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Lessons on Nukhbatul Fikr

Presented by: Sheikh Tariq Appleby Lesson 4 - Part 1 . [Alhamdulillah Rab Al'alamin, wa Alsalahto wa Alsalam 'ala Ashraf Alanbiaa' wa Almorsalin, Nabina Mohammad wa 'ala Aleh wa sahbeh Agma'ien] [Assalamo 'alaykom wa Rahmato Allah wa Barakatoh] Welcome to lesson 4 of Nukhbatul Fikr . We, Insha'Allah, will continue with the author where he says: " " Before we begin explaining what the author has said, he means that aspersion is because of one of the following, the narrator lying, Before we discuss that and all the other aspect of criticism and aspersion of narrators, I want to mention that: this aspersion can, because of two things either because of the ('adala) of the ( rawy), or because of the (dabtt) of the (rawy). so there are five things that we will talk about when it comes to (adalah) it is lying, being accused of lying, been morally corrupt ( ay bd'ah),or because the ( rawy) is unknown ,his status or ('adalah) is unknown . And the second aspect of (t'an) is (dabtt): because of the rawys humanist mistakes, the fact that he is heedless, thirdly that he contradicts others, (waham) the fact of delusion; delusionary , and lastly because of his extremely, his chronically bad memory. also it is important to say here and to mention that we will take about the (rwat) ,it has been claimed that the Muhadethoun have committed backbiting ; and when they say that a ( rawy) is a lair or they say that he has a bad memory or they criticize him in any way ;some people have accused the Muhadethoun of ( ghiebah) .

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Now firstly, we need to know exactly what (gheba) is? And then secondly we need to know whether or not what the ( Muhadethon) have done? By criticizing narrators, and explaining or exposing their faults whether or not this is ? So firstly the definition of is : ( zekruka akhak bema yakrah ) to mention your bother to mention something about him which he will dislike .so if you said about your brother or sister that he/she is fat and they will dislike you speak about them in this way that would be ( gheba)and most commonly ( gheba)is that in absence of someone -when someone is not around-but it also can be and actually it is worse when you speak about someone in this manner when they are present because when they are not in the room when they are not with you ;then they dont know, when they are there ; their feeling are hurt and that is even worse than just speaking about them behind their backs ,so that is (gheba), that what it means .but is what the (muhadethon) what they did is that to be considered to be (gheba) or not ? . So once ( Abdullah bin Mubarak Rahemaho Allah ) is taking about and he said that : he is a liar and a man told him that you know Abu Abdullah you have committed (gheba) ,so he said: please keep quiet if we dont expose him how we know what is authentic and what is not authentic ,so from that and so many examples ,but from this particular incident we could see that the (Muhadethon) their only intention was not to backbit people ,was not to speak ill of them except to preserve the sunnah of the prophet Salla Allah 'alih wa Sallam So the sheik he says : " "(suma al ta'ano ema an yakoun le kzeb al rawy) aspersion of criticism is because of one of the following :the fact that the narrator lies. So the first thing we talk about here is that if we know that a narrator has lied then this is the most important or the most dangerous form of aspersion. And firstly or before we discuss his narration what it is called , we need to know that lying against the prophet Salla Allah 'alih wa Sallam is major sin ,and some scholars have even gone so far as ( Abu Mohamed al Jouini )he says : who ever purposefully , intentionally lies against the prophet Salla Allah 'alih wa Sallam ;then this person has disbelieved . But as Ibn Hajar, Rahemaho Allah, in his explanation of (Nukhba) he says that this is a very extreme opinion, rather the majority of ( muhadethon) hold a view that this is a major sin because the prophet Salla Allah 'alih wa Sallam says : " "" Whoever lies against me intentionally then let him prepare his seat in ( Jahannam).

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(Abu Mohamed al Juini) the reason why he says whoever lies against the prophet intentionally is a disbeliever , is because of this hadith the prophet says "let him prepare his seat in the fire". the majority of (Muhadethon) say that, he only says that he would go to he does not say that he is a (kafer) nor does he say that he will reside in forever . Now, after we know that it is a major sin ,the second thing we need to know is that what if this person who has lied against the prophet Salla Allah 'alih wa Sallam intentionally and we know that he has lied against the prophet Salla Allah 'alih wa Sallam, what if he repents; what if he says I want to make (tawba) -you know- I realized what I did in the past was a mistake and I want Allah to forgive me ,do we accept his (twaba)? And then continue to narrate from him? Or do we say that forever you will be rejected as a narrator but that your is between yourself and Allah Subhanaho wa ta'ala? The majority of ( Muhadethon), they say that, No, if the person is accused of lying once that is enough for his narration to be rejected forever. But Insha'Allah as the prophet Salla Allah 'alih wa Sallam says: " " Whoever repents for- who seeks Allah forgiveness for a sin it is as if he has no sin upon him.

So the author then continuous and he says: " " or the person is accused of lying, and this person, when we say that this person is accused of lying it means one of two things: the first: is that this person is the only one to report a particular narration and it contradicts established matters in the ( deen) whether or not it is established in the Quran, or the authentic sunnah if he is the only one to report it and it contradicts established matters; then we know that this person we must accuse him of lying. or number two : this person is known to lie in his daily speech with people when he does business he lies ,when he speaks to his children ,or his wife ,or his neighbors he lies . but it has never yet been ascertained that he lies when he narrates hadith, or when he teaches a hadith so if we are not certain, we know he is a lair, we know he lies or we know that he narrates things that no one else narrates and it contradict established matters in ( deen) then in this case we say that he is ( motahomon belkazeb) he is accused of lying and the ruling of this type of person is that his narration is rejected.

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" ( "aw fohsh ghalateh) or the narrator makes enormous mistakes. Let's get back to our challenge Insha'Allah as we said memorize the forty-two hadith. The definition of making of enormous mistakes or fohsho al ghalat: Is that he makes more mistakes than what he reports correctly. so if a person, this rawy ,as an example, he narrates the forty-two hadith if he makes mistakes in twenty-six of them ,or twenty-seven, or twenty-eight , if he makes mistakes in thirty ,if he makes mistakes in twenty-six ; and then we say that he is (sadouk laho awhm ) : that he is truthful person but he has many mistakes. But if he makes thirty or he makes more than that more than half ;then we say that he is fahosh al ghalat (he makes enormous mistakes) And the narration of someone like this, his narration is also rejected. " aw ghaflathy or the narrator is heedless as an example of this :he has told that there is a mistake in his book ;and because of that, he is so uncertain ,he is so heedless that he believes anyone who tells him that he has recorded in his book or his notes is a mistake ;and then he goes and he changes what is there or he abandons his book completely . ""fesqeh Or been morally corrupt there are two types of fesq : the first is doing something by interpretation meaning the person do some he has mistakenly interpret a verse in Quran or a hadith of the prophet Salla Allah 'alih wa Sallam and he is fallen into a sin and a definition of that would be bedah And then the other type of fesq is that the fesq which is out of interpretation the fasq which is you know- disobedience without any proof such as: drinking , such as lying and every other thing after that (but like as I said like lying that was the first )but like drinking and committing ( Zina (fornication)) or gambling ; the person like this would have his hadith rejected ;because rowaya narration is part of deen and because he is morally corrupt ;therefore we can't be certain that he will not lie in the hadith of the prophet Salla Allah 'alih wa Sallam .

" ( "aw wahmehy) or it is that the person is delusionary ok .the person is not sure : is the hadith from the prophet , is it the hadith of the prophet Salla Allah 'alih wa Sallam ,or is it the saying of the (sahabi ).so because of this he has become delusionary he can't be sure; I think it is the prophet , or it could be ) Abu sa'ied Al khodry radi Allah 'anh ) , I could not say with absolute certainty. So because of this doubt; this persons hadith would be rejected. But the hadith itself, it is very important that we mention this hadith itself would not be rejected; hadith itself if we find other chain of narration, other asaned
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that could support it then it would be accepted. But from even this done .if the hadith reaches us through the narration of a person who is delusionary who has ( wahm) then we reject that particular sanad.

Then he says:" ( " aw mukhalaftehy) contradicting others. now ,we spoke about this in some detail when we discussed the shaz, so, there is no need to repeat it in great detail here, but if the narrator is constantly contraindicating narrators who are more trustworthy than him whether it be one or more then this person's hadith would also be rejected .

" " or being unknown. meaning there is no recommendation, or there is no inducement of the narrator of the rawy, nor is any tagreh, nor is any criticism .we do not know much about the rawy we either do not know the person of the rawy or we do not know anything about the status of the rawy. So there are two type of gahalah right, the person is-or rather there is three types just, to clarify it further : - The first is: (gahaltul zat): we do not even have the name of the person and will discuss this later under (mubham) - Or he is maghol al ayan aw gahalto al ayan that is when the persons name is known but only one person narrates from him and he has very little ahadith - Or ( gahalatul hal ) or ) maghol al hal) when two narrators narrate from this person but we know nothing about his status we do not know whether or not he is reliable or whether or not he is weak. " " aw bedathy or the fact he is an innovator because of his innovation. We will discuss this later Insha'Allah. ( sou'e hefzehy )or being chronically forgetful. There are two type of forgetfulness when it comes to the rowat . The first is that which is permanent: when a rawy has always been, he is always had a bad memory, that he makes so many mistakes that we cannot accept his hadith. And the second is temporarily ;it happens later and the reason for this is that the rawy might has because of old age ; his memory might has faded ,or because of something that had happened to him ;he lost his mother or his father or his wife or his children that affected him so badly that his sociologically was affected so badly that it affected his memory , or he used to narrates from his books ,and they burnt or they were destroyed and now he narrates from his memory and his memory is bad .
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So these are all issue that affect the rawy and if it is chronic; then his narration is rejected.

[End of part 1]

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Lessons on Nukhbatul Fikr


Presented by: Sheikh Tariq Appleby Lesson 4 - Part 2 Or, he used to narrate from his books and they burned or they were destroyed, and now, he narrates from his memory, and his memory is bad. So these are all the issues that affect the rawy, and if it is chronic, then his narration is rejected. He then says: " " the first is the forged report, ok. Now, we already discussed the ruling of this and how serious it is, but the word is Mawdou', but now if we say that it is forged, that it is fabricated that the prophet Salla Allah 'alih wa Sallam never said it, that the rawy has lied against the prophet Salla Allah 'alih wa Sallam, or he has invented a lie, a Hadith against the prophet Salla Allah 'alih wa Sallam, the question appears, as I say in Arabic: the question that begs to be answered is: then why do we call it a Hadith? Why do we say that it is a Hadith? Why dont we call it a forged Hadith? The reason for this is that it is called a Hadith, according to the claim of the narrator. We call it forged, we call it a hadith, we call it Mawdou' Hadith, because the person who fabricated it, this person claims that it is a Hadith, only because of that we call it a Hadith. Because in reality, it is not a Hadith, the prophet Salla Allah 'alih wa Sallam didnt say it or do it. Now, why would people lie against the prophet Salla Allah 'alih wa Sallam? What is the reason for that? What could possibly cause a Muslim to lie against the prophet Salla Allah 'alih wa Sallam? And the reasons for this is that: 1- Seeking to come closer to Allah, subhanahu wa ta'ala. Really!! People would lie against the prophet Salla Allah 'alih wa Sallam seeking to come closer to Allah??! Yes, and there are so many examples: people they saw that , very pious people saw that Muslims are moving away from , you know, from worship, from reading the Qur'an, from giving charity, so what do they do? They fabricated Ahadith, they said that the prophet Salla Allah 'alih wa Sallam says, whoever reads this Sura , whoever does this, whoever gives so much Sadaqah, then Allah subhanahu wa ta'ala will give this person so much reward and Allah will grant this person this. Or, they would say , whoever does not do these things, Allah will punish him this way and cause him to lose this and he will be in Jahannam , you know, they basically would fabricate a Hadith to encourage people and also to scare people from committing any sins. So that was the first reason. 2- People who are not Muslims, but who are accepted Islam, but still kept their false beliefs, they were disbelievers at heart, so basically they were Hypocrites and the reason why they fabricated the Hadith was to destroy the deen from, you know, the inside and also to cause doubts. The good example of this is the Hadith which they claim that the prophet Salla Allah 'alih wa Sallam says that Allah created a horse, and Allah created the hoarse
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and Allah cause the horse to run and after the horse started to sweat, Allah Subhanaho [corrupted part in the tape]. That sweat. So, these ahadith were quoted and they were spread amongst the Muslims, and also that caused vast deal of Muslims to have doubts about the deen, the prophet Salla Allah 'alih wa Sallam how could he say something like this? It doesnt even make sense. So, just to cause doubts amongst Muslims. Also it was false propaganda against Muslims. So that, if a non Muslim heard this Hadith, and he says to himself: Muhammad Salla Allah 'alih wa Sallam he said something like this? No, I can't become a Muslim, it is impossible; why would I become a Muslim, when the prophet of Islam says such foolish things. So,That is the second reason. 3- To fabricate ahadith in support of your school of thought or, you know, your methodology or whatever you are doing, your belief. So, we have examples, you know, funny examples from amongst the madhaheb , you know, some hanafys, you know their distortions, subhan Allah , I dont want to say that the hanafys were the only ones, you know the shafe'ies were also guilty of it and many other people who are supporters of the Madhabs. But one example that does come to mind is that : some hanafys , they said : that there will come a person from this umma, he will be more harmful to my Umma than Iblis, his name is Mohamed ibn Idris; who are they speaking about? They are speaking about Imam Shafe'ie , Rahemaho Allah. So they are saying that the prophet said , , that the prophet said , that there will come a man he will be harmful to the umma he is Mohamed ibn Idris Alshafe'ie. And they fabricated that to show how evil it was to be a follower of the Shafe'ie Madhab. And also ahadith like this will come , a fabricated Hadith obviously , there will come one of this Umma he will be the torture of this Umma, his name is Nou'man ibn Thabet and we know that Nou'man ibn Thabet is Abu Hanifah. But these are two examples that come to mind and obviously they were within the Shafe'ies who fabricated a Hadith, you know, to refute the hanafys and so forth and so forth. The fourth reason why people fabricated hadith was: 4- Amongst the story tellers, and this was very famous in the second century of Islam, in the Abbasid dynasty specially , where story tellers were very common, and you know, people would gather around them and they would get paid, you know, people would give them money. And we find this amongst, you know the kawali singers today, you know, they sit and sing, you know, anashid , and the so called devotional music and we find that people give them money. And the story tellers in the same ways, they were like this, and they would tell stories, and to give their stories some sort of authenticity or genuineness, they would fabricate a Hadith on the prophet Salla Allah 'alih wa Sallam. They would say things like, whoever did this, the prophet Salla Allah 'alih wa Sallam would, he said, Allah will grant you thousand palaces in jannah, in each palace there would be and you know how story tellers are people who are very good in telling stories. But the prophet Salla Allah 'alih wa Sallam, they also would tell stories to make people laugh, to entertain people, and they sometimes fabricate things, but the prophet Salla Allah 'alih wa Sallam
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in a very genuine Hadith which includes lying against him, and just lying in general, when it comes to entertainment, he says that: "Woe be to the one who lies to make people laugh", so it is very stern warning from the prophet Salla Allah 'alih wa Sallam, that we try to avoid it. Sometimes when we are telling humorous story about ourselves, sometimes we get this urge just to add one or two things into it just to spice up the story, we need to remember this Hadith of the prophetSalla Allah 'alih wa Sallam, so that we do not fall into that trap that we, whatever we say, we say it, if you want to make people laugh you know, and cause them to some enjoyment, then you know, tell them the story as it is without spicing it up and without lying. 5- Ahadith that were fabricated for political reasons, like to come closer to the leaders , to gain favor with them , with the Khalifa and we find one example , there are many, but one example that I will mention here is: a man entered upon Almahdi , one of the Abbasid rulers and saw him playing with a pigeon and immediately when he saw that, he said that the prophet Salla Allah 'alih wa Sallam says that there is no competing for money except in races with horses or camels, or on foot , or using a bow and arrow, meaning target shooting, and lastly racing with pigeons. And so, Almahdi was very, you know, he knew immediately that that man had only narrated this Hadith to impress him and to show him that what he was doing, meaning having pigeons and racing them is something which the prophet encouraged, so he fabricated the Hadith to gain favor with Almahdi, and Almahdi then ordered that the pigeon be slaughtered. Some people say how could he slaughter this pigeon? What did the pigeon do? But, there is no problem in that. Firstly, if we said that he slaughtered the pigeon so that, you know, nothing .., he is trying to protect the Sunnah of the prophet Salla Allah 'alih wa Sallam and saying that, you know this Hadith has no basis, I dont care, I have just slaughtered this pigeon. also, it is his pigeon, he owns it, so, he could kill it, also there is no mention that he has just ordered it to be killed and you know, it has just thrown away, rather, there are so many possibilities; he could ordered it to be given to the poor, or he could have eaten it himself, so, there is not really a problem with that. Some scholars in their explanation of the story say what was the sin of the pigeon, but there is no real problem there. 6- To seek fame. Now, we know Insha'Allah, to have ahadith and to be narrating ahadith which no one else narrates, meaning that because of your extensive travel and your zeal for knowledge, you have collected ahadith, you know, from various places, from faraway places, that other narrators in your city might perhaps do not have, so this is something that 'Ulamaa consider to be great. But, if you fabricate ahadith, or, you know, not only the ahadith themselves but also the asanid . Like, if you have a Hadith which you reported through imam Bukhari and no one else had this Hadith on the authority of imam Bukhari, then this would be considered something great. But here we find that if you are fabricating Hadith, or asanid, so that people would think: subhan Allah, Masha'allah, look
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at this man; he has ahadith which no one else has. Then that is one of the reasons why people fabricated ahadith seeking fame, seeking to become famous for having that which others did not have. Now, what is the ruling of Mawdou' the ruling of Mawdou' is that it is haram, listen very carefully, it is Haram to narrate it. So even if you know that it is a fabrication, you know that it is weak, then this is haram for you just to mention it, except if you say that it is fabricated as I mentioned the example before about the horse and the sweat, that, if you are going to mention that Hadith, or that story, then you have to say that it is a fabrication. And if you look at, subhan Allah, the amount of fabricated Ahadith out there! The 'Ulamaa have written so many books, there are so many books of the Mawdou'at , many books that have been written by the scholars, and subhan Allah here are so many fabricated Ahadith, thousands of them literally, and we see that there are so many reasons why people have fabricated hadith, so definitely there were going to be many. But that shows you that Allah subhanaho wa Ta'ala has protected the sunnah of the prophet Salla Allah 'alih wa Sallam so much so every single fabricated hadith has been documented and we know who fabricated it and we know why we say that it is fabricated . You know, Insha'Allah when we do a more detailed book in the future, we will be able to discuss this in much more detail. Just to give you an example , in the Islamic University of Medina, in the Faculty of Hadith, fabrication, the Mawdou' hadith and all the factors that deal with this are studied in one semester, three times a week . So we spent at least 24 hours studying the Mawdou' hadith and we do assignments on it and so many other, we studied the books, we studied the reasons, and so many other things. What we are discussing in this lesson is only, you know, the basics and it is only the most important aspects. But some of the books that have been written is the book Al-Mawdou'at by Ibn Aljawzy , it is about four or five volumes, and also the book by Imam Alsiouty ( Al-la'al' Almasnou'ah) and also the book ( Al Fawa'ed Almajmou'ah) by Al Shawkani. Now , the book Al-la'al' Almasnou'ah, is a big book , a little bit smaller than Al-Mawdou'at, because mostly for the most part it is a summary of the book of Ibn Al Jawzy and the book Al Fawa'ed Almajmou'ah by Imam Al Shawkani , is a book that deals specifically only with the hadith. It doesnt mention why it is fabricated, he only mentions the hadith, and he also mentions the text of the hadith, he doesnt go into any other issues or any other explanation. This book is only in one volume.

We will take a break, Insha'Allah, and when we come back, we will discuss how we know that a hadith is fabricated. After the break Insha'Allah, we will talk about that. [Assalamo 'alaykom wa Rahmato Allah wa Barakatoh]
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Lessons on Nukhbatul Fikr


Presented by: Sheikh Tariq Appleby Lesson 4 - Part 3

[Alhamduliallah wahdah wa Alsalahto wa Alsalam 'ala man la nabey b'adah wa 'ala Aleh wa sahbeh Agma'ien] [Assalamo 'alaykom wa Rahmato Allah wa Barakatoh] Welcome back. We were discussing that how do we know that a Hadith is fabricated? How do we know that this is a lie against the prophet, Salla Allah 'alih wa sallam? And there are many ways we'll mention four of them. Number1: we know that from the admission of the person, the person makes tawba , the person repents and he says that I fabricated these 10 or these 15 or these 20 Ahadith and from that, from his admission and his confession we know that these Ahadith are fabricated. Or we know through history, we, the person claims to have heard from a particular person or the person or we look at the Hadith itself and the person says that the prophet, Salla Allah 'alih wa sallam, he did this at the battle of Hudaibia or the prophet, Salla Allah 'alih wa sallam, was with this companion. An example of this would be the prophet, Salla Allah 'alih wa sallam, and his uncle Abu Taleb were at the battle of Hudaibia we'd say "no it's impossible, how could you say something like that? Abu Taleb died before the Hijra of the prophet, Salla Allah 'alih wa sallam" so it is impossible, historically impossible, that Abu Taleb was so we know that this particular story, that particular narration is a fabrication. Number 3: something which indicates specifically to the rawy itself so sometimes, an important point here is that sometimes this, a Hadith is a fabrication not on intentionally but unintentionally. What is an example of that? An example of that is one of the narrators or one of the sheikhs of Hadith was sitting in his gathering and he was narrating a Hadith and he was saying the prophet, Salla Allah 'alih wa sallam, said and just before he's about to mention the actual Hadith a man came in, a very pious man, and this man had a very, you know, had, Masha'Allah, as we say, had a nour on his face so the sheikh said instead of mentioning the Hadith he says " " "Man kathar salatoh bel layl" that whoever makes sala at night his face is bright during the day. So everyone sitting there thought that that was a Hadith of the
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prophet, Salla Allah 'alih wa sallam, because the sheikh was about to narrate a Hadith but then when he saw this pious person and he saw his face he said that whomsoever makes sala at night then Allah, subhanho wa ta'ala, will grant that person brightness, a brightness on his face during the day. So that's unintentional that Hadith was then narrated afterwards as a Hadith but because when we look back and we research the actual Hadith and the circumstances that surrounded it we know that it is not a Hadith of the prophet, Salla Allah 'alih wa sallam, it is a lie but it was done unintentionally. Number4: we look at the Hadith itself and when we look at the Hadith of the ghosl and the sweat we look at this Hadith and immediately a person would say "no, the prophet, Salla Allah 'alih wa sallam, never said that" without even checking the chain of narration, without even looking at any other aspects of the Hadith the wording itself, the Hadith itself tells us that the prophet, Salla Allah 'alih wa sallam, did not mention that. He says then: """ wal thany" is called the " " " matrouk Hadith" the second is discarded report " " the second is the discarded report, why? Because the narrator is accused of lying because he is accused of lying if we have a narrator that has been accused of lying in a sanad then we say " " " Hadha hadith matrouk" this Hadith is matrouk. " " ""Wal thaleho al monkar 'ala raaayen" The third is the disclaimed report according to one opinion. So if there are enormous mistakes, the narrator makes more mistakes than that which he narrates correctly then we say that the Hadith is monkar and we said that this is according to one opinion and another opinion is that the monkar Hadith is the Hadith in which the weak narrator, the da'aif rawy , he contradicts the theqat and therefore we would say that the Hadith is monkar. " " " Wa kadha al rabe'a wal khames" As are the fourth and the fifth. So we said the fourth reason was heedlessness and the fifth was moral corruption and both of these Ahadith, if we find that there's a rawy that is a ghafel or feeh ghafla or a rawy that, say, faseq meaning that he has been accused of fesq then we call these types of Hadith we call it monkar. " " "Thomma al wahmo aw al wahamo" There are two ways to say this we could say alwahmo or we could say alwahamo . And in some verified manuscripts the word we used is alwahamo with a fatha on the haa . " " "Thomma alwahamo en otole'a 'alih bel qaraaen wa jam'a altoroq fal mo'alal" When delusion is discovered through external indications and gathering the parts of transmissions then it is the defective report. Now, the only way that we are going to find out that some delusion
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has taken place that there were some delusions on the part of the rawy is if we check every single, we look at external indications, we look at the circumstances of the rawy or we look at all the different asanid and we join them together and then we could see that there's something wrong with this. Now there are a few types of 'aela there's an 'aela which takes place in the sanad where the rawy, for instance, he instead of saying Ka'ab Ibn Morra he says Morra Ibn Ka'ab and we will discuss it again at the maqloob or there's an 'aela in the matten itself, one rawy says something which the other rowat do not mention and that we discussed under shadh or we find that there's an 'aela in the sanad of the matten and we already discussed some examples of that.

" " "Thomma al mokhalafto en kanat be taghyer al seyaq fa modarj al esnad" As for contradicting others if it results from changing the wording of the chain then it is the chain interpolated report. If someone has added something someone if the narrator and he contradicts others by changing the way in which the sanad is being narrated then we call this modraj al esnad . An example of this would be, if the rawy instead of saying Malek 'an Nafe'a 'an Ibn'Omar he says Malek 'an Zuhry 'an Nafe'a 'an Ibn 'Omar so he added, he interpolated Zuhry that then is called modraj al esnad . " " " " "Aw be damj mawqoof be marfo' fa modraj al matten" Or conflating a halted companion report with a raised prophetic report then it is the content interpolated report. Now there are many examples of this and it's going to happen at the beginning of the Hadith in the middle or at the end and this happens sometimes when the narrator after the tabe'ein he adds the word of a companion into the words of the prophet, Salla Allah 'alih wa sallam, so the words were separate but he added them he joined them together he interpolated the words of the sahabi into the words of the prophet, Salla Allah 'alih wa sallam, and it seems now that those separate statements are a one and they are attributed to the prophet, Salla Allah 'alih wa sallam. Now there are many reasons why someone would do this, sometimes the prophet, Salla Allah 'alih wa sallam, or something is reported about the prophet, Salla Allah 'alih wa sallam, and people are unsure exactly what is meant; an example of this is the prophet, Salla Allah 'alih wa sallam, says: that there are no day in which good deeds are beloved to Allah, subhanho wa ta'ala, than these 10 days. Now, if anyone after the companions, and obviously they were there, they knew what the prophet, Salla Allah 'alih wa sallam, was speaking about specific days but people narrating this Hadith that were not present like the tabe'ein and those after them, they would not
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know what the prophet, Salla Allah 'alih wa sallam, meant so the rawy says:" " "Ya'any al 'ashra men dhy elheja" that what is meant is that the prophet, Salla Allah 'alih wa sallam, is talking about the 10 days of dhu elheja so that is the rawy says he means the 10 days those that were interpolated into the sanad. but we know that after joining all the different chains of narration we know that what is meant is not the prophet, Salla Allah 'alih wa sallam, 's words, those were not the prophet's words rather they are the words of one of the narrators seeking to clarify what the prophet, Salla Allah 'alih wa sallam, means. Also 'Aisha , radi Allah 'anha, she discusses the prophet, Salla Allah 'alih wa sallam, 's first, you know, first time when he received the revelation and she says:" " "Kan yathanth" he used to worship and the word, I've translated it obviously, but the rowat, Alzuhry, rahemaho Allah, he says"what does she mean? Kan yata'abdo " he used to worship Allah, subhanho wa ta'ala, so he explained what the word yatahanth means, he says that it means. So that's edraj . An example of how, you know, how we can know that it is modraj is that when we look at the wording of the Hadith we can say, we can see that it is something which the prophet, Salla Allah 'alih wa sallam, could not have said. The example of this is that the prophet, Salla Allah 'alih wa sallam, is reported to have said in one narration that if it was not for jihad and, rather the prophet, Salla Allah 'alih wa sallam, says: " " " lel'abd al momlook ajran" For the slave, he has two rewards and then the wording goes on and it says that "and if it was not for jihad and being good to my mother then I would have wanted to be a slave". now when we look at the first part of the Hadith there's no problem there but the second part of the Hadith could not be the words of the prophet, Salla Allah 'alih wa sallam, because the prophet, Salla Allah 'alih wa sallam's mother passed away when he was a child, so there's absolutely no way that the prophet, Salla Allah 'alih wa sallam, could have been good to his mother. But that at just looking at the wording and the other way is by joining all the chains, all the asanid of this Hadith and it becomes absolutely clear that what is meant is not the words of the prophet, Salla Allah 'alih wa sallam, but rather the words of Abu Hourayrah, radi Allah 'anh. Now if it is done, when it is done intentionally it is done to explain, that's one, you know that's one reason, and another reason is that it is a lie, someone adds something to the words of the prophet, Salla Allah 'alih wa sallam, as we mentioned earlier the Hadith of Ghayath Ibn Ibrahim when he was with Almahdy and the story of the pigeon he added the word "and birds" into the Hadith and that edraj, that adding of the wording he done so lying against the prophet, Salla Allah 'alih wa sallam, so that it is, you know, that is a massive mistake and it is a major sin. Or could be done mistakenly but this if it's done through mistakes and heedlessness then this affects the dabtt of the rawy and that is a totally different subject. " " " " " Aw be taqdim aw be taakhir fal maqloob"

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Or transposition then, the topsy-turvy report. Now let's get the replace in the sanad or in the matten. An example of it happening in the sanad is if the person narrates the Hadith and instead of saying on the authority of Ka'ab Ibn Morra he doesn't say Ka'ab Ibn Morra he says Morra Ibn Ka'ab or instead of saying Malek 'an Nafe'a he says Nafe'a 'an Malek so he turns it around and that's why we call it topsy-turvy report. I like that translation, Masah'Allah, topsy-turvy. Or it could take place in the matten itself in the wording the prophet, Salla Allah 'alih wa sallam, is reported to have said that 7 people who will be under the shade of Allah, subhanho wa ta'ala, on a day that there will be no shade except the shade of Allah, subhanho wa ta'ala, may Allah, subhanho wa ta'ala, make us one of those 7 people but one of those people will be the person " " "Al rajol aldhy rasadaq hata la ta'alam shemaloh ma tonfeq yaminoh" So much so, he gives in secrecy so much so that his left hand doesn't know what his right hand is giving. Some narrators have narrated this Hadith and they have said he gives charity in secret so much so that he's right hand doesn't know what his left hand has given. So this is turning around or swapping the words of the prophet, Salla Allah 'alih wa sallam, and we know that this is incorrect and this is a mistake in this particular Hadith because in Bukhari and Muslim their narration is that his left hand doesn't know what his right has given.

" " " "Aw be zaydat rawen fal mazid motasel al asanid" Or inserting a narrator then it is the incursion into an already connected chain report. Now I keep on using this example of Imam Malek because it's a very famous example and the example is that supposed to be it's supposed to be Malek 'an Nafe'a 'an Ibn 'Omar but what would someone do, someone says Malek 'an Zuhry 'an Nafe'a 'an Ibn 'Omar and he adds Imam Zuhry to, into the chain but the chain has already been established by Imam Malek from Nafe'a without the incursion of Alzuhry so therefore we call this almazid fy motasel al asanid it is an incursion into an already connected chain report. " " "Aw be abdaloh wala morajeh fal modtareb" Or it is substituting one narrator for another without preponderance of one chain over the other then it is the inconsistent report. What is meant here is that one narrator is substituted for another without there being any. We are unable to ascertain what exactly is meant. In one chain of
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narration we have Mohamed on the authority of Ibrahim and in another chain we have Mohamed on the authority of Isma'eil and in another chain we have 'Abdullah Ibn Mohamed on the authority of Ishaq and there are so many different ways in which the Hadith has been narrated, these rowat have been substituted from one chain to another. It's the same Hadith but every sanad is different and there's absolutely no way of knowing for certain which one is the correct sanad, which one has the correct sequence of rowat and if that is the case then we call this the inconsistent report. There are so many different narrations, there's no way of tarjeh and this shows that there's no dabtt there was no dabtt on the part of narrator and just in everyday scenario, someone tells you that there was an accident with a blue car and another person says "no, it was a red car and a purple car" and so many people give you so many different interpretations and you know that none of them actually know what happened so we call this a modtareb report.

[End of part 3]

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Lessons on Nukhbatul Fikr Presented by: Sheikh Tariq Appleby Lesson 4 - Part 4 " ( "wa qad yaqaul abdl 'amdan emtehan) substitution may occur intentionally for the sake of testing. what this means is that sometimes substitution in the (sanad ) takes place , or in the ( matten) not because it is a mistake on the part of the (rawy ) ,but rather the student want to test the teacher or other ('Ulamaa ) want to test you know their colleagues . an example for this, a very famous example is the example of imam Bukhari .Imam Bukharis fame becomes wide spread in the Muslim world ,and he was planning to travel to Baghdad and the people found about his upcoming visit ;so the (Ulamaa ) there they decided on what they were going to do, it was they were going to test whether or not imam Bukhari was really this amazing (Muhadeth) about whom they had heard . so what they did was: they took ten student or ten 'Ulamaa they gave each alem ten hadith but they swapped around the ( asanid ) and also they gave, for instance if the hadith is " " is narrated by '( Umar) with a certain chain of narration with a certain sanad , they will give it, they will make it on the authority of Abu Hourayrah with a totally different ( Isnad) and they did this with every hadith until they had 100 of this Ahadith that were jumbled up. So when imam Bukhari he came, they organized a meeting with him in front of, not only the 'Ulamaa, but also the common people, they had this test or this exam for imam Bukhari . . So each one would come and he would recite these ten jumbled up Hadith which he had until he finish ten. After every single Hadith imam Bukhari says I do not know it, I do not know it , I do not know it , this is the first time I heard it ,so the common people are , is this imam Bukhari ?!The person we have heard so much about?! how is it possible that he does not know any of these Ahadith and he does not also if he knows that it is a tricky doesnt he say anything ; so they were a bit disappointed they were thinking to themselves that we came here to witness something great but instead we are being disappointed in this way ,but the ('Ulamaa) amongst them they knew that he knows that something is wrong , he knows that every single hadith, and you know-they were expecting something great to happen . At the end after listening to one hundred incorrectly narrated ahadith imam Bukhari , then he addressed the first person and he said as for what you said, you said it in this way and he went through each one of the ten hadith that this person had ,and then he said ,but that you said, but this is how it is supposed to be ,and he did this with every single hadith .the first person the second person all the way until the tenth until he had finished all one hundred .he not only did memorize the all one hundred hadith but also he was able to correct it, and put the proper ( Asanid) with the proper (motuon) and also fix every single mistake that they have made . so that was an amazing feed by imam Bukhari not only did he memorize the mistakes but also he knew how to correct them and at that time everyone was absolutely certain that he was even greater than what they had believed before.
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Ibn Hajar Rahemaho Allah, he continues then he says: " ( " " aw btghier hrof m'a bqa asyk fl msahfo ) Or there could be alternation an alternating dots or vowels while orthography remains the same . Then the dot distorted report or there could be some change in the letters themselves but the actual sequence of narrators remains the same. what this means is that if some changes takes place in the dots because as we know the dots or the vowels not only the dots but also the vowels like the fatha the kasrah and the damah, the vowels, some changes they place in the actual names of the narrator .an example of that would be the narrator's name moragem becomes mozahem so what has happened was, what was happened is that the dot changed from a ( )it was taken away and therefore becomes mozahem . look at the precision of the Muhadethin even one dot changes, because if I say Mohamed ibn moragem and I say Mohamed ibn mozahem they are two different people and it affects the authenticity of the Hadith ,so they went as far as to preserve the vowels and the dots of the narrators' name and that is before they even -you know- they even discuss the hadith itself this is the type of dedication they show to preserving the prophet Salla Allah 'alih wa Sallam legacy . So mossahafh is when we change the vowels on a word, if it is supposed to be (Abdul Allah) and someone say ' Ubayed Allah) that would be a mistake. Next is al muharaf or the vowel distorted report. So you have a narrator's name it supposed to be Bashir but someone makes a mistake and he says Bushair, so what he has done? He distorted the vowels instead of being Bashir it becomes Bushair .and this is called when the vowels are distorted. Now what happens if you are reading or you are studying book and you find there are mistakes in the vowels? and this happens a lot especially when you are reading books that -have not been- no care was taken before they were printed so we find that many mistakes that especially happens with certain publishing houses in Lebanon .we arent going to mention any names . but it is really sad to see .And the reason for this is that profit is the only intention that they only intend to maximize the profit, and they dont care how the hadith of the prophet Salla Allah 'alih wa Sallam is preserved .it wouldnt shock me if most of these people not even Muslim because, you now, I have heard some stories about that. But can you change it if you found it in this way if, you know, that it is supposed to be Bashir and you see that it is Bushair, can you change it? yes, you can but you cant change the wording you have to put it as a footnote .if you are going to change it you cannot play put a line through the text you know- just in the top of the word put the correct word, rather you have to make a footnote .I will take about that when we will speak about the writing of hadith.
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Now the author shows us that there in the issue of and he show us the importance of studying with a teacher and not studying on our own , like Just taking up Bukhari and reading it. and the same you know- the Qur'an is an even better example the importance of reading Qur'an to a sheik is so important Quran should never ever be learnt, its recitation should never ever be done on your own rather you should recite to someone who is knowledgeable in it ,that person mustn't to be the greatest qare'e but the person must be at least qualified and memorize the Quran or better than that the person has received an Ijaza in teaching of the Qur'an ,and hadith is the same . and when we read a book we need to make sure that we read it to someone who has Ijaza .Alhamdulillah you know- I was able to study a few books of hadith and received Ijaza in them .so it really changes your perspective and also you look at ,you know, at how the 'Ulamaa have done it for you know- since the prophet Salla Allah 'alih wa Sallam , and as the sane goes that if you take books as your sheikh then you will go astray and we have seen that happening so many times. He then says " " " It is not permissible to intentionally alter hadith content by omission or paraphrase except for someone knowledgeable of what changes meanings. Now Ibn Hajar, Rahemaho Allah, now is getting or is starting to discuss the issues of changing the matten ,what we have discussed so far was the changing of certain issues in the Isnad , and we did speak about certain issues in the matten ,but here we are speaking about two main issues : One: omitting certain parts of a hadith that basically summarizing it, taking one part and leaving out another, or paraphrasing the hadith meaning narrating it by its meaning or with using synonyms for certain words Now, that is not permissible as he says it is not permissible it means that it is haram , except for someone who is knowledgeable of what changes the meanings. An example of this is that the prophet Salla Allah 'alih wa Sallam if he says that it is not permissible to do something except, or he says that it is not permissible to have a dog except the following types of dogs ,so if you omit the last part of the hadith, the word except and what comes after it, then the ruling would be it is not accepted, it is not permissible for a Muslim to own a dog and that would be a general prohibition meaning that no Muslim can have any type of dogs, does not matter what benefit the dog is Whether it be a shepherd dog , a hunting dog and that is why the ( Ulamaa) said that by doing this you are changing the ruling ;and that is the reason why that is haram . but if the hadith is lengthy ,and the scholar understands the meaning of the hadith ,and he understands whatever he omits does not affect what he has kept ,the meaning, what he has taken away is not dependant on the first part or the first part is not dependant on the part that he has omitted ;then that is permissible
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and perhaps one of the most famous scholars -who do this - who did this rather-subhan Allah, you know, sometimes we are speaking about ' Ulamaa as if they still with us because their books are still with us, their legacy has remained and that is one of the fruits of Sincerity and seeking knowledge and exerting ourselves for the sake of allah , is that Allah ( subhanaho wa taala) allows this legacy to remain. Then he speaks about imam Bukhari what he does is that he speaks about or he takes a hadith like or he takes a hadith which is a very lengthy hadith and he takes parts of it and he uses in different sections of the book where he feels that it is necessary or where he feels that he want to take up a particular ruling or he wants to make a particular point. So if the person is knowledgeable of what will change the meaning; then that is permissible for him, but everyone else it is not permissible to omit anything from a hadith. He then moves on and he says: "or paraphrase:, meaning to narrate a hadith by its meaning to give it you know- in the exact meaning, a meaning that's close to what the prophet Salla Allah 'alih wa Sallam accurately said ,so you are not quoting the hadith prophet Salla Allah 'alih wa Sallam and narrate the hadith verbatim, but rather you are paraphrasing it ,and the early scholars like ( shoubah ibn Hajaj) was very much against this; that you must narrate the hadith like the prophet Salla Allah 'alih wa Sallam said it and it was not permissible for anything else besides this . Any other way was not permissible the hadith had to be narrated verbatim, the exact words of the prophet (Salla Allah 'alih wa Sallam) , that was the opinion of ( shaba) and others. But the ( Sahaba) of the prophet Salla Allah 'alih wa Sallam , his companions, there are many instances ,where they did not narrate the Salla Allah 'alih wa Sallam verbatim and they narrate the meaning of the prophet (Salla Allah 'alih wa Sallam) words . Also we find that the '( Ulamaa) have agreed that it is permissible to teach the ( shariah) to other people, to people who dont understand the Arabic language and to explain the ( shariah) in another language, explain the Qur'an and the sunnah in another language, to translate the words of the prophet Salla Allah 'alih wa Sallam and the words of Allah to languages other than Arabic. All agreed that it is permissible so if that is permissible, so to narrate the words of the prophet (Salla Allah 'alih wa Sallam) , to paraphrase them to give almost exact meaning of what the prophet (Salla Allah 'alih wa Sallam) said that must also then be permissible like Ibn Hajar, Rahemaho Allah, says in nouzha. Now, what we find in sometimes that if the ( Rawi) narrates a hadith by its meaning it does affect the ruling sometimes. an example of that would be that in a hadith when the prophet (Salla Allah 'alih wa Sallam) was approached by a woman and she says :" " that she basically approached the prophet Salla Allah 'alih wa Sallam wanting to marry him, offering herself in marriage to the prophet ,
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salla Alah 'alih wa sallam, and at the end of the hadith you know the hadith is very famous the prophet Salla Allah 'alih wa Sallam end up marrying this woman to one of his companions and the words the prophet Salla Allah 'alih wa Sallam used were: there are three narrations : 1) (zwagtak) meaning I married you 2) And (ankahtaka) almost the same meaning, also I married you 3) But in the third narration which is (mallaktoka) meaning that I have given her to you literally in ownership or meaning I gave her to you in marriage But now the problem with it has not the same meaning as (ankahtu) (zawajtu) does not has the same meaning as (zawaj)and (nekah), because (mol k) ownership and (zawag) marriage are totally two different things. So therefore '( Ulamaa) say that the person that narrated this hadith by its meaning, we cant accept that two are not really synonyms, and the meaning does change. " ( "fan khfyul mana ehteg elashrhul ghreb ) If the meaning is obscure then explaining odd words is needed. Some times in the words of the prophet (Salla Allah 'alih wa Sallam) we find that the prophet (Salla Allah 'alih wa Sallam) mentioned some words that even the companion of the prophet (Salla Allah 'alih wa Sallam) they are not sure about it .and the prophet (Salla Allah 'alih wa Sallam) in the hadith he says, when he speaks about that it will come a time where all the nations of the world will be taking you know- they will surround the Muslims like people get together around a meal you know- just taking whatever they want , and the Sahaba said " ( "yrasool allah ) will it be because we are few numbers at that time prophet (Salla Allah 'alih wa Sallam) no you will be many like the foam on the sea but it will be because of )wahan( , so the Sahaba said ya rasool allah what is wahan? and then the prophet (Salla Allah 'alih wa Sallam) said " " (hob aldunia w krahytul mawt) it is the love of this world and dislike of death, a dislike of dying .so the word ( wahan) they dont understand what prophet (Salla Allah 'alih wa Sallam) meant by it , so they asked him. Now the words of the prophet (Salla Allah 'alih wa Sallam) becomes more obscure as generations went by after the time of the companions and then the tabeien ,because the Muslims, the Arabs especially , they started moving on you knowthey started conquering different lands the Persians , the Romans and the Arabic language new words started creeping in ,and also words that were used by the prophet , Salla Allah 'alih wa sallam, words that were commonly used by the prophet , Salla Allah 'alih wa sallam, and his companions were becoming less and less used; therefore, the
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words people didnt know what they Meant , so now if the meaning is obscure what happens is that we are going to explain these odd words . I passed one of the most famous books, they are many and they developed over the centuries, but the book is used today and perhaps one of the best books is the book" ( " alnehaya fi gharib Alhadith) basically literally translated "the end in the gharib of Hadith, meaning the obscure words. So Insha'Allah we will end here, and the upcoming lessons Insha'Allah I will ask at the beginning of each session, each lesson, I will ask two or three questions you know- that will help you with your revision I Ask Allah subhanho wa taala to make our lessons beneficial Insha'Allah .

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