Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 1003

CHAPTER 22

DESIGN AND ANALYSIS FLOWCHARTS

FLOWCHARTS
To help the student and design engineer to prepare their own programs, flowcharts are
given for most chapters.
1. Flowcharts 22.1, 22.2, and 22.3 explain the analysis of single, double, and T-sections
(Chapter 3).
2. Flowcharts 22.4, 22.5, and 22.6 explain the design of single, double, and T-sections
(Chapter 4).
3. Flowchart 22.7 explains the calculation of development length (Chapter 7).
4. Flowchart 22.8 explains shear design (Chapter 8).
5. Flowchart 22.9 explains the analysis of rectangular columns at balanced condition
(Chapter 11).
6. Flowchart 22.10 explains the analysis of rectangular columns (Chapter 11).
7. Flowchart 22.11 explains the design of rectangular or square footings (Chapter 13).
8. Flowchart 22.12 explains the design for combined shear and torsion (Chapter 15).

Given: b, d, As, fc, fy


Required: Mn

Let = As / bd

No

Yes

> min
(1)

Yes

Increase

max
(2)

a = Asfy/ (0.85fcb)
c = a / 1

t = 0.003(dt c)/c
t 0.005

= 0.9
Mn = Asfy(d-a/2)

End
Flowchart 22.1 Analysis of single reinforced rectangular section.
(1) min = 3

f 'c / fy 200 / fy

87
(2) b = (0.851)(fc / fy)
87 + f y

0.003
+
f
/
E

y
s
max=
b
0.008

No

Reduce

Given: b, d, d, As, As, fc, fy


Required: Mn
Let = As / bd, = As / bd

No

min

Increase

No

Yes

Yes

- ' K
(1)

fs < fy

fs = fy

Solve for c:
A1c2 + A2c + A3 = 0
A1 = 0.851fcb
A2 = As(87 0.85fc) - Asfy
A3 = -87Asd

Yes

No

min -max

a=(AsAs)fy/(0.85fcb)
Change

Calculate fs < fy;


s = 0.003(c-d)/c

t = 0.003(dt -c)/c

fs = Ess = 87 (c d ')
c

Yes

No

t 0.005

No

t 0.002

Yes

= 0.9
= 0.65+(t 0.002)(250/3)
(other members)

a=

= 0.65 (other
members)

( As f y A 's f 's )
0.85 f 'c b
Mn = [Asfy Asfs)(d-a/2) + Asfs(d-d)]

Flowchart 22.2 Analysis of double reinforced rectangular section.


87
(1) K = (0.851)(fc / fy)(d / d)
87 f y

(2) Refer to flowchart 22.1 to calculate min and max.

End

Given: b, bw, d, t, As, fc, fy


Required: Mn

No

Yes

As As max
(1)
Yes

Reduce As

No

As As min
(2)

For T-section, be is the smallest value of: Span / 4 or Center to


center of adjacent slabs or (bw + 16t); t = slab thickness.
For L-section, be is the smallest value of: Span / 12 or half clear
distance to next web + web width or (bw + 6t); t = slab thickness

Increase As

Let a = Asfy/(0.85fcbe)

No

t =0.003(dt-c)/c
t 0.005

Enlarge
section

Yes

Yes

a t

No
T-section analysis

Rectangular analysis
a = a

Mn = Asfy (d - a/2)

End

Asf = 0.85fct(b-bw) / fy

a = (As Asf)fy/(0.85fcbw)

Mn = [(As Asf)fy(d-a/2) + Asffy(d-t/2)]

End
Flowchart 22.3 Analysis of T- and L-sections.
(1) As max = 0.6375(fc/fy)[t(b-bw) + 0.375bw1d]
(2)

3 fc'
200
As min =
bwd bwd
fy
f y

Given: Mu, fc, fy


Required: As

Yes

b and d are given

Calculate
Ru = Mu/(bd2)

No

Assume b (12-20) in.


Or d / b 2

0.85 f 'c
1 1 (2 Ru / 0.85 f 'c )
fy

min max
(1)

No

Assume .
min max
or let b / 2

Yes

Calculate Ru:
Ru = fy (1-fy/1.7fc)

As = bd
Change section
d = M u / Ru b

As = bd
Choose bars

h = d+2.5 in. (one row of bars)


h = d+3.5 in. (two rows of bars)
Round h to the next higher inch.

End

Flowchart 22.4 Design of single reinforced rectangular section.

(1) Refer to flowchart 22.1 to calculate min and max

Given: Mu, b, d, d, fc, fy


Required: As, As
Calculate min and max
(1)
Calculate Ru max
Ru max = maxfy(1-maxfy/1.7fc)
Calculate Mn = Mu1 as singly reinforced
Mu1 = Ru maxbd2
No

Yes

Mu Mu1

Comp. steel is not


required.

As1 = maxbd

Mu2 = Mu - Mu1

Go to flowchart 22.4

As2 = Mu2 / fy(d-d)

Total As = As1 + As2


As As max

No

t =0.003(dt-c)/c
t 0.005
Yes

Change
section

Yes

fs fy

Check if comp. steel yields.


Let a = As1fy / 0.85fcb
c = a / 1
Calculate fs = 87(c - d) / c
No

f's = fy
As= As2

f's < fy
As= As2fy/ fs

End

End

Flowchart 22.5 Design of rectangular sections with compression steel.


(1) Refer to flowchart 22.1 to calculate min and max

Given: Mu, b, bw, d, t, fc, fy


Required: As
No

Yes

d is given

Calculate Muft (total flange).


a=t
Cft = 0.85fcbt
Muft = Cft(d t/2)

Assume a = t

d = Mu / (0.85fcbt) + t/2

Yes

As = Mu / [ fy (d - t/2)]

If steel is high,assume
a < t or a t / 2

d = Mu / (0.85fcba) + a/2

Mu Muft

Rectangular section
design, a t
a = a

T-section design,
a>t

Ru = Mu / bd2

Cf = 0.85fct(b bw)
Asf = Cf / fy

= (0.85fc/fy)[1- 1 2 Ru / 0.85 f 'c ]

As = Mu / [fy(d a/2)]

No

Muf = Cf (d t/2)
Muw (web) = Mu - Muf

As = bd
Ruw = Muw / bwd2

w =(0.85fc/fy)[1- 1 2 Ruw / 0.85 f 'c ]


As = Asf + Asw

No

AsminAsAsmax
Or
t = (dt - c)/c 0.005

Change section

Flowchart 22.6 Design of T- or L-sections.

Asw = wbwd

Yes

As is OK

Given: bw, d, fc, fy, bars


Required: Development length

f 'c 100 psi

Compression bars

Tension bars

(for no 7 and large bars)

ldc = (0.02dbfy) / f 'c


ldc 0.0003dbfy

ld1 / db = t e f y / 20

f c'

(for no-6 and smaller bars)


ld1 / db = t e f y / 25

f c'

ld = ldc*(Rs or Rs1, if applicable)


ld 8 in.
No
Rs = As (required) / As (provided)
Rs1 = 0.75 for spiral columns

ld = 1.5 ld1 12 in.

Flowchart 22.7 Calculation of development length

(1) c = clear cover


s = clear spacing

Is
c db
s db
or s > 2db
(1)

Yes

ld = ld1 12 in.

Given: bw, d, fc, fy, Vu


Required: shear reinforcement

Vc = 2

f 'c bwd

= 0.75

No

Yes

Vu Vc/2

Yes

No shear
reinforcement
is required

Vu > Vc

Vs = (Vu - Vc) /

No

Vs > 4Vc

Av = VsS / fyd
Or
S = Avfyd/Vs

Yes

Vs > 2Vc

S d/4 12 in.

End

Flowchart 22.8 Shear Design.

Yes

Increase
section
No

S d/2 24 in.
S Avfy / 50bw

End

No

Choose minimum
shear reinforcement.
Av 50bwS / fy
Av =0.75 f 'c (bwS/fy)
S d/2 24 in.
Minimum stirrups
no.3 at Smax

Given: b, d, d, As, As, fc, fy


Required: Pb, Mb, eb

cb = 87d / (87 + fy)


ab = 1cb

fs = [87(cb d) / cb]
fs fy (Ksi)

Cs = As (fs 0.85fc)
Cc = 0.85fcab
T = Asfy

Pb = Cc + Cs - T

Mb = Cc(d ab/2 d) + Cs(d d d) + Td

eb = Mb / Pb

End

Flowchart 22.9 Balanced load, moment, and eccentricity for rectangular


column sections
(Use Ksi for fc and fy; d = distance from the plastic centroid to As).

Given: b, d, d, As, e
Required: Pn, Mn

No

Yes

e > eb

Compression failure
fs < fy
a > ab
= 0.65

Tension failure
fs = fy
a < ab
0.65 0.9
Assume fs = fy

Solve for a:
Aa3 + Ba2 + Ca + D = 0
A = 0.85fcb/2
B = 0.85fcb(e d)
C = As(fy 0.85fc)(e d + d) + 87Ase
D = -87Ase1d
e = e + d, c = a / 1

Solve for a:
Aa2 + Ba + C = 0
A = 0.425fcb
B = 2A(e d)
C = As(fs 0.85fc)(e d + d) - Asfye
e = e + d, c = a / 1

Solve by trial or calculator

No

fs = [87(c d)/c] fy
fs = [87(d c)/c] fy

s y
(1)

fs = fy

fs = [87(c d)/c] fy
T = Asfs
T = Asfy

Cc = 0.85fcab
Cs = As(fs 0.85fc) 0
Pn = Cc + Cs - T
Mn = Pn e
End
Flowchart 22.10 Analysis of rectangular columns
(Use Ksi for fc and fy)
(1) s = 0.003(c-d/c); y = fy / Es

Yes

Given: PD, PL, H, qa, fc, fy


Column size c, and bars

Assume footing depth h (in.)


Let Wc = 150 pcf, Ws = 100 pcf

qe = qa h(150)/12 (H - h)(100)/12 ; psf

Footing area A = (PD + PL)/qe


Side = A for square footing
Or L x B for rectangular footing
Choose L / B < 2

Pu = 1.2 PD + 1.6 PL
qu = Pu / A
Let average d = h 4.5 in.

Check two-way shear: d2 is the largest value of:


d2 = Vu2/(4 f 'c b0)
d2 = Vu2/[(sd/b0) + 2]
d2 = Vu2/[(4/ + 2]

Check one-way shear:


d1 = Vu1/(2 f 'c b)

f 'c b0

f 'c b0

s = 40, 30, 20 for interior, edge and corner columns


b0 = 4(c + d) for square columns
b0 = 2(c1+d) + 2(c2 + d) for rectangular columns
= 0.75
Long direction MuL = 0.5qu (L/2 c/2)2
Short direction MuS = 0.5qu (B/2 c/2)2
Calculate AsL and AsS
Choose bars and check ld

Yes

d = the larger of d1 and d2


h = d + 4.5 h
If h < h, increase h and repeat.

N1 = (0.85fc)A1 (column)
N2 = N1( A2 / A1 ) 2N1

= 0.65

Pn > N1

No
Dowel bars
Min. Asd = 0.005 A1
Use 4 bars

Pex = Pu N1
Asd = Pex/fy 0.005A1

Choose dowel bars and check ld in compression.

End
Flowchart 22.11 Design of rectangular or square footings .

Given: b, h, Vu, Tu
Required: Closed stirrups and A1
Let x0 = b, y0 = h, = 0.75
Let x1 = (b 3.5 in.), y1 = (h 3.5 in.)

Acp = x0y0, Pcp = 2(x0 + y0)


A0 = 0.85 x1y1 = 0.85A0h
Ph = 2(x1 + y1)

Let Q = ( f 'c )A2cp/ Pcp

Yes

No

Yes

Tu > 4Q

Tu is neglected.
Check for Vu
(flowchart 22.7)

Tu = 4Q
for compability Tu

Use Tu

Yes

No

Tu > Q

No

(Vu / bw d ) 2 + (Tu Ph /1.7 A2 0 h ) 2 [(Vc / bw d ) + (8 f 'c )]

Increase
section

At/S = Tn/(2A0fytcot)

A1 = (At/S) Ph (fyt/fy) cot2


A1 min = (5 f 'c Acp)/fy (At/S) Ph (fyt/fy)

Al min 25bw / f yt
Min. bar diameter =0.042S no. 3

Total area of closed stirrups


Avt = 2At + Av
Avt (50bwS/fyt)
(Av from shear)
Spacing of stirrups = area of bar/Atot
Max. S = Ph/8 12 in.
End

Flowchart 22.12 Design for combined shear and torsion.

CONTENTS
Solutions Manual Chapter
Chapter
2

Properties of Reinforced Concrete

Flexural Analysis of Reinforced Concrete Beams

Flexural Design of Reinforced Concrete Beams

Deflection and Control of Cracking

Development Length of Reinforcing Bars

Shear and Diagonal Tension

One Way Slabs

10

Axially Loaded Columns

11

Members in Compression and Bending

12

Slender Columns

13

Footings

14

Retaining Walls

15

Design for Torsion

16

Continuous Beams and Frames

17

Design of Two-Way Slabs

18

Stairs

19

Introduction to Prestressed Concrete

20

Seismic Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures

21

Beams curved in Plan

CHAPTER 2
PROPERTIES OF REINFORCED CONCRETE
2.1- 2.8

refer to the relative section in text

2.9

Calculate the modulus of elasticity; Ec (see the table below)

2.10

Calculate the modular ratio; n and the modulus of rupture; fr:


Density

fc

Ec

fr

160 pcf

5000 psi.

4,723,000 psi.

6.14

530.3 psi.

145 pcf

4000 psi.

3,644,000 psi.

7.96

474.3 psi.

125 pcf

2500 psi.

2,306,000 psi.

12.58

375.0 psi.

2400 kg/m3

35 MPa

29,910 Mpa

6.69

3.668 MPa

2300 kg/m3

30 MPa

25,980 Mpa

7.70

3.396 MPa

2100 kg/m3

25 MPa

20,690 Mpa

9.67

3.10 MPa

2.11
a.) See figure below.
b.) Secant modulus (at fc/2 = 1910 psi.)
Ec = 1910 / 6.1010-4 = 3130 ksi.
Approximate Initial Modulus = 2.6(ksi.) / 5.4510-4 = 4771 ksi.
(Possible range 4600 5200)
c.) Ec (ACI formula) = 57000 fc ' = 57000 3820 = 3523 ksi.

CHAPTER 3
FLEXURAL ANALYSIS OF REINFORCED CONCRETE BEAMS
Problem 3.1
DIM.

No.a

No.b

No.c

No.d

No.e

No.f

No.g

No.h

a(in.)

14
22.5
4#10
5.08
6.4

18
28.5
6#10
7.62
7.47

12
23.5
4#9
4.00
5.88

12
18.5
4#8
3.16
4.65

16
24.5
5#10
6.35
7.00

14
26.5
5#9
5.00
6.3

10
17.5
3#9
3.00
5.29

20
31.5
4#9
4.00
3.53

Mn(k.ft)

441.2

849.1

370.1

230.0

600.0

525.3

200.5

535.2

0.0161

0.0149

0.0142

0.0142

0.0162

0.0135

0.0171

0.0063

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

b (in.)
d (in.)
As (in.2)

max<<min

Problem 3.2
DIM.
No.a
b (in.)
15
d (in.)
22.5
8#9
As (in.2)
8.00
2#9
As(in.2)
2.0
0.0237

0.0059

0.0178
-
k
0.0172
a ( in.)
7.06
692.2
Mn
A
B
C
c
a
fs
C1
C2
As1
1
1max
Mn

No.b
17
24.5
8#10
10.08
2#10
2.54
0.0242
0.0061
0.0181
0.0158
7.83
950

No.c
13
22
7#9
7.00
3#7
1.8
0.0245
0.0063
0.0182
0.0176
7.06
590.2

No.d
10
21.5
4#10
5.08
2#7
1.2
0.0236
0.0056
0.0180
0.0180
6.85
418.2

No.e
14
20.5
6#10
7.62
2#10
2.54
0.0266
0.0089
0.0177
0.0189

No.f
16
20.5
9#9
9.00
4#9
4.0
0.0274
0.0122
0.0152
0.0189

No.g
20
18
12#9
12.00
6#9
6.0
0.0333
0.0167
0.0167
0.0216

No.h
18
20.5
8#10
10.12
4#10
5.08
0.0275
0.0138
0.0137
0.0189

40.46
-244.9
-552.45
7.8
6.63
59.1
315.7
141.5
5.26
0.0183
Yes
597.9

46.24
-205.6
-870
7.097
6.033
56.36
328.2
211.8
5.47
0.0167
Yes
716.3

57.8
-218.4
-1305
7.0
5.95
55.94
504.8
315.2
6.75
0.0187
Yes
822.5

52.6
-184.9
-1100.5
6.7
5.71
54.62
349.4
260.2
5.82
0.0158
Yes
813.7

Problem 3.3
DIM.
b ( in.)
bw ( in.)
t ( in. )
d ( in. )
As (in.2)
a ( in. )
Rect. or T
Mn (k.ft)
Asmin< As < Asmax
Asf (in.2)
a ( in. )
Mn (k.ft)
Asmin< As < Asmax
Problem 3.4
DIM.
fc
fy
b
d
As
(in.2)
(mm2)
1
b
max
Rumax

Ru
a/d ratio
(a/d) max
min<<max

No.a

No.b

No.c

No.d

.No.e

No.f

No.g

No.h

54
14
3
17.5
4#10
5.08
2.213
R
374.7
Yes

48
14
4
16.5
4#9
4.00
1.961
R
279.4
Yes

72
16
4
18.5
8#10
10.16
3.32
R
769.9
Yes

32
16
3
15.5
6#9
6.00
4.41
T

44
12
4
20.5
8#9
8.00
4.27
T

50
14
3
16.5
7#9
7.00
3.29
T

40
16
3
16.5
5#10
6.35
3.74
T

42
12
3
17.5
6#9
6.00
3.36
T

2.04
4.94
293.4
No

5.44
5.02
660.1
Yes

4.59
4.05
466.8
Yes

3.06
4.84
415
Yes

3.83
4.25
425.9
Yes

No.a
3 ksi
40 ksi
12 in.
20 in.
4#8

No.b
4 ksi
60 ksi
12 in.
20 in.
4#7

No.c
4 ksi
75 ksi
12 in.
20 in.
4#9

No.d
5 ksi
60 ksi
12 in.
20 in.
4#9

No.e
30 Mpa
400 Mpa
300 mm
500 mm
3*30 mm

No.f
20 Mpa
300 Mpa
300 mm
500 mm
3*25 mm

No.g
30 Mpa
500 Mpa
300 mm
500 mm
4*25 mm

No.h
25 Mpa
300 Mpa
300 mm
500 mm
4*20 mm

3.14
0.85
0.037
0.020
0.614
ksi
0.013
0.422
7 ksi
0.205
0.318
Yes

2.41
0.85
0.0285
0.0181
0.821
ksi
0.0100
0.4942
ksi
0.1772
0.3194
Yes

4.00
0.85
0.0207
0.0145
0.822
ksi
0.0167
0.9182
ksi
0.3676
0.3199
No

4.00
0.8
0.0335
0.0212
0.973
ksi
0.0167
0.7941
ksi
0.2353
0.2993
Yes

2121mm2
0.85
0.0325
0.0203
6.14
Mpa
0.01414
4.52
Mpa
0.2218
0.3184
Yes

1473
0.85
0.0321
0.01805
4.11
Mpa
0.00982
2.42
Mpa
0.1732
0.3194
Yes

1963
0.85
0.0236
0.0162
6.13
Mpa
0.01309
5.13
Mpa
0.2567
0.3176
Yes

1257
0.85
0.04
0.0225
5.11
Mpa
0.0084
2.13
Mpa
0.118
0.3176
Yes

Problem 3.5:
3.5 a:
As = 1256.6mm2 ; = 0.00914 ; Ru = 3.6 Mpa ; Mn = 272.3 KN.m
Ok
b = 0.02024 ; max = 0.6375b = 0.0129
3.5 b:
As = 1472 mm2 ; = 0.0107 ; Ru = 3.51 Mpa ; Mn = 265.4 KN.m
b = 0.02024 ; max = 0.6375b = 0.0129
< max
Ok
3.5 c:
As = 2827 mm2
= 0.02056 ; max = 0.0129 < ; N.G. , Section does not meet ACI code, reduce steel.
Ru(max) = 4.1 Mpa ; Mn = 310 KN.m
3.5 d:
= 0.0091 ; b = 0.0214 ; max = 0.01356 ; min < < max
Ok
Ru = 0.439 ksi ; Mn = 177 k.ft
3.5 e:
= 0.02727 ; max = 0.01356 < ; N.G. , Section does not meet ACI code, reduce steel.
Ru(max) = 0.615 Ksi ; Mn = 248.1 k.ft
Problem 3.6:
y = 0.00172 > s = 0.0015
This section is over- reinforced.
cb = 11.44 in. ; ab = 9.725 in. ; Asb = 3.97 in.2
c = 12 in. ; a = 10.2 in. ; fs = Ess = 43.5 ksi ; As = 4.783 in.2 ; Mn = 201.3 k.ft
max = 0.01628 ; As max = 2.34 in.2 ; a = 5.74 in. ; (max) Mn = 132.8 k.ft
(max) Mn allowed by ACI code is less than Mn of the section = 201.3 k.ft
= 0.014 <

max ; As = 2.016 ; a = 4.941 in. ; Mn = 117.4 k.ft

Problem 3.7:
a = 7.706 in.; Mn = 356.3 k.ft ; Wl = 3.94 k/ft
Problem 3.8:
a = 5.537 in ; Mn = 230.1 k.ft ; Pl = 17.6 k
Problem 3.9:
3.9 a:
(1) At balanced condition: cb = 11.834 in. ; ab = 10.059 in. ; Asb = 5.48 in.2
Asmax = 0.63375Asb = 3.473 in.2 ; As < Asmax
(2) T = 188.4 k ; a = 6.618 in ; C1= 81.6 k ; C2= 106.8 k ; Mn = 227.83 k.ft
3.9 b:
(1) At balanced condition: cb = 9.467 in. ; ab = 8.047 in. ; Asb = 3.89 in.2
Asmax = 2.465 in.2 ; As > Asmax , N.G. ; Section does not meet ACI code, reduce steel.
(2) Use As = As max = 2.465 in.2 ; T = 147.9 k ; a = 5.96 in. ; C1= 68 k ; C2= 79.97 k
Mn = 137.5 K.ft

Problem 3.10
3.10 a:
= 0.011157 ; = 0.00556 ; - = 0.005597 < max = 0.0203
- < k = 0.0139, Compression steel doesnt yield.
c = 3.07 in. ; a = 1c = 6.61 in. ; fs= 16.15 ksi fy
C1 = 79.85 k ; C2 = 16.32 k ; As1 = 1.996 in.2 ; 1 = 0.009242 < max ; Mn = 119 k.ft
3.10 b:
= 0.0223 ; = 0.00556 ; - = 0.0167 > k = 0.0139, Compression steel yields.
- < max = 0.0203 ; Ok ; a = 4.73 in. ; Mn = 225.6 K.ft
Problem 3.11:
(1) At balanced condition: cb = 13.02 in. ; ab = 11.07 in.
fs = 70.3 > 60 ; Compression steel yields, fs = 60 ksi
C1 = 451.66 k ; C2 = 79.2 k ; T = 530.86 k ; As1b = 7.53 in.2
As max = 0.63375As1b + As= 6.09 in.2
(2) = 0.02307 ; = 0.005 ; - = 0.01807 > k, Compression steel yields.
- = max ; Ok ; a = 7.01 in. ; Mn = 512.8 k.ft ; Wl = 8.516 k/ft
Problem 3.12:
= 0.01805 ; = 0.0031 ; - = 0.015 < max = 0.01806
- < k = 0.0194 , Compression steel doesnt yield.
c = 6.44 in. ; a = 5.47 in. ; fs= 53.23 ksi < fy
C1 = 186 k ; C2 = 30.4 k ; As1 = 3.1 in.2; 1 = 0.0155 < max ; Mn = 280.7 k.ft
WD = 2.208 k/ft ; WL = 1.25 k /ft ; Mu = 232.5 k.ft ; the section is adequate.
Problem 3.13:
(1) be = 54 in.
(2) a = 0.98 in. < t ; Rectangular Section
(3) Mn = 236.4 k.ft ; Asmin = 0.6 in2 < As< Asmax = 13.23 in.2
Problem 3.14:
(1) a = 3.69 in. > t ; T section ; Asmax = 4.99 in.2 > As
(2) Asf = 2.55 in.2 ; a = 5.08 in. ; Mn = 339.6 k.ft

Ok

Ok

Problem 3.15:
a = 3.69 in. > t, T-section, Asf = 2.55 in.2, Asw = 2.16 in.2, As(max) = 5.80 in.2,
a = 5.08 in., Mu = 466.78 k-ft.
Problem 3.16:
Same analysis and answer as 3.14

CHAPTER 4
DESIGN OF REINFORCED CONCRETE BEAMS
Problem 4.1:
DIM.

No.a

No.b

No.c

No.d

No.e

No.f

No.g

No.h

Mu (k.ft)

272.7

969.2

816

657

559.4

254.5

451.4

832

b (in)

12

18

16

16

14

10

14

18

d (in)

21.5

32

29.52

26.5

24.5

21.5

21.75

28

Ru psi

589.9

631

780

700

799

660.7

818

708

( %)

1.168

1.206

1.7

1.5

1.75

1.115

1.8

1.27

AS (in2)

3.013

6.947

8.029

6.36

6.0

2.39

5.48

6.42

Bars
rows
h (in)

5#7
One
24

7#9
two
36

7#10
two
32

5#10
one
29

6#9
two
28

6#6
one
24

6#9
two
25

8#9
two
32

DIM.

No.i

No.j

No.k

No.l

Mu(k.ft)

345

510

720

605

b (in)

15

12

12

16

d (in)

18.5

24.9

29.67

23.6

(%)

1.77

1.81

1.8

1.8

AS (in)2

4.91

5.4

6.4

6.8

Bars
rows

5#9
one

6#9
two

5#10
two

7#9
two

h (in.)

21

29

33

28

Problem 4.2:
Assume c/dt = 0.375 for fy = 60Ksi,(all problem)
dt = (d + 1)in. for 2 rows of bars; d = 2.5 in.
DIM.

Prob. Prob. Prob. Prob. Prob. Prob. Prob. Prob. Prob.


No.a No.b No.c No.d No.e No.f No.g No.h No.i

Prob.
No.j

Prob.
No.k

Prob.
No.l

Mu(k.ft)

554

790

448

520

765

855

555

300

400

280

290

400

b (in)

14

16

12

12

16

18

16

12

16

12

14

14

d (in)

20.5

24.5

18.5

20.5

20.5

22

18.5

16.5

16.5

16.5

14.5

17.5

c (in)

8.39

9.156

6.91

7.66

7.66

8.22

3.258 6.166 6.166 6.187

5.41

6.54

a (in)

7.13

7.78

5.87

6.511 6.512 6.988 2.769

4.606

5.56

Mu1(k.ft)

402

656.3 280.6 344.6 459.5 595.3 374.2 223.2 297.7 223.2 201.1

293.0

Mu2(k.ft)

152

133.7 167.4 175.4 305.5 259.7 180.8 76.76 102.3 56.76 88.86 107.02

As1(in2)

5.44

7.37

3.996 4.428 5.904 7.128 5.328 3.564

4.75

3.576 3.654

4.41

1.68

1.13

2.324 2.165

3.77

1.62

1.35

1.645

1.585

As (in )

7.12

8.50

6.38

6.66

9.674 10.09 7.839 4.784 6.376 4.925 5.299

5.995

fs (ksi)

60

60

55.52

58.6

58.6

60

46.8

53.74

As (in2)

1.68

1.35

2.51

2.22

3.862

2.96

7.44

1.413

1.88 1.0425 2.12

1.77

Tension
Bars
rows

6#10

2#8

2#10

2#10

9#6

10#5

6#10

5#5

10#4

2#7

7#5

4#6

Two

Two

Two

Two

Two

Two

Two

Two

Two

Two

Two

Two

Comp. bars 1#9

2#7

2#10

2#9

4#9

3#9

3#8

2#9

2#8

2#6

2#9

2#8

28

22

24

24

26

22

20

20

20

18

21

As2(in )
2

h (in)

24

2.959 2.511

5.24

1.22

5.241

5.26

20.24 51.73 51.73 51.84

Problems 4.3:
DIM.

No.a

No.b

No.c

No.d

No.e

No.f

No.g

No.h

Mu (ft)

394

800

250

327

577

559

388

380

b (in)

48

60

44

50

54

48

44

46

bw (in)

14

16

15

14

16

14

12

14

t (in)

d (in)

18.5

19.5

15

13

18.5

17.5

16

15

Mn(k.ft)

468.2

803.3

340.8

329.9

681.6

569.2

366

356.3

R or_T

Ru (psi)

288

421

303

464

375

456

0.0063

0.769

0.646

0.558

0.76

0.804

AS (in )

5.577

9.006

4.264

3.631

7.59

6.754

Bars
rows

10#7
Two

4#14
one

4#9
one

12#5
two

6#10
two

3#14
one

6#9
two

5#10
two

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Cf (k)

244.8

244.8

ASf (in2)

4.08

4.08

Muf (ft)

266.2

247.9

Muw (ft)

121.8

132.1

Ru (web) (psi)

476

503

w(%)

1.0

1.07

ASw (in2)

1.92

2.25

AS (in2)

6.0

6.33

(%)
2

c/ dt 0.375

AS (max) (in2)

7.85

11.7

6.75

7.06

10.50

9.10

6.68

6.93

h (in.)

21

23

18

18

22

21

20

19

Problems 4.3: (continued)

DIM.

No.i

No .j

No.k

No.l

No.m

No.n

No.o

No.p

Mu (ft)

537

515

361

405

378

440

567

507

b (in)

60

54

44

50

44

36

48

46

bw (in)

16

16

15

14

16

16

12

14

t (in)

d (in)

16.5

17.5

15

15.5

13.5

18

22.5

18

Mn(k.ft)

516.4

495.7

340.8

401.6

452
5#10
one

280
6#9
two

7#9
two

R or_T
Ru (psi)
Bars
rows

8#9
two

6#10
two

6#9
two

7#9
two

379
6#9
two

c/ dt 0.375

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Cf (k)

336.6

290.7

221.9

275.4

ASf (in2)

5.61

4.85

3.7

4.59

Muf (ft)

378.7

348.8

224.6

289.2

Muw (ft)

158.3

166.2

136.44

115.8

Ru (web) (psi)

436.12

407

485

413

w(%)

0.9

0.84

1.02

0.85

ASw (in2)

2.38

2.35

2.3

1.84

AS (in2)

7.99

7.2

6.0

6.43

AS (max) (in2)

9.19

8.64

6.75

7.53

6.49

7.30

8.25

3.58

h (in.)

20

21

19

19

20

21

26

22

10

Problem 4.4:
(a) = max , d = 18.4 in. ; AS = 3.31 in.2 ; Use 4#9 bars ( two rows. AS = 4.0 in.2 );
h = 22 in. ; a = 5.84 in.; c = 6.87 in.; dt = 19.5 in. => c / dt =0.352 < 0.375 ; OK
(b) =0.016, d = 19.4 in. ; AS = 3.1 in.2 ; Use 4#8 bars ( two rows. AS = 3.16 in.2 );
h = 23 in. ; a = 5.47 in.; c = 6.43 in.; dt = 20.5 in. => c / dt =0.314 < 0.375 ; OK
(c) = 0.012, d = 21.9 in. ; AS = 2.63 in.2 ; Use 3#9 bars ( AS = 3 in.2 );
h = 25 in. ; a = 4.64 in.; c = 5.46 in.; dt = 22.5 in. => c / dt =0.243 < 0.375 ; OK
Problem 4.5:
Ru = 465 psi ; =0.0146 ; As = 3.5 in 2 ; Use 3# 10 bars (As = 3.79 in2 )
Problem 4.6:
= 0.0094 ; Ru = 465 psi ; As = 2.27 in2 ; Use 2#10 bars ( AS = 2.53 in 2 )
Problem 4.7:
Assume a total depth = L / 15 = 2012 / 15 =16 in.
Mu = 132 k.ft
(a) Using max = 0.01806, Ru(max) = 820 psi ; d = 12.7 in. ; AS = 2.75 in2 ; Use 3#9 ;
h =16 in ; min < = max , t = 0.005
(b) Using s = 0.014, Ru = 662 psi ; d = 14.2 in. ; AS = 2.38 in2 ; Use 4#7 bars (As = 2.41 in2 ).
h= 17 in. ; min < < max , t > 0.005 OK
Problem 4.8:
Case 1:
(1) D.L. on ABC, L.L. on AB for maximum positive B.M. ; U = 4.84 k/ft.
(2) Positive ultimate B.M. = 305.15 k.ft; Let =0.015, Ru = 700 psi, d = 20.88 in.
(3) AS = 3.76 in2 ; use 4#9 bars in one row.; bmin= 11.625 in.< 12 in. ; h = 24 in.
Case 2:
D.L. on ABC, L.L. on BC only for maximum negative B.M.
d = 21.5 in. ; Mu = 154.88 k.ft ; Ru = 335 psi
= 0.00674; min < < max , t > 0.005 ; AS = 1.74 in2 ; Use 2#9 bars or 3#7
Problem 4.9:
Mu = 317 k.ft ; Ru = 622 psi, min < < max , t > 0.005 ; d = 20.27 in.
AS= 3.97 in2 ; Use 4#9 bars ( AS = 4.0 in 2 ) in one row. ; h = 23 in.
Problem 4.10:
Mu = 151.6 k.ft ; Ru = 476 psi, min < < max , t > 0.005 ; d = 17.8 in.
AS= 3.2 in2 ; Use 3#10 bars ( AS = 3.79 in 2 ) in one row. ; h = 21 in.
Problem 4.11:
Mn = Rumaxbd2 = 222 k.ft < Mu ; Compression steel is needed.
Mu1 = 222 k.ft ; Mu2 = 68 k.ft ; AS1= 3.10 in.2 ; AS2 = 0.92 in.2 ; AS = 4.02 i n . 2 ; Use 4 # 9
OK
a = 6.08 in. ; c = 7.15 in.; dt = 20.5 in.; t =0.0056 > 0.005;
A S' = 0.98 in.2 ; AS(max)= 5.27 in2 > As = 4.02 in2 ; h = 23 in.
OK.
11

Problem 4.12:
a)d = 22.5 in. and AS = 3.05 in2 ;Use 3#9 bars in one row (AS = 3.0 in 2) ; h =26 in
Mu = 269.6 k.ft.; a = 7.06 in.; c = 8.3 in.; dt = 23.5 in.; t =0.0055>0.005;
b) Mu1 = 195 k.ft, M u 2 = 65 k.ft
For Mu1 = 195 k.ft ; d = 19.5 in. and AS1 = 2.64 in2 ;Let h = 23 in. and d = 2.5 in.
For M u 2 = 65 k.ft. ; As= AS2 = 0.85 in.2 ; AS = 3.49 i n . 2 Use 5 # 8
c) Mu = 260 k.ft
1) For two rows of steel h = 26 in, d =22.5 in and dt = 23.5 in.
2) Section behaves as a T-section.
ASf = 1.28 in.2 ; M u2 = 120.5 k.ft ; Mu1 = 139.5 k.ft ; AS1 = 1.53 in.2
AS(max)= 4.33 in2 > Total As = 2.81 in2 ; OK ; Choose 3#9 bars, ( A S = 3.0 in2 )
Problem 4.13:
d = 19.8 in.; As = 6.8 in.2 ; Use 7#9 bars (two rows. AS = 7.0 in.2 )
if d = 22 in. is used; a=3.53 in. < 4 in. ; h = 26in.
OK
AS(min) = 0.86 in.2 < AS < AS(max) = 7.78 in.2
Problem 4.14:
Ultimate load W = 7.9 k/ft
MB( maximum negative) = -395 K.ft
M Dmax = 270.8 k.ft
b) Mn = 344.6 k.ft < Mu Compression steel is needed.
AS = 5.04 i n . 2
Use 7 # 8 ( two rows)
A S' = 0.64 in.2 ; AS1 = 3.12 in.2 ;Use 4#8 bars in one row, ( A S = 3.16 in2 )
Problem 4.15:
a) W = 8.56 k/ft ; H A = H D = 34.24 k ; R A = R D = 154.08 k
M B = M C = - 616.32 k.ft. ; MBC (midspan) = 770.4 k.ft
Design beam BC for positive moment,
AS = 8.86 in2 Use 9#9 bars (two rows, As = 9.0 in2 )
ASmax = 26.65 in.2 ; AS(min)= mi n b w d = 1 . 0 9 in2
AS(min) < AS < AS(max)
OK
Design beam BC for negative moment,
Mu =616.32 k.ft
Compression steel is needed.
AS = 7.93 i n . 2
Use 8 # 9 in two rows, ( A S = 8 in2 )
2
A S' = 1.99 in.
Use 2 # 9 in one row, ( A S = 2 in2 )

12

CHAPTER 5
ALTERNATE DESIGN METHODS
Extra Problems
Problem E5.1
Tie AB Fu = 58.75kips Ats = 1.31in 2 Provide 5 No. 5 Bar Ats = 1.55in 2
Tie CD Fu = 15.0kips Ats = 0.33in 2 Provide 1 No. 4 Bar, 2 legs Ats = 0.40in 2
Tie BD & DF Fu = 68.21kips Ats = 1.52in 2 Provide 5 No. 5 Bar Ats = 1.55in 2
Calculate strut widths
s = 0.75 f ce = 0.75 3825 = 2868 psi
Strut AC, Pu = 86.83kips , w = 1.26in
Strut BC, Pu = 80.93kips , w = 1.18in
Strut CE, Pu = 130.67 kips , w = 1.90in
Strut DE, Pu = 16 kips , w = 1.26in
2 0.20
sin
0.0032 0.003
24 4.5
Problem E5.2: Deep Beam Design Example: Bridge Bent Cap Using Strut and Tie Method
Load Combination: U = 1.8 [DL + (LL+I)]
PGirder = 1.8 x 580 kips = 1044 kip
WDL = 1.8 x 8.5 kips/lf = 15.3 kip/lf
WLL = 1.8 x 7.6 kips/lf = 13.6 kip/ft
Strut And Tie Model:
P1 = 1195 kip
Lclr / Ds = 1.21
< 4 Bent Cap is considered a deep beam
Angle between strut and tie = 46d > 26d Good
Check Maximum Shear Strength of Beam X-Section:
(ACI 318-08 11.7.3)
Vu = 1195 kip
Assume d = 0.9 * h = 75.6 in
Vn = 2886 kip > Vu
Good
Force Resultants:
From Truss Analysis, internal forces are presented below. Since the bent cap is symmetrical, the
left side is designed and reinforcement will be applied symmetrically.
Member 1 and 2 (Tie) T1 = T2= 1020 kip Tension
Member 3 (Strut) C3 = 1570 kip Compression
Member 4 (Strut) C4 = 1195 kip Compression
Member 5 (Strut) C5 = 910 kip Compression
Member 6, 7 and 8 (Tie) T6 = T7 =T8 = 0 kip
13

Support Reaction D1x = -1016 kip, D1y = 1195 kip


Support Reaction D2x = 0 kip, D2y = 1195 kip
Support Reaction D3x = 627 kip, D3y = 655 kip
Calculate Effective Strength, fce:
Member 3 and Member 5
Bottle-shape struts
fce = 3.18 ksi
Member 4
Uniform x-section strut
fce = 4.25 ksi
Nodal Zone A C-C-T
fce = 3.4 ksi
Nodal Zone B C-T-T
fce = 2.55 ksi
Nodal Zone C C-C-T
fce = 3.4 ksi
Nodal Zone D1
C-C-T fce = 3.4 ksi
Nodal Zone D3
C-C-T fce = 3.4 ksi
Dimensions of nodal zones:
Nodal zone A
Horizontal width
wc = 1570 kip / 0.75 * 3.4ksi *72in = 8.55 in
Tie 1 width
w1 = 8.55 * (1020kip / 1570kip) = 5.55 in
Strut 3 width
w3 = 10.2 in
Nodal zone B
Horizontal width
wc = 1195 kip / 0.75 * 2.55 ksi *72in = 8.68 in
Nodal zone C
Horizontal width
wc = 910 kip / 0.75 * 3.4ksi *72in = 4.96 in
Tie 2 width
w2 = 6.5 * (1020kip / 910kip) = 5.6 in
Strut 5 width
w5 = 7.45 in
Nodal zone D1 and D3
Assume same widths as Nodal zone A and C
Nodal zone D2
Assume same widths as Nodal zone B
Check Capacity of Struts:
Capacity of Strut 3 fns = *fce * Acs = 1751 kips > 1570
Good
Capacity of Strut 4 fns = *fce * Acs = 1195 kips = 1195
Good
Capacity of Strut 5 fns = *fce * Acs = 1280 kips > 910
Good
Design of vertical and horizontal reinforcement:
Vertical Bars
Use #6 @ 12 4 legged stirrups, As = 4 * 0.44 = 1.76 in^2
Sin 50d = 0.76, As / (b * s) * sin = 0.0015
Horizontal Bars
Use #8 @ 9 2 sides, As = 2 * 0.79 = 1.58 in^2
Sin 40d = 0.64, As / (b * s) * sin = 0.00156
Design of horizontal tie 1 and 2:
Fu = *As*fy
As = 1020 kip / (0.75 * 60 ksi) = 22.7 in^2
22.7 in^2 / (1 in^2) #9 Bars = 23
Use #9 Tot 24, Vertically Bundled in 2s
Anchorage Length
Ldh = 17 in

14

CHAPTER 6
DEFLECTION AND CONTROL OF CRACKING
Problem 6.1(a)-6.1(f):
Description

Prob. (a)

Prob. (b)

Prob. (c)

Prob. (d)

Prob. (e)

Prob. (f)

b (in.)

14

20

12

18

16

14

d (in.)

17.5

27.5

19.5

20.5

22.5

20.5

h (in.)

20

30

23

24

26

24

As (in2.)

7.59

4.71

7.59

9.37

As (in2.)

2.53

Wd (k/ft.)

2.2

3.8

Wl (k/ft.)

1.8

3.6

1.5

3.2

2.8

Pd (k.)

12

Pl (k.)

10

Ig (in4.)

9333.3

45000

12167

20736

23434.7

16128

x (in.)

7.543

10.238

8.363

Icr (in4.)

5968.5

25247.2

7013.2

x (in.)

8.475

10.017

9.377

Icr (in4.)

12932.3

18042

12427.9

Mcr (k-ft.)

36.89

118.59

41.82

68.31

71.26

53.13

Ma (k-ft.)

200

530

225

400

520

400

Ie (in4.)

5989.6

25468.5

7046.3

12971.1

18055.8

12436.6

I (in.)

0.667

0.416

0.638

0.616

0.551

0.62

1.57

1.48

1.48

I (in.)

0.397

0.289

0.447

0.478

0.352

0.384

a (in.)

0.794

0.577

0.893

0.751

0.521

0.568

T = I + a (in.)

1.46

0.99

1.53

1.37

1.07

1.19

15

Problem 6.2(a)-6.2(d):
Discription

Prob. (a)

Prob. (b)

Prob. (c)

Prob. (d)

b (in.)

15

18

12

14

d (in.)

20.5

22.5

19.5

20.5

h (in.)

24

26

23

24

As (in2.)

7.59

6.28

As (in2.)

1.57

Wd (k/ft.)

3.5

2.4

Wl (k/ft.)

1.5

1.6

1.1

Pd (k.)

7.4

5.5

Pl (k.)

Ig (in4.)

17280

26364

12167

16128

x (in.)

9.175

9.401

8.822

9.377

12693.9

1540.3

8914

12427.9

x (in.)

Icr (in4.)

Mcr (k-ft.)

56.92

80.16

41.82

53.13

Ma (k-ft.)

396

381

288

393

Ie (in4.)

12707.5

15505.9

8923.9

12437.1

I (in.)

0.538

0.457

0.558

0.577

1.51

1.5

1.48

I (in.)

0.342

0.29

0.33

0.42

a (in.)

0.516

0.58

0.5

0.63

T = I + a (in.)

1.05

1.042

1.06

1.203

Icr (in4.)

16

Problem 6.3:
1.) d = 23.27 in. ; As = 5.0 in.2
use 5 #9 ; say h = 27 in.
4
2.) Ig = 19683 in. ; Ma = 3916 k.in. ; Mcr = 691.1 k.in.

I cr = 11268 in.4 ; I e = 11217 in.4 < I g


= 1.12 in.

Problem 6.4:
1.) Mu = 444 k.ft.
d = 20.82 in. ; Total As = 5.57 in.2 Use 6 #9, As = 6.0 in.2
Compression steel, fs = 59 ksi.
h = 24.32 in., say 25 in. ; d = 21.5 in. ; For comp. steel, use 2 #7, As = 1.2 in.2
2.) Ig = 15625 in.4 ; Ma = 3916 k.in. ; Mcr = 592.93 k.in.

I cr = 10750 in.4 ; I e = 10767in.4 < I g


= 1.17 in.
Additional long-term deflection = 1.29 in.
Total deflection = 2.46 in.

Problem 6.5:
a) S = 10.31 in less than 12 in.; provided spacing = 3.5 in., OK.
W=0.0121 in.
b) W = 0.011 in.
c) W = 0.0103 in.
d) W = 0.011 in.
Problem 6.6:
As (min.) = 0.126 in2 /ft./side.; Max. spacing = 6.75 in., say 6.5 in.
As/side = (0.12640.5) / (212) = 0.212 in2 ; Choose 3 #3 bars each side.

17

CHAPTER 7
DEVELOPMENT LENGTH OF REINFORCING BARS
Problems 7.1(a) - 7.1(j)
(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

(e)

(f)

(g)

(h)

(i)

(j)

fc(ksi.)

fy (ksi.)

60

60

60

40

60

60

60

40

60

60

Bar No.

10

11

db (in.)

0.625

0.75

0.875

1.0

1.128

1.27

1.41

1.128

1.0

0.75

Clear
Cover (in.)

2.0

2.0

2.0

2.5

1.5

2.0

3.0

2.0

2.0

1.5

Clear
Spacing(in.)

2.25

2.5

2.13

2.3

1.5

2.5

3.0

1.5

1.75

1.65

Cond. met

1.0

1.0

1.0

1.3

1.0

1.0

1.0

1.0

1.0

1.3

1.0

1.0

1.5

1.0

1.0

1.0

1.0

1.5

1.0

1.5

1.0

0.75

1.0

0.75

1.0

1.0

1.0

1.0

1.0

1.0

t e 1.7

28

38

56

64

81

54

60

93

48

49

fc '

<100

ld (in.)

Problem 7.2
(a): ldc = 21.9 in. 18 in.; Use ld = 22 in.
(b): ldc = 21.4 in. 20.3 in.; Use ld = 22 in.
(c): ldc = 16.06 in. 15.24 in.,use ld = 17 in.
(d): ldc = 23.93 in. 25.38 in., ld = 0.8(25.38) = 20.3 in., use 21 in.
(e): ldc = 13.55 in. 15.75 in., ld = 0.9(15.75) = 14.12 in., use 15 in.
(f): ldc = 19.1 in. 20.25 in., ld = 0.75(20.25) = 15.2 in., use 16 in.

18

Problem 7.3:
a.) ld = 69.56 in., use 70 in.
b.) Bars with 90 hook, db = 1.128 in.; lhb = 21.4 in. Use 22 in.
c.) Bars with 180 hook, db = 1.128 in.; lhb = 22 in.
Problem 7.4:
a.) ld = 0.875(61.66) = 53.96 in., use 54 in.
b.) Bars with 90 hook, db = 0.875 in.; lhb = 16.6 in. Use 17 in. > 8 db
c.) Bars with 180 hook, db = 1.128 in.; Basic lhb = 17 in. > 8 db
Problem 7.5:
a.) ld = 1.128(47.47) = 53.54 in., use 54 in.
b.) Bars with 90 hook, db = 1.128 in.; lhb = 16.48 in. Use 17 in.
c.) Bars with 180 hook, db = 1.128 in.; Basic lhb = 17 in.
Problem 7.6:
a.) ld = 1.27(61.66) = 78.3 in., use 79 in.
b.) Bars with 90 hook, db = 1.27 in.; lhb = 24.09 in. Use 25 in.
c.) Bars with 180 hook, db = 1.27 in.; Basic lhb = 24 in.
Problem 7.7:
a.) When 50% of bars are spliced; ld = 80.3 in., use 81 in., lst = ldc = 81 in. Class A splice.
b.) When 75% of bars are spliced; Class B splice, lst = 104.3 in., use 105 in.
c.) All bars are spliced, Rs = 2.0, Class B splice, lst = 105 in.
d.) When all bars are spliced, Rs = 1.3, Class B splice, lst = 105 in.
Problem 7.8:
a.) When 50% of bars are spliced, ld = 92.7 in., use 93 in. Class A splice, lst = ldc = 93 in.
b.) When 75% of bars are spliced; Class B splice, ld = 93 in., lst = 121 in.
c.) All bars are spliced, Rs = 2.0, Class B splice, lst = 121 in.
d.) When all bars are spliced, Rs = 1.3, Class B splice, lst = 121 in.> 12 in.
Problem 7.9:
ldc = 19.14 in. 3.84 in. ; Use lsc = ldc = 34 in. Controls
Problem 7.10:
ldc = 23.9 in. 42.3 in. ; Use lsc = ldc = 43 in. Controls
Problem 7.11:
ldc = 25.52 in. 54.14 in; lsc = 54.14 in., use lsc = 55 in. Controls
Problem 7.12:
ldc = 21.4 in. 33.84 in.; Use lsc = 34 in. Controls

19

Problem 7.13:
1.) Let d = 18 in; Development length of X1 = 62 in.
2.) X2 = 18 in.
3.) 4#8 bars are extended beyond point of inflection. Total length = 66 in.
4.) X3 = 18 in.
5.) X4 = 4 ft = 48 in.
6.) X5 = 19 in.
7.) X6 = 6 ft. = 48 in. ; X7 = 18 in.
Problem 7.14:
As max = 3.9 in.2 Use 5#8 bars in two rows, (As = 3.93 in.2)
Use h = 22 in. total length; Actual d = 18.5 in.
Mur (one bar) = 663 K.in. = 55.3 K.ft.
Extend bars 1 and 2 20 ft., 1/3 of total bars, which meets code requirement.
Length of bar 3 = 21.5 ft, i.e. span length = 20ft.
Length of bar 4 = 17.8 ft.
Length of bar 5 = 15.1 ft. (for #8 bars, ld = 48 in.)
Problem 7.15:
d = 33.6 in.; As = 4.314 in.2 Use 6#8 bars in two rows, (As = 4.72 in.2)
Use h = 38 in.; Actual d = 34.5 in.
Mur (one bar) = 107.6 K.ft.; For 6 bars, Mu = 645 K.ft.
Length of bar # 1 = 7.5 + 3 = 10.5 ft.
Length of bar # 2 = 5.5 + 3 = 8.5 ft.
Length of bar # 3 = 3.75 + 3 = 6.75 ft.
ldh = 22 in.
ld = 55 in., For top bars, ld = 1.3(55) = 71.5 in., or 72 in. = 6 ft.
Problem 7.16:
1.) Maximum positive moment M u = 574 K.ft.
Maximum negative moment M u = 435.2 K.ft.
2.) Section at B:
d = 23.04 in.; As max = 4.99 in.2 Use 5#9 bars in two rows, (As = 5 in.2)
h = 26.54 ; use 27 in. total length; Actual d = 23.5 in.
Mur (one bar) = 88.9 K.ft./ bar; For 5 bars, Mu = 444 K.ft.
3.) Section within AB, (positive moment):
Mu = 574 > 44, need compression steel
Use 2 # 9 bars; As = 2.0 in.2
Use 7 # 9 bars; As = 7.0 in.2
Actual Mu = 633.4 K.ft.
4.) ld (bottom bars) = 70 in. = X1
ld (top bars) = 54 in. = X2

20

CHAPTER 8
SHEAR AND DIAGONAL TENSION

Problem 8.1.
a) Use #3 stirrups spaced at 8.5 in.
b) Use #3 @ 5.0 in.
c) Use #4 @ 6.5 in.
Problem 8.2.
a) Use #3 @ 11.5 in.
b) Use #3 @11 in.
c) Use #3 @6.5 in.
Problem 8.3.
a) Use #3 @13.5 in.
b) Use #4 @ 7 in.
c) Use #4 @ 4.5 in.
Problem 8.4)
1. Vu = 83.25 kip; Vu @ d = 64.29 kip
2. Vc = 0.7535.93 = 26.95 kip < Vu @ d.; Vs = 49.79 kip < Vc1 ,
3. Use #3 @ 6 in.
4. Vs = 20.3 k.
X = 6.29 ft. = 75 in.
5. Distribution of stirrups
1st stirrup @ S/2 =3.0 in.
6 stirrup @6 in. = 39 in. 39 in. > 38.9 in.
4 stirrup @10 in. = 44 in. 79 in. > 75 in.
Problem 8.5)
1. Wu = 7.2 k/ft.; Vu = 64.8 kip; Vu @ d = 50.4 kip
2. Nominal shear provided by concrete
Vc = 23.66 kip < Vu @ d; Vs = 35.65 kip
3. Use #3 @ 7 in.
4. For Smax = 12 in., Vs = 13.2 in.
X at Vc/2 = 88 in.
5. Distribution of stirrups:
Use 1 stirrup @ 2.5 in.
6 stirrup @ 7.0 in. = 42 in. 45.5 > 41.07 in.
4 stirrup @ 12 in. = 48 in. 93.5 > 88.22 in.

21

Problem 8.6)
1. Vu at support = 82 kip, Vu @ d = 68.25 kip
2. Vc = 21.91 k.; Vs = 61.78 kip; Then S2 = d/2 = 8.25 in.
3. Use #3 stirrup @ 3.5 in.
4. For Smax = 4 in.; Vs = 34.04 k.; X = 72.77 in.
5. Distribution of stirrups:
1 stirrup@ 2 in = 2 in.
8-stirrup @ 3.5 in. = 28 in 30 in > 26.7 in.
12-stirrup @ 4 in. = 48 in. 74.7 in.>72.77 in.
Problem 8.7)
1. Mu = 168.5 k-ft ; Use d = 18.6 in.
As = 2.33 in2; Use 3 #9, As = 3.0 in2 and h = 21.5 in
2. Design for shear Vu = 51.02 kip; Vu @ d = 46.27 kip; Vc = 18.75 kip; Vs = 36.69 kip
3. Use #3 @ 5.5 in.
4. Vu = 13.2 k. < Vc = 17.25 k. but > Vc/2 = 8.63 k., Vs = 0
Therefore, use #3 stirrup, 2 legs, at maximum spacing of 6.5 in.; X (at Vc/2) = 72.47 in.
5. Distribution of stirrups (from A):
1st stirrup @ S/2 = 3.0 in.
6 stirrup @ 6.5 in. = 39 in. 42 in. > 36 in.
4 stirrup @ 9.5 in. = 38 in. 80.0 in. > 72.47 in.
Problem 8.8)
1. Mu = 91.5 k-ft; Use d = 12 in.; Use 2 #9, As = 2 in2 and h = 14.5 in (15 in.)
2. Wu = 5.5 k/ft.; Vu = 30.25 kip, Vu @ d = 24.75 kip; Vc = 13.15 kip ; Vs = 19.9 kip
Therefore, use Smax = 6.0 in. all over with first stirrup at 3 in. from the face of the support.
Problem 8.9)
1. Use #3 stirrups, 2 legs, Av = 0.22 in2; let S = S3 = 11 in.
2. h = 37.9 in., say 38 in., d = 35.5 in.
Use 16 38 in. section, with #3 stirrups @ 11 in.
3. Vc = 53.89 k., Vs = 21.4 k.
Problem 8.10)
1. Wu = 7.2 k/ft.; Vu = 64.8 kip; Vu @ d = 50.4 kip
2. Vc = 23.66 kip < Vu @ d; Vs = 35.65 kip
Use stirrup #3, Av = 0.22 in.2; s = 8.5 in.
3. Use #3 @ 8.5 in.
4. For Smax =12 in.; Vs = 19.8 k.; X = 88 in. at Vc /2
5. Distribution of stirrup:
1st stirrup @ 4 in. = 4.0 in.
4 stirrup @ 8.5 in. = 38 in. 42 in. > 35.5 in.
5 stirrup @ 12 in. = 48 in. 90 in. > 88 in.

22

Problem 8.11)
1. Vu at support = 66 kip; Vu @C.L. = 12 kip; Vu @ d = 55.4 kip
2. Vc = 21.91 k., Vs = 54.65 kip
3. Use #4 Stirrups; Smax = 4 in. (Controls)
4. Vs = 27.2 K. for Smax = 8 in.; X1 = 28 in.
5. Distribution of stirrup:
Use 1-stirrup @ 2 in. = 2 in.
17-stirrup @ 4 in. = 68 in. 70 in. > 70 in.
Problem 8.12)
1. Mmax = 1296 k-in.; As = 2.22 in.2
Use 3 #8, As = 2.35 in.2 ; Use h = 15.5 in., d = 13 in.
2. Check at 2 ft. from support: W2 = 6.22 k/ft, Mu= 609.8 k-in.; As = 2.08 in.2, use 3 #8
3. ld = 48 in = 4 ft. from the support.
4. a) At support: Vu = 288 psi
b) At free end Vu = 0
c) Max d = 13 in., for d = 12.5 in.; Vu = 240 psi
d) At midspan Vu = 97 psi
e) Vus = 161.5 psi
f) Choose #3 stirrup@ 5 in.
g) Distribution of stirrups from the support
first stirrup at 2 in. = 2 in
21-stirrup at 5.0 in. = 105 in
Total
= 107 in. < 108 in.

23

CHAPTER 9
ONE-WAY SLABS
Problems 9.1(a) - 9.1(j):
(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

(e)

(f)

(g)

(h)

(i)

(j)

fc (ksi)

h (in.)

5.5

7.5

d (in.)

4.9

5.9

6.75

4.44

4.8

6.38

6.75

3.94

4.94

As (in2)

0.39

0.46

0.59

0.78

0.37

0.6

0.88

0.79

0.37

0.46

a (in.)

0.76

0.91

1.16

1.53

0.78

1.17

1.72

1.55

0.73

0.90

Mn (k.ft.)

8.03

9.3

11.46

14.51

7.55

11.65

16.0

14.66

7.55

9.21

Problems 9.2(a) - 9.2(j):


(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

(e)

(f)

(g)

(h)

(i)

(j)

fc (ksi)

3.0

3.0

3.0

3.0

4.0

4.0

4.0

4.0

5.0

5.0

Mu (k.ft.)

5.4

13.8

24.4

8.1

22.6

13.9

13.0

11.2

20.0

10.6

h (in.)

6.0

7.5

9.0

5.0

7.5

8.5

6.0

7.5

9.0

6.0

d (in.)

4.9

6.375

6.7

3.87

6.3

7.375

4.875

4.5

7.8

4.875

(%)

0.43

0.685

0.85

1.11

1.18

0.495

1.10

0.51

0.637

0.9

As (in2)

0.252

0.524

0.95

0.526

0.89

0.438

0.67

0.64

0.59

0.52

Bars No.

Spacing (in.)

10

12

7.5

5.5

12

10

As (Tran.)*

0.13

0.162

0.194

0.108

0.162

0.184

0.13

0.162

0.168

0.13

Bars No.

10

10

Spacing (in.)
10
8
12
12
8
* Transverse bars (shrinkage and temperature steel).

24

Problem 9.3:
1. M(D.L.) = 9.2 K.ft.; = 0.015
2. Mu = 24.25 K.ft.; W L = 0.258 K/ft. = 258 psf.
Problem 9.4:
1. M u = 170.2 K.ft.
2. d = 8 in.; A s = 1.44 in. 2 ;Use #7 bars spaced at 5 in.
3. Vu at support = 5.24 K. ; V u at distance d = 5.09K.
4. Minimum d for deflection checking = L / 10 = 12 in.
h used = 10 in. < 12 in., therefore deflection should be checked.
5. Use #3 bars spaced at 6 in. (A s = 0.22 in.2 ) for shear
Problem 9.5:
1. Mu = 6.41 K.ft. /ft.; Let d = 5 in.
2. A s = 0.36 in. 2 ;Use # 4 bars spaced at 6 in. (A s = 0.39 in. 2 )
3. Shrinkage reinforcement: A s = 0.144 in. 2 ;Use #3 bars spaced at 9 in. (A s = 0.15
in. 2 )
Problem 9.6:
1. M u (at support) = 42.2 K.ft.; A s = 1.44 in. 2
2. Check section at midspan:
External M u = 18.55 K.ft.
Internal moment = Moment capacity = M u = 30.8K.ft.
Use 10 in. depth at fixed end, 4 in. at free end and # 7 bars spaced at 5in. at the top of
slab.
Problem 9.7:
1. Minimum depth = L / 30 = 5.2 in
For interior spans, minimum depth = L/35 = 4.5 in.
Assume a uniform thickness of 5.0 in.
2. Mu = 5.81 K.ft.; U = 0.344 K/f t .
3. Assume = 0.014 < max = 0.023; d = 3.6 in.
As = 0.60 in.2, choose #5 bars.
h = 4.66 in.; Use h = 5 in., d = 3.94 in.
4. Moments and As required at other locations:
Location
Moment
Mu
K.ft.
(See example 9.5)
Coeff.
A
- 1/24
2.42
B
+ 1/14
4.15
C
- 1/10
5.81
D
- 1/11
5.29
E
+ 1/16
3.63
5. Shear is adequate.

Ru
psi
156
267
374
341
234

25

As(in.2)

0.45
0.80
1.15
1.03
0.7

0.21
0.38
0.54
0.49
0.33

# 5 bars
spaced at (in.)
12
9
6
6
9

Problem 9.8:
L/28 = 5.57 in., use 5 in. and check deflection, or use 5.5 in.
1. Mu = 5.81 K.ft., U = 0.344 K/ft, Use h = 5 in., and assuming #4 bars are used.
Then d = 4.0 in.
2. Moments, As and bars.
Location
Moment
Coeff.
A
- 1/24
B
+ 1/14
C
- 1/10
D
- 1/11
E
+ 1/16
3. Shear is adequate.

Mu
K.ft.
2.42
4.15
5.81
5.29
3.63

Ru
psi
151
259
363
331
227

%
0.33
0.51
0.74
0.68
0.45

As(in. )
0.16
0.25
0.36
0.33
0.22

# 4 bars
spaced at (in.)
12
9
6
6
10

Problem 9.9:
1. Mu = 5.81 K.ft.; U = 0.344 K/ft.
Use h = 5 in. and assume # 4 bars are used then d = 4.0 in.
2. Moments, A s , and bars.
Location
Mu
K.ft.
(See example 9.5)

3.

A
B
C
D
E
Shear is adequate.

2.42
4.15
5.81
5.29
3.63

Ru
Psi

As
(in. 2 )

#4 bars
spacing (in.)

151
259
363
331
227

0.33
0.50
0.73
0.66
0.45

0.16
0.24
0.36
0.33
0.22

12
9
6
6
10

Problem 9.10:
1.a. Design of slab: Assume top slab thickness = 2 in.
Own weight of slab = 25 psf.; D.L. = 55 psf, U = 226 psf.
M u = 1.41 K.in.
1.b. Assuming that moment is resisted by plain concrete only,
M = 1.42 K.in. > Applied moment of 1.41K.in.
1.c. Shrinkage reinforcement, A s = 0.0432 in. 2
Use #3 bars spaced at 12 in. laid normal to the direction of ribs. Similar bars are
used parallel to ribs.
2. Assume h = 12 in. (including 2 in. slab)
U = 713 lb/ft.; Mu = 346.5 K.in.
(As = 0.62 in. 2)
3. Mu (flange) = 1541 K.in.; Choose 2#5 bars
4. Shear in rib; Vu (at d distance) = 5771 lbs. < Vc
Use min. stirrups, # 3 spaced at 5 in.

26

Problem 9.11:
1. 2 in. slab reinforced with #3 bars spaced at 12 in.
2. Use h = 12 in., rib height = 10 in.
U = 525 lb/ft.; Mu = 255 K.in.
Choose 2#5 bars (As = 0.62 in. 2)
3. Shear is adequate
Problem 9.12:
1. Design of slab: same as in Problem 9.10
2. Choose h = 12 in., U = 713 lb/ft.
Calculate M u and As:
For positive moment b = 34 in., and for negative moment, b = 4 in., d = 10.875 in.
Location
A
B
C
D

Moment
Coeff.

Mu
K.ft.

Ru
psi

As
(in) 2

bars

- 1/24
+ 1/4
- 1/10
+ 1/16

9.62
16.50
23.10
14.43

244
49
586
43

0.50
1.30
-

0.22
0.35
0.57
0.35

2#3
2#4
2#5
2#4

Use 2#4 bars at the bottom of ribs to resist the positive moments, and 2#5 bars at the top of ribs
to resist the negative moments at the interior supports.
2 # 3 bars are used at the top of the ribs only at the exterior supports.

27

CHAPTER 10
AXIALLY LOADED COLUMNS
Problems 10.1(a)-10.1(j):
Given: = 0.65, K = 0.8, g (max.) = 8%, g (min.) = 1%
(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

(e)

(f)

(g)

(h)

(i)

(j)

fc(ksi.)

As (in.2)

25

6.28

15.2

10

5.06

15.2

12.5

10.12

7.59

g (%)

3.13

6.25

4.36

5.28

5.1

1.98

4.18

2.17

3.95

3.16

Pn(k.)

688

1442

439

955

722

712

1244

1634

968

852

Problems 10.2(a)-10.2(e):
Given: = 0.75, K = 0.85, g (max.) = 8%, g (min.) = 1%
(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

(e)

fc (ksi.)

Ag (in.2)

153.9

201.1

254.5

314.2

176.7

As (in.2)

7.59

10.12

15.2

g (%)

5.2

3.77

3.97

4.84

4.53

Pn(k.)

622

710

1049

1391

855

Problem 10.3(a) - 10.3(h): Square and Rectangular Columns.


(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

(e)

(f)

(g)

(h)

fc(ksi.)

Pu (k.)

560

1546

528

764

500

840

492

1564

Ag (in.2)

190

552

138

249

213

272

186

561

Section(in.in.)

14x14

24x24

12x12

16x16

12x18

14x20

12x16

18x32

Ast (in.2)

7.25

17.93

9.3

6.84

4.01

11.72

5.18

10.1

Bars

8#9

16#10

8#10

8#9

6#8

10#10

6#9

8#10

Ties #

Spacing (in.)

14

18

12

16

12

14

12

18

Add. Ties

NO

#3@18

NO

NO

NO

#3@14

NO

#3@18

28

Problem 10.3(i) 10.3(L): Spiral Columns.


(i)

(j)

(k)

(L)

fc(ksi.)

Pu (k.)

628

922

896

662

Ag (in.2)

174

276

226

157

Diam (in.)

16

20

18

15

Ast (in.2)

5.33

6.68

9.54

5.16

Bars

6#9

6#10

8#10

6#9

Spiral #

#3

#3

#3

#4

Pitch (in.)

29

CHAPTER 11
MEMBERS IN COMPRESSION AND BENDING
11-1-a to 11-1-l. Balanced condition (12 Problems)
Rectangular sections
problem 11-1-a
Balanced condtion
Pb (k.), Mb (k-ft.)
Pb = 372, Mb = 541
Prob. 11-1-d
453.5, 781.2

Prob. 11-1-e
197.9, 252.12

Prob.11-1-i
390.4, 344.5

Prob. 11-1-f
230.1, 310.3

Prob. 11-1-j

993.2, 496.6
Prob. 11-2-i
Refer to11-1-i
551.0, 275.5

384.6, 192.3

162, 146.7

550.9, 922.3

Prob. 11-1-g

Prob. 11-1-h
351.1, 365.9

Prob. 11-1-k

394.1, 486.7

Prob. 11-2-e
Refer to 11-1-e

Prob. 11-1-c

264.1, 330.9

485.2, 679.2

11-2-a to 11-2-l. Compression controls:


e = 6 in
Rectangular sections
Prob. 11-2-a
Compression controls
refer to prob. 11-1-a
Pn (k.), Mn (k.-ft.)
Pn = 775.4, Mn = 387.7
Prob. 11-2-d
Refer to 11-1-d

Prob. 11-1-b

Prob. 11-2-f
Refer to 11-1-f
465, 232.5

Prob. 11-2-j
Refer to 11-1-j
741, 370.5

Prob. 11-1-l
347.2, 370.4

(12 Problems); = 0.65


Prob. 11-2-b
Prob. 11-2-c
Refer to 11-1-b Refer to 11-1-c
264.6, 132.3
1208.6, 604.3
Prob. 11-2-g
Refer to 11-1-g

Prob. 11-2-h
Refer to 11-1-h

524.9, 262.4

Prob. 11-2-k
Refer to 11-1-k
994.6, 497.32

604.6, 302.3
Prob. 11-2-l
Refer to 11-1-l
613, 306.6

11-3-a to 11-3-l. Tension controls: e = 24 in (12 Problems)


Rectangular sections
Prob. 11-3-a
Prob. 11-3-b
tension controls
refer to prob. 11-1-a
refer to 11-1-b
61.4,
122.8
Pb (k.), Mb (k-ft)
Pb = 258.8, Mb = 517.6
Prob. 11-3-d
Refer to 11-1-d
384.7, 769.5
Step

11

Prob. 11-3-e
Refer to 11-1-e
116.8, 233.7

Prob. 11-3-i
Refer to 11-1-i
146.26, 292.53

Prob. 11-3-f
Refer to 11-1-f
146.2, 292.4

Prob. 11-3-j
Refer to 11-1-j
215.09, 430.18

30

Prob. 11-3-g
Refer to 11-1-g
152.12, 304.24

Prob. 11-3-k
Refer to 11-1-k
309.47, 618.93

Prob. 11-3-c
Refer to 11-1-c
452.5, 904.9
Prob. 11-3-h
Refer to 11-1-h
152.71, 305.43

Prob. 11-3-l
Refer to 11-1-l
149.20, 298.40

Problem 11.4:
Balanced condition: cb = 12.72in, ab = 10.82in.
Cc = 588.38K; Cs1 = 286.4K; Cs2 = 58.94K
Tension zone: = 0.65; s2 = 5.7510-4, fs3 = 16.69Ksi,
Pb = 587.73K; Mb = 816.97K.ft,
e = 8in., e < eb compression controls. Assume c = 16.43 in., a = 13.96 in.
Cc = 783.4 K, Cs1 = 286.4K, Cs2 = 97.17 K, Cs3 = 14.60 K
Tension zone: = 0.65; s = 9.2610-4, fs = 26.85Ksi,
Pn = 1063 K; Mn = 708.71 K.ft
Check: take moment about As
e/ = 17.5in; Pn = 1026.7 K very close to Pn O.K.
Problem 11.5:
Balanced condition: cb = 10.36in., a = 8.81in.,
Cc = 599.08 K; Cs1 = 358.28 K; Cs2 = 79.02 K; Cs3 =-0.97= Zero
Tension zone: s4 = 9.8210-4, fs = 28.47ksi,
Pb = 584.27K; Mb = 788.16K.ft; eb = 16.19in.
e = 8in., e < eb compression controls.
Assume c = 12.77in., a = 10.8in.
Cc = 734.4K, Cs1 = 358.28K, Cs2 = 104.19K, Cs3 = 39.29K
Tension zone: s4 = 2.310-4, fs = 6.68Ksi, s5 = 0.0011, fs = 32.22Ksi,
Pn = 1014.93K, Mn = 676.62K.ft; e/ = 15.5in.
Problem 11.6:
Balanced condition: cb = 10.36in., a = 8.8in.,
Pb = 408.68K; Mb = 414.1K.ft, eb = 12.16in.
Compression controls: e = 8 < eb comp. controls.
Assume c = 12.09in., a = 10.28in.
Cc = 489.33K; Cs1/ = 169.8K, Cs2/ = 23.28K
Tension zone: s = 0.0013, Pn = 565.62K, Mn = 377.08K.ft; e/ = 15.5in.
Problem 11.7:
Balanced condition: cb = 12.72in., ab = 10.82in.,
Cc = 735.76K; Cs1 = 283K; Cs2 = 68.03K; Cs3 = 3.05K
Tension zone: s4 = 9.510-4, fs = 27.56Ksi,
Pn = 734.27K, Mb = 914.52K.ft, eb = 14.95in.
Compression controls: e = 8 < eb comp. controls.
Assume c = 15.98in., a = 13.58in.
Cc = 923.44K; Cs1 = 283K, Cs2 = 88.26K, Cs3 = 36.54K
Tension zone: s4 = 1.4310-4, fs = 4.19Ksi, s5 = 0.001, fs = 30.05Ksi
Pn = 1172.6K, Mn = 781.73K.ft

31

Problem 11.8:
a: Choose #4 ties spaced at 18in.
Pn = 821.23K; Mn = 403.1K.ft O.K.
b:As/ = 3.68in.2 use 5#8 (As/ = 3.93in.2)
Pn = 643.1K, Mn = 669.65K.ft
c: As = As/ = 7.56in.2, use 6#10
Pn = 756.25K, Mn = 1608K.ft
d: As = As/ = 4.73in.2, use 6#9
Pn = 682.7K, Pn = 443.8K > Pu, O.K.
e: As = As/ = 7.59 in2, use 6#10
Pn = 1 753.93 K
f: As = As/ = 0.031824/2 = 6.48in.2, Use 5#10
Pn = 1114.26 K, Pn = 724.3 K > Pn O.K.
g: As = As/ = 0.021420/2 = 2.8in.2, Use 3#9
Pn = 453.12K, Pn = 317.2K; O.K. section is adequate.
h: As = As/ = 6.57in.2, use 6#10
Pn = 1617.7K, Pn = 1051.5 K > Pu, O.K. Section is adequate.
i: As = As/ = 0.022014/2 = 2.8in.2, Use 2#10
Pn = 923.93K, Pn = 600.5 K > Pu ; O.K. section is adequate.
j: As = As/ = 2.64in2, Use 4#9
Pn = 1037.86 K, Pn = 674.6 K > Pu, O.K. section is adequate.
Problem 11.9:
a: Pn = 265K compared to 265 K by calculation.
b: Pn = 991K compared to 993.2 K by calculation.
c: Pn = 462.9K compared to 465 K by calculation.
d: As = As/ = 5.8in2, Use 5#10, As = 6.33in.2
e: As = As/ = 6.48in.2, Use 6#10, As = 7.59in.2
f: As = As/ = 8.4in.2, Use 7#10, As = 8.86in.2
Problem 11.10:
Pb = 67.11K, Pb = 43.62K
Mb = 86.9K.ft, Mb = 56.5K.ft, e = 15.54in.
Problem 11.11:
Pb = 222.33K, Pb = 144.5 K
Mb = 229.61K.ft; Mb = 149.3K.ft, eb = 10.5 in.
Problem 11.12:
Pb = 427.85K, Pb = 278.1K
Mb = 420K.ft; Mb = 273K.ft, eb = 11.78in.

32

Problem 11.13:
Pb = 677.6K, Pb = 440.4K
Mb = 655.7K.ft, Mb = 425.8K.ft, eb = 11.6in.
Problem 11.14:
a: Pn = 108K (tied); Mn = 53.9K.ft (tied)
b: Pn = 271.4K (tied); Mn = 135.5K.ft (tied)
c: Pn = 495K (tied); Mn = 247.7K.ft (tied)
d: Pn = 731.8K (tied); Mn = 366.3K.ft (tied)
Problem 11.15:
a: Pbx = 572.5K, Mbx = 790.9K.ft; eb = 16.58in.
Pby = 536 K, Mby = 482 K.ft; eby = 10.79in.
Pny = 833.55K, Mny = 416.77K.ft
Pn = 559 K, Pn = 363.3 K
b: Pbx = 576.88K; Mbx = 740.55K.ft; ebx = 15.4in.
Pnx = 929.82K, Mnx = 619.88K.ft
Pny = 1107 K, Mny = 553.6K.ft
Pn = 633 K, Pn = 411.5 K
c:
Pbx = 408.68K; Mbx = 414.1K.ft; eb = 12.16in.
Pby = 368.7K; Mby = 260.3K.ft; eb = 8.47in.
Pny = 496.8K, Mny = 248.4K.ft
Pn = 323 K., Pn = 210 K.
d:
Pbx = 718.7K; Mbx = 865.6K.ft, ebx = 14.5in.
Pnx = 1 093.6K, Mnx = 729.1K.ft
Pby = 701.9K; Mby = 699.6K.ft, eby = 12 in.
Pny = 1145.3K, Mny = 572.65K.ft
Pn = 717.6 K., Pn = 466 K.
Problem 11.16:
a: Pn = 566.34K, Pn = 368 K
b: Pn = 674.3K., Pn = 438.3K
c: Pn = 335 K., Pn = 218 K
d: Pn = 732.24 K, Pn = 476 K
Problem 11.17:
a: Pn = 645 K., Pn = 419 K
b: Pn = 749 K., Pn = 487 K
c: Pn = 355 K., Pn = 231 K
d:Pn = 817 K., Pn = 531 K

33

Problem 11.18:
X-axis: Pn = 1113.4Kk, Pu = 723.5K; Mn = 556.7K.ft, Mu = 362K.ft
Y-axis: Pn = 833.65Kk, Pu = 542K; Mn = 416.8K.ft, Mu = 271K.ft
Biaxial load: Bresler method; Pu = 397K, Pn = 611.3K
Hsu method; Pu = 455K, Pn = 701K
Problem 11.19:
X-axis: Pn = 1107K, Pu = 720K; Mn = 553.56K.ft, Mu = 360K.ft
Y-axis: Pn = 1107K, Pu = 720K; Mn = 553.56K.ft, Mu = 360K.ft
Biaxial load: Bresler method: Pu = 462K, Pn = 710.6K
Hsu method: Pu = 549 K, Pn = 845K
Problem 11.20:
X-axis: Pn = 674.1K, Pu = 438K; Mn = 337.1K.ft, Mu = 219K.ft
Y-axis: Pn = 494.9K, Pu = 322K; Mn = 247.45K.ft, Mu = 160.8K.ft
Biaxial load: Bresler method: Pu = 232.7K, Pn = 358.1K
Hsu method: Pu = 262K, Pn = 403K
Problem 11.21:
X-axis: Pn = 1289.7K, Pu = 838.3K; Mn = 644.86K.ft, Mu = 419.1K.ft
Y-axis: Pn = 1145.2K, Pu = 744.4K; Mn = 572.6K.ft, Mu = 372.2K.ft
Biaxial load: Bresler method: Pu = 518.1K, Pn = 797.13K
Hsu method: Pu = 587K, Pn = 903K

34

CHAPTER 12
SLENDER COLUMNS
Problem 12.1:
1.) Pu = 306 kips; Mu = 300.4 k-ft.; e = 11.8 in.
2.) (K lu) / r = 37.5 34-12(M1 / M2) = 22; NO; Consider the slenderness effect.
3.) EI = 15341171 k- in.2
4.) Pc = 3245.269 kips
5.) Cm = 1.0
6.) ns = 1.144
7.) Pn = 470.8 kips; Mn = 462.2 k-ft.; Mc = 528.76 k-ft.; e = 13.48 in.
8.) Pn = 345.787 kips > Pu = 306 Kips
Problem 12.2:
1.) Pu = 306 kips, Mu = 300.4 k-ft.; e = 11.8 in.
2.) Consider the slenderness effect.
3.) EI = 15341171 k- in.2
4.) Pc = 7301,856 kips
5.) Cm = 1.0
6.) ns = 1.06
7.) Pn = 470.8 kips; Mn = 462.2 k-ft.; Mc = 489.932 k-ft.; e = 12.5 in.
8.) Pn = 366.52 kips > Pu
Problem 12.3:
1.) Pu = 306 kips; Mu = 300.4 k-ft.; e = 11.8 in.
2.) Consider the slenderness effect.
3.) EI = 15341171 k- in.2
4.) Pc = 3915.788 kips
5.) Cm = 1.0
6.) ns = 1.116
7.) Pn = 470.8 kips; Mn = 462.2 k-ft.; Mc = 515.82 k-ft.; e = 13.15 in.
8.) Pn = 352.6 kips > Pu
Problem 12.4:
1.) Pu = 383 kips, Mu = 256.4 k-ft.; e = 8.03 in.
2.) Consider the slenderness effect.
3.) EI = 38374084.45 k- in.2
4.) Pc = 7085.45 kips
5.) Cm = 0.8667 > 0.40
6.) ns = 0.934 < 1.0 , use 1.0
7.) Pn = 589.23 kips; Mn = 394.462 k-ft.; Mc = 394.462 k-ft.; e = 8.03 in.
8.) Pn = 933.6 kips > Pu

35

Problem 12.5:
1.) Pu = 383 kips, Mu = 256.4 k-ft.; e = 8.03 in.
2.) Consider the slenderness effect.
3.) EI = 38374084.45 k- in.2
4.) Pc = 9254.463 kips
5.) Cm = 0.8667 > 0.40
6.) ns = 0.917 < 1.0 use 1.0
7.) Pn = 589.23 kips, Mn = 394.462 k-ft.; Mc = 394.462 k-ft.; e = 8.03 in.
8.) Pn = 933.6 kips > Pu
Problem12.6:
1.) Pu = 383 kips, Mu = 256.4 k-ft.; e = 8.03 in.
2.) Consider the slenderness effect.
3.) EI = 38374084.45 k- in2
4.) Pc = 10273.9 kips
5.) Cm = 1
6.) ns = 1.052
7.) Pn = 589.23 kips, Mn = 394.462 k-ft.; Mc = 414.974 k-ft.; e = 8.45 in.
8.) Pn = 904.283 kips > Pu
Problem 12.7:
1.) Pu = 383 kips, Mu = 256.4 k-ft.; e = 8.03 in.
2.) Consider the slenderness effect.
3.) EI = 37.084 106 k- in.2
4.) Pc = 4722.24 kips
5.) Cm = 0.867
6.) s = 1.12 < 1; use 1.0
7.) Pn = 589.23 kips, Mn = 394.462 k-ft.; Mc = 441.797 k-ft., e = 9.0 in.
8.) Pn = 1217.7 kips > Pu
Problem 12.8:
1.) Pu = 449.4 kips, Mu = 141 k-ft.; e = 3.765 in.
2.) Consider the slenderness effect.
3.) EI = 9685418 k- in2
4.) Pc = 1659.6 kips
5.) Cm = 1.0
6.) s = 1.565
7.) Pn = 691.385 kips, Mn = 216.923 k-ft; Mc = 339.484 k-ft., e = 5.89 in.
8.) Pn = 512.911 kips > Pu

36

Problem 12.9:
1.) Pu = 449.4 kips, Mu = 141 k-ft.; e = 3.765 in.
2.) Consider the slenderness effect.
3.) EI = 9685418 k- in.2
4.) Pc = 6638.28 kips
5.) Cm = 1.0
6.) s = 1.1
7.) Pn = 691.385 kips, Mn = 216.923 k-ft.; Mc = 238.615 k-ft., e = 4.142 in.
8.) Pn = (0.65) (968.710) = 629.662 kips > Pu
Problem 12.10:
1.) Pu = 449.4 kips, Mu = 141 k-ft.; e = 3.765 in.
2.) Consider the slenderness effect.
3.) EI = 18255749 k- in.2
4.) Pc = 1285.37 kips
5.) Cm = 1.0
6.) s = 1.872
7.) Pn = 953 kips, Mn = 216.923 k-ft.; Mc = 309.332 k-ft., e = 5.369 in.
8.) Pn = 619.54 kips > Pu

37

CHAPTER 13
FOOTINGS
Problem 13.1: Wall Footings:
(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

(e)

(f)

(g)

(h)

(i)

(j)

h (in.)

19

17

20

27

23

19

19

21

14

16

d (in.)

15.5

13.5

16.5

23.5

19.5

15.5

15.5

17.5

10.5

12.5

L (ft.)

10

7.5

8.5

15.0

11

11.5 11.0

Pu (k.)

45.6

44

59.2

69.6

64

60.8

52.8

65.6

44

51.2

qu (ksf.)

4.56

5.87

6.96

4.8

5.82

6.76

4.59

5.96

7.33

7.31

Vu1 (k.)

14.63

12.47

15.95

23.00

18.67

17.18 17.41 20.63

11.91

13.71

Mu (k.ft.)

46.17

31.00

46.79

111.00

67.96

49.67 59.32 72.09

22.91

31.09

As (in.2)

0.7

0.54

0.66

1.10

0.83

0.77

0.92

0.98

0.54

0.59

Bar No.

spacing (in.)

7.5

10

ld (in.)

48

28

33

55

55

42

55

42

24

29

ldav (in.)

51

36

41

77

55

43

59

53

27

32

Ash (in.2)

0.41

0.367

0.43

0.58

0.5

0.41

0.41

0.45

0.3

0.346

Bar No.

spacing (in.)

10

10

12

10

38

Problem 13.2: Square Footings.

AF (ft. )
h (in.)
d (in.)
L (ft.)
Pu (k.)
qu (ksf.)
Vu1 (k.)
Vu2 (k.)
Mu (k.ft.)
As (in.2)
Bars
ld (in.)
ldav (in.)
N1 (k.)
x
Ads (in.2)
Ldd (in.)

(a)
61.38
20
15.5
8
364
5.7
23.1
325.5
253.3
3.75

(b)
47.9
19
14.5
7
352
7.2
77.7
300
190.6
3.0

(c)
77.1
23
18.5
9
548.4
6.8
130.1
480.8
411.4
5.1

(d)
77.5
24
19.5
9
440
5.4
115.4
400.2
388.8
4.6

(e)
69.1
21
16.5
8.5
424
5.9
114.9
388.2
337.2
4.7

(f)
95.4
21
16.5
10
452
4.5
113.1
417
422.5
5.9

(g)
61.5
20
15.5
8
432
6.8
106.5
382.2
287.3
4.3

(h)
95.1
22
17.5
10
546
5.5
148.96
426.3
477.4
6.24

(i)
46.6
16
11.5
7
280
5.7
68.2
240.0
141.9
2.9

(j)
60.4
18
13.5
8
276
4.3
75.97
249.2
191.1
3.3

10#6
33
37
424.3

8#6
33
30
537

13#6
33
41
663

12#6
33
45
238.6

12#6
29
41
433.2

11#7
42
49
565.5

11#6
29
36
716

9#8
48
47
884

8#6
29
30
696.4

9#6
33
38
334.2

4
1.28
22

4
1.62
22

4
2.0
24.7

7
5.54
22

4
0.98
21.4

4
1.28
21.4

4
1.62
19

4
2.0
21.4

4
1.57
21.4

4
1.0
22

39

Problem 13.3: Rectangular Footings:

AF (ft. )
L (ft.)
B (ft.)
h (in.)
d (in.)
Pu (k.)
qu (ksf.)
Vu1 (k.)
Vu2 (k.)
MuL (k.ft.)
MuS (k.ft.)
AsL (in.2)
Bars
AsS (in.2)
Bars
AsB (in.2)
Bars
AsE (in.2)
Bars
ldL (in.)
ldaL (in.)
lds (in.)
ldas (in.)
N1 (k.)
Ads (in.2))
x
ldd (in.)

(a)
61.4
10.5
6
23
18.5
364
5.78
105.5
316.4
363.7
165.2
4.52
9#7
5.22
12#6
3.79
9#6
1.8
4#6
48
52
28
25*
424.3
1.28
4
22

(b)
47.9
8
6
20
15.5
352
7.33
56.2
294.7
232.3
148.4
3.47
10#6
3.46
8#6
2.98
7#6
0.87
4#6
33
36
33
24*
537
1.62
4
25

(c)
77.6
10
8
23
18.5
548.4
6.86
111.5
478.2
476.4
344
5.92
11#7
4.95
11#6
4.42
10#6
0.8
2#6
48
47
33
35
663
2.0
4
25

(d)
78
10
8
24
19.5
440
5.5
103.1
402.1
445.5
336.9
5.25
10#7
5.18
12#6
4.61
11#6
0.84
2#6
48
51
33
39
238.6
5.55
7
22

40

(e)
69.6
10
7
21
16.5
424
6.06
93.4
385.1
413.7
257.8
5.79
9#8
4.54
8#7
3.7
6#7
1.09
2#7
48
50
42
32*
433.2
1.0
4
22

(f)
96.7
12.5
8
21
16.5
452
4.52
110.6
418.8
563.62
313.9
7.9
9#9
5.7
10#7
4.44
8#7
1.6
4#7
54
64
42
37*
565.5
1.28
4
22

(g)
61.5
10.5
6
23
18.5
432
6.86
51
368.7
416.7
182.3
5.2
10#7
5.22
9#7
3.76
7#7
1.77
4#7
42
51
42
24*
716
1.62
4
19

(h)
95
11
9
22
17.5
546
5.52
134.1
492.6
540.96
408.2
7.12
8#9
5.23
10#7
5.28
9#7
0.76
2#7
54
53
42
41
884
2.0
4
22

Problem 13.4: Rectangular footings.

AF (ft. )
L (ft.)
B (ft.)
h (in.)
d (in.)
Pu (k.)
qu (ksf.)
Vu1 (k.)
Vu2 (k.)
MuL (k.ft.)
MuS (k.ft.)
AsL (in.2)
Bars
AsS (in.2)
Bars
AsB (in.2)
Bars
AsE (in.2)
Bars
ldL (in.)
ldaL (in.)
lds (in.)
ldas (in.)
N1 (k.)
Ads (in.2))
x
ldd (in.)

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

61.4
9.5
6.5
20
15.5
364
5.9
110.26
321.05
294.15
199.29
4.43
9#7
4.10
11#6
3.59
8.#6
1.02
4#6
48
44*
33
29*
464.3
1.4
4
22

47.9
8.5
5.75
21
16.5
352
7.2
91.43
292.39
241.64
149.23
3.38
9#6
3.86
9#6
3.2
8#6
1.0
4#6
33
38
33
24*
530.2
1.6
4
25

77.6
11
7.25
26
21.5
548.4
6.88
151.72
466.4
505.04
331.17
5.44
10#7
6.18
10#7
4.9
8#7
1.77
4#7
48
51
48
33*
636.1
1.92
4
25

78
11
7.25
24
19.5
440
5.52
135.07
394.6
451.48
296.48
5.42
10#7
5.70
10#7
4.49
8#7
1.57
4#6
48
54
48
35*
357.5
2.49
4
22

41

Problem 13.5: Plain concrete wall footings:

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

D.L. (k.)

11

14

13

L.L. (k.)

12

B (ft.)

7.5

h (in.)

22

20

22

34

d (in.)

19
22.8

17
22

19
29.6

31
34.8

qu (ksf.)

4.56

5.5

7.4

4.64

Mu (k.ft.)

9.12

6.19

7.43

23.27

Ig (in4)

6859
152

4913
129

6859
124

29791
145

178
1.9

178
0.46

178
0

178
2.71

18.75

16.76

21.85

35.66

Pu (k.)

ft (psi.)
fta (psi.)
Vu (k.)
Vc (k.)

Problem 13.6:
1. Pe = 300 K; Pi = 390 K; L = 18 ft.
2. Use 9 18 ft.
3. Pu = 944 K; Pue= 416 K., Pui= 528 K; q u = 5.83 Ksf; q u= 52.5 K/ft. length.
a) Shearing forces = 13.125 K.
Shear at right side of Pe = 324.125 K.
Shear at right side of Pi = 113.7 K.
Shear at left side of Pi = 326.7 K.
b) Bending moment:
At right of interior column: Mu = 123.04 K.ft.; At left of interior column: Mu = 54.82 K.ft.
Max. moment at zero shear; from left hand side, Mmax = 1232.14 K.ft.
4.a) Vu(max) = 366.7 K; VU @ d = 215.14 K.
b) heck depth for two-way shear: (a + d) = 45.5 in;b0 = 111 in.
5. Design for bending moment in the longitudinal direction:
Use 12 #9 bars, (As = 12 in.2). Spacing = 9.3 in.
6. Design for beading moment in the short direction:
Use 9 #7 bars-(AS = 5.41 in.2), Spacing = 12.75 in.
42

Problem 13.7:
Footing No.
D.L. (K)
L.L. (K)
L.L. / D.L.
Usual Load (K)
Area = (Usual Load/2.81)
Max. Soil Pressure (Ksf)

1
130
160
1.23
170
60.5
4.8

2
220
220
1.00
275
97.9
4.5

3
150
210
1.40
202.5
72.0
5.0

4
180
180
1.00
225
80.1
4.5

5
200
220
1.10
255
90.7
4.6

6
240
200
0.83
290
103.2
4.3

Problem 13.8:
1. P = 360 K; M= 230 K.ft., e = 7.67 in., say 8 in.
2. a)Assume total depth = 2 ft., and assume the weight of the soil is 100 pcf.
Net upward pressure = 3.5Ksf; Choose a footing (11 x 10) ft
b) P u = 496 K; q u = 4.51 Ksf.
Max. moment in the long direction, M u = 640.62 K.ft.
Max. moment in the short direction, M u = 502.30 K.ft.
3. V u = 167.25K
4. Two way shear: b0 = 142 in.; A0 = 1244.25 in.2; V u = 457.03K.
5. Reinforcement in the long direction:
Use 9 #10 (11.39in. 2 ) spaced at 14.25in., provided l d > required 32 in.
6. Reinforcement in the short direction:
Use 9 #9 (9 in. 2 ) spaced at 15.75 in., provided l d > required 28 in.
7.Long direction, ld = 53 in. > required ld = 32 in.
Short direction, ld = 49 in. > required ld = 25 in.
8. Bearing stress at column base:
N1 = 530.1 K > Pu = 496 K
Problem 13.9:
1. Assume a total footing depth = 28 in.,
Allowable upward pressure = q net = 3488 psf.
P = 360 K; M = 230 K.ft; e = 7.67 in. Choose a footing 8 x 16 ft.
2. Pu = 496 K; Mu = 320 K.ft.
3. Distance from edge of footing = 5.29 ft.; V u = 190.3 K.
4. bo = 154 in . ; q at center of column = 3.88 Ksf.; V u = 456.5 K.
5. Reinforcement in the long direction:
Choose 15 #9 bars (A s = 15 in. 2 ); Spacing = 6.4 in.
6. Reinforcement in the short direction:
Use 20 #8 bars (As = 15.7 in.2) ; Spacing = 9.8 in.
7. Development lengths ld in both directions for #9 and #8 bars are adequate.
Problem 13.10:
1. Assume total depth = 27 in; q net = 3488 psf.; P = 360 K, M = 230 K, e = 7.67 in.
2. Choose a square footing 12 x 12 ft.
3. qmax < q (allowable)

43

CHAPTER 14
RETAINING WALLS
Problem 14.1:
1. Using Rankine formula: Ca = 1/3 and Cp = 3.0; Ha = 1833 lbs., acting @3.33 ft. from base.
Overturning moment Mo = 6.10 K.ft.
2. Calculate the balancing moment taken about toe O.
W1 = 7250 lbs., arm = 2.5 ft., Ml = 18.125 K.ft.
-W2 = -1305, arm = 1.0 ft., -M2 = -1.305 K.ft.
R = W = 5945 lb.,
M b = 16.82 K.ft.
Factor of safety against overturning = 2.76 > 2.0
3. Force resisting sliding, F = 2.97 K.; Factor of safety against sliding = 1.62 > 1.5
4. q(max) = 2.19 Ksf < 3.5 Ksf; q(min) = 0.19 Ksf.
Problem 14.2:
1. Using Rankine formula, Ca = 1/3 and Cp = 3.0; Ha = 4125 lbs., acting @15/3 = 5 ft. from base.
Overturning moment M o = 20.625 K.ft.
2. Calculate the balancing moment taken about the toe O:
Weight lb.
W1 = 3770
W2 = 3770
W3 = 2320
W4 = 2860
W5 = 1430
Total W = R = 14.150 K.

arm (ft)
2.00
4.33
4.00
5.67
7.5

Moment
7.54
16.32
9.28
16.22
10.72
Mb = 60.08

Factor of safety against overturning = 2.91 > 2.0


3. Force resisting sliding: F = 7.08 K; Factor of safety against sliding = 1.72 > 1.5
4. q(max) = 3.37 Ksf < 3.5 Ksf; q(min) = 0.164 Ksf.
Problem 14.3: (a) to (j)
BALANCED FORCES AND MOMENTS:
ITEM
WEIGHT
ARM
(K)
(FT)
RESULTANT
7.540
4.24
EARTH PRESSURE FORCES AND MOMENTS:
FORCE
ARM
(K)
(FT)
TOTAL
2.146
4.00
FACTOR OF SAFETY AGAINST OVERTURNING = 3.73
FACTOR OF SAFETY AGAINST SLIDING
=

44

MOMENT
(K.FT)
32.000
MOMENT
(K. FT)
8.585
1.76

Problem 14.3 (e):


BALANCED FORCES AND MOMENTS:
ITEM
WEIGHT
ARM
(K)
(FT)
RESULTANT
12.604
5.72

MOMENT
(K. FT)
72.139

EARTH PRESSURE FORCES AND MOMENTS:


FORCE
ARM
(K)
(FT)
TOTAL
4.307
5.67

MOMENT
(K. FT)
24.409

FACTOR OF SAFETY AGAINST OVERTURNING


FACTOR OF SAFETY AGAINST SLIDING
Problem 14.4 (e) :
1. Balanced forces and Moments:
W1 = 2.325 K
arm
W2 = 0.581
arm
W3 = 2.025
arm
W4 = 7.673
arm
W6 = 1.35
arm
Total W = 13.964

= 4 ft
= 3.33
= 4.5
= 6.75
= 6.75

2. Earth pressure forces and moments:


PAH = 4.307 K
arm = 5.67 ft.
PH2 = 1.382
arm = 8.5 ft.
Total P = 5.69
Overturning F.S. = 81.25/ 36.16 = 2.24

=
=

2.96
1.63

M = 9.3K.ft.
M = 1 .938
M = 9.113
M = 51.79
M = 9.113
Total M = 81.25
M = 24.41 K.ft.
M = 11.76 K.ft.
Total M = 36.16
OK

3. Sliding: F.S.= 1.23 less than 1.5, NO GOOD;


Key 1.5 x 1.5 ft is not adequate.
Increase length of footing L to 11 ft. Shear in toe is not adequate and depth of footing hf to 21.
Problem 14.5 (e):
BALANCED FORCES AND MOMENTS:
ITEM
WEIGHT ARM
MOMENT
(K)
(FT)
(K. FT)
RESULTANT 12.800
5.75
73.612
EARTH PRESSURE FORCES AND MOMENTS:
FORCE
ARM
MOMENT
(K)
(FT)
(K. FT)
TOTAL:
4.906
5.93
29.100
FACTOR OF SAFETY AGAINST OVERTURNING =
2.53
FACTOR OF SAFETY AGAINST SLIDING (Pp INCLUDED)= 2.05

45

Problem 14.6 (e) to (h):


All the steel areas are given at the last part of each problem of 14.3 (e) to (h).
Problem 14.7:
1. For = 33, C a = 0.295
Ha = 7.08 K; Mo = 47.2 K.ft.
Weight
arm (ft)
W 1 = 2.4
4.50
W 2 = 1.2
3.67
6.00
W 3 = 3.6
W 4 = 13.44
8.50
W = R = 20.64
Factor of safety against overturning = 2.3 > 2.0
2. Check sliding condition: F = 9.29; F.S. = 1.31 < 1.5
F.S. (sliding) = 1.56 > 1.5
3. q 1 =0.83 = 2 .55 ksf; q 2 = 0.89 ksf
F = 1 1 . 3 1 K ; F . S . ( s l i d i n g ) = 1.6 > 1.5

Moment (k.ft.)
10.8
4.4
21.6
114.2
M = 151.0
Not good, use Key 1.5 x 1.5ft

Problem 14.11:
1. For = 30, Ca = 0.333, hs(Surcharge) = 3.33 ft.
pa (soil) = 0.5 Ksf,
Ha = 3.125 K.
Hw = 4.875 K.
pw (water) = 0.78 Ksf.,
For intermittently wet ground,
Hw = 2.44 K.
Ps (surcharge) = 0.133 Ksf.,
Hs= 1.66 K.
2. Mu = 18.23 K.ft; R (top) = 2.78 K; R (bottom) = 8.8 K.
Mu(positive) = 7.77 K.ft.
3. Use #6 bars spaced at 6 in.
For Mu = 7.77 K.ft; Use #5 bars spaced at 12 in.
For longitudinal reinforcement: use #4 bars spaced at 12 in. (As = 0.20 in.2)

46

CHAPTER 15
DESIGN FOR TORSION
Problem 15.1:
Tcr = 349.8 K .in.
Problem 15.2:
Tcr = 170.8 K .in.
Problem 15.3:
Acp = 428in.2 ;Pcp = 138 in.

Tn = 63 K .in.

Tcr = 251.9 K .in.


Problem 15.4:
Acp = 608in.2, Pcp = 156in.

Tcr = 449.6 K .in.


Problem 15.5:
Acp = 336 in.2; Pcp = 76in.2
If flanges are included, then Tcr = 390.5 k.ft and Tn = 97.7 k.ft.
Problem 15.6:
Acp = 504in.2, Pcp = 132 in.
Problem 15.7:
Vc = 25.9 K
Vu = 36 f

Vc
2

Pcp = 72 in.
Design for torsion: Assume 1.5in. cover concrete cover and #4 stirrups
Aoh = 194.25 in.2; Ao = 165.11 in.2, Pn = 58 in.
Use #4 stirrups, use S = 7 in.
Problem 15.8:
Total area of closed stirrups:
For one leg: Avt/S = 0.015+0.004 = 0.019in2 (per one leg)
Use #4 stirrups, Use S = 7in
Problem 15.9:
Vc = 22.2 K < Vu shear reinforcement required.
Acp = 264 in2, Pcp = 68 in, Ta = 48.6K.in; Ta<Tu torsional reinforcement required.
Design for shear: Av/S = 0.043 in2/in (2legs); Av/2S = 0.043/2 = 0.0215 in2/in (leg)
Design for torsion: Assume 1.5in cover and use # 4 stirrups @ S = 4 in.
LHS = 463Psi, RHS = 474.3Psi > LHS O.K., Tn = 300/0.75 = 400 K.in
Distribution of longitudinal bars: Total = 1.35in2, Al/3 = 0.45
47

Problem 15.10:
Ta = 61.5K.in torsional reinforcement required.
Vc = 22.2 K shear reinforcement required
Design for shear:
Av/S = 50.4/(6019.5) = 0.043in2/in (two legs)
Av/2S = 0.0215 in2/in (one leg)
Design for torsion:
Aoh = 197.3in2; Ao = 167.7 in2; Ph = 91 in.
LHS = 485, RHS = 474.3 < LHS, section is not adequate.
Problem 15.11:
Design for moment: assume a = t = 6in
Mu = 3000Kips.in<Muft = 11181 K.in., Then rectangular section
Use 4#9 bars; use one raw of bars
Vc = 31Kips; Vu = 28K> Vc/2 shear reinforcement required.
Ta = 76.8K.in. Torsional reinforcement required.
Design for shear:
Av/S = 0.006 in2/in(2 legs); Av/2S = 0.003 in2/in(one leg)
Design for torsion:
LHS = 375.7, RHS = 474.4>LHS O.K., Tn = 300/0.75 = 400 K.in
Use #3stirrups @ S = 5.5in
Problem 15.12:
Design for moment:
Mu = 4800K.in<Muft then rectangular section; Use 5#9
Vc = 29.22K; Vu = 36> Vc/2 shear reinforcement is required.
Pcp = 124in. Ta = 77K.in; Torsional reinforcement is required.
Design for shear: Av/S = 0.019in2/in (2 legs), Av/2S = 0.0095in2/in (one leg)
Design for torsion: Ao = 206.8in2, Ph = 120in
LHS = 348.6, RHS = 474.2 > LHS O.K., Tn = 480K.in
At/S = 0.019in2 (per one leg)
Longitudinal reinforcement:
Use #4 stirrups @ S = 8in.
Distribution of longitudinal bars: Total 2.28in2, Al/3 = 0.76in2
Problem 15.13:
Mu = 3000K.in<Muft = 8386 K.in. then rectangular section.
Use 4#9 bars in one row, bmin = 11.6in
Vc = 26.8K; Vu = 28K > Vc/2 shear reinforcement is required.
Acp = 448 in2, Pcp = 124in, Ta = 66.5K.in. Torsional reinforcement is required
Design for shear: Av/S = 0.01 in2/in (two legs); Av/2S = 0.005 in2/in (one leg)
Design for torsion: Aoh = 243.35in2, Ao = 206.8in2, Pn = 120 in.
LHS = 375.7, RHS = 410.7 > LHS O.K., Tn = 400 Kin, At/S = 0.016in2 (one leg)
Total area of closed stirrups: Use #3 stirrups @ S = 6 in.
Distribution of longitudinal bars: Total = 1.92 in2, Al/3 = 0.64in2
48

Problem 15.14:
As = 3.3in2 use 4#9; Shear and torsional reinforcement are required.
Design for shear: Av/2S = 0.003 in2/in (one leg)
Design for torsion: Aoh = 243.25in2, Ao = 206.8in2
Pn = 120in, Acp = 448in2, Pcp = 124in; Tcr = 307K.in < Tu = 300K.in; At/S = 0.016 in2(one leg)
Total area of stirrups: For one leg: Use #3stirrups @ S = 6in
Distribution of longitudinal bars: Total = 1.92in2, Avt/3 = 0.64in2
Problem 15.15:
Design for moment: As = 3.35in2, Use 4#9 bars
Design for shear: Ao/2S = 0.005in2/in (one leg)
Design for torsion: Aoh = 243.25in2, Ao = 206.8in2, Pn = 120in; Acp = 448in2, Pcp = 124in
Tcr = 226K.in < Tu, Use Tu = 266K.in; At/S = 0.014in2 (one leg); Al = 0.014120 = 1.7in2
Total area of closed stirrupss: For one leg: Use #3 stirrups; Use S = 6in
Distribution of longitudinal bars: Total = 1.7 in2, Al/3 = 0.57 in2
Problem 15.16:
Design for shear: Av/2S = 0.0058in2/in (one leg)
Design for torsion: Aoh = 194.25, Ao = 165.11, Pn = 58, Acp = 308, Pcp = 72
Tcr = 216.5K.in < Tu = 216.5 K; Use #4 stirrups At 7in.
Problem 15.17:
1. Moy = 334 k.ft., Mox = 248.5 k.ft.; mAsx = 4.86 in.2 , Asy = 5.04 in.2
2. Design for torsion and shear: Tu = 576 k.in., Vu = 12 k.
a.) d = 17.5 in., fc = 4 ksi., fy = 60 ksi,

Vc = 2 f c 'bd = 26.6 k .
b.) Acp = 320 in.2, Pcp = 72 in.; Tu = 576 > Ta = 67.5 K.in. torsional reinforcement is needed.
3. Design for torsion: Assume 1.5 in. cover concrete cover and #4 stirrups.
a.) Aoh = 206.25 in.2, Ph = 58 in.2, Ao = 175.3 in.2
b.) LHS = 464.psi., RHS = 474.5 psi, RHS > LHS o.k. Section is adequate.
c.) Al (min.) is not critical
d.) For one-leg Use #4 stirrups @ 6 in.
e.) Longitudinal bars: Use Al/4 = on all sides of beam = 0.53 in.2
f.) Choice of steel bars: Use 6 #9 bars (As = 9 in.2)
Problem 15.18:
1. Assume own weight of beam = 0.3 k/ft. Uniform dead load = 1.1 k./ft.; U = 2.34 k./ft.
2. Bending moment at A, Mu = 49.9 k.ft; Tu (at A) = 63.52 k.ft., Vu (at A) = 18.7 k.
3. The section is L-section, but since Mu is small, rect. section is assumed to obtain min. steel.
4. U = 0.25 k./ft., Mu = 8.0 k.ft.; Let t = 5.0 in. slab.
5. Design for shear and torsion: Tu = 591 k.in., d = 21.5 in.; Vu = 14 < Vc /2
Acp = 336 in.2, Pcp = 76 in.; Tu > Ta torsional reinforcement is needed.
LHS = 467.4 psi, RHS = 474.5 psi., RHS > LHS o.k. section is adequate.
Total area of closed stirrups: for one-leg: Use #4 stirrups, use S = 5 in.

49

CHAPTER 16
CONTINUOUS BEAMS AND FRAMES
Problem 16.1:
1. One way slab; Wu = 268 psf
2. Loads on beam: Wu = 2845 lb/ft, Say 2.9 K.ft.
3. Design of moment:
Support:
A
B
C
Steel:
3#7 (1.8 in2)
4#7 (2.41 in2)
4#7 (2.41 in2)
4. Design for shear: Use #3 stirrups spaced at 6 in.
5. Deflection: = 0.06 in.; / L = 1/3990 which is very small.
Problem 16.2:
1.One way slab: Wu = 268 psf. ; Load on beam: Wu = 2.92 K/f t.
2. Design for moments:
Section
Support A Support B
Support C Midspan AB Midspan BC or D
Bars
2#7
3#7
3#7
2#7
3#7
3. Design for shear: Use #3 stirrups spaced at 8.5 in.
Problem 16.3:
MA=MC= 0; MB = -387.2 K.ft.
RA = 55.87 K.; RB = 192.33 K.; RC = 55.8 K
Section
AB
B
Bars
5#9
4#9+3#8(top)
2#9(bottom)
5. Design for shear: Use #4 stirrups spaced at 3.5 in.
Problem 16.4:
Section
AB
B
Bars
3#9
Design for shear: Use #4 stirrups at 3.5 in.

BC
3#9

BC
6#9

2#9+2#8

Problem 16.5:
1.) Assume beam 16 x 34 in., and column 16 x 30 in.
Section
Supports B,C ,
Midspan E
Bars
2#10 + 6#9(8.53 in2)
(5#10 + 3#9)(As=9.33 in2)
Design for shear: Use #4 stirrups at 4 in., max spacing = 15 in.
2. Design of columns AB, DC;
a) Section B: Provided P n = 230,9 K > 186.1 required
b) Section at midheight of column: Provided P n = 332.1 K > 192 K required.
c) Ties: choose #4 ties spaced at S = 16 in.
3. Use crossing bars 5#9 and 4#7; Use 4#4 ties within a length = a = 9 in.
4. Rectangular footing: use 7.5 x 4 ft.
Longitudinal steel: Use 5#6 bars in the longitudinal direction (As = 2.21 in.2)
Transverse steel: Use 7#7 bars in the short direction.

50

Problem 16.7:
Mp = 494.2 K.ft.
Problem 16.8:
Mp = 300 K.ft.
Problem 16.9:
Mu = 171 K.ft.
Design critical sections: use 3#9 bars (As = 3.0 in.2)
Let h = 19 in., d = 16.5 in.
Fixed end moments at fixed ends using ultimate loads: M FA = MFB = -228 K.ft.; MA = 171 K.ft.
Rotation capacity provided: A = 0.0101 greater than the required of 0.0062.
Deflection: = 0.266 in.; /L = 1/902 which very small.
Shear: Use #4 stirrups spaced at 8 in.
Problem 16.10:
Final moments:
Section
Support

D.L.
moments

B
C
Midspan
AB
BC
CD
*= Design Moments
Problem 16.11:
Final moments:
Moment due to
Section
Support

A
B
C
D
E

Midspan AB
BC
CD
DE

L.L.
max (-)

L.L.
max (+)

D.L.+L.L
max (-)

D.L.+L.L.
max (+)

-311
-311

-302.4
-302.4

52.8
52.8

-613.4*
-613.4*

-258.2
-258.2

276.6
121.0
276.6

-79.2
-158.4
-79.2

280.8
201.6
280.8

197.4
-37.4
197.4

557.4*
322.6*
557.4

DL

L.L.
max ve

L.L.
max +ve

0
-333.3
-222.2
-333.3
0

0
-312.5
-277.7
-312.5
0

0
0

+265.4
+154.3
+154.3
+265.4

-84.9
-141.5
-141.5
-84.9

+276.4
+218.6
+218.6
+276.4

51

Col.1+Co1.2
max -ve
0
-645.8*
-499.9*
-645.8*
0
+180.5
+12.8
+12.8
+180.5

Col. 1+Co1. 3
max +ve
0
-333.3
-222.2
-333.3
0
+541.8*
+372.9*
+372.9*
+541.8*

CHAPTER 17
DESIGN OF TWO-WAY SLABS
Problem 17.1:
Prob.#

ln1

ln2

h = ln/30

h = ln/33

h (in.) Totol floor

18

18

7.27.5

6.547.0

7.5

22

22

8.89.0

8.0

9.0

24

24

9.610

8.739.0

10.0

18

14

7.27.5

6.547.0

7.5

22

18

8.89.0

8.0

9.0

24

20

9.610

8.739.0

10.0

28

22

11.211.5

10.1810.5

11.5

28

28

11.211.5

10.1810.5

11.5

Problem 17.2 (a):


Strip

Column strip

Middle Strip

Moment sign

Neg.

Pos.

Neg.

Pos.

Mu (k.ft.)

- 150.1

64.6

- 50.0

43.1

As = bd (in.2)

5.46

2.6

2.6

2.6

Min. As = 0.0018bhs (in.2)

1.73

1.73

1.73

1.73

Straight bars

18#5

9#5

9#5

9#5

Spacing = b/No.2hs18 in.

6.7

13

13

13

Problem 17.2(b.):
Strip
Moment sign
Mu (k.ft.)
As = bd (in.2)
Min. As = 0.0018bhs (in.2)
Straight bars
Spacing = b/No.2hs 18 in.

Column strip
Neg.
Pos.
- 317.8
136.9
7.02
5.05
3.11
3.11
12#7
12#6
12
12

52

Middle Strip
Neg.
Pos.
- 105.9
91.3
5.05
5.05
3.11
3.11
12#6
12#6
12
12

Problem 17.2(c):
Strip
Moment sign
Mu (k.ft.)
As = bd (in.2)
Min. As = 0.0018bhs (in.2)
Straight bars
Spacing = b/No.2hs 18 in.
Problem 17.3(a):
Long Direction
Mu (k.ft.)
As = bd2 (in.2)
Min. As = 0.0018bhs (in.2)
Straight bars
Spacing = b/No.2hs = 18 in.
Problem 17.3(b):
Long Direction
Mu (k.ft.)
As = bd2 (in.2)
Min. As = 0.0018bhs (in.2)
Straight bars
Spacing = b/No.2hs = 18 in.

Column strip
Neg.
Pos.
- 411
177
8.49
5.66
3.51
3.51
14#7
13#6
11
12

Column strip
Ext.(a) Pos.(b)
- 80
96
2.80
3.35
1.73
1.73
9#5
12#5
13
12

Middle Strip
Neg.
Pos.
- 137
118
5.66
5.66
3.51
3.51
13#6
13#6
12
12

Int.(c)
161.6
5.90
1.73
10#7
12

Middle strip
Ext.(a) Pos.(b)
0
64
0
2.57
1.73
1.73
8#5
9#5
15
13

Int.(c)
- 53.9
2.57
1.73
9#5
13

Column strip
Ext.(a) Pos.(b)
Int.(c)
169.51 203.41 342.27
5.2
5.2
7.33
3.11
3.11
3.11
12#6
12#6
10#8
12
12
14.4

Middle strip
Ext.(a) Pos.(b)
0
135.61
0
5.2
3.11
3.11
10#6
12#6
14.4
12

Int.(c)
114.09
5.2
3.11
12#6
12

Problem 17.4:
Pro
b.#

ln1
(ft.)

ln2
(ft.)

h (in.)
Exterior

h (in.)
Interior

h (in.)
Totol floor

drop panel
(in.)

Total depth
drop
panel(in.)

Length of
drop panel
(ft.)

18

18

6.547

6.0

7.0

6.676.67

22

22

8.0

7.338

8.0

10

88

24

24

8.29

7.278

9.0

2.25

11.5

8.678.67

18

14

6.547

5.455.5

7.0

1.75

6.675.33

22

18

8.0

6.677

8.0

10

86.67

53

24

20

8.729

8.0

9.0

2.25

11

8.667.33

28

22

10.1810.5

8.5

10.5

2.6

13

108

28

28

10.1811.5

10.5

10.5

2.6

13

1010

Problem 17.5(b):
Mo = 572 k.ft.
Mu (k.ft.)
As = bd2 (in.2)
Min. As = 0.0018bhs (in.2)
Straight bars

Long & Short Direction


Column strip
Middle strip
Neg.
Pos.
Neg.
Pos.
280.3
120.1
91.5
80.1
7.76
3.1
3.1
3.1
3.11
3.11
3.11
3.11
14#7
11#5
11#5
11#5

Problem 17.6(b):
Mo = 572 k.ft.
Mu (k.ft.)
As = bd2 (in.2)
Min. As = 0.0018bhs (in.2)
Straight bars

Ext.
149
4.04
2.59
12#7

Long & Short Direction


Column strip
Middle strip
Pos.
Int.
Ext.
Pos.
178.5
300
119
8.3
3.1
4.2
4.89
2.59
2.59
2.07
2.07
16#5
14#7
8#6
16#5

Int.
100
3.6
2.07
8#6

Problem 17.7(a):
Long & Short Direction
Column strip
Neg.
Pos.
-20.6
11.1

Middle strip
Neg.
Pos.
-45.8
24.7

low

low

2.34

1.20

Steel bars

10#4

10#4

12#4

10#4

Spacing (in.)2hs 14 in.

12

12

10

12

Mu (k.ft.)
As = bd (in.2)

Problem 17.8(a):
Strip
Mu (k.ft.)
As = bd2 (in.2)
Min. As = 0.0018bhs (in.2)
As ( min.=0.0033)
Bars selected
Spacing 15 in.

Column strip
Ext.(-)
Pos.
Int.(-)
-5.62
18.1
-22.2
low
low
low
1.3
1.3
1.3
1.9
1.9
1.9
10#4
10#4
10#4
12
12
12
54

Middle strip
Ext.(-)
Pos.
Int.(-)
-7.7
40.2
49.4
low
2.10
2.40
1.3
1.3
1.3
1.9
1.9
1.9
10#4
14#4
14#4
12
8.5
8.5

Problem 17.9:
Waffle slab (Interior panel)

Problem 17.10:
Waffle slab (Exterior panel)
Exterior Slab:
Mni = 1370.74 K.ft.; Mne = 509.12 K.ft.; Mp= 1018.3 K.ft.
Strip
Mu (k.ft.)
As = bd2 (in.2)
Min. As = 0.0035bh (in.2)
Bars selected #8
Bars per rib #8

Column strip
Ext.(-)
Int.(-)
Pos.
509.12
1028.1
610.98
9.3
12.8
9.3
9.3
9.3
9.3
12
18
12
2
3
2

Middle strip
Ext.(-)
Int.(-)
Pos.
0
342.64
407.32
9.3
9.3
9.3
9.3
9.3
9.3
12
12
12
0
1
2

Interior Slab:
Mn = -1272.83 K.ft.; Mp= 685.37 K.ft.
Strip
Mu (k.ft.)
As = bd2 (in.2)
Min. As = 0.0035bh (in.2)
Bars selected #8
Spacing

Column strip
negative
-954.6
12
9.3
16
3

Middle strip
Positive Negative
411.22 -318.23
9.3
9.3
9.3
9.3
12
12
2
1

55

Positive
274.15
9.3
9.3
12
1

CHAPTER 18
STAIRS
Problem 18.1:
1.) Wu (on stairs) = 386 lb./ft.
Wu (on landing) = 326 lb./ft.
2.) Calculate the maximum bending moment and steel reinforcement
a) Mu = 13.37 k.ft.; Use #5 bars @ 7 in.; For 5.5 in. width stairs, use 10#5 bars
b) Transverse reinforcement for shrinkage: use #4 bars @ 12 in. (As = 0.2 in.2)
4.) Design of landing: Use #4 bars @ 12 in. (As = 0.2 in.2)
5.) Check shear (stairs): Vu = 2.4 K < Vc/2 = 3.45 k., no shear reinforcement required .
6.) Check shear at loading: Vud = 1.2 K < Vc/2 O.K.
Problem 18.4:
1.) Wu (on stairs) = 252.2 lb./ft.
Wu (on landing) = 194 lb./ft.
2.) Maximum bending moment and steel reinforcement:
Mu = 0.80 k.ft.; Use #3 bars @ 12 in. (As = 0.11 in.2)
3.) Since Vu = 0.567 K < Vc/2, no shear reinforcement is required. But it is recommended to
use stirrups #3 @ 4 in. to hold the main reinforcement.
4.) Design of supporting beam: As = 1.5 in.2, use 3#7 (As = 1.8 in.2)
5.) Check beam A for torsion when L.L. acts on one side of stairs.
Ta = 17.75 k.in. < Tu = 38.4 k.in.; Torsional reinforcement is needed and section is not adequate.
Use #3 closed stirrups @ 4 in.

56

CHAPTER 19
INTRODUCTION TO PRESTRESSED CONCRETE
Problem 19.1:
1. For the given section: top= 564 psi (Compression) ; bottom= +624 psi (tension)
Both stresses are less than the ACI allowable stresses at transfer.
Both stresses are less than the allowable stresses after all losses.
2. Allowable uniform live load after all losses:
a) based on top fibers stress: WL = 1.94 K/ft.
b) based on bottom fibers stress: WL = 1.35 K/ft., controls.
Allowable live load = 1.35 K/ft based on tensile stress controls.
Problem 19.2:
Loss from
Elastic shortening
Shrinkage
Creep of concrete
Relaxation of steel
Total losses =
Additional losses
Total =
Total F = 300.76 K
Problem 19.3:
Loss from
Elastic shortening
Shrinkage
Creep of Concrete
Relaxation of steel
friction
Total losses =
Total F = 415 K.

stress ksi
12.3
8.4
15.29
4.24
40.23
3.39
43.62

Stress Ksi
8.52
5.60
8.02
4.20
13.2
39.54

Problem 19.4:
a) Total moment, MT = 1339.5 K.ft.
MD = 320.26 k.ft, and MT = 1339.5 k.ft to get critical e's.
emax= 22.45 in. and emin = 15.78 in. e (used) = 17.24 in.
b) Section at 12 ft. from midspan, (16 ft. from support) :
MD = 261.44 K.ft., ML = 512 K.ft., MT = 1093. 44 k.ft
e max = 21.15 in. , e min = 8.66 in. , e(used) = 14.1 in.
c) Section at 10 ft. from the support (18 ft. from midspan):
MD = 187.91K.ft., ML = 368 K.ft., MT =785.9 K.ft.; e(used) = 10.12 in.
d) Section at 3 ft. from the support (25 ft. from midspan):
MD = 64.95 K.ft., ML = 127.2 K.ft., MT = 271.65 K.ft.

57

percentage
7.26
4.96
9.02
2.50
23.74
2.00
25.74

Percentage
4.87
3.36
4.80
2.50
7.93
23.46

Problem 19.5:
M D = 712.3 k.ft (total D.L.) and ML= 627.2 k.ft.; Fi used = 544 K which is adequate.
If MD =320.26 k.ft (self-weight) is used, then ML = MT - MD = 1019.24 K.ft.
Fi (min.) = 349.5 k and Fi (max.) = 1616.6 k.
Problem 19.6:
1. MD (self-weight) = 349.7 K.ft. = 4196 K.in.
2. Estimate prestress losses: F = 140.9 Ksi, = 0.839
3. Limits of eccentricity at midspan:
MD (self-weight) = 349.7 K.ft. = 4196 K.in. ; F = 487 K.
e max = 19.7 in. , e min = 13.7 in.
4. Limits of eccentricity at 22 ft. from support:
MD = 3787 K.in., Ma = 9979 K.in., MT = 13766 K.in.
5. Limits of e at 11 ft. from support.
MD = 2389 K.in., Ma = 6296 K.in., MT = 8685 K.in.
6. Limits of e at 3 ft. from support:
MD = 750 K.in., Ma = 1976 K . i n . , M T = 2726 K.in.
7. Fi used = 580.6 Ksi is adequate.
Problem 19.7:
1. Stresses at level of tendon due to D.L.
Fi = 165.16 Ksi
2. Loss due to shrinkage = 8.4 Ksi
3. Loss due to creep = 1.5; Elastic strain = 0.002414; Creep loss = 10.14 Ksi.
4. Loss due to relaxation of steel = 7 Ksi
= 0.845 and F = 482.5 K.
Total Mn = 2591.6 K.ft., Mu = 2332.5 K.f t.
1.2 Mcr = 1825.5 K.f t. < Mn.
Section is adequate.
Problem 19.8:
a) Camber at transfer = -1.089 + 0.424 = -0.665 in. (upward).
b) Deflection at service load = 0.553 in. (downward)
Problem 19.9:
Wu = 3.22 K/ft.
Vu (at h/2 from support) = 96.6 K
Mu (at h/2 from support) = 199.64
e at midspan = 18.5 in., e @ 2 ft. from the support = 1.7 in
Use #3 stirrups spaced at 14.5 in. all over.
Problem 19.10:
Beam acts as a T-section.
Mn = 1950.8 K.ft.; Mn = 1755.7 K.ft.

58

CHAPTER 20
SEISMIC DESIGN OF REINFORCED CONCRETE STRUCTURES
Problem 20.1:
SMS = 1.64 g; SM1 = 0.496 g; SDS = 1.09 g; SD1 = 0.33 g
Seismic design category is D.
Problem 20.2:
SMS = 1.3 g; SM1 = 0.6 g; SDS = 0.87 g; SD1 = 0.40 g
SDC = D; V = 13.16 k
Lateral seismic forces are: F1 = 5.98 k; F2 = 7.18 k
Problem 20.3:
SMS = 0.825 g; SM1 = 0.32 g; SDS = 0.55 g; SD1 = 0.21 g, SDC = D; CS = 0.066
N
Wi [k]
h (ft)
wihi
Cvx
Fx [k]
5
1000
50
50000
0.333
110
4
1000
40
40000
0.267
88
3
1000
30
30000
0.2
66
2
1000
20
20000
0.133
44
1
1000
10
10000
0.067
22
150000
330
Problem 20.4:
Location Mu (kft)
Support
-265.5
131
Midspan 82.8

As (in2)
3.6
1.8
1.2

Reinforcement
6No.7
3No.7
2No.7

Vx [k]
110
198
264
308
330

Mn (kft)
322.6
168
113

Problem 20.5:
For 5 No.8 bars; As = 3.95 in2; Wu = 4.35 k/ft
Design shear = 105 k; Earthquake induced force = 52.8 k
Use No. 3 hoops
A 11 in spacing started at 62 in from the face of support will be sufficient.
Problem 20.6:
Ash = 0.636 in2: Use 4 No.4 ties
Shear strength: Vu =120 k; Vc = 90 k; Vs = 252 k
Problem 20.7:
e = 115 in; Mn = 76923 kft; Pn = 8000 k
Rm = 0.132; Mn = 1995840 k ft > 76923 kft (OK)
Special boundary elements are needed
Transverse reinforcement of the boundary element:
Use no.4 hoops and crossties; Smax = 6 in; Ash = 0.954 in2: Use 5 No.4 crossties

59

CHAPTER 21
BEAMS CURVED IN PLAN
Problem 21.1:
Moment
For the section at support, Mu = 187 k-ft., As = 3.11 in 2
For the section at midspan, M u = 94.52 k - ft. , As = 1.47 in 2
Maximum torsional moment, Tu = 18.90 k - ft.
Shear at the point of maximum torsional Moment = 60.55 k
Stirrups #4 @ 5 in c/c
Longitudinal Bars, Al = 0.81 in. 2
Sectional Details
a) The total area of top bars is 3.11 + 0.27 = 3.38 in.2, use 4 # 9 bars (negative moment)
b) The total are of bottom bars is 1.47 + 0.27 = 1.74 in. 2 , use 2 # 9 bars at the corner
c) At middepth, use 2 # 4 bars (0.4 in.2)
Problem 21.2:

VA = 1.57 Wu r = (1.57)(10.7)(6) = 100.8 k.


M A = -Wu r2 = -(10.7)(36)2 = -385.2 k.-ft, As = 3.3 in 2 (Top Steel)
T A = -0.3 Wu r2 = -0.3(10.7)(36)2 = 115.56 k.-ft
Mc = 0.273 Wu r2 = (0.273)(10.7)(36)2 = 105.2 k.-ft
TC = VC = 0
# 4 Stirrups, 2 braches, s = 3.89 in., use #4 @ 3.5 in.
Distribution bars:
Bottom bars = 3.15/3 = 1.05 in. 2 , use 2 # 7 (1.21 in. 2 )
Middepth bars , use 2 # 7 bars
Top bars = 3.3 + 1.05 = 4.35 in.2, use 6 # 8 bars in one row (4.71 in. 2 )
Problem 21.3:
M C =134.11 k-ft, TC =0

M D = -58.20 k-ft, TD = 52.46 k-ft


Problem 21.4:
Design for M A = -601.77 k-ft. As = 4.2 in 2
Vu = 103.6 k.ft., Tu = 281.1 k.ft
# 4 Stirrups, 4 braches, Av = 2(0.2) = 0.4 in 2 , Spacing; s = 6.31 in., use #4 @ 6 in.
Longitudinal reinforcement : Al = 6.19 in.2 Maximum spacing = Ph / 8 = 108 / 8 = 13.5 in.
60

Distribution of bars: Bottom bars = 4 # 7 ( As = 2.41 in. 2 ), Middepth bars , use 2 # 9 bars, Top
bars = 6.3 in.2, use 5 # 10 bars in one row ( As = 6.33 in. 2 )
Problem 21.5:
M C = 55.09 k-ft , As = 0.0033 12 21.5 = 0.86 in 2

M A = - 296.91 k-ft., As = 0.0150 12 21.5 = 4.2 in 2


TA = 31.81 k-ft
TC = 31.81 k-ft
Use # 4 Closed Stirrups, s = 0.2/0.0453 = 4.4 in., use #4 @ 4 in.
Longitudinal reinforcement : Al = 1.47 in.2 , Al / 3 = 0.50 in.2
For section at support;
Bottom bars, As = 0.5 in. 2 , use 2 # 5 bars ( As = 0.61 in. 2 )
Middepth bars, As = 0.5 in. 2 , use 2 # 5 bars
Top bars = 3.87 + 0.5 = 4.37 in.2, use 6 #8 bars in two row ( As = 4.71 in. 2 )
For section at mid-span
Bottom bars, = 0.86 + 0.5 = 1.36 in.2, use 2 #8 bars ( As = 1.57 in. 2 )
Middepth bars, use 2 # 5 bars
Top bars, use 2 # 5 bars

61