or desire.


0DCO38

Indeed!

Oh!

aac^coDsn sacooSii @S3iGOoSg

ssooSg^s

Oh mother!

gsoogoos

Oh father

oodi^ii

Alas! Well

done

Good

g denotes a sudden feeling of delight ^SsoDDg ... Oh happiness!


Interjections are used more frequently in the colloquial than in

the literary form of the Burmese language.


*

Are archaic forma.

81

CHAPTER

XI.

Syntax. In a Burmese sentence the subject is followed by the object, and the predicate is placed last. For the sake of emphasis, the
object

may

precede the subject.


...

cyoo^cgc^o5co^ii or cgc^c&ooo5oo^

Nga Me

heats

Nga

Fyu.
Either of these sentences

may

be expanded by adding an at-

tribute or adjunct to each of the nouns and to the verb, thus

GooD5sGcoDc6cx>gSscxD^g3^o5oo^
the

...

The good Nga

Me

beats

Adverbial

Nga Fyu severely. clauses may be further added


bad
After having said

Cl^C^3^(S0g)Sll

GCX)3SsG00DC&a>^a^gGCX)DC^0^ CoS8COoSog5o^SG|>O^QSs
so,

oolgo^oSoo^ii

the good

Nga Me

beats the bad

Nga Pyu

severely, while

seated in the

middle of the road.

The following
(i)

rales of

Syntax may be deduced from the above


clause of time
is

arrangement of words

The adverbial
sentence,

placed at the head of a

(ii)

The subject
predicate,

or object (as stated above) precedes the

(iii)

(iv)

(v)

The nominal or verbal adjunct immediately precedes the noun or verb to which it relates, The adverb precedes the verb or another adverb, The verb or predicate comes last.
:

Additional examples

o^oo^saolgi

c^c(j

j.Sgoodo5

Ever
Those two
,

that

man

two

(^DgSgD ^gogSoG^ii long apart this town in


'

not

live.

men

never reside long apart in this town.


OjjocBSsgSs
J

G$Do5oOG%OD3^ GCOdSsS^^ Subsequent ask only

GCOdS

Cq)

^5g^G08C^o5oD^II

bim

riding

pony

my

presence give.

day come
It

two
a subsequent day that, at his request,

was only on

two riding
11

ponies were given

him

in

my

presence.

APPENDIX
The grammatical
of the o=3c5
ple.
I.

I.

principles explained in the foregoing chapters

will be best illustrated

by the analyses of passages taken from some (Jatakas) which are widely read by the Burmese peo-

G5|8Cg|GCo(8GOOD333lllODGpCtDo8g^^li [g0g3c8oSsODgSoSs00O3o5ll

C^tOjTIll

O0DSGCo533@33DS33G^33GpO^GOSGO0S(jj^ll 0^;8SGg[oSs(^33g33I^O^85918
OOD QlylsOO^C^il qSs^J (g8&OD5<^C5)Sll o8s^l(^ 33^^GpoSo^ ^^GCo5
(jJGODD

GQD6i:q|SoO?SIIOoSoO^(y^50go5^ j>5oOo5Gp3SG[5G^GCOGOOOIlclog^4J|i33'^8<^
ggDII

cl(^^33GgSGODDCg|o8sG)^|sC^ ^sg^SG^ScXJ Q38|GCo5^cgSlloSs0038CO^g

as8^,Gco5gc5c^g8c8S goS^ii (y^yoDGcxjDoSoo^sogoSGCOGOoSiisao^aac^Ssiioosj


^D[3ScDOl^gGpc8<^3S)COoSil ODSJGO03GCODS(^D8|llG^GpO0588G[6^llG^G0Li33m6@6

GC03CX)&d8ooScjc^a^GcoD5aja^8GD3Sajjo5 G^GCoc^u

ii(ajj^3o5

aocSGOoS^i

1. 2.

Ggs

Old, ancient.

cg^Gcoggn cg^

To pass

ccogs

sign of the past tense.

(Cp. Pali: 33cgGoo).


3.
Goooii

Sign of the Adjective.

4.

3so\

=
II

Time

used also as the sign of the Adverb.

Op.

ODD CO

In times
5.

past.

oDGpcoDcS

Baranasi, Benares.
capital of a kingdom.

6.

^ =
ill

The

Isia.i

7
8.

Sio'n of the

Locative Case.
(Pali: Brahmadatta.)

(gcgaoB

Brahmadat

9.

oSs

= A ruler, king.
=
Sign of the Nominative Case.
;

10.

oD^
6

11.
12.

To make

o6g" to rule.
is

Cp. Pali

G[^ oddgg^cSh

oDODoSii

This form

obsolete.
cS"

It is the

equivalent of

oooD^sii

which

is

the same as

an

assertive affix denoting

the conclusion of a sentence,

84

13. 14. 15.


16.

King Brahmadat ruled the kingdom of c^ = Demonstrative Pronoun that.


33ol =:
CODS

Benares.

Time.

See

4.

= A child,

son.

GooSii

An honorific afl&x used

in speaking of

Buddhas, saints,
oddsgcoB

royal,

and other personages of high rank.

=A

king's son.
17. 3s(8

ao

is

the nominal particle, by prefixing which, an

adjective
33

is

changed into a noun.


great, eldest.

+ @8 (good) = Big, + goodSs (good) good.


erown prince,

Op. 33goodSs

sa

18.
19.

33Di:i

Sign of the Dative Case.

33G^=literally means the " house -front ; " an heir-apparent,

stib-king.

20.
21.

33Gp ^=
c^ii

An

appointment.

Sign of the Accusative Case.

22.
23.

Gos

=
An

To

give.

Goo5(j{i;

An

honorific afiix always affixed to verbs denoting

the action of those described in 16.


24.
^11

abbreviation of

q,^\

a connective particle corre-

sponding to the Copulative Conjunction kc? in English. Sometimes it has an illative force.

At
25.
26.

that time, (he) conferred


eldest son.
c^ii

tlie

appointment of heir-apparent

on his

See 13.

^Sg^:i See 19.


oSs

27.

See

9.

aSScgj

and

aSs are to

be construed as one

word meaning an heir-apparent.


28.
(^ji

q6s implies the exer-

cise of delegated sovereign authority.

Sign of the Genitive Case.

29.

33@t33G^

33g

33G|ii

Hcre

33 excrclses a function simii.e.,

lar to that descrbed in 17,

fixed to a verb, that verb


cx)^ or G^oD^

is

by its being prechanged into a noun. @


to say,
;

means

to surround

s3@33G|

means a

retinue,

following.
30.

o^s8S

Enjoyment,

85

31.

qSsoDD

Happiness
of

o^sSSqSsooo means, in the present

story, the prosperity derived

from one's
roots
:

position.

32.

^.gl3 is

made up
yls

two vevhal

(y^

to be scatter-

ed,

and

to increase.

QIgTs means, therefore;

an

increase of a pervading nature.


33. 34.
oo^ii
0^11

verbal sign denoting the present or the past tense.

35. 36.

See 21. oSsgs The king.

See 9 and

17.

(Pali: ocoDGpO)D).

@6

To

see, notice, observe.

37.
38.

GooS^ii
cgjSii

See

23.

The gerundial

sign,

having an adverbial force


ogiSii

it

should be distinguished from


ality.

a sign of condition-

When
39.

the king observed the increasing influence and prosperity

enjoyed by the heir-apparent.


c6s$?gii literally o8

an umbrella, Sf%% = a throne; S%Sf%% = kingship. A white umbrella is here referred to. It is one of the regalia of Burmese royalty.
See 28.

40. 41. 42.


43.

c^ji

cra^cpoS
d^ii

=
21.

danger (Pali: aa^cpco).

See

^8S|5

to be apprehensive of.
23.

44.
45.

GQoSij^ii

See GooDGg^S
qSooDs

a Telic Conjunction denoting a cause.

He became
46.

anxious about the security of his kingship.


love) -f odds (a child, son)
is
:

^i8 (to

Beloved son

Note that besides 3^ there The bare form Case.


to express this Case.

no

special sign of the Vocative


if it is

of the noun,

in the singular,
is

or with the plural sign, c^n

if it is

in the plural,

used

47.
48.
49. 50. 51.

035

Thou, you.
10.

oo^ii

See

g^ii See 6.
9"

Sign of the Ablative Case. ooo5 To go out of, leave, depart from,

86

52. 53.
54.

|ii

See

24.

j.8coo5

=
:

To be

pleased.

Gp

=A

place; here used in the sense of a E,elative Pro^5ooo5Gp33G^5

noun
55. 56.
33G|5
11

j>8cco5oDgS33G[5ii Gp

has the force of

indefiniteness.

= A place.
7.

See

57.
58.

G^

To

live, reside,

remain.

GcoGODo

GOD

GODoii

Either of these particles has the

force of an order or

command.

My
59.

beloved son

do you leave the kingdom and reside at any

place with which you


c\

may

be pleased.

First Personal

60.

cglii

See

2.

cg$ also

Pronoun I. means to die,


;

i.e.,

to pass

from one

form
61.
911

of existence to another

to pass

away.
either of

This particle has the same force as cgSn co^oodco or

oD^saol
these.

when

but

it is

more intensive than

62.
63. 64.

33^ J
ggo
chi
(^ji

Pamily, race.

^\ See 28.

=
See See

Property.
59. 28.

65.
66.

67. 68. 69.


70.

33Gg

@S

= Patrimony, inheritance. = The verb to be


;

is.

GODDii

See

3.

^c8s^,v?

Ggi

means

gold.

See 39.

Cp. ^pocScocB dur-

ing the reign of a king.


71.
72.
c^ii

See

21,

%(g^

To govern,

rule.

The

root g?3

occurs also in

c8S@?sii

and conveys the idea of permanency.


is

73.

G^Sii

This particle denotes that an action

to be per-

formed in the absence of the speaker.

When

am

dead, take possession of the kingship,

which

is

the

patrimony

(left to

you) by

me and your

ancestors.

87

74.

cq denotes the conclusion of a direct narration,

and

cor-

responds to the last set of inverted


75. 76.

commas

in English.

338|
GooSa

=
To

order

See 16
exist.

A royal

order or rescript.

77.
78. 79.

338|goo5^oo^

(a king) speaks.

cgiSii

See 38.

oSsoDDs

=A =

prince.

See 9 and 15.

Note the absence

of

the Genitive sign in oSsoodsh the son of a king.


80.

oD^s
is

The Copulative Conjunction and. This word used after the second of the two persons mentioned
See 75 and 76.
This word
is

especially in judicial writings.


81. 82.
338|god5ii
(gc5

excellent.

always used

to qualify

an

sn8|Goo5ii

83.
84.

0^11

See 21.

gsc85g^o5

the head; o85 the top; g^o5 to carry on the

To bear a royal mandate on the head means to obey it. The modern form of the expression is gso85
head.
00 o53o6\o5c^:i

"When (the king) spoke mandate on his head.


85.
86.
87.
1!

thus,

the prince bearing the royal

See

24.

gggii
coGcxiDoS

See 49 and

50.

00 is equivalent to ooS

one

goodoS

is

the numerof.

ative
88.
89.

always used when human beings


alone, solitary.

are spoken

oo^s
ogcSii

See 51.

90.

GODGooSii

The gerundial sign used

in

an Adverbial

sense.

Departed from the kingdom alone.


91.
33og33C^5sii

See 29 for the force of the particle

saii

ogoD^

To arrange,

to put in order;

c^Ssoo^

to

measure.
33o5'33c^5sii in

due course.

Pali; sa^c^Gg^iiaaamgo^i

92.
93.

ootj^D

The

river

Jamna

(Pali.)

@S

= A river.

88

94.

oD(^gp=rAn ocean, sea, river


Tlie

Pali

oDt^gu

Sanskrit

oot^gii

Burmese form

of the

word is derived directly from

the Sanskrit.
95.
96.
c^ii
<^ji

Sign of the Plural number. See 28.

97.

33cocS= middle.
or ooS
is

The sign of the Locative Case


sacocSii

|ii

ogSii ^dh

omitted after

98.
99.

oDii
sjii

See 87.

numerative used when no specific attribute


See
3.
;

is

indi-

cated.

100.
101.

Gcoou

gcod6(^ds- gcodS motmtain or hill


gcx)d6(^di a valley.

^:)S space

between
is

ogccpoSJ' (after reaching)

omit-

ted after goddS^dsii


102.
11

See

7.

103. 104.

G$sp2o55s

G^Gp a place

od&Ss a dwelling.

8g^8=To prepare, make, form, construct.

105.

II

See 24.

In due course, (he arrived) at a valley surrounded by the Jamna and other rivers, and having prepared a dwelling-place. cjGOD=A hermit, anchorite, rishi. Pali: moSii Sanskrit: 106.
qc^ii

107.

33og5
6ii

= Appearance,
A fruit

condition, estate.

108.
109.
110.

Sign of the Instrumentative Case.


forest; here used in
:

GooD=A
co8o8s=:
cd6cj

an adjectival sense.
o8s

co8 a tree
;

fruit.

111.

c^

means a swelling

odSi^

denotes the tuberous roots

of certain herbs. 112.


c^i"
c^ii

See 95-

118.
114.

See

21.

gsodSc^^To carry; procure.


let in

goodSo^

is

a phonetic coup-

which

gsodS

is

an obsolete member.
is

ever, in the sense of to bring

still

howused in Arakan,
gsodS

Tavoy, and Mergui.


115.

a^sG30DS=to eat; to subsist,


cqjoSii

d^i to

use; goddS to carry.

116.

Sign of the Progressive Tense.

89

117.

G"

See 57.

118.

Goo(^ii (i

and

ccoci are assertive affixes

denoting the con-

clusion of a sentence as well as the past tense.

Eemained there as a hermit, procuring and subsisting on them.

forest fruit

and herbs

{Translation of the above passage.)

In times

past,

King Brahmadat

ruled the

kingdom

of Benares.

At

the time, (he) conferred the appointment of heir-apparent on

his eldest son.

When

the king observed the increasing influence


heir -apparent, he
:

and prosperity enjoyed by the

became anxious
beloved son
;

about the security of his kingship, and said

"

My

do you leave the kingdom and reside wherever you please

but,

when
is

have passed away, take possession of the kingship, which the patrimony (left to you) by me and your ancestors." When
I

the king had spoken thus, the prince, in obedience to the royal
behest, departed

arrived) at

from the kingdom alone. In due course, (he a valley surrounded by the Jamna and other rivers

and having prepared a dwelling-place remained there as a, hermit, procuring forest fruit and herbs and subsisting on them.

II.
d^ocoDsc^ii

o3oc8G38oSsco8s@DscgSii gJoSgooDSGcooc^DsgcSc^t^ j.oqscgSs

(g5s^Sg^iqGC(^c^(oqio5ii coccc^q5ssj|Ssc^oSii GoTcsnggc^Goc^oSglc^ii

^c

(SOOD^^SfSSlI cqgj^C^5G33D8G0^il OCODOo5gCo5^o53COOSI1 330g|c)q|s^GODO

GCOdo5|DJGOOQ^81I clcS^OjJOcSSsil 0:joS6gyclolGlG;j]O^OOCX)DSa^330C|{^GOO(illO:j

GpSGCODSg OCX)DC3)^ODq6sCX)^iI ^SQo5o|aODo5c^^S OOODSG(yDGCX33^8GgGCoSi^


G(X)D33oloil33c8GO0533GCq]3o5ll[3o0GCOGCODO2Dg(gSs(gSl|^CJ0c8oScODGa3DQGoSo

ySsra:^" coo5(^^s|G[6gSs5>6(^^gDii Gccjj3SsGco5sgii o5soos^gp$iqgsodS


CCX)o5(G00Sl^G O0(^ll

(OO0DO)^CO)Dc5gCo5QsO^[)
1. 2. 3. 4.

o^=that.

See
;

I, 13.

oco3s=a word
0^11

also used in the plural

number.

See

I, 21.

;^oc8g98

= Sivalidevi.
See
I, 79.

5.

Gcs=A

ruler, king.

12

90

6.

co8s

= A daughter;
1,79.
hear.

also written csiioSscas a Princess.

See

7.
8.

@Dg=To
cgiSii

See

I, 38.

When
9.
^11

Princess Sivalidevi heard those words.


this.

Demonstrative Pronoun
See
I, 5.

See

I, 85.

10. 11.

oSsii

ODDS

coDSii

oD^oDDgii

i^coDSii

co^p

are

all

contradistmctive

affixes.

12.
13.
14. 15.

GCX)DO)DS=:GODDo5cq|DSII

a UiaU.

go5=Superior, excellent.
c^u

See

I,

82.

Sign of the Nominative Plural.


I,

i See

118.

16.

5.cqgog6?gSs
6gii

^.oqs

(the

heart)

ogSs

(to
;

put inside)

(sign of the Verbal substantive)

character, dis-

position.

17.
18.

5.5= Sign of the Instrumentative

loith.

%^\
Goii

(gG (to

^6

filled)

({

(to

be in pair, complete)
of.

re-

plete with,

endowed with, possessed

19.

Affix denoting the admission of, or the acquiescence in,

a statement.
20.
411
ojii

See
See

I,

118.

21.

I, 74.

This affix also denotes the


(Pali
:

self-

communing
men."

of a person as in this case.

gJcBii)

"This king
22. 23.
ccjjoSii

is

endowed with the


;

disposition of excellent

(^=To

intend

to bear in

mind.

See

I,

116.

Bearing
24.

(this) in

mind.

oooo= Again.
c^=that.
See
I,

25.
26. 27. 28.

13.
;

oSsqjSs= An
0^11

attendant on a royal personage

a page.

Sign of the Accusative Case.

See

I, 21.

29.
30.

o5=Even, very, same. c^oSscgSsoSu that very page. GoT=To call. The object of the verb is understood. cqgs GqiiiGcoDiiggu are signs of order or command
this instance signifies repetition.

s in

91

31.

aji.

See

I, 24.

32. 33.

o^o5u Signifies

Go=:To send, commission, depute. an action whose object is projected as it were, from the actor. Cp. odgos c^oSoo^ii to send a
letter.

84.

(qii

When
as

used as a verb means


affix

to return

and when used

an

means

to repeat.

35.

(^ji

See

I,

118.

The same attendant was again sent (with the agam.


36.

order) " call

him

^cGooD

^
1,

this

o like

godd adjectival sign

like this,

such.
37.
38.

*^s=:Means, way, manner.


g8 See
roc
i.-

108.
) t )

89. 40.
41. 42. 43. 44.
Ar\

oDs= three
(cgS=time See II, See

three times.

Three

is

a sacred number.

c^6G33DS=:till (Preposition).
Goii
11

32.

I, 24.

o=Sign

of negation or prohibition.

Op. Pali

odii

45.
46.

coD=To come. cooSgodS.) same

as ^ooSn godgod5ii

See

I, 90.

When
47. 48. 49.
50.

he did not come, though sent


See II, 36.
See II,
5.

for, in this

manner,

for the

third time.
^i:

oSs,!
ooDsii

See

II, 11.

sscgl

3311

a particle

og^ to pass,, exceed, surpass

very,

exceedingly.
51.

a^s Glory, power.


^11

52.
53. 54.

See

I, 77.

GC30DII

See

II, 3.

GcoDo^^sii
Goii

See II, 12.

55.
56.

See

II, 19.

oD^sii

This particle

is

assertive

and denotes the conclusion


(iiiGco^"

of a sentence.

It differs

from

^<^, or

gcocx^^c^h

92

in that the idea of a sudden emotion, wish, or acquies-

cence
57.
58. 59.
cl

is

involved in

it.

=
=

I.

cS
^11
cq\\

sg to draw.
I, 24.

See

The

particle here has

an

illative force.

60.

Third Personal rronoun;

may

be used either in the

Masculine or Peminine gender.


61.
62. 63. 64. 65.
oil

See

II, 44.

c8Ss
a;{ii

=
=

To

incline.

See

II, 60.

o8Ss

To take

possession
I, 61.

of.

Cp. c8s^5so8Ssg$sii
force
of
contradis-

When.

See

It has the

tinction also

and may he construed as the adversative

conjunction hut.
66.
cl "1
-G[ii

67.
68.

= I. = To go with,
Literally
sion.

to be
to

drawn towards.
obtain
;

means

sign of obligation, compul-

69.

Gqjii

Euphonic
II, 19.

particle

having the same force as goh

See

70.
71.

o^ii
coodds
a^ii

Sign of the Euture Tense.

Indeed.
21.
-jcx^j

72. 73.

See 11,

330^

=
See

33

(nominal particle)

(to take)

belief, view,

opinion.
74.
^11

I, 77.

75.

Goac^ii

See

I,

118.
:

(The princess) was of opinion (and said to herself)

" This

king

is

indeed possessed of great glory.


;

When

I (tried to)

draw

him, he would not be drawn


shall
76.

but

if

he takes possession of me, I


a Bo-

have to go

-with

(him)."
o^sps

c^cpjGcoDSs

a Buddha; gcosSs an embryo

dhisatta.

Cp. oSsgcodSs =^
oSsocjjD
4.8cxj|D

=z

A pretender. A claimant to a throne.

= An heir to a throne.

93

77.
78. 79. 80.

ooDDOi^oo
oSsii

Mahajanaka.
5.

See II,
See
<^i

00^11
j^8c^

I, 10.

(as in gsoD^ii j^sod^i or


;

gs^googS

to

control,

supervise)

oo5

(from Pali
Pali:

? or sawg a noble,
o|oodi

minister)
81.
o|cDo5

a hybrid denoting a minister.


assembly.
is

= An

Sanskrit: o^cgSii
its

As the word
82.
c^ii

derived directly from the Sanskrit


o^ooSii

etymological form should be

See II, 14.

83.

^-S

Copulative Conjunction with.

84.
85.

oooDSu

See

II, 2.

gQd

86.

= To speak, converse. GcoD = To speak in a formal manner as in delivering a discourse, sermon, or lecture.

87.
88.

"

See

I, 24.

(SG

To be
See

tired of or cloyed with.

89. 90.

GooS/j^ii

I, 23.

GooDii

See
See

I, 3.

91.

S3sl

II

I, 4.

was only when the embryo Buddha, King Mahajanaka, had tired of conversing with the ministers and the assembly (of
It people).
92.
93.
94.
03 c^
GooSii

Wish,
See

desire, free-will.

I, 16.

33GC(5i3o5

According to
Cp.

uninfluenced by any external


one's

agency.

sdgcxjjdoSoddoodii of

own will or accord.


:

That
95.

he, according to his

own
Pali
:

will.

gcoGco

= natural.
See
I, 3.

ooo^n

Sanskrit

goD^ii

The vo-

calic element in goo

is

an instance

of gunation.

96.

GODDii

97.

ogDsgSs

apt
;

stantive)
98.

Ss (sign of the Verbal subgait, manner of walking.


(to go)

gSn

;S'eeI, 108.

and, with his


99.
Ggi

own

natural gait.

Gold.

See II, 70.

94.

100.

=a

The word is pronounced cq and but in order is apparently of purely Burmese origin this form has been to impart to it a classic appearance Cp. 33c^ top, from QC9q;ii adopted by the Burmans.
cave.

Pali

c^codh

cjs

a gourd, from

sscoDtjn

101.
102. 103. 104.
105. 106.

= Entrance. = To, towards o6 = To enter. COD = To come.


o
o
GooDii

Preposition of direction.

Adjectival sign.
:

See
oScxdii

I, 3.

107.
108. 109.

= A lion. Pali = A king. See II, c^o = Like, as.


Gc^=
oSs
iG|8

Sanskrit

Sinha.

5.

oo^(og^ =: Pirm, steadfast.

110. 111. 112. 113.

Brave, courageous.

gSsii
j>5ii

Sign of the Verbal substantive.


Sign of the Instrumentative Case.
== 4
g3ii

4^3

(^0

b i^ pair, complete)
;

+^ +

(to

be even)
;

+
114.

(adverbial sign)
of.

replete or

endowed with
gcoS

pos-

sessed

Go^DSsGooSgs
affix)

r=
s

gccjjdSs

(to

rccline)
:

(honorific

(first,

oriental palace,

an which occupies the foremost and most


foremost)
the audience-hall in
;

prominent position.
115. 116.
911

Sign of the Ablative Case

from.

o5soo8s

= A princess.

117.
118. 119.

= To be, to exist, to be present. See II, 52. = A place. See I, 54. ^^sogoodS = (a palace) + o (main, chief, central)
^
Gp
Sf^t

-f

gsodS (a building, apartment)

the

main

or central

apartment
120.
121.
cii

of a palace.

See II, 103.

oooSg
GcoS^ii
ocDciii

ooo5 (to go up, ascend)

+ g

(to lift

up)

to

ascend.
122. 123.

See II, 89.

See

I,

118.

95

Like a lion-king entering

tlie

entrance of

its

golden cave, he was

possessed of firmness and courage in going from the audiencehall to the central apartment of the palace,

where the Princess

was.

{Translation of above passage).

When

Princess Sivalidevi heard those words, she surmised that

the king, was endowed with the disposition of an excellent man,

and again sent the same attendant for him. When he did not come, though sent for three times in this manner, the Princess said to herself " This king is, indeed, a prince of great might and power. When I tried to draw him, he would not be drawn but
:

if

he takes possession of me, I shall have to submit to him."

It

was only when the embryo Buddha, King Mahajanaka, had tired of conversing with the ministers and the assembly (of people) that he, of his own free will, and with the firmness and courage of a
lion-king entering
its

golden cave,

left the audience-hall

and

went
was.

to the central

apartment of the palace, where the Princess

APPENDIX
PETITIONS.
Petition
(i).

II.

33GG|SGCo5^Soa3DO$5[SG(X)So6SOgc5GOo53300$Ds5ogD|lS

coGpso

c(y|ii

0qGpSC^|GCoBcOSpg3cQ$ODll0g)?GCX>5l^S33GoTc^SGp0-COo5c{59-9O0-33G[ll
G(gcb|
tII1

^c5^6o|g0ODo5oSs ^SGCoSoO g|GOSGCX5D 8G[6g[o5o^ OOGOODOOJ^II oSs

o^j^SccoSoSs^t ^SGooS^oSaoajjoGpii qSsOODOqolGCODG^DSlI G33Do5ol

33q|o5^DS33G[ll33(ySgq]8O0DC|533O0$D3O05GGpo5dlcO^0:{GpSII
Oil

l|Ogj$GODS(^SCOo5ooSG02^GCOD |D20O^|l

CO^gll

C^SC^OOIISSO^SGg

98

j;>6oo5o^G[Gcx)D |3s(g5dloD^ii

^so^GcpSsoDSoD^ ooGpgc^^S g^DigSoo^ c^oo8

GODOG(^DSllgJDO;j(^SGgj^ll0^o5cD^GODD330^SjSooSa;[OloO^II
J
II

n^saj^G^DSs

oS^qjoSjiSii

ogj|Gco5oo5a^oD^ajj^ii cocpso^cwcxj^so

G^DoaS^Sdlii oo8^oo58^^|.Sii ODSjq]GOSGooDGcoDS 30600^11 gSscx)|cgolGOOD


G^DSliq]8C03G^$33D3?iDSDoSGGpo5oloO^CCqi8(JiSGCo55[ScX)3So^pSll

g^oD
|6c

= Burma. = A pronnce.
;

33gg[sgodS^Socodo$5)Sgco5oSs(^s

= The Chief Commissioner; 33gg^s = affairs (political) gtoSii an honorific affix QS = to possess, oood = Pali maha = great o = a burto be empowered oSs = an administrator, a ruler, = possessor a den 5^5 a king; gs = great; o^ScooSoSsgi =; a Commissioner.,
; ;

(^(god5 =:
33oo^D85ii

The Supreme Court.


Pity, compassion
;

oo^Ds5? =
=

hence

sacxa^DsS

pray-

ing for clemency.


(^3 or aac^D ooGpsc^

a paper, petition.
;

a plaintiff, complainant

oocps

justice, oQ

= to de-

mand.
13

98

cDqDjS

co3^
oc^'^^Sa

= A defendant cocpg = justice 5 = to suffer, to receive. = Feminine of cooepS) (Pali ekaraja) = an empress. =z Feminine of = a queen.
;
;

cxjsiS

c^cpj

cg^
fg?

= An honorific a&x =z Name of a man.

used in addressing high personages.

og^GcoS^s
33GoTcg5
GpQjooc^
c^So
33G|

= A slave. (<^) =
=
On.

My.

The Penal Code.

= A section (of the Code). = Under, according to.


Name
of a

cgobii

town

in the

Thayetmyo

district.

^ = A town, ^c^ii A territorial


Q5

division.

Having

jurisdiction.

o$GCD3o5oSs

Assistant Commissioner

o$ := a burden, gosdoS

=
^s

to support, to assist, oSs

an administrator.

^oS^So^GooDoSoSs 1=

Subdivisional Officer.

=A
=

Court.

CO

From.
;

= Given, passed g = down, go = to give. GOOD = 00^ = The relative pronoun which. Sg^S^oS = A decision, judgment, c^ = To (sign of the accusative case). ooGODDocxj = To disagree, to disapprove, to be dissatisfied with oDGooo = Wish, will, o = a negative prefix, = to be equal
q]G08
;

cxj

to.

The causative as. oSsoj^sii The headquarters


^11

of the

Minbu

district or division.

|d5

In.

saojjo

To

appeal.
;

= When an adverb of place used qSsooD = Happiness, redress. = To obtain.


Gp
(^

as

an adverb

of time.

ol

11

An

affix of

courtesy or of polite request.

ccoG(raD

Because.

99

633DoS
61

Below.

To be mentioned, written, included.

309jo5
cj]3Sii

= Point.
Plural
affix.

oagSii

Here stands 9 = Prom. ql = In order to. oS = To enter. GGpoS = To arriye. oooS = The hand.
otS

for QSacoSu punishment.

= In. Gcg = To meet, to find. ^ = To exist. = A bullock.


.D8

cG^siic^sii
c^ii
0011

Names
affix.

of

men.

Plural

A preposition of direction. 33o^s = Price, value.


eg

Silver.

Gg 98
J.S

40 rupees.

oc5
a;}

= With. = To buy= To obtain. ooScx^ = To buy. = To obtain (here by purchase). 8 = To steal. GcpSi = To sell. CDS = To eat. GGpSsoDg = To sell (and enjoy the proceeds of the sale). 08 = To know. g^Docj^gs = Village headman a^ = village, oj = 03 = man, = great. Ggi = Before. o^c5oo?GooD = Adequate. Denotes the termination of an oratio obliqua. m<^ = co^8 = Also.
Gi
:

crjii

100

cgDd^
8

= Say. = A verbal affix implying =


Merely.

inadvertence, misadventure, or the

admission of a fault or crime.

^g
oDJ}

Now.

GOODSaoS
gSioo^
eg

Prison punishment

imprisonment.

Severe,

Very.

Gaj]scj>iSGODS5i5

JSenef actor.

oDoS

Lord.
Translation of Petition
(i).

To

The Chief Commissioner or Burma.


The humble
Being tion 411
of
dissatisfied Tvith the

petition of

Nga Pyan.
sec-

judgment passed on him under

of the Indian Penal Code,

by the Subdivisional Magistrate,


redress.

Myedfe, he preferred an appeal in the Court of the Commissioner

Minbu, but

failed to obtain

any

Petitioner, therefore,

approaches the Chief Commissioner for clemency.

The bullock found in petitioner's possession was purchased by him from Nga Po and Nga Mo for Rs. 40. Not knowing that it was stolen property he bought the animal in the presence of the village headman giving an adequate price for it. The complainant could not say that, petitioner purchased the animal with the knowledge that it was stolen property. Petitioner submits that for merely buying it unwittingly the present sentence
of

imprisonment passed on him

is

very severe.

Petitioner, where-

fore, prays for clemency.

(Signed)

Nga

Pyan.

101
(2).

Petition

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gll

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co^sgodS

cgoSsgl^

qSiii

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C^G^C^J^Il

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on

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'l"^s%

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qSsG^DoS clsGJqDoS

cqjGGpoScxD^saoliiog

ao8

GosGqii Gg

908

a5j.|l^o|GQD5sii

clso^8sa^$4jDS|>5 qj[oo"lsm3Sc^Gg

joo8 G^gooSoooSo^g^Gpii qSsCXJ^C^SGgODS

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q^Ss^OOoS

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Jll

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gbdSc^sojoSii

GgDSsgll

102

3d8(^SgO0Bo

103

po$
33GooS

(33@S
GcosSsG^Ss
c88G5^d8
j.6

odQS

= To undertake. = Considerable. = Lapse of time. = To demand. = To shun, avoid. = goodg^dS = As. = Wilfully, forcibly, = To resist. = Therefore. = To summon. = To examine. = In order to.
=
Order.

33(cg533oo^i= Stringently.
saooSj
sjs)

c@8ol
sx)6goT

oSgsos

g33dS

33%
00^11

Transliteration of "decree."

oDoSo
oo^DS

= To help, to assist. = To pity.


Translation of Petition
(2);

IN THE COUET OP THE SUBDIVISIONAL OEEIOER,

MYAUNGMYA.
Civil R^bgtjlab No. 9 op 1896.

Nga Po Tok, trader, Bassein Nga Po Maung, trader, Myaungmya


The humble
Respectptjllt showeth
1.

. . .

Plaintiff.

...

Defendant.

Suit for the recovery of Es. 2,800, being the amount dae for the value of goods sold.

petition of

Nga Po

T6kj trader, Bassein.

That on the 7th waxing of Nayon 1256, B.E., the abovementioned Nga Po Maung bought of petitioner oil, betel-nut, and
bundles of tobacco to the value of Rs. 1,000, but paid Ss. 700 only on the day appointed for payment. Subsequently he further purchased Rs. 2,000 worth of dried-fish, smoked-fish, and wheat, and

when

petitioner

demanded payment

of this

sum and

the balance

104

300 preyioTisly remaining, or a total of E-s. 2,300 in all, he duly executed a promissory note undertaking to pay the amount on demand.
of Es.
2.

After the lapse of a considerable time, payment was demand-

when the said Nga Po Maung avoided meeting the demand, and on making a stringent demand last Wazo, he stubbornly reed,

fused to pay the money.


Petitioner, wherefore,

humbly prays

that

Nga Po Maung may

be

summoned and examined, and 2,300 may be passed in petitioner's

that a decree for the said Es.


favour.

(Signed)

Maung Po

T6k.

Petition

(3).

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r
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J.S

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908

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7

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Sll (^SOqGpSlI

105

Translation of Petition

(3).

To

The Chief Commissioner of Burma. The humble petition of Maung Pet, Ma Thet, and Nga San Hla, of Kamathi-ashe kioin village,
Martaban (Amherst
Respectftjllt showeth
district).

of India, residE.s.

That in 1255 B.E., Goolam Mahomed, a native


covery of 300 baskets of paddy, valued at
E,s. 5,

ing in Kadaing village, Martaban, sued petitioners for the re405, and a debt of
or a total of Rs, 410, in the Court of the

Myook, Paung.
300 baskets,

The Myook accordingly ordered the delivery


and, in compliance therewith,
deliver the paddy in instalments.
to take delivery,

of the

petitioners repeatedly offered to

The plaintiff, however, refused and petitioners twice represented his conduct to the Township Officer. The Township Officer thereupon passed
orders to the effect that,
if

the plaintiff failed to take delivery of

the paddy by the 7th waxing of

same year, the decree should be deemed to have become null and void. About four months after this, on the arrival of a new Township Officer, the plaintiff sued petitioners de novo and obtained a similar
of the

Nayon

Being thus aggrieved petitioners preferred an appeal in the Court of the Deputy Commissioner, Moulmein, but the Deputy Commissioner confirmed the Township Officer's judgment.
decree.
Petitioners, wherefore, pray that the proceedings of the lower

Courts

may
to

be called for and perused, and that justice

may

be

shown

them.
Petition
(4).

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GODG^D^IolcS
GC
gll

33^0g5ll

||oSc^5sO$5^8G005o5s@S^grDII OOgS^II GOD3^D5J^o1c6 9

J.Sq]

14

106

5CoSo8s^Sqyc8GODD338|j>8ll G33Do5^So5s338|8G[Sqoll

?.C^3C^o"l^llGO0DSgCXj)

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j^gocjopsii

(g6?C^GOOD33qjo5ll
Oil

llgJsa^JOgSlI

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90

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jii

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a^8JjSG'33DSocq5c^o5G(g3Ssg8l
C^olcNqjoSll

cgcgGGaDS

oo5sg^o5cxjjc^ii

gjracg

G33Do5^S38l(^ 03(^03 SJGODD^oSsgS

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ogegoS

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Translation of Petition

(4).

IN THE COURT OF THE FINANCIAL COMMISSIONER, RANGOON.


Revenue Appeal No. 9 op
1896.

Nga

So, cultivator of

Sinbut village,

Appellant.

Subject .-Praying that the orders of the Commissioner of Sagaing, in Bevenue Appeal No. 3 of 1896, may either be cancelled or modified.

Appellant most humbly prays that the proceedings in his case may be called for and perused, and that the orders of the Commissioner of Sagaing passed on the 20th of January 1896, as well as those of the lower Court, may either be cancelled or modified.

Geounds op Appeai/.
The kaing * land in dispute is State land. He has been cultivating it and paying revenue thereon for the last five years and up to the year 1256 B.E., and holds receipts for the same.
1.
* Alluvial land

on which vegetables are generally cultivated.

(
*

107

was only when the pea and bean crops he has sown this year, had grown and matured, that the lower Courts withdrew and
It
allotted the land with the standing crops to others.

This

is

con-

trary to the provisions of section 25 of the (Upper

Burma Land

and Revenue) Regulation No.


the rules thereunder.
2.

Ill,

and

of

Rule

30, section (v) of

He

is,

therefore, aggrieved.

was considered proper to allot the land to others, he He should have been ejected before he had sown his crops.
If it

represented to the lower Courts that a regular revenue -payer like

him

did not deserve being put to such a

taken of his representation.


therefore, be cancelled.

But no notice was The orders passed by them should,


loss.

Appellant, wherefore, prays that the proceedings of the lower

Courts

may

be called for and perused, and that their orders

may

either be cancelled or modified.

(Signed)

Mating

So.

APPENDIX
Hlutdaw."
(a)

III.

Extracts from the " Selections from the Kecords of the

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110

(a)

CHAPTER

II, 7,

page 40.
Officials acting as

Mules for the guidance of Ministers and other


Judges.
1.

No Judge

appointed for

tlie

administration of
of,

civil

or

criminal justice shall take cognizance

or deal with,

any case

not belonging to the department under his control.


2.

While a case
The Judge

is

pending in the Hlutdaw or Yondaws, the

Judge
3.

shall not visit or send


shall not,

men

to the

houses of the parties.

during his incumbency, receive bribes


silver, cloth, or

from
4.

litigants, in the

shape of gold,

other property

animate or inanimate.

The Judge shall have no business transactions with litigants {lit. buy and sell, lend and borrow gold, silver, precious stones, cloth, horses, cattle, and other property animate and inanimate).
Besides the duly licensed advocates, only such law-agents shall be allowed to practise in the Courts as are conversant with
5.

the Dhammathats, and are selected and appointed by the departments.


6.

Heads

of

The licensed advocates and law-agents shall not, when engaged by one party, act for the other party. The Judge shall see that the clerks and peons receive no 7. more than the fees prescribed in the table of costs. (Chap. II, 5.)

(b)
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112
(b)

CHAPTER
Petition of

TVfaJ,

1,

page 92.
Pe,

Nga Myat Yo, Nga So Kyegan

Nga Ta

Yb, and

Nga

Chit Tun, Kyedangyis

* of the

Pyinzigaung, Seinban,

Kanzi, and

villages, respectively, of the

Shwe-

pyiyanaung,t Anauklet township,


E,ESPECTPTJLLY SHOWliXH

That Nga Nyan Baw, the Kyegan Ywathugyi,* has abused his position, and, in violation of his oath of allegiance to His IMajesty, has mortgaged his thugyiship for a sum of Pts. 300 odd, levied over
Es. 1,000 in excess of the laAvful demands the mortgagee,
;

and that Xga. Than,


oppressed
the people.

who

is

an

outsider, has

Petitioners, therefore, pray that the said Nga-

Nyan Baw and Nga

Than may be
Institute

legally proceeded against.

Order recorded by the Moda Wundauk.


an enquiry.
(Sd.)

KiNWUN MiNGYI.
Taunggwin Mingyi.

Hlttdaw
The 7th
loanl'tifj

A
>

Wagaunrj 1345.

(25th August 1883.)

Deposition of Theikdi Ponnaka, the Shwepyiyanaung Myinw^un, dated 9th Avaning

Tazaungni6n 1245 (25th Novem-

ber 1883).

With
directed

reference to the above petition, I sent for the Thugyi as

by the Hlutdaw.

I find that he has absconded.

Nga

Than, the mortgagee, who has taken the Thugyi's place, is not approved by the people. They are insubordinate to him and do not

perform their duties satisfactorily. The thathameda and other matters connected with Kyega,n village ^vill, therefore, be placed
in the hands of the Kyedan^^yi and Ywathugyis.
elders
*

recommend
is

for

The village the appointment one Nga Thaw, who is reof a village.

The Kyedangyi

the

headman

The Ywathugyi

is

the

headman

of

an

important Tillage or a group. of villages. f Name of a cavalry regiment.

113

presented as a true hereditary claimaBt and a Shwepyiyanaung

abmudan.

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(c)

CHAPTER
Petition of

V,

3,

page 153.

ahmudan Nga Yan

Lin, of the Yweletya regiment,

and

his sister-in-law

Mi

Ket.

States on oath that Nga Shwe Bein, of the said regiment, and hushand of Mi Ket, served with the Monfe column under Nga Set,

While so serving the ea;-Myo6k seized Nga Shwe Bein's property and murdered him. Petitioners, whereea-'-Myook oE Tantahin.
fore,

pray that the said e.i-Myook

Nga

Set

may

he legally pro-

ceeded against in the Hlutdaw.

Examination of accused, dated 11th waning (20th June 1883).


I

1st

Wazo 1245

DO not know whether the man, Nga Shwe Bein, mentioned in the petition of Nga Yan Lin and Mi Ket was a Yweletya ahmudan or not. When I was ordered to serve with the Mone column,

116

I bought

Mm

for Rs. 70 as a personal slave

him away with me to Mone. a Natsuletwfe ahmudan, who Avas in charge of the transport bullocks, complained to me that Nga Shwe Bein had stolen some of the animals. Nga Shwe Bein was accordingly sent for and extook

under a bond and Arrived there, Nga Yan,

amined.
them.

He

admitted the complaint and added that he had sold


stolen

Over 10 bullocks were

and a few had already been


the

recovered, when, while demanding *

recovery

of

the

re-

mainder,

Nga Shwe Bein

unfortunately succumbed.

I did not

take any property belonging to him.

Okdbr eecobded by the Nyatjngwun


In order
to ascertain

Wtjndal'e:.

whether the deceased

Nga Shwe Bein met

his death at the hands of the

e^-Myo6k while he was forcibly demanding the recovery of the bullocks stolen from the hands of Nga Yan, the Natsuletwe ahmudan, let Nga Yan and the Thenat Saye, who was with the Mone column, be summoned and examined, and resubmit with their depositions.
(Sd.)

KiNWUN MiNGTI. Taunggwin Mingyi.


Taingda Mingyi.

Hlutdaw

-N

Dated 4ih waning 1st Wazo 1345. C23rd June 1883.)

>

Deposition of Nemyothurakyawthu, Natsuletwe Thenat Saye, dated 12th waning 1st

Wazo 1245

(1st

July 1883).

Bo, who was commanded to march against Sawbwa, ordered that each amhudan should be the ex-^ionh supplied with three baskets of rice, and that each thwethauk should have a bullock to carry the rice. The c.i--Myo6k of Tantabin, who was the Tatbo, supplied the bullocks and gave them in charge of Nga Yan. When the e^^-Myook's man Nga Bein sold some of the animals, Nga Yan came and made a report to me first, and, because Nga Bein was not an ahmudan, I directed Nga

The Shwehlan

Accompanied

of course with blows.

117

Yan

to go and complain to the ex-Mjook, his master. I heard from the ahmudans afterwards that when Nga Yan made his complaint, the

ex-Mjo6k punished

his

man

with death.

Deposition of
I

Nga Yan,

Natsuletwfe

ahmudan (same

date).

WAS

entrusted by the Tatbo, Thenat Saye, Tathmu, and thwe-

thauks, with the keeping of 10 bullocks.

Eight of these were taken


Bein's master

and sold by
Saye.
so.

Nga Bein and

I reported the matter to the Thenat

I was directed to complain to

Nga

and I did

Bond executed by Nga Bein and Mi Ket, produced by the


eo^-Myook of Tantabin.

On
1882),

the 3rd waxing day of Tliadingyut 1244 (14th September

Nga Bein and


to

the slaves of the

Mi Ket came and offered to become Tantabin Myook and his wife for Us. 70, as they
his wife

pay two debts of Es. 35 each, which they owed to Me Unit, wife of the Theinni Sitkfe. The Tantabin Myook and his wife accordingly paid Es. 70 and kept Nga Bein and his wife Mi

wanted

Ket

as their personal slaves.

Witnesses
(Sd.) (Sd.)

^
I

Writer

Mating Saw.

Nga Po

Thin.

Nga Shwe
this case,
it is

At. )

Judgment recorded by the Bind alb Wtjndatjk.


In
clear that the deceased died of the injuries he

received at the hands of the ex-M.jobk,


his slave while

who had

occasion to punish

on duty with the Eoyal troops. Mi Ket, one of the complainants, states that her husband, the deceased, served with the troops of his own accord and that he was not the ea?-Myo6k's
slave.

But the bond produced by the e^-Myo6k

is

sufficient

documentary evidence against her.


no master has the right

We, however,

consider that

The exMyook shall forego the sum of Es. 70 mentioned in the said bond which shall be cancelled, and he shall pay to the complainant,
to cause the death of a slave.

118

Mi

sum of husband, Nga Bein.


Ket, the

Rs. 160 as compensation * for the death of her

(Sd.)

KiNWUN MiNGTI.
Taunggwin Mingyi.
Taingba Mingyi.

Hlutdaw

~j

Bated 9th waning Wazo 1246.


fl6th Julij 1884.J

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(d)

CHAPTER
From

VII, 15, page 179.

the Malunlemyo Wun, dated 1st waning Tazaungm6n 1246 (19th Octoher 1884), presented by Myogan Nga

Po Tu.
by Government, I beg to report that I have issued orders to the myothugyis, ywathugyis, and taikbmus within my wunship, direetinL,"- them to preinstructions issued

In compliance with the

serve the peace

vA'ithin

their respecti^'e jurisdictions, to establish

patrols night and day along the trade routes, to prevent bribery

and corruption, and generally to see to the welfare and prosperity My clerks and myself conform to the first 9 paraof the people. graphs of the instructions, and do not receive any illegal gratifi-

from the people. We do not harbour bad characters and have not appointed any thugyi other than those duly appointed by Government. The clerks are not jiermitted to issue summons at will. These documents are formally drawn up in open Court
cation

120

and

served.

Court-fees are

demanded according
Prisoners are

to the provisions

committed to jail and 18. always with the previous sanction of the Kayaing Wun. Under paragraphs 10 to 25, the thugyis and taikhmus are always directed to execute their bonds at the Myoyon and copies of these are always submitted. By virtue of His Majesty's power and glory,
there
is

of paragraphs 16, 17,

peace and prosperity throughout


is

my

jurisdiction.

The

price of paddy

Rs. 110 per hundred baskets, rice Rs. 250 per

hundred baskets, fegya beans Es. 130 per hundred baskets, oil Rs. 70 per hundred viss, cutch Rs. 30 per hundred viss, crude cotton Rs. 10 per hundred viss, prepared cotton Rs. 50 per hundred

wheat Rs. 160 per hundi'ed baskets, pegyi beans Rs. 150 per hundred baskets, sessamuta Rs. 280 per hundred baskets, gram Rs. 130 per hundred baskets, jaggery Rs. 17 per hundred viss, pounded ngapi (fish-paste) Rs. 13 per hundred viss, salt Rs. 6 per
viss,

hundred hundred
is

viss,
viss.

and dried murrel or snakehead (fish) Rs. 60 per A list of irrigation works within my jurisdiction

being prepared and will be submitted when ready.


(e)

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(e)

CHAPTER
Erom

VII,

21,

page ISi.
dated

the Sagaing Kayaing

Wun, Maingkaing Myoza,

10th waxing Thadingyut 1216 (29th September 1884),

submitted by Royal Messenger,

Nga Kaing.
district,

In order

to properly assess to

and

collect the thathameda-tax, I

went personally
to

Konbet village, Ye-u township, Tabayin

and, to avoid causing hardship, issued orders directing the people

pay in the tax in two instalments. The people, however, preferred to pay it in full at once, and I acceded to their request. I have accordingly been collecting the tax, and, to ensure the safe arrival of remittances, have appointad a guard consisting of 30 armed men at the mango-grove, a mile south of my camp, another of the same strength at Wettogyaw, a mile to the west of it, and
a third consisting of the same
a mile north of
of
it.

number of men at Natyegan-sakan The collections in camp are guarded by a body


sentries are placed at each

P6ndawdo ahmudans, and


Besides these,
to act as guards

guard

night and day.

my
and

subordinates have with


I have

them

40 armed men
the

sentries.

now

collected

over a lakh of rupees and shall remit

all collections in full

within

month

of

Thadingyut (October).

There are no cases of da-

coity within the Tabayin district.


rainfall is good,

The people enjoy peace, the and the agricultural operations are extensive.

G. B. C. P.

O. No.

3018, B. S., 29-9-982,000.

16

jm
||14I)

PARAGON GALLERY
5tli

{"The Ofitntal Boehslon]


of Amtrica"

CAST

SmCETl

NEW YORK

23, H. V.

mfm

'^'

^^

ELEMENTARY HANDBOOK
OF THE

BURMESE LANGUAGE
BY

TAW SEIN
(iOVEBNMENT T]lANSLAT(jn

KO,

M.R.V.S., f.a.i.,

f.s.a.,
OFFICE!,,

A.;D

HONOKAUY AKCHAJOLOGICAJ^

BURMA.

RANGOON:
PRINTKD BY THE SUPKRI JTENUENT, GOVERNMENT PRINTING, BURMA.

n^
UI

1898.

-a
Price, Rs.
2-8-0.

>&H.

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